International Journal of Aerospace Engineering
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5966 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5974
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Assessment of Helicopter Pilot-in-the-Loop Models
Abstract: The aim of this paper is the evaluation of several pilot models found in the literature, suited for helicopter pilot-assisted and pilot-induced oscillations analyses. Three main topics are discussed: (i) sensitivity of rotorcraft-pilot couplings simulations on the application of the different pilot models available in the literature; (ii) effect of vehicle modeling on active pilot modeling; (iii) effects of interactions between active and passive pilot models. The focus is on hovering flight, where a specific adverse rotorcraft-pilot coupling phenomenon, the vertical bounce, may occur. Pilot models are coupled with a comprehensive aeroservoelastic model of a mid-weight helicopter. The numerical investigations are performed in frequency domain, in terms of eigenanalysis and frequency response analysis.
PubDate: Thu, 27 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- The Effect of Yaw Angle on a Compressible Rectangular Cavity Flow
Abstract: Experiments are performed to determine the characteristics of a compressible flow over yawed rectangular cavities for Mach numbers of 0.64, 0.70, and 0.83. The cavity’s length-to-depth ratio varies from 4.43 to 21.50 and the length-to-width ratio is unity. The yaw angle is 0°–45°. The upstream compression and downstream expansion near the front and rear corners of a cavity decrease when the value of the yaw angle increases. The amplitude of the fluctuating pressure is a maximum for an open cavity with a yaw angle of 15°. An increase in the yaw angle results in a reduction in the pressure fluctuations for both open and transitional cavities. In the span-wise direction, variations in the mean and fluctuating pressure are less significant than those in the chord-wise direction. The oscillating frequency of resonance varies slightly with the yaw angle, but the amplitudes for the power spectral density are significantly reduced when the yaw angle is larger than 30°. For lower Mach numbers, the lower mode plays an important role in self-sustained oscillations for an open cavity when there is an increase in the yaw angle.
PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Numerical Simulation of Projectile Oblique Impact on Microspacecraft
Abstract: In the present study, the microspacecraft bulkhead was reduced to the double honeycomb panel, and the projectile oblique hypervelocity impact on the double honeycomb panel was simulated. The distribution of the debris cloud and the damage of a honeycomb sandwich panel were investigated when the incident angles were set to be 60°, 45°, and 30°. The results showed that as incident angle decreased, the distribution of debris cloud was increased gradually, while the maximum perforation size of the rear face sheet was firstly increased with the decrease of the incident angle and then decreased. On the other hand, the damage area and the damage degree of the front face sheet of the second honeycomb panel layer were increased with the decrease of the incident angle. Finally, the critical angle of front and rear face sheets of the honeycomb sandwich panel was obtained under oblique hypervelocity impact.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Shape-Based Method for Continuous Low-Thrust Trajectory Design between
Circular Coplanar Orbits
Abstract: The shape-based method can provide suitable initial guesses for trajectory optimization, which are useful for quickly converging a more accurate trajectory. Combined with the optimal control theory, an optimized shape-based method using the finite Fourier series is proposed in this paper. Taking the flight time-fixed case and the time-free case into account, respectively, the optimized shape-based method, which considers the first-order optimal necessary conditions, can guarantee that not only an orbit designed during the preliminary phase is optimal, but also the thrust direction is not constrained to be tangential. Besides, the traditional shape-based method using the finite Fourier series, in which the thrust direction is constrained to be tangential, is developed for the time-free case in this paper. The Earth-Mars case and the LEO-GEO case are used to verify the optimized shape-based method’s feasibility for time-fixed and time-free continuous low-thrust trajectory design between circular coplanar orbits, respectively. The optimized shaped-based method can design a lower cost trajectory.
PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Spatial-Temporal Instability of an Inviscid Shear Layer
Abstract: In this work, we explore the transition of absolute instability and convective instability in a compressible inviscid shear layer, through a linear spatial-temporal instability analysis. From linearized governing equations of the shear layer and the ideal-gas equation of state, the dispersion relation for the pressure perturbation was obtained. The eigenvalue problem for the evolution of two-dimensional perturbation was solved by means of shooting method. The zero group velocity is obtained by a saddle point method. The absolute/convective instability characteristics of the flow are determined by the temporal growth rate at the saddle point. The absolute/convective nature of the flow instability has strong dependence on the values of the temperature ratio, the velocity ratio, the oblique angle, and number. A parametric study indicates that, for a great value of velocity ratio, the inviscid shear layer can transit to absolute instability. The increase of temperature ratio decreases the absolute growth rate when the temperature ratio is large; the effect of temperature ratio is opposite when the temperature ratio is relatively small. The obliquity of the perturbations would cause the increase of the absolute growth rate. The effect of number is different when the oblique angle is great and small. Besides, the absolute instability boundary is found in the velocity ratio, temperature ratio, and number space.
PubDate: Sun, 09 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Shock Tube as an Impulsive Application Device
Abstract: Current investigations solely focus on application of an impulse facility in diverse area of high-speed aerodynamics and structural mechanics. Shock tube, the fundamental impulse facility, is specially designed and calibrated for present objectives. Force measurement experiments are performed on a hemispherical test model integrated with the stress wave force balance. Similar test model is considered for heat transfer measurements using coaxial thermocouple. Force and heat transfer experiments demonstrated that the strain gauge and thermocouple have lag time of 11.5 and 9 microseconds, respectively. Response time of these sensors in measuring the peak load is also measured successfully using shock tube facility. As an outcome, these sensors are found to be suitable for impulse testing. Lastly, the response of aluminum plates subjected to impulsive loading is analyzed by measuring the in-plane strain produced during deformation. Thus, possibility of forming tests in shock is also confirmed.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- PCA-Based Line Detection from Range Data for Mapping and
Localization-Aiding of UAVs
Abstract: This paper presents an original technique for robust detection of line features from range data, which is also the core element of an algorithm conceived for mapping 2D environments. A new approach is also discussed to improve the accuracy of position and attitude estimates of the localization by feeding back angular information extracted from the detected edges in the updating map. The innovative aspects of the line detection algorithm regard the proposed hierarchical clusterization method for segmentation. Instead, line fitting is carried out by exploiting the Principal Component Analysis, unlike traditional techniques relying on least squares linear regression. Numerical simulations are purposely conceived to compare these approaches for line fitting. Results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique as it provides comparable performance in terms of computational load and accuracy compared to the least squares method. Also, performance of the overall line detection architecture, as well as of the solutions proposed for line-based mapping and localization-aiding, is evaluated exploiting real range data acquired in indoor environments using an UTM-30LX-EW 2D LIDAR. This paper lies in the framework of autonomous navigation of unmanned vehicles moving in complex 2D areas, for example, being unexplored, full of obstacles, GPS-challenging, or denied.
PubDate: Tue, 04 Apr 2017 08:07:29 +000
- Application of Probabilistic and Nonprobabilistic Hybrid Reliability
Analysis Based on Dynamic Substructural Extremum Response Surface
Decoupling Method for a Blisk of the Aeroengine
Abstract: For the nondeterministic factors of an aeroengine blisk, including both factors with sufficient and insufficient statistical data, based on the dynamic substructural method of determinate analysis, the extremum response surface method of probabilistic analysis, and the interval method of nonprobabilistic analysis, a methodology called the probabilistic and nonprobabilistic hybrid reliability analysis based on dynamic substructural extremum response surface decoupling method (P-NP-HRA-DS-ERSDM) is proposed. The model includes random variables and interval variables to determine the interval failure probability and the interval reliability index. The extremum response surface function and its flow chart of mixed reliability analysis are given. The interval analysis is embedded in the most likely failure point in the iterative process. The probabilistic analysis and nonprobabilistic analysis are investigated alternately. Tuned and mistuned blisks are studied in a complicated environment, and the results are compared with the Monte Carlo method (MCM) and the multilevel nested algorithm (MLNA) to verify that the hybrid model can better handle reliability problems concurrently containing random variables and interval variables; meanwhile, it manifests that the computational efficiency of this method is superior and more reasonable for analysing and designing a mistuned blisk. Therefore, this methodology has very important practical significance.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Ionospheric Gradient Threat Mitigation in Future Dual Frequency GBAS
