International Journal of Aerospace Engineering
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5966 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5974
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Ionospheric Gradient Threat Mitigation in Future Dual Frequency GBAS
Abstract: The Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) is a landing system for aircraft based on differential corrections for the signals of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as GPS or Galileo. The main impact on the availability of current single frequency systems results from the necessary protection against ionospheric gradients. With the introduction of Galileo and the latest generation of GPS satellites, a second frequency is available for aeronautical navigation. Dual frequency methods allow forming of ionospheric free combinations of the signals, eliminating a large part of the ionospheric threats to GBAS. However, the combination of several signals increases the noise in the position solution and in the calculation of error bounds. We, therefore, developed a method to base positioning algorithms on single frequency measurements and use the second frequency only for monitoring purposes. In this paper, we describe a detailed derivation of the monitoring scheme and discuss its implications for the use in an aviation context.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 09:26:42 +000
- A Modified Pareto Ant Colony Optimization Approach to Solve Biobjective
Weapon-Target Assignment Problem
Abstract: The weapon-target assignment (WTA) problem, known as an NP-complete problem, aims at seeking a proper assignment of weapons to targets. The biobjective WTA (BOWTA) optimization model which maximizes the expected damage of the enemy and minimizes the cost of missiles is designed in this paper. A modified Pareto ant colony optimization (MPACO) algorithm is used to solve the BOWTA problem. In order to avoid defects in traditional optimization algorithms and obtain a set of Pareto solutions efficiently, MPACO algorithm based on new designed operators is proposed, including a dynamic heuristic information calculation approach, an improved movement probability rule, a dynamic evaporation rate strategy, a global updating rule of pheromone, and a boundary symmetric mutation strategy. In order to simulate real air combat, the pilot operation factor is introduced into the BOWTA model. Finally, we apply the MPACO algorithm and other algorithms to the model and compare the data. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is successfully applied in the field of WTA which improves the performance of the traditional P-ACO algorithm effectively and produces better solutions than the two well-known multiobjective optimization algorithms NSGA-II and SPEA-II.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Wind Turbine Aeroelastic Modeling: Basics and Cutting Edge Trends
Abstract: The interaction of fluid flow and the structure dynamic of the system is a vital subject for machines operating under their coupling. It is not different for wind turbine either, especially as the coupling enhanced for multi-MW turbine with larger and flexible blades and complex control methods, and other nonlinearity, more comprehensive aeroelastic tools will be required to investigate the realistic phenomena. The present paper will overview the aeroelastic tool for wind turbine, the efforts done, gaps, and future directions indicated. One starts with background of the subject, presenting a case study to demonstrate the effect of fluid-structure interaction considering NREL 5MW blade and a brief comparison of several aeroelastic codes. Cutting edge efforts done in the area such as complex inflow, effect of geometric nonlinearity, and other stability and smart control issues are addressed and concluded by elaborating the gaps and future direction of aeroelasticity of wind turbine.
PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 08:30:06 +000
- Analytical Approach for Orbital Evasion with Space Geometry Considered
Abstract: This paper researches an optimal problem of orbital evasion with considering space geometry by using an analytical approach. Firstly, an angles-only relative navigation model is built and the definition of completely nonobservable maneuver is proposed. After algebraic analysis of relative space geometry, it is proved that the completely nonobservable maneuver is nonexistent. Based on this, the angle measurements of orbit without evasion are set as reference measurements and an analytical solution is derived to find the minimum difference between measurements and the reference measurements in a constant measuring time. Then, an object function using vector multiplication is designed and an optimization model is established so as to prove the optimality of analytical solution. At last, several numerical simulations are performed with different maneuver directions, which verify the effectiveness of the analytical method of this paper for orbital evasion problem. This method offers a new viewpoint for orbital evasion problem.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- GA-ARMA Model for Predicting IGS RTS Corrections
Abstract: The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is widely used to estimate user positions. For precise positioning, users should correct for GNSS error components such as satellite orbit and clock errors as well as ionospheric delay. The international GNSS service (IGS) real-time service (RTS) can be used to correct orbit and clock errors in real-time. Since the IGS RTS provides real-time corrections via the Internet, intermittent data loss can occur due to software or hardware failures. We propose applying a genetic algorithm autoregressive moving average (GA-ARMA) model to predict the IGS RTS corrections during data loss periods. The RTS orbit and clock corrections are predicted up to 900 s via the GA-ARMA model, and the prediction accuracies are compared with the results from a generic ARMA model. The orbit prediction performance of the GA-ARMA is nearly equivalent to that of ARMA, but GA-ARMA’s clock prediction performance is clearly better than that of ARMA, achieving a 32% error reduction. Predicted RTS corrections are applied to the broadcast ephemeris, and precise point positioning accuracies are compared. GA-ARMA shows a significant accuracy improvement over ARMA, particularly in terms of vertical positioning.
PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- An Optical Fiber Measurement System for Blade Tip Clearance of Engine
Abstract: The benefits of reducing the tip clearance have been receiving many scholars’ attention all the time, which bring turbine efficiency increasing, emissions reduction, payloads increasing, and mission range abilities extension. In order to gain the blade tip clearance dynamically, a prototype optical fiber measurement system was built and tested based on the rotor test rig. The optical fiber tip clearance measurement system consists of the reflective intensity-modulated optical fiber bundle (sensor), main signal processing unit, high-speed data acquisition card, and a computer. The static performance and dynamic performance experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the system we designed. In addition, the results show that the accuracy of the system is 25 μm or better; the stability of the measurement system was evaluated in room temperature. The clearance measurement range is about 5 mm, and sensitivity of the sensor is 0.0733/mm. Furthermore, the typical tip clearance dynamic measurement experiment results show that the system has good dynamic response characteristics as well. The system will provide a new tool for engine health monitoring or fast active tip clearance control.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 12:41:09 +000
- Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis of Transonic
Aerodynamics with Geometric Uncertainty
Abstract: Airfoil geometric uncertainty can generate aerodynamic characteristics fluctuations. Uncertainty quantification is applied to compute its impact on the aerodynamic characteristics. In addition, the contribution of each uncertainty variable to aerodynamic characteristics should be computed by the uncertainty sensitivity analysis. In the paper, Sobol’s analysis is used for uncertainty sensitivity analysis and a nonintrusive polynomial chaos method is used for uncertainty quantification and Sobol’s analysis. It is difficult to describe geometric uncertainty because it needs a lot of input parameters. In order to alleviate the contradiction between the variable dimension and computational cost, a principal component analysis is introduced to describe geometric uncertainty of airfoil. Through this technique, the number of input uncertainty variables can be reduced and typical global deformation modes can be obtained. By uncertainty quantification, we can learn that the flow characteristics of shock wave and boundary layer separation are sensitive to the geometric uncertainty in transonic region, which is the main reason that transonic drag is sensitive to the geometric uncertainty. The sensitivity analysis shows that the model can be simplified by eliminating unimportant geometric modes. Moreover, which are the most important geometric modes to transonic aerodynamics can be learnt. This is very helpful for airfoil design.
PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Modified Regression Rate Formula of PMMA Combustion by a Single Plane
Abstract: A modified regression rate formula for the uppermost stage of CAMUI-type hybrid rocket motor is proposed in this study. Assuming a quasi-steady, one-dimensional, an energy balance against a control volume near the fuel surface is considered. Accordingly, the regression rate formula which can calculate the local regression rate by the quenching distance between the flame and the regression surface is derived. An experimental setup which simulates the combustion phenomenon involved in the uppermost stage of a CAMUI-type hybrid rocket motor was constructed and the burning tests with various flow velocities and impinging distances were performed. A PMMA slab of 20 mm height, 60 mm width, and 20 mm thickness was chosen as a sample specimen and pure oxygen and O2/N2 mixture (50/50 vol.%) were employed as the oxidizers. The time-averaged regression rate along the fuel surface was measured by a laser displacement sensor. The quenching distance during the combustion event was also identified from the observation. The comparison between the purely experimental and calculated values showed good agreement, although a large systematic error was expected due to the difficulty in accurately identifying the quenching distance.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Triple-Frequency GPS Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution Using
Dual-Frequency Based IGS Precise Clock Products
Abstract: With the availability of the third civil signal in the Global Positioning System, triple-frequency Precise Point Positioning ambiguity resolution methods have drawn increasing attention due to significantly reduced convergence time. However, the corresponding triple-frequency based precise clock products are not widely available and adopted by applications. Currently, most precise products are generated based on ionosphere-free combination of dual-frequency L1/L2 signals, which however are not consistent with the triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements, resulting in inaccurate positioning and unstable float ambiguities. In this study, a GPS triple-frequency PPP ambiguity resolution method is developed using the widely used dual-frequency based clock products. In this method, the interfrequency clock biases between the triple-frequency and dual-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements are first estimated and then applied to triple-frequency ionosphere-free carrier-phase measurements to obtain stable float ambiguities. After this, the wide-lane L2/L5 and wide-lane L1/L2 integer property of ambiguities are recovered by estimating the satellite fractional cycle biases. A test using a sparse network is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. The results show that the ambiguity resolution can be achieved in minutes even tens of seconds and the positioning accuracy is in decimeter level.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Survey on Flight Control Technology for Large-Scale Helicopter
