Anesthesiology Research and Practice
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-6962 - ISSN (Online) 1687-6970
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Analgesic Effects of Preincision Ketamine on Postspinal Caesarean Delivery
in Uganda’s Tertiary Hospital: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Abstract: Background. Good postoperative analgesic management improves maternal satisfaction and care of the neonate. Postoperative pain management is a challenge in Mulago Hospital, yet ketamine is accessible and has proven benefit. We determined ketamine’s postoperative analgesic effects. Materials and Methods. We did an RCT among consenting parturients that were randomized to receive either intravenous ketamine (0.25 mg/kg) or placebo after spinal anesthetic. Pain was assessed every 30 mins up to 24 hours postoperatively using the numerical rating scale. The first complaint of pain requiring treatment was noted as “time to first breakthrough pain.” Results. We screened 100 patients and recruited 88 that were randomized into two arms of 44 patients that received either ketamine or placebo. Ketamine group had 30-minute longer time to first breakthrough pain and lower 24-hour pain scores. Postoperative diclofenac consumption was lesser in the ketamine group compared to placebo and Kaplan-Meier graphs showed a higher probability of experiencing breakthrough pain earlier in the placebo group. Conclusion. Preincision intravenous ketamine (0.25 mg/kg) offered 30-minute prolongation to postoperative analgesia requirement with reduced 24-hour pain scores. We recommend larger studies to explore this benefit. This trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trial Registry number PACTR201404000807178.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Injectable Anesthesia for Mice: Combined Effects of Dexmedetomidine,
Tiletamine-Zolazepam, and Butorphanol
Abstract: Anesthetic protocols for murine models are varied within the literature and medetomidine has been implicated in the development of urethral plugs in male mice. Our objective was to evaluate the combination of butorphanol, dexmedetomidine, and tiletamine-zolazepam. A secondary objective was to identify which class of agent was associated with urethral obstructions in male mice. BALB/c male () and female () mice were assigned to dexmedetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam with or without butorphanol or to single agent dexmedetomidine or tiletamine-zolazepam. Anesthesia was achieved in 58% (14/24) of mice without butorphanol and in 100% (24/24) of mice with butorphanol. The combination of dexmedetomidine (0.2 mg/kg), tiletamine-zolazepam (40 mg/kg), and butorphanol (3 mg/kg) resulted in an induction and anesthetic duration of 12 and 143 minutes, respectively. Urethral obstructions occurred in 66% (25/38) of trials in male mice that received dexmedetomidine with a mortality rate of 38% (5/13). Tiletamine-zolazepam, when used alone, resulted in a 0% (0/21) incidence of urethral obstructions. Combination use of dexmedetomidine, tiletamine-zolazepam, and butorphanol results in a longer and more reliable duration of anesthesia than the use of dexmedetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam alone. Dexmedetomidine is not recommended for use in nonterminal procedures in male mice due to the high incidence of urethral obstructions and resultant high mortality rate.
PubDate: Sun, 22 Jan 2017 11:08:39 +000
- Regional Anaesthesia Is Associated with Shorter Postanaesthetic Care and
Less Pain Than General Anaesthesia after Upper Extremity Surgery
Abstract: Introduction. For surgery on the upper extremity, the anaesthetist often has a choice between regional anaesthesia (RA) and general anaesthesia (GA). We sought to investigate the possible differences between RA and GA after upper extremity surgery with regard to postoperative patient comfort. Methods. This is a retrospective observational study that was performed at an acute care secondary referral centre. One hundred and eighty-seven procedures involving orthopaedic surgery on the upper extremity were included. The different groups (RA and GA) were compared regarding the primary outcome variable, length of stay in Postanaesthesia Unit, and secondary outcome variables, opioid consumption and nausea treatment. Results. RA was associated with significantly shorter median length of stay (99 versus 171 minutes). In the GA group, 32% of the patients received opioid analgesics and 21% received antiemetics. In the RA group, none received opioid analgesics and 3% received antiemetics. Conclusion. In this observational study, RA was superior to GA for surgery of the upper extremity regarding Postanaesthesia Care Unit length of stay, number of doses of analgesic, and number of doses of antiemetic administered.