Abstract: The Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) is a landing system for aircraft based on differential corrections for the signals of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as GPS or Galileo. The main impact on the availability of current single frequency systems results from the necessary protection against ionospheric gradients. With the introduction of Galileo and the latest generation of GPS satellites, a second frequency is available for aeronautical navigation. Dual frequency methods allow forming of ionospheric free combinations of the signals, eliminating a large part of the ionospheric threats to GBAS. However, the combination of several signals increases the noise in the position solution and in the calculation of error bounds. We, therefore, developed a method to base positioning algorithms on single frequency measurements and use the second frequency only for monitoring purposes. In this paper, we describe a detailed derivation of the monitoring scheme and discuss its implications for the use in an aviation context.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 09:26:42 +000
- A Modified Pareto Ant Colony Optimization Approach to Solve Biobjective
Weapon-Target Assignment Problem
Abstract: The weapon-target assignment (WTA) problem, known as an NP-complete problem, aims at seeking a proper assignment of weapons to targets. The biobjective WTA (BOWTA) optimization model which maximizes the expected damage of the enemy and minimizes the cost of missiles is designed in this paper. A modified Pareto ant colony optimization (MPACO) algorithm is used to solve the BOWTA problem. In order to avoid defects in traditional optimization algorithms and obtain a set of Pareto solutions efficiently, MPACO algorithm based on new designed operators is proposed, including a dynamic heuristic information calculation approach, an improved movement probability rule, a dynamic evaporation rate strategy, a global updating rule of pheromone, and a boundary symmetric mutation strategy. In order to simulate real air combat, the pilot operation factor is introduced into the BOWTA model. Finally, we apply the MPACO algorithm and other algorithms to the model and compare the data. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is successfully applied in the field of WTA which improves the performance of the traditional P-ACO algorithm effectively and produces better solutions than the two well-known multiobjective optimization algorithms NSGA-II and SPEA-II.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Wind Turbine Aeroelastic Modeling: Basics and Cutting Edge Trends
Abstract: The interaction of fluid flow and the structure dynamic of the system is a vital subject for machines operating under their coupling. It is not different for wind turbine either, especially as the coupling enhanced for multi-MW turbine with larger and flexible blades and complex control methods, and other nonlinearity, more comprehensive aeroelastic tools will be required to investigate the realistic phenomena. The present paper will overview the aeroelastic tool for wind turbine, the efforts done, gaps, and future directions indicated. One starts with background of the subject, presenting a case study to demonstrate the effect of fluid-structure interaction considering NREL 5MW blade and a brief comparison of several aeroelastic codes. Cutting edge efforts done in the area such as complex inflow, effect of geometric nonlinearity, and other stability and smart control issues are addressed and concluded by elaborating the gaps and future direction of aeroelasticity of wind turbine.
PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 08:30:06 +000
- Analytical Approach for Orbital Evasion with Space Geometry Considered
Abstract: This paper researches an optimal problem of orbital evasion with considering space geometry by using an analytical approach. Firstly, an angles-only relative navigation model is built and the definition of completely nonobservable maneuver is proposed. After algebraic analysis of relative space geometry, it is proved that the completely nonobservable maneuver is nonexistent. Based on this, the angle measurements of orbit without evasion are set as reference measurements and an analytical solution is derived to find the minimum difference between measurements and the reference measurements in a constant measuring time. Then, an object function using vector multiplication is designed and an optimization model is established so as to prove the optimality of analytical solution. At last, several numerical simulations are performed with different maneuver directions, which verify the effectiveness of the analytical method of this paper for orbital evasion problem. This method offers a new viewpoint for orbital evasion problem.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- GA-ARMA Model for Predicting IGS RTS Corrections
Abstract: The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is widely used to estimate user positions. For precise positioning, users should correct for GNSS error components such as satellite orbit and clock errors as well as ionospheric delay. The international GNSS service (IGS) real-time service (RTS) can be used to correct orbit and clock errors in real-time. Since the IGS RTS provides real-time corrections via the Internet, intermittent data loss can occur due to software or hardware failures. We propose applying a genetic algorithm autoregressive moving average (GA-ARMA) model to predict the IGS RTS corrections during data loss periods. The RTS orbit and clock corrections are predicted up to 900 s via the GA-ARMA model, and the prediction accuracies are compared with the results from a generic ARMA model. The orbit prediction performance of the GA-ARMA is nearly equivalent to that of ARMA, but GA-ARMA’s clock prediction performance is clearly better than that of ARMA, achieving a 32% error reduction. Predicted RTS corrections are applied to the broadcast ephemeris, and precise point positioning accuracies are compared. GA-ARMA shows a significant accuracy improvement over ARMA, particularly in terms of vertical positioning.
PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- An Optical Fiber Measurement System for Blade Tip Clearance of Engine
Abstract: The benefits of reducing the tip clearance have been receiving many scholars’ attention all the time, which bring turbine efficiency increasing, emissions reduction, payloads increasing, and mission range abilities extension. In order to gain the blade tip clearance dynamically, a prototype optical fiber measurement system was built and tested based on the rotor test rig. The optical fiber tip clearance measurement system consists of the reflective intensity-modulated optical fiber bundle (sensor), main signal processing unit, high-speed data acquisition card, and a computer. The static performance and dynamic performance experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the system we designed. In addition, the results show that the accuracy of the system is 25 μm or better; the stability of the measurement system was evaluated in room temperature. The clearance measurement range is about 5 mm, and sensitivity of the sensor is 0.0733/mm. Furthermore, the typical tip clearance dynamic measurement experiment results show that the system has good dynamic response characteristics as well. The system will provide a new tool for engine health monitoring or fast active tip clearance control.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 12:41:09 +000
- Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis of Transonic
Aerodynamics with Geometric Uncertainty
Abstract: Airfoil geometric uncertainty can generate aerodynamic characteristics fluctuations. Uncertainty quantification is applied to compute its impact on the aerodynamic characteristics. In addition, the contribution of each uncertainty variable to aerodynamic characteristics should be computed by the uncertainty sensitivity analysis. In the paper, Sobol’s analysis is used for uncertainty sensitivity analysis and a nonintrusive polynomial chaos method is used for uncertainty quantification and Sobol’s analysis. It is difficult to describe geometric uncertainty because it needs a lot of input parameters. In order to alleviate the contradiction between the variable dimension and computational cost, a principal component analysis is introduced to describe geometric uncertainty of airfoil. Through this technique, the number of input uncertainty variables can be reduced and typical global deformation modes can be obtained. By uncertainty quantification, we can learn that the flow characteristics of shock wave and boundary layer separation are sensitive to the geometric uncertainty in transonic region, which is the main reason that transonic drag is sensitive to the geometric uncertainty. The sensitivity analysis shows that the model can be simplified by eliminating unimportant geometric modes. Moreover, which are the most important geometric modes to transonic aerodynamics can be learnt. This is very helpful for airfoil design.
PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Modified Regression Rate Formula of PMMA Combustion by a Single Plane
Abstract: A modified regression rate formula for the uppermost stage of CAMUI-type hybrid rocket motor is proposed in this study. Assuming a quasi-steady, one-dimensional, an energy balance against a control volume near the fuel surface is considered. Accordingly, the regression rate formula which can calculate the local regression rate by the quenching distance between the flame and the regression surface is derived. An experimental setup which simulates the combustion phenomenon involved in the uppermost stage of a CAMUI-type hybrid rocket motor was constructed and the burning tests with various flow velocities and impinging distances were performed. A PMMA slab of 20 mm height, 60 mm width, and 20 mm thickness was chosen as a sample specimen and pure oxygen and O2/N2 mixture (50/50 vol.%) were employed as the oxidizers. The time-averaged regression rate along the fuel surface was measured by a laser displacement sensor. The quenching distance during the combustion event was also identified from the observation. The comparison between the purely experimental and calculated values showed good agreement, although a large systematic error was expected due to the difficulty in accurately identifying the quenching distance.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Triple-Frequency GPS Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution Using
Dual-Frequency Based IGS Precise Clock Products
Abstract: With the availability of the third civil signal in the Global Positioning System, triple-frequency Precise Point Positioning ambiguity resolution methods have drawn increasing attention due to significantly reduced convergence time. However, the corresponding triple-frequency based precise clock products are not widely available and adopted by applications. Currently, most precise products are generated based on ionosphere-free combination of dual-frequency L1/L2 signals, which however are not consistent with the triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements, resulting in inaccurate positioning and unstable float ambiguities. In this study, a GPS triple-frequency PPP ambiguity resolution method is developed using the widely used dual-frequency based clock products. In this method, the interfrequency clock biases between the triple-frequency and dual-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements are first estimated and then applied to triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements to obtain stable float ambiguities. After this, the wide-lane L2/L5 and wide-lane L1/L2 integer property of ambiguities are recovered by estimating the satellite fractional cycle biases. A test using a sparse network is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. The results show that the ambiguity resolution can be achieved in minutes even tens of seconds and the positioning accuracy is in decimeter level.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Survey on Flight Control Technology for Large-Scale Helicopter