Abstract: A literature review of flight control technology is presented for large-scale helicopter. Challenges of large-scale helicopter flight control system (FCS) design are illustrated. Following this, various flight control methodologies are described with respect to their engineering implementation and theoretical developments, whose advantages and disadvantages are also analyzed. Then, the challenging research issues on flight control technology are identified, and future directions are highlighted.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 14:15:27 +000
- Experimental Investigation on the Feasibility of Using a Fresnel Lens as a
Solar-Energy Collection System for Enhancing On-Orbit Power Generation
Abstract: Cube satellites have a limitation for generating power because of their cubic structure and extremely small size. In addition, the incidence angle between the sun and the solar panels continuously varies owing to the revolution and rotation of the satellite according to the attitude control strategy. This angle is an important parameter for determining the power generation performance of the cube satellite. In this study, we performed an experimental feasibility study that uses a Fresnel lens as a solar-energy collection system for cube satellite applications, so that the power generation efficiency can be enhanced under the worst incidence angle condition between the sun and solar panels by concentrating and redirecting solar energy onto the solar panels with a commercial Fresnel lens. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we conducted a power-measurement test using a solar simulator and Fresnel lenses at various angles to the light source. In addition, we predicted the on-orbit power-generation enhancement achieved by employing the solar-energy collection system with various attitude control strategies.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 06:53:01 +000
- Networked Cascade Control System Design for Turboshaft Engines with Random
Abstract: The distributed control architecture becomes more and more important in future gas turbine engine control systems, in which the sensors and actuators will be connected to the controllers via a network. Therefore, the control problem of network-enabled high-performance distributed engine control (DEC) has come to play an important role in modern gas turbine control systems, while, due to the properties of the network, the packet dropouts must be considered. This study introduces a distributed control system architecture based on a networked cascade control system (NCCS). Typical turboshaft engine distributed controllers are designed based on the NCCS framework with state feedback under random packet dropouts. The sufficient robust stable conditions are derived via the Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality approach. Simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the presented method.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 12:51:28 +000
- Bifurcation Analysis with Aerodynamic-Structure Uncertainties by the
Nonintrusive PCE Method
Abstract: An aeroelastic model for airfoil with a third-order stiffness in both pitch and plunge degree of freedom (DOF) and the modified Leishman–Beddoes (LB) model were built and validated. The nonintrusive polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) based on tensor product is applied to quantify the uncertainty of aerodynamic and structure parameters on the aerodynamic force and aeroelastic behavior. The uncertain limit cycle oscillation (LCO) and bifurcation are simulated in the time domain with the stochastic PCE method. Bifurcation diagrams with uncertainties were quantified. The Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is also applied for comparison. From the current work, it can be concluded that the nonintrusive polynomial chaos expansion can give an acceptable accuracy and have a much higher calculation efficiency than MCS. For aerodynamic model, uncertainties of aerodynamic parameters affect the aerodynamic force significantly at the stage from separation to stall at upstroke and at the stage from stall to reattach at return. For aeroelastic model, both uncertainties of aerodynamic parameters and structure parameters impact bifurcation position. Structure uncertainty of parameters is more sensitive for bifurcation. When the nonlinear stall flutter and bifurcation are concerned, more attention should be paid to the separation process of aerodynamics and parameters about pitch DOF in structure.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Edge Detection in UAV Remote Sensing Images Using the Method Integrating
Zernike Moments with Clustering Algorithms
Abstract: Due to the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing images (UAVRSI) within rich texture details of ground objects and obvious phenomenon, the same objects with different spectra, it is difficult to effectively acquire the edge information using traditional edge detection operator. To solve this problem, an edge detection method of UAVRSI by combining Zernike moments with clustering algorithms is proposed in this study. To begin with, two typical clustering algorithms, namely, fuzzy -means (FCM) and -means algorithms, are used to cluster the original remote sensing images so as to form homogeneous regions in ground objects. Then, Zernike moments are applied to carry out edge detection on the remote sensing images clustered. Finally, visual comparison and sensitivity methods are adopted to evaluate the accuracy of the edge information detected. Afterwards, two groups of experimental data are selected to verify the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method effectively improves the accuracy of edge information extracted from remote sensing images.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 11:22:28 +000
- Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking with Nonfull Field of View for Tethered
Abstract: In the ultra-close approaching phase of tethered space robot, a highly stable self-attitude control is essential. However, due to the field of view limitation of cameras, typical point features are difficult to extract, where commonly adopted position-based visual servoing cannot be valid anymore. To provide robot’s relative position and attitude with the target, we propose a monocular visual servoing control method using only the edge lines of satellite brackets. Firstly, real time detection of edge lines is achieved based on image gradient and region growing. Then, we build an edge line based model to estimate the relative position and attitude between the robot and the target. Finally, we design a visual servoing controller combined with PD controller. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm can extract edge lines stably and adjust the robot’s attitude to satisfy the grasping requirements.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Learning Control of Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Fuzzy Neural
Abstract: A learning control strategy is preferred for the control and guidance of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle to deal with lack of modeling and flight uncertainties. For learning the plant model as well as changing working conditions online, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) is used in parallel with a conventional P (proportional) controller. Among the learning algorithms in the literature, a derivative-free one, sliding mode control (SMC) theory-based learning algorithm, is preferred as it has been proved to be computationally efficient in real-time applications. Its proven robustness and finite time converging nature make the learning algorithm appropriate for controlling an unmanned aerial vehicle as the computational power is always limited in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The parameter update rules and stability conditions of the learning are derived, and the proof of the stability of the learning algorithm is shown by using a candidate Lyapunov function. Intensive simulations are performed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed controller which includes the tracking of a three-dimensional trajectory by the UAV subject to time-varying wind conditions. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control algorithm, especially in real-time control systems because of its computational efficiency.
PubDate: Thu, 09 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Airborne Position and Orientation System for Aerial Remote Sensing
Abstract: The airborne Position Orientation System (POS) can accurately measure space-time reference information and plays a vital role in aerial remote sensing system. It may be applied in a direct georeference system for optical camera and a motion imaging system for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which further advances efficiency and quality of imaging sensors. In this paper, the operation principle and components of airborne POS are introduced. Some key technologies of airborne POS are summarized. They include the error calibration and compensation, initial alignment, lever arm error modeling, time synchronization, and integrated estimation method. A high precision airborne POS has been developed and applied to a variety of aerial remote sensing systems.
PubDate: Thu, 09 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Novel Technique to Compute the Revisit Time of Satellites and Its
Application in Remote Sensing Satellite Optimization Design
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel technique to compute the revisit time of satellites within repeat ground tracks. Different from the repeat cycle which only depends on the orbit, the revisit time is relevant to the payload of the satellite as well, such as the tilt angle and swath width. The technique is discussed using the Bezout equation and takes the gravitational second zonal harmonic into consideration. The concept of subcycles is defined in a general way and the general concept of “small” offset is replaced by a multiple of the minimum interval on equator when analyzing the revisit time of remote sensing satellites. This technique requires simple calculations with high efficiency. At last, this technique is used to design remote sensing satellites with desired revisit time and minimum tilt angle. When the side-lap, the range of altitude, and desired revisit time are determined, a lot of orbit solutions which meet the mission requirements will be obtained fast. Among all solutions, designers can quickly find out the optimal orbits. Through various case studies, the calculation technique is successfully demonstrated.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 14:09:52 +000
- Efficient Method for Aeroelastic Tailoring of Composite Wing to Minimize
Abstract: Aeroelastic tailoring of laminated composite structure demands relatively high computational time especially for dynamic problem. This paper presents an efficient method for aeroelastic dynamic response analysis with significantly reduced computational time. In this method, a relationship is established between the maximum aeroelastic response and quasi-steady deflection of a wing subject to a dynamic loading. Based on this relationship, the time consuming dynamic response can be approximated by a quasi-steady deflection analysis in a large proportion of the optimization process. This method has been applied to the aeroelastic tailoring of a composite wing of a tailless aircraft for minimum gust response. The results have shown that 20%–36% gust response reduction has been achieved for this case. The computational time of the optimization process has been reduced by 90% at the cost of accuracy reduction of 2~4% comparing with the traditional dynamic response analysis.