PubDate: Wed, 16 Nov 2016 05:42:13 +000
- Sugammadex-Enhanced Neuronal Apoptosis following Neonatal Sevoflurane
Exposure in Mice
Abstract: In rodents, neonatal sevoflurane exposure induces neonatal apoptosis in the brain and results in learning deficits. Sugammadex is a new selective neuromuscular blockade (NMB) binding agent that anesthesiologists can use to achieve immediate reversal of an NMB with few side effects. Given its molecular weight of 2178, sugammadex is thought to be unable to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Volatile anesthetics can influence BBB opening and integrity. Therefore, we investigated whether the intraperitoneal administration of sugammadex could exacerbate neuronal damage following neonatal 2% sevoflurane exposure via changes in BBB integrity. Cleaved caspase-3 immunoblotting was used to detect apoptosis, and the ultrastructure of the BBB was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Exposure to 2% sevoflurane for 6 h resulted in BBB ultrastructural abnormalities in the hippocampus of neonatal mice. Sugammadex alone without sevoflurane did not induce apoptosis. The coadministration of sugammadex with sevoflurane to neonatal mice caused a significant increase (150%) in neuroapoptosis in the brain compared with 2% sevoflurane. In neonatal anesthesia, sugammadex could influence neurotoxicity together with sevoflurane. Exposure to 2% sevoflurane for 6 h resulted in BBB ultrastructural abnormalities in the hippocampus of neonatal mice.
PubDate: Tue, 08 Nov 2016 06:03:55 +000
- Perioperative Elevation in Cell-Free DNA Levels in Patients Undergoing
Cardiac Surgery: Possible Contribution of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps
to Perioperative Renal Dysfunction
Abstract: Background. This study aimed to determine the perioperative change in serum double-strand DNA (dsDNA) as a marker potentially reflecting neutrophil extracellular trap concentration in samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery and to analyze a relationship between serum dsDNA concentrations and perioperative renal dysfunction. Methods. Serum dsDNA concentrations in samples that were collected during a previously conducted, prospective, multicenter, observational study were measured. Eighty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were studied. Serum samples were collected at baseline, immediately after surgery, and the day after surgery (POD-1). Results. Serum dsDNA concentration was significantly increased from baseline (median, 398 ng/mL [interquartile range, 372–475 ng/mL]) to immediately after surgery (median, 540 ng/mL [437–682 ng/mL], ), and they were reduced by POD-1 (median, 323 ng/mL [256–436 ng/mL]). The difference in serum creatinine concentration between baseline and POD-1 was correlated with dsDNA concentration on POD-1 (, ). Conclusions. In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, serum dsDNA concentration is elevated postoperatively. Prolonged elevation in dsDNA concentration is correlated with perioperative renal dysfunction. Further large-scale studies are needed to determine the relationship between serum concentration of circulating dsDNA and perioperative renal dysfunction.
PubDate: Wed, 02 Nov 2016 13:18:04 +000
- The AMBU® Aura-i™ Laryngeal Mask and LMA Supreme™: A Randomized Trial
of Clinical Performance and Fibreoptic Positioning in Unparalysed,
Anaesthetised Patients by Novices
Abstract: Introduction. Manikin studies’ data cannot accurately be extrapolated to real-life scenarios and inherent differences in design and materials of newer products may affect their clinical performance. Methods. Hence, we compared the AMBU® Aura-i™ and LMA Supreme™ in this randomized trial involving 100 ASA 1-2 unparalysed anaesthetised patients undergoing minor gynaecological surgery. Investigators had
PubDate: Tue, 25 Oct 2016 11:42:51 +000
- Current Trends in Neuromuscular Blockade, Management, and Monitoring
amongst Singaporean Anaesthetists
Abstract: Introduction. This survey aimed to investigate the attitudes/practice pertaining the use, management, and monitoring of neuromuscular blockade amongst Singaporean anaesthetists. Methods. All specialist accredited anaesthetists registered with the Singapore Medical Council were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. Results. The response rate was 39.5%. Neuromuscular monitoring (NM) was used routinely by only 13.1% despite the widespread availability of monitors. 82% stated residual NMB (RNMB) was a significant risk factor for patient outcome, but only 24% believed NMB monitoring should be compulsory in all paralyzed patients. 63.6% of anaesthetists estimated the risk of RNMB in their own institutions to be 50% said such benefits may be able to offset the associated costs. Conclusions. There is a significant need for reeducation about RNMB, studies on local RNMB incidences, and strengthening of current monitoring practices and guidelines. Strategies are discussed. As NM monitors appear widely available and reversal of NMB standard practice, it is hopeful that Singaporean anaesthetists will change and strive for evidence-based best clinical practice to enhance patient safety.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2016 05:53:19 +000
- Time Trends and Predictors of Abnormal Postoperative Body Temperature in
Infants Transported to the Intensive Care Unit
Abstract: Background. Despite increasing adoption of active warming methods over the recent years, little is known about the effectiveness of these interventions on the occurrence of abnormal postoperative temperatures in sick infants. Methods. Preoperative and postoperative temperature readings, patient characteristics, and procedural factors of critically ill infants at a single institution were retrieved retrospectively from June 2006 until May 2014. The primary endpoints were the incidence and trend of postoperative hypothermia and hyperthermia on arrival at the intensive care units. Univariate and adjusted analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with abnormal postoperative temperatures. Results. 2,350 cases were included. 82% were normothermic postoperatively, while hypothermia and hyperthermia each occurred in 9% of cases. During the study period, hypothermia decreased from 24% to 2% () while hyperthermia remained unchanged (13% in 2006, 8% in 2014, ). Factors independently associated with hypothermia were higher ASA status (), lack of intraoperative convective warming () and procedure date before 2010 (). Independent associations for postoperative hyperthermia included lower body weight () and procedure date before 2010 (). Conclusions. We report an increase in postoperative normothermia rates in critically ill infants from 2006 until 2014. Careful monitoring to avoid overcorrection and hyperthermia is recommended.