Abstract: A literature review of flight control technology is presented for large-scale helicopter. Challenges of large-scale helicopter flight control system (FCS) design are illustrated. Following this, various flight control methodologies are described with respect to their engineering implementation and theoretical developments, whose advantages and disadvantages are also analyzed. Then, the challenging research issues on flight control technology are identified, and future directions are highlighted.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 14:15:27 +000
- Experimental Investigation on the Feasibility of Using a Fresnel Lens as a
Solar-Energy Collection System for Enhancing On-Orbit Power Generation
Abstract: Cube satellites have a limitation for generating power because of their cubic structure and extremely small size. In addition, the incidence angle between the sun and the solar panels continuously varies owing to the revolution and rotation of the satellite according to the attitude control strategy. This angle is an important parameter for determining the power generation performance of the cube satellite. In this study, we performed an experimental feasibility study that uses a Fresnel lens as a solar-energy collection system for cube satellite applications, so that the power generation efficiency can be enhanced under the worst incidence angle condition between the sun and solar panels by concentrating and redirecting solar energy onto the solar panels with a commercial Fresnel lens. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we conducted a power-measurement test using a solar simulator and Fresnel lenses at various angles to the light source. In addition, we predicted the on-orbit power-generation enhancement achieved by employing the solar-energy collection system with various attitude control strategies.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 06:53:01 +000
- Networked Cascade Control System Design for Turboshaft Engines with Random
Abstract: The distributed control architecture becomes more and more important in future gas turbine engine control systems, in which the sensors and actuators will be connected to the controllers via a network. Therefore, the control problem of network-enabled high-performance distributed engine control (DEC) has come to play an important role in modern gas turbine control systems, while, due to the properties of the network, the packet dropouts must be considered. This study introduces a distributed control system architecture based on a networked cascade control system (NCCS). Typical turboshaft engine distributed controllers are designed based on the NCCS framework with state feedback under random packet dropouts. The sufficient robust stable conditions are derived via the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality approach. Simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the presented method.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 12:51:28 +000
- Bifurcation Analysis with Aerodynamic-Structure Uncertainties by the
Nonintrusive PCE Method
Abstract: An aeroelastic model for airfoil with a third-order stiffness in both pitch and plunge degree of freedom (DOF) and the modified Leishman–Beddoes (LB) model were built and validated. The nonintrusive polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) based on tensor product is applied to quantify the uncertainty of aerodynamic and structure parameters on the aerodynamic force and aeroelastic behavior. The uncertain limit cycle oscillation (LCO) and bifurcation are simulated in the time domain with the stochastic PCE method. Bifurcation diagrams with uncertainties were quantified. The Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is also applied for comparison. From the current work, it can be concluded that the nonintrusive polynomial chaos expansion can give an acceptable accuracy and have a much higher calculation efficiency than MCS. For aerodynamic model, uncertainties of aerodynamic parameters affect the aerodynamic force significantly at the stage from separation to stall at upstroke and at the stage from stall to reattach at return. For aeroelastic model, both uncertainties of aerodynamic parameters and structure parameters impact bifurcation position. Structure uncertainty of parameters is more sensitive for bifurcation. When the nonlinear stall flutter and bifurcation are concerned, more attention should be paid to the separation process of aerodynamics and parameters about pitch DOF in structure.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Edge Detection in UAV Remote Sensing Images Using the Method Integrating
Zernike Moments with Clustering Algorithms
Abstract: Due to the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing images (UAVRSI) within rich texture details of ground objects and obvious phenomenon, the same objects with different spectra, it is difficult to effectively acquire the edge information using traditional edge detection operator. To solve this problem, an edge detection method of UAVRSI by combining Zernike moments with clustering algorithms is proposed in this study. To begin with, two typical clustering algorithms, namely, fuzzy -means (FCM) and -means algorithms, are used to cluster the original remote sensing images so as to form homogeneous regions in ground objects. Then, Zernike moments are applied to carry out edge detection on the remote sensing images clustered. Finally, visual comparison and sensitivity methods are adopted to evaluate the accuracy of the edge information detected. Afterwards, two groups of experimental data are selected to verify the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method effectively improves the accuracy of edge information extracted from remote sensing images.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 11:22:28 +000
- Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking with Nonfull Field of View for Tethered
Abstract: In the ultra-close approaching phase of tethered space robot, a highly stable self-attitude control is essential. However, due to the field of view limitation of cameras, typical point features are difficult to extract, where commonly adopted position-based visual servoing cannot be valid anymore. To provide robot’s relative position and attitude with the target, we propose a monocular visual servoing control method using only the edge lines of satellite brackets. Firstly, real time detection of edge lines is achieved based on image gradient and region growing. Then, we build an edge line based model to estimate the relative position and attitude between the robot and the target. Finally, we design a visual servoing controller combined with PD controller. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can extract edge lines stably and adjust the robot’s attitude to satisfy the grasping requirements.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Learning Control of Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Fuzzy Neural
Abstract: A learning control strategy is preferred for the control and guidance of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle to deal with lack of modeling and flight uncertainties. For learning the plant model as well as changing working conditions online, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) is used in parallel with a conventional P (proportional) controller. Among the learning algorithms in the literature, a derivative-free one, sliding mode control (SMC) theory-based learning algorithm, is preferred as it has been proved to be computationally efficient in real-time applications. Its proven robustness and finite time converging nature make the learning algorithm appropriate for controlling an unmanned aerial vehicle as the computational power is always limited in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The parameter update rules and stability conditions of the learning are derived, and the proof of the stability of the learning algorithm is shown by using a candidate Lyapunov function. Intensive simulations are performed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed controller which includes the tracking of a three-dimensional trajectory by the UAV subject to time-varying wind conditions. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control algorithm, especially in real-time control systems because of its computational efficiency.
PubDate: Thu, 09 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Airborne Position and Orientation System for Aerial Remote Sensing
Abstract: The airborne Position Orientation System (POS) can accurately measure space-time reference information and plays a vital role in aerial remote sensing system. It may be applied in a direct georeference system for optical camera and a motion imaging system for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which further advances efficiency and quality of imaging sensors. In this paper, the operation principle and components of airborne POS are introduced. Some key technologies of airborne POS are summarized. They include the error calibration and compensation, initial alignment, lever arm error modeling, time synchronization, and integrated estimation method. A high precision airborne POS has been developed and applied to a variety of aerial remote sensing systems.
PubDate: Thu, 09 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Novel Technique to Compute the Revisit Time of Satellites and Its
Application in Remote Sensing Satellite Optimization Design
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel technique to compute the revisit time of satellites within repeat ground tracks. Different from the repeat cycle which only depends on the orbit, the revisit time is relevant to the payload of the satellite as well, such as the tilt angle and swath width. The technique is discussed using the Bezout equation and takes the gravitational second zonal harmonic into consideration. The concept of subcycles is defined in a general way and the general concept of “small” offset is replaced by a multiple of the minimum interval on equator when analyzing the revisit time of remote sensing satellites. This technique requires simple calculations with high efficiency. At last, this technique is used to design remote sensing satellites with desired revisit time and minimum tilt angle. When the side-lap, the range of altitude, and desired revisit time are determined, a lot of orbit solutions which meet the mission requirements will be obtained fast. Among all solutions, designers can quickly find out the optimal orbits. Through various case studies, the calculation technique is successfully demonstrated.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 14:09:52 +000
- Efficient Method for Aeroelastic Tailoring of Composite Wing to Minimize
Abstract: Aeroelastic tailoring of laminated composite structure demands relatively high computational time especially for dynamic problem. This paper presents an efficient method for aeroelastic dynamic response analysis with significantly reduced computational time. In this method, a relationship is established between the maximum aeroelastic response and quasi-steady deflection of a wing subject to a dynamic loading. Based on this relationship, the time consuming dynamic response can be approximated by a quasi-steady deflection analysis in a large proportion of the optimization process. This method has been applied to the aeroelastic tailoring of a composite wing of a tailless aircraft for minimum gust response. The results have shown that 20%–36% gust response reduction has been achieved for this case. The computational time of the optimization process has been reduced by 90% at the cost of accuracy reduction of 2~4% comparing with the traditional dynamic response analysis.