PubDate: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Time and Covariance Threshold Triggered Optimal Uncooperative Rendezvous
Using Angles-Only Navigation
Abstract: A time and covariance threshold triggered optimal maneuver planning method is proposed for orbital rendezvous using angles-only navigation (AON). In the context of Yamanaka-Ankersen orbital relative motion equations, the square root unscented Kalman filter (SRUKF) AON algorithm is developed to compute the relative state estimations from a low-volume/mass, power saving, and low-cost optical/infrared camera’s observations. Multi-impulsive Hill guidance law is employed in closed-loop linear covariance analysis model, based on which the quantitative relative position robustness and relative velocity robustness index are defined. By balancing fuel consumption, relative position robustness, and relative velocity robustness, we developed a time and covariance threshold triggered two-level optimal maneuver planning method, showing how these results correlate to past methods and missions and how they could potentially influence future ones. Numerical simulation proved that it is feasible to control the spacecraft with a two-line element- (TLE-) level uncertain, 34.6% of range, initial relative state to a 100 m v-bar relative station keeping point, at where the trajectory dispersion reduces to 3.5% of range, under a 30% data gap per revolution on account of the eclipse. Comparing with the traditional time triggered maneuver planning method, the final relative position accuracy is improved by one order and the relative trajectory robustness and collision probability are obviously improved and reduced, respectively.
PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2017 08:30:30 +000
- Study of the Effect of Centrifugal Force on Rotor Blade Icing Process
Abstract: In view of the rotor icing problems, the influence of centrifugal force on rotor blade icing is investigated. A numerical simulation method of three-dimensional rotor blade icing is presented. Body-fitted grids around the rotor blade are generated using overlapping grid technology and rotor flow field characteristics are obtained by solving N-S equations. According to Eulerian two-phase flow, the droplet trajectories are calculated and droplet impingement characteristics are obtained. The mass and energy conservation equations of ice accretion model are established and a new calculation method of runback water mass based on shear stress and centrifugal force is proposed to simulate water flow and ice shape. The calculation results are compared with available experimental results in order to verify the correctness of the numerical simulation method. The influence of centrifugal force on rotor icing is calculated. The results show that the flow direction and distribution of liquid water on rotor surfaces change under the action of centrifugal force, which lead to the increasing of icing at the stagnation point and the decreasing of icing on both frozen limitations.
PubDate: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- CFD Simulations of a Finned Projectile with Microflaps for Flow Control
Abstract: This research describes a computational study undertaken to determine the effect of a flow control mechanism and its associated aerodynamics for a finned projectile. The flow control system consists of small microflaps located between the rear fins of the projectile. These small microflaps alter the flow field in the aft finned region of the projectile, create asymmetric pressure distributions, and thus produce aerodynamic control forces and moments. A number of different geometric parameters, microflap locations, and the number of microflaps were varied in an attempt to maximize the control authority generated by the flaps. Steady-state Navier-Stokes computations were performed to obtain the control aerodynamic forces and moments associated with the microflaps. These results were used to optimize the control authority at a supersonic speed, . Computed results showed not only the microflaps to be effective at this speed, but also configurations with 6 and 8 microflaps were found to generate 25%–50% more control force than a baseline 4-flap configuration. These results led to a new optimized 8-flap configuration that was further investigated for a range of Mach numbers from to and was found to be a viable configuration effective in providing control at all of these speeds.
PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Architecture Level Safety Analyses for Safety-Critical Systems
Abstract: The dependency of complex embedded Safety-Critical Systems across Avionics and Aerospace domains on their underlying software and hardware components has gradually increased with progression in time. Such application domain systems are developed based on a complex integrated architecture, which is modular in nature. Engineering practices assured with system safety standards to manage the failure, faulty, and unsafe operational conditions are very much necessary. System safety analyses involve the analysis of complex software architecture of the system, a major aspect in leading to fatal consequences in the behaviour of Safety-Critical Systems, and provide high reliability and dependability factors during their development. In this paper, we propose an architecture fault modeling and the safety analyses approach that will aid in identifying and eliminating the design flaws. The formal foundations of SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL) augmented with the Error Model Annex (EMV) are discussed. The fault propagation, failure behaviour, and the composite behaviour of the design flaws/failures are considered for architecture safety analysis. The illustration of the proposed approach is validated by implementing the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA) system. The Error Model Annex (EMV) is guided with the pattern of consideration and inclusion of probable failure scenarios and propagation of fault conditions in the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA). This helps in validating the system architecture with the detection of the error event in the model and its impact in the operational environment. This also provides an insight of the certification impact that these exceptional conditions pose at various criticality levels and design assurance levels and its implications in verifying and validating the designs.
PubDate: Sun, 15 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Novel Fractional Order Calculus Extended PN for Maneuvering Targets
Abstract: Based on the theory of fractional order calculus (FOC), a novel extended proportional guidance (EPN) law for intercepting the maneuvering target is proposed. In the first part, considering the memory function and filter characteristic of FOC, the novel extended PN guidance algorithm is developed based on the conventional PN after introducing the properties and operation rules of FOC. Further, with the help of FOC theory, the average load and ballistics characteristics of proposed guidance law are analyzed. Then, using the small offset kinematic model, the robustness of the new guidance law against autopilot parameters is studied theoretically by analyzing the sensitivity of the closed loop guidance system. At last, representative numerical results show that the designed guidance law obtains a better performance than the traditional PN for maneuvering target.
PubDate: Thu, 12 Jan 2017 09:51:43 +000
- Flight Loads Prediction of High Aspect Ratio Wing Aircraft Using Multibody
Abstract: A framework based on multibody dynamics has been developed for the static and dynamic aeroelastic analyses of flexible high aspect ratio wing aircraft subject to structural geometric nonlinearities. Multibody dynamics allows kinematic nonlinearities and nonlinear relationships in the forces definition and is an efficient and promising methodology to model high aspect ratio wings, which are known to be prone to structural nonlinear effects because of the high deflections in flight. The multibody dynamics framework developed employs quasi-steady aerodynamics strip theory and discretizes the wing as a series of rigid bodies interconnected by beam elements, representative of the stiffness distribution, which can undergo arbitrarily large displacements and rotations. The method is applied to a flexible high aspect ratio wing commercial aircraft and both trim and gust response analyses are performed in order to calculate flight loads. These results are then compared to those obtained with the standard linear aeroelastic approach provided by the Finite Element Solver Nastran. Nonlinear effects come into play mainly because of the need of taking into account the large deflections of the wing for flight loads computation and of considering the aerodynamic forces as follower forces.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Dec 2016 06:46:01 +000
- Quantification of Limit Cycle Oscillations in Nonlinear Aeroelastic
Systems with Stochastic Parameters
Abstract: This paper presents an analytical feature for limit cycle oscillation (LCO) in the nonlinear aeroelastic system of an airfoil, with major emphasis on its applications in LCO quantification. The nonlinear stiffness is modeled as the product of the th power of vibration displacement and the th power of velocity, with its coefficient as a stochastic parameter. One interesting finding is that the LCO amplitude is directly proportional to the th power of the coefficient, whereas the frequency is independent of the coefficient. Based on this feature, the statistics and distribution functions of the LCO amplitude are obtained semianalytically, which are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we discuss the possible influences of the nonlinear stiffness on flutter suppression of the airfoil subjected to Gaussian white noises. Surprisingly, increasing the nonlinear stiffness alone does not necessarily reduce the vibration amplitude as expected. Instead, it may sometimes induce disastrous subcritical LCOs with much higher vibration amplitudes.