PubDate: Thu, 29 Sep 2016 08:57:40 +000
- Hypnosis in the Perioperative Management of Breast Cancer Surgery:
Clinical Benefits and Potential Implications
Abstract: The aim of this review is to summarize data published on the use of perioperative hypnosis in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery (BCS). Indeed, the majority of BCS patients experience stress, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and pain. Correct management of the perioperative period and surgical removal of the primary tumor are clearly essential but can affect patients on different levels and hence have a negative impact on oncological outcomes. This review examines the effect of clinical hypnosis performed during the perioperative period. Thanks to its specific properties and techniques allowing it to be used as complementary treatment preoperatively, hypnosis has an impact most notably on distress and postoperative pain. During surgery, hypnosis may be applied to limit immunosuppression, while, in the postoperative period, it can reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue and improve wound healing. Moreover, hypnosis is inexpensive, an important consideration given current financial concerns in healthcare. Of course, large randomized prospective studies are now needed to confirm the observed advantages of hypnosis in the field of oncology.
PubDate: Sun, 21 Aug 2016 12:46:59 +000
- The Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Lumbar Epidural Injection for Failed Back
Abstract: Purpose. Failed back surgery syndrome is a chronic pain condition requiring rapid, effective, and efficient management. This study evaluates the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to lumbar epidural steroids in patients with failed back surgery syndrome. Methods. Fifty patients suffering from failed back surgery syndrome were randomly assigned to one of two groups, receiving an epidural injection of 20 mL of either a mixture of betamethasone (14 mg) and bupivacaine 0.5 mg (group C) or a mixture of betamethasone (14 mg), bupivacaine 0.5 mg, and dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg) (group D) adjusted to the volume with normal saline. The effect was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS), analgesic requirement, and Oswestry disability index 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after injection. Results. VAS and ibuprofen consumption showed a significant reduction in group D. The Oswestry disability index was significantly improved in group D. There were no records of hypotension, bradycardia, sedation, or hypoxemia in both groups. Conclusion. The present study demonstrated potential safe and effective usage of adding dexmedetomidine to epidural steroid to control pain in patients with failed back surgery syndrome.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2016 08:53:51 +000
- Length of Stay in Ambulatory Surgical Oncology Patients at High Risk for
Sleep Apnea as Predicted by STOP-BANG Questionnaire
Abstract: Background. The STOP-BANG questionnaire has been used to identify surgical patients at risk for undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by classifying patients as low risk (LR) if STOP-BANG score < 3 or high risk (HR) if STOP-BANG score ≥ 3. Few studies have examined whether postoperative complications are increased in HR patients and none have been described in oncologic patients. Objective. This retrospective study examined if HR patients experience increased complications evidenced by an increased length of stay (LOS) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Methods. We retrospectively measured LOS and the frequency of oxygen desaturation (
PubDate: Tue, 16 Aug 2016 10:46:22 +000
- Intubation Success through I-Gel® and Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway®
Using Flexible Silicone Tubes: A Randomised Noninferiority Trial
Abstract: Introduction. The study aims to test whether flexible silicone tubes (FST) improve performance and provide similar intubation success through I-Gel as compared to ILMA. Our trial is registered in CTRI and the registration number is “CTRI/2016/06/006997.” Methods. One hundred and twenty ASA status I-II patients scheduled for elective surgical procedures needing tracheal intubation were randomised to endotracheal intubation using FST through either I-Gel or ILMA. In the ILMA group (), intubation was attempted through ILMA using FST and, in the I-Gel group (), FST was inserted through I-Gel airway. Results. Successful intubation was achieved in 36.67% (95% CI 24.48%–48.86%) on first attempt through I-Gel () compared to 68.33% (95% CI 56.56%–80.1%) in ILMA () (). The overall intubation success rate was also lower with I-Gel group [58.3% (95% CI 45.82%–70.78%); ] compared to ILMA [90% (95% CI 82.41%–97.59%); ] (). The number of attempts, ease of intubation, and time to intubation were longer with I-Gel compared to ILMA. There were no differences in the other secondary outcomes. Conclusion. The first pass success rate and overall success of FST through an I-Gel airway were inferior to those of ILMA.
PubDate: Sun, 10 Jul 2016 11:25:52 +000
- The Effect of Patient Weight and Provider Training and Experience on
Dosing of Rocuronium
Abstract: Introduction. Maintenance dosing of neuromuscular blocking agents is complex and varies with patient, procedure, and clinical situation. With this in mind, we sought to identify factors impacting the maintenance dosing of neuromuscular blockers as a step toward identifying best practice with respect to minimizing residual neuromuscular blockade. Methods. Cases utilizing rocuronium from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2014, at the sponsoring institution were analyzed. Using a mixed model to account for repeated measures, patients were analyzed by dose and weight category as defined by the World Health Organization (eight categories ranging from very severely underweight to very severely obese) as well as by the administering provider’s level of experience. Results. The study included 12,671 patients with a mean age of 49.7 (SD 16.7). Increasing weight category and higher levels of provider experience were associated with higher doses for rocuronium. There were no differences in initial dose or in frequency of maintenance dosing by weight category after controlling for case length. Discussion. The two dosing patterns identified, higher doses for overweight patients and higher doses administered by experienced providers, are modifiable factors that could enhance patient safety.
PubDate: Sun, 26 Jun 2016 11:49:43 +000
- Comparison of Medical Adhesive Tapes in Patients at Risk of Facial Skin
Trauma under Anesthesia
Abstract: Introduction. Adhesive tapes are used for taping eyelids closed and securing endotracheal tubes during general anesthesia. These tapes can cause facial skin injury. We compared the incidence of facial skin injury and patient satisfaction with different tapes used. Methods. A total of 60 adult patients at risk of skin trauma were randomized to use 3M™ Kind Removal Silicone Tape or standard acrylate tapes: 3M Durapore (endotracheal tube) and Medipore (eyelids). Patients were blinded to tape used. Postoperatively, a blinded recovery nurse assessed erythema, edema, and denudation of skin. Anesthesiologist in charge also assessed skin injury. On postoperative day 1, patients rated satisfaction with the condition of their skin over the eyelids and face on a 5-point Likert scale. Results. More patients had denudation of skin with standard tapes, 4 (13.3%) versus 0 with silicone tape () and in anesthesiologist-evaluated skin injury 11 (37%) with standard versus 1 (3%) with silicone (). No significant differences were found in erythema and edema. Patient satisfaction score was higher with silicone tape: over eyelids: mean 3.83 (standard) versus 4.53 (silicone), Mann-Whitney test, ; over face: mean 3.87 (standard) versus 4.57 (silicone) (). Conclusion. Silicone tape use had less skin injury and greater patient satisfaction than standard acrylate tapes.
PubDate: Sun, 12 Jun 2016 11:55:40 +000
- Effects of Addition of Systemic Tramadol or Adjunct Tramadol to Lidocaine
Used for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Hand
Abstract: Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is used in outpatient hand surgery as an easily applicable and cost-effective technique with clinical advantages. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of addition of systemic tramadol or adjunct tramadol to lidocaine for IVRA in patients undergoing hand surgery. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-II patients () who underwent hand surgery were included. For this purpose, only lidocaine (LDC), lidocaine+adjunct tramadol (LDC+TRA group), or lidocaine+systemic tramadol (LDC+SysTRA group) was administered to the patients for IVRA and the groups were compared in terms of onset and recovery time of sensory and motor blocks, quality of anesthesia, and the degree of intraoperative and postoperative pain. The onset time of sensorial block was significantly shorter in the LDC+TRA group than that in the LDC+SysTRA group. The motor block recovery time was significantly shorter in the LDC+SysTRA group than that in the LDC+TRA and LDC groups. Administration of tramadol as an adjunct showed some clinical benefits by providing a shorter onset time of sensory and motor block, decreasing pain and analgesic requirement, and improving intraoperative conditions during IVRA. It was determined that systemic tramadol administration had no superiority.
PubDate: Mon, 30 May 2016 13:47:37 +000
- Comparison of the Success of Two Techniques for the Endotracheal
Intubation with C-MAC Video Laryngoscope Miller Blade in Children: A
Prospective Randomized Study
Abstract: Background. Ease of endotracheal intubation with C-MAC video laryngoscope (VLS) with Miller blades 0 and 1 has not been evaluated in children. Methods. Sixty children weighing 3–15 kg with normal airway were randomly divided into two groups. Intubation was done with C-MAC VLS Miller blade using either nonstyletted endotracheal tube (ETT) (group WS) or styletted ETT (group S). The time for intubation and total procedure, intubation attempts, failed intubation, blade repositioning or external laryngeal maneuver, and complications were recorded. Results. The median (minimum/maximum) time for intubation in group WS and group S was 19.5 (9/48) seconds and 13.0 (18/55) seconds, respectively (). The median (minimum/maximum) time for procedure in group WS was 30.5 (18/72) seconds and in group S was 24.5 (14/67) seconds, respectively (). Intubation in first attempt was done in 28 children in group WS and in 30 children in group S. Repositioning was required in 14 children in group WS and in 7 children in group S (). There were no failure to intubate, desaturation, and bradycardia in both groups. Conclusion. Styletted ETT significantly reduces time for intubation and time for procedure in comparison to nonstyletted ETT.
PubDate: Sun, 15 May 2016 11:20:38 +000
- Development and Testing of Screen-Based and Psychometric Instruments for
Assessing Resident Performance in an Operating Room Simulator
Abstract: Introduction. Medical simulators are used for assessing clinical skills and increasingly for testing hypotheses. We developed and tested an approach for assessing performance in anesthesia residents using screen-based simulation that ensures expert raters remain blinded to subject identity and experimental condition. Methods. Twenty anesthesia residents managed emergencies in an operating room simulator by logging actions through a custom graphical user interface. Two expert raters rated performance based on these entries using custom Global Rating Scale (GRS) and Crisis Management Checklist (CMC) instruments. Interrater reliability was measured by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and internal consistency of the instruments was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Agreement between GRS and CMC was measured using Spearman rank correlation (SRC). Results. Interrater agreement (GRS: ICC = 0.825, CMC: ICC = 0.878) and internal consistency (GRS: alpha = 0.838, CMC: alpha = 0.886) were good for both instruments. Subscale analysis indicated that several instrument items can be discarded. GRS and CMC scores were highly correlated (SRC = 0.948). Conclusions. In this pilot study, we demonstrated that screen-based simulation can allow blinded assessment of performance. GRS and CMC instruments demonstrated good rater agreement and internal consistency. We plan to further test construct validity of our instruments by measuring performance in our simulator as a function of training level.
PubDate: Wed, 11 May 2016 07:08:22 +000
- A Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Ability of Anticipated Pain,
Perceived Analgesic Needs, and Psychological Traits to Predict Pain and
Analgesic Usage following Cesarean Delivery
Abstract: Introduction. This study aimed to determine if preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings could predict pain intensity and analgesic usage following cesarean delivery (CD). Methods. 50 healthy women undergoing scheduled CD with spinal anesthesia comprised the prospective study cohort. Preoperative predictors included 4 validated psychological questionnaires (Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Fear of Pain (FPQ), Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) and 3 simple ratings: expected postoperative pain (0–10), anticipated analgesic threshold (0–10), and perceived analgesic needs (0–10). Postoperative outcome measures included post-CD pain (combined rest and movement) and opioid used for the 48-hour study period. Results. Bivariate correlations were significant with expected pain and opioid usage (), anticipated analgesic threshold and post-CD pain (), and perceived analgesic needs and post-CD pain (). Multiple linear regression analysis found that expected postoperative pain and anticipated analgesic needs contributed to post-CD pain prediction modeling (, ); expected postoperative pain, ASI, and FPQ were associated with opioid usage (, ). Conclusion. Preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings accounted for 44% and 42% of pain and analgesic use variance, respectively. Preoperatively determined expected postoperative pain and perceived analgesic needs appear to be useful predictors for post-CD pain and analgesic requirements.
PubDate: Thu, 07 Apr 2016 08:43:36 +000
- Comparison of Ondansetron and Dexamethasone for Prophylaxis of
Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic
Surgeries: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Abstract: Background. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a significant complication after laparoscopic surgeries. Ondansetron and dexamethasone are most commonly used drugs for PONV prophylaxis. Comparisons of these two drugs have not been systematically reviewed till date. Methods. PubMed, PubMed Central, and CENTRAL databases were searched with the following words: “dexamethasone,” “ondansetron,” “laparoscopy,” and “PONV” to identify randomized trials that compared ondansetron and dexamethasone for PONV prophylaxis after laparoscopic surgeries. Results. Data of 592 patients from 7 RCTs have been included in this meta-analysis. Incidence of postoperative nausea at 4–6 h is significantly lower when dexamethasone was used instead of ondansetron (; OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.24–0.98, M-H fixed). Incidence of nausea is similar at 24 hours (, OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48, 1.05; M-H fixed); vomiting is also similar at 4–6 h (, OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.70–2.27; M-H fixed) and also at 24 h (, OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.73, 1.16; M-H fixed). Conclusion. Dexamethasone is superior to ondansetron in preventing postoperative nausea after 4–6 h of laparoscopic surgeries. However, both the drugs are of equal efficacy in preventing postoperative vomiting up to 24 h after surgery. However, results should be interpreted with caution due to clinical heterogeneity in the included studies.
PubDate: Sun, 27 Mar 2016 11:49:29 +000
- Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Current Clinical Opinions and
Abstract: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), a minimally invasive method for removal of renal calculi, was initially started in the 1950s but gained popularity about two decades later and has now become standard practice for management. There has been an immense improvement in technique and various guidelines have been established for treatment of renal stones. However, it has its own share of complications which can be attributed to surgical technique as well as anesthesia related complications. PubMed and Google search yielded more than 30 articles describing the different complications seen in this procedure, out of which 15 major articles were selected for writing this review. The aim of this review article is to describe the implications of the complications associated with PCNL related to the anesthesiologist. The anesthesiologist is as much responsible for the management of the patient perioperatively as the surgeon. Therefore, it is mandatory to be familiar with the various complications, some of which may be life threatening and he should be able to manage them efficiently. The paper also analyses the advantages and drawbacks of the available options in anesthesia, that is, general and regional, both of which are employed for PCNL.
PubDate: Sun, 27 Mar 2016 11:33:53 +000
- Leakage Characteristics of Dual-Cannula Fenestrated Tracheostomy Tubes
during Positive Pressure Ventilation: A Bench Study
Abstract: This study compared the leakage characteristics of different types of dual-cannula fenestrated tracheostomy tubes during positive pressure ventilation. Fenestrated Portex® Blue Line Ultra®, TRACOE® twist, or Rüsch® Traceofix® tracheostomy tubes equipped with nonfenestrated inner cannulas were tested in a tracheostomy-lung simulator. Transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates were measured during positive pressure ventilation. The impact of different ventilation modes, airway pressures, temperatures, and simulated static lung compliance settings on leakage characteristics was assessed. We observed substantial differences in transfenestration pressures and transfenestration leakage rates. The leakage rates of the best performing tubes were
PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2016 12:49:47 +000
- Dexmedetomidine versus Magnesium Sulfate as Adjunct during Anesthesia for
Abstract: Objectives. To compare dexmedetomidine versus magnesium during laparoscopic colectomy. Patients and Methods. 51 patients were randomly allocated into 3 groups: group C (control) received saline infusion, group D dexmedetomidine 1 g/kg and then 0.4 g/kg/hr, and group M MgSO4 2 g and then 15 g/kg/min. Intraoperative hemodynamics were measured before and 1 min after intubation (T1 and T2), before and 5 min after peritoneal insufflation (T3 and T4), before and 5 min after 30° Trendelenburg position (T5 and T6), 5 min after resuming flat position (T7), 5 min after peritoneal deflations (T8), after extubation (T9), and at time of admission to PACU (T10). Recovery time and degree of sedation were assessed. Results. HR and MAP were significantly higher in T2, T4, and T6 compared to T1, T3, and T5, respectively, in all groups with lower measurements in groups D and M compared to group C. Mean of collective measurements was significantly higher in group C. Recovery time and sedation score were significantly higher in groups D and M. Time to Aldrete score of ≥9 was significantly longer in groups D and M. Conclusion. Both drugs ameliorate the pressor responses during LC with a nonsignificant difference. This study is registered with PACTR201602001481308.
PubDate: Wed, 09 Mar 2016 11:41:07 +000
- Comparative Evaluation of Pain Scores during Periodontal Probing with or
without Anesthetic Gels
Abstract: Context. The initial periodontal examination which includes full-mouth periodontal probing is one of the discomforting procedures for a patient. Aim. To evaluate the efficacy of two local anesthetic gels in the reduction of pain during periodontal probing using Florida probe in CGP patients in comparison with manual probing. Materials and Methods. Ninety systemically healthy patients with moderate to severe CGP patients were recruited. In each patient, the quadrants were randomly assigned to manual probing with UNC-15 probe, probing with Florida probe, and Florida probing with lidocaine 10% gel and with benzocaine 20% gel. In the quadrants undergoing probing with anesthetic gels, the sites were isolated and the gel was injected using syringe and a blunt-end cannula. Pain was measured using 10 mm horizontal VAS. Statistical Analysis. The analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18. The comparison of mean VAS scores was done using repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test. Results. Mean VAS for manual probing was significantly more than Florida probing. Further, the mean VAS score for Florida probing was higher than the two gels. Conclusion. It is suggested that the gels might be useful in reducing pain experienced during full-mouth periodontal probing in patients with CGP.
PubDate: Mon, 29 Feb 2016 13:07:48 +000
- Impact of an Innovative Classroom-Based Lecture Series on Residents’
Evaluations of an Anesthesiology Rotation
Abstract: Introduction. Millennial resident learners may benefit from innovative instructional methods. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of a new daily, 15 minutes on one anesthesia keyword, lecture series given by faculty member each weekday on resident postrotation evaluation scores. Methods. A quasi-experimental study design was implemented with the residents’ rotation evaluations for the 24-month period ending by 7/30/2013 before the new lecture series was implemented which was compared to the 14-month period after the lecture series began on 8/1/2013. The primary endpoint was “overall teaching quality of this rotation.” We also collected survey data from residents at clinical rotations at two other different institutions during the same two evaluation periods that did not have the education intervention. Results. One hundred and thirty-one residents were eligible to participate in the study. Completed surveys ranged from 77 to 87% for the eight-question evaluation instrument. On a 5-point Likert-type scale the mean score on “overall teaching quality of this rotation” increased significantly from 3.9 (SD 0.8) to 4.2 (SD 0.7) after addition of the lecture series, whereas the scores decreased slightly at the comparison sites. Conclusion. Rotation evaluation scores for overall teaching quality improved with implementation of a new structured slide daily lectures series.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:04:48 +000
- The Relationship of the Subclavius Muscle with Relevance to Venous
Cannulation below the Clavicle
Abstract: Introduction. The catheter “pinch-off syndrome” has been described to be secondary to crimping of the catheter between the clavicle and the first rib, as well as entrapment of the catheter at the site of penetration of the subclavius muscle. The lateral insertion technique has been recommended to prevent catheter pinch-off, but it is unknown if this technique can prevent entrapment by the subclavius muscle. We undertook this study to evaluate the anatomical relationship of the subclavius muscle and the subclavian vein. Methods. Twenty-eight adult cadavers were studied on both right and left sides. The adherence between the subclavian vein and subclavius muscle was subjectively assessed and the distance between the two structures was measured in mm. Results. The subclavius muscle and subclavian vein were tightly adherent in 72% of specimens, partly adherent in 14% with a mean distance of 4.5 mm and loosely connected in 14% with a mean distance of 6.1 mm. Conclusions. The anatomical relationship between the subclavius muscle and vein was very close in the majority of specimens, suggesting that the lateral insertion technique may not prevent penetration of the muscle, which may contribute to catheter pinch-off. The real-time ultrasound-guided technique may prevent penetration of the subclavius muscle.
PubDate: Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:21:46 +000
- Efficacy of Continuous S(+)-Ketamine Infusion for Postoperative Pain
Control: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Abstract: Aim. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of continuous intraoperative infusion of S(+)-ketamine under intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion of remifentanil and propofol for postoperative pain control. Methods. Forty-eight patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were assigned to receive continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion at a rate of 0.3 mg·kg−1·h−1 (, intervention group) or an equivalent volume of saline at the same rate (, placebo group). The same target-controlled intravenous anesthesia was induced in both groups. Pain was assessed using a 0 to 10 verbal numeric rating scale during the first 12 postoperative hours. Pain scores and morphine consumption were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 4 and 12 hours after surgery. Results. Pain scores were lower in the intervention group at all time points. Morphine consumption did not differ significantly between groups during PACU stay, but it was significantly lower in the intervention group at each time point after PACU discharge (). At 12 hours after surgery, cumulative morphine consumption was also lower in the intervention group () than in the placebo group (). Conclusions. Continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under target-controlled intravenous anesthesia provided better postoperative pain control than placebo, reducing morphine requirement. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02421913.
PubDate: Tue, 02 Feb 2016 06:42:58 +000
- Improving Patient Safety through Simulation Training in Anesthesiology:
Where Are We'
Abstract: There have been colossal technological advances in the use of simulation in anesthesiology in the past 2 decades. Over the years, the use of simulation has gone from low fidelity to high fidelity models that mimic human responses in a startlingly realistic manner, extremely life-like mannequin that breathes, generates E.K.G, and has pulses, heart sounds, and an airway that can be programmed for different degrees of obstruction. Simulation in anesthesiology is no longer a research fascination but an integral part of resident education and one of ACGME requirements for resident graduation. Simulation training has been objectively shown to increase the skill-set of anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology is leading the movement in patient safety. It is rational to assume a relationship between simulation training and patient safety. Nevertheless there has not been a demonstrable improvement in patient outcomes with simulation training. Larger prospective studies that evaluate the improvement in patient outcomes are needed to justify the integration of simulation training in resident education but ample number of studies in the past 5 years do show a definite benefit of using simulation in anesthesiology training. This paper gives a brief overview of the history and evolution of use of simulation in anesthesiology and highlights some of the more recent studies that have advanced simulation-based training.
PubDate: Mon, 01 Feb 2016 13:03:53 +000
- A Posterior TAP Block Provides More Effective Analgesia Than a Lateral TAP
Block in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery: A
Abstract: Background. There are a few papers that compared the lateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with the posterior TAP block. Our study aimed to compare retrospectively the quality of analgesia after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery using the lateral TAP block with general anesthesia versus the posterior TAP block with general anesthesia. Method. Sixty-seven adult female patients were included in this retrospective study. Of these patients, thirty-four patients received the lateral TAP block with general anesthesia (lat. TAP group), and the rest of thirty-three patients received the posterior TAP block with general anesthesia (pos. TAP group). Pain scores both at rest and at movement and the use of additional analgesic drugs were recorded in the postoperative care unit within twenty-four hours after the operation. Postoperative complications were noted. Results. Patients who received pos. TAP reported lower visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores in all points, within twenty-four hours after the operation, than patients who received lat. TAP. Moreover, with the use of additional analgesic drugs, the incidence of nausea and vomiting during the first twenty-four hours after surgery was lower in the pos. TAP group than in the lat. TAP group. Conclusion. The posterior TAP block provided more effective analgesia than the lateral TAP block in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.
PubDate: Thu, 28 Jan 2016 14:07:45 +000
- Granisetron versus Granisetron-Dexamethasone for Prevention of
Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery: A
Randomized Double-Blind Trial
Abstract: Aim. Efficacy of granisetron and combination of granisetron and dexamethasone was evaluated for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in children undergoing elective strabismus surgery. Methods. A total of 136 children (1–15 years) were included. Children received either granisetron (40 mcg/kg) [group G] or combination of granisetron (40 mcg/kg) and dexamethasone (150 mcg/kg) [group GD]. Intraoperative fentanyl requirement and incidence and severity of oculocardiac reflex were assessed. PONV severity was assessed for first 24 hours and if score was >2, it was treated with metoclopramide. Postoperative analgesia was administered with intravenous fentanyl and ibuprofen. Results. The demographic profile, muscles operated, and fentanyl requirement were comparable. Complete response to PONV in first 24 hours was observed in 75% (51/68) of children in group G and 76.9% (50/65) of children in group GD, which was comparable statistically (, Fisher exact test; OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.50, 2.46). Incidence of PONV between 0 and 24 hours was comparable. One child in group G required rescue antiemetic in first 24 hours and none of the children had severe PONV in group GD. There was no significant difference in incidence or severity of oculocardiac reflex. Conclusion. Dexamethasone did not increase efficacy of granisetron for prevention of PONV in elective pediatric strabismus surgery. Registration number of clinical trial was CTRI/2009/091/001000.
PubDate: Tue, 26 Jan 2016 13:07:50 +000
- The Influence of Differences in Solvents and Concentration on the Efficacy
of Propofol at Induction of Anesthesia
Abstract: Background. Propofol is a popular intravenous anesthetic and varieties of formulations were produced from different laboratories. The present study compared efficacy of propofol of different laboratories and different concentrations (