PubDate: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Time and Covariance Threshold Triggered Optimal Uncooperative Rendezvous
Using Angles-Only Navigation
Abstract: A time and covariance threshold triggered optimal maneuver planning method is proposed for orbital rendezvous using angles-only navigation (AON). In the context of Yamanaka-Ankersen orbital relative motion equations, the square root unscented Kalman filter (SRUKF) AON algorithm is developed to compute the relative state estimations from a low-volume/mass, power saving, and low-cost optical/infrared camera’s observations. Multi-impulsive Hill guidance law is employed in closed-loop linear covariance analysis model, based on which the quantitative relative position robustness and relative velocity robustness index are defined. By balancing fuel consumption, relative position robustness, and relative velocity robustness, we developed a time and covariance threshold triggered two-level optimal maneuver planning method, showing how these results correlate to past methods and missions and how they could potentially influence future ones. Numerical simulation proved that it is feasible to control the spacecraft with a two-line element- (TLE-) level uncertain, 34.6% of range, initial relative state to a 100 m v-bar relative station keeping point, at where the trajectory dispersion reduces to 3.5% of range, under a 30% data gap per revolution on account of the eclipse. Comparing with the traditional time triggered maneuver planning method, the final relative position accuracy is improved by one order and the relative trajectory robustness and collision probability are obviously improved and reduced, respectively.
PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2017 08:30:30 +000
- Study of the Effect of Centrifugal Force on Rotor Blade Icing Process
Abstract: In view of the rotor icing problems, the influence of centrifugal force on rotor blade icing is investigated. A numerical simulation method of three-dimensional rotor blade icing is presented. Body-fitted grids around the rotor blade are generated using overlapping grid technology and rotor flow field characteristics are obtained by solving N-S equations. According to Eulerian two-phase flow, the droplet trajectories are calculated and droplet impingement characteristics are obtained. The mass and energy conservation equations of ice accretion model are established and a new calculation method of runback water mass based on shear stress and centrifugal force is proposed to simulate water flow and ice shape. The calculation results are compared with available experimental results in order to verify the correctness of the numerical simulation method. The influence of centrifugal force on rotor icing is calculated. The results show that the flow direction and distribution of liquid water on rotor surfaces change under the action of centrifugal force, which lead to the increasing of icing at the stagnation point and the decreasing of icing on both frozen limitations.
PubDate: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- CFD Simulations of a Finned Projectile with Microflaps for Flow Control
Abstract: This research describes a computational study undertaken to determine the effect of a flow control mechanism and its associated aerodynamics for a finned projectile. The flow control system consists of small microflaps located between the rear fins of the projectile. These small microflaps alter the flow field in the aft finned region of the projectile, create asymmetric pressure distributions, and thus produce aerodynamic control forces and moments. A number of different geometric parameters, microflap locations, and the number of microflaps were varied in an attempt to maximize the control authority generated by the flaps. Steady-state Navier-Stokes computations were performed to obtain the control aerodynamic forces and moments associated with the microflaps. These results were used to optimize the control authority at a supersonic speed, . Computed results showed not only the microflaps to be effective at this speed, but also configurations with 6 and 8 microflaps were found to generate 25%–50% more control force than a baseline 4-flap configuration. These results led to a new optimized 8-flap configuration that was further investigated for a range of Mach numbers from to and was found to be a viable configuration effective in providing control at all of these speeds.
PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000