PubDate: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 11:12:41 +000
- Squeeze Film Dampers Executing Small Amplitude Circular-Centered Orbits in
Abstract: This work represents a pressure distribution model for finite length squeeze film dampers (SFDs) executing small amplitude circular-centered orbits (CCOs) with application in high-speed turbomachinery design. The proposed pressure distribution model only accounts for unsteady (temporal) inertia terms, since based on order of magnitude analysis, for small amplitude motions of the journal center, the effect of convective inertia is negligible relative to unsteady (temporal) inertia. In this work, the continuity equation and the momentum transport equations for incompressible lubricants are reduced by assuming that the shapes of the fluid velocity profiles are not strongly influenced by the inertia forces, obtaining an extended form of Reynolds equation for the hydrodynamic pressure distribution that accounts for fluid inertia effects. Furthermore, a numerical procedure is represented to discretize the model equations by applying finite difference approximation (FDA) and to numerically determine the pressure distribution and fluid film reaction forces in SFDs with significant accuracy. Finally, the proposed model is incorporated into a simulation model and the results are compared against existing SFD models. Based on the simulation results, the pressure distribution and fluid film reaction forces are significantly influenced by fluid inertia effects even at small and moderate Reynolds numbers.
PubDate: Sun, 18 Dec 2016 11:15:09 +000
- Study on Helicopter Antitorque Device Based on Cross-Flow Fan Technology
Abstract: In order to improve low-altitude flight security of single-rotor helicopter, an experimental model of a helicopter antitorque device is developed for wind tunnel test. The model is based on the flow control technology of the cross-flow fan (CFF). Wind tunnel tests show that the model can produce side force. It is concluded that the influence of the CFF rotating speed, the rotor collective pitch, and the forward flight speed on the side force of the model is great. At the same time, the numerical simulation calculation method of the model has been established. Good agreement between experimental and numerical side force and power shows that results of numerical solution are reliable. Therefore, the results in actual helicopter obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solution are acceptable. This proves that this antitorque device can be used for a helicopter.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 12:41:33 +000
- Feedback Control of Flow Separation Using Plasma Actuator and FBG Sensor
Abstract: A feedback control system for mitigating flow separation was developed by using a string-type dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma actuator and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. Tangential jets were induced from the string-type DBD plasma actuator, which was located at 5% chord from the leading edge of an NACA0024 airfoil. The FBG sensor was attached to the interior surface near the root of the cantilever beam modeled on the pressure surface of the airfoil. The strain at the cantilever root was reflected in the form of Bragg wavelengths () detected by the FBG sensor when the cantilever tip was vibrated by the flow near the trailing edge of the airfoil. It was found that calculating running standard deviations in the Bragg wavelength () detected by the sensor was valuable for judging flow separation in real time. The feedback control of flow separation on the NACA0024 airfoil was successfully demonstrated by setting with periodic flow separations generated in a wind tunnel by oscillating a side wall of the test section with frequency Hz. It was confirmed that the appearance probability of flow separation tends to decrease with a decrease in the duration for calculating and with an increase in the duration of jet injection.
PubDate: Wed, 14 Dec 2016 10:58:01 +000
- Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Cavity Tone and Sound Source
Abstract: To clarify the effects of freestream turbulence on cavity tones, flow and acoustic fields were directly predicted for cavity flows with various intensities of freestream turbulence. The freestream Mach number was 0.09 and the Reynolds number based on the cavity length was 4.0 × 104. The depth-to-length ratio of the cavity, , was 0.5 and 2.5, where the acoustic resonance of a depth-mode occurs for = 2.5. The incoming boundary layer was laminar. The results for the intensity of freestream turbulence of Tu = 2.3% revealed that the reduced level of cavity tones in a cavity flow with acoustic resonance was greater than that without acoustic resonance . To clarify the reason for this, the sound source based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy was computed, and the contributions of the intensity and spanwise coherence of the sound source to the reduction of the cavity tone were estimated. As a result, the effects of the reduction of spanwise coherence on the cavity tone were greater in the cavity flow with acoustic resonance than in that without resonance, while the effects of the intensity were comparable for both flows.
PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 08:04:05 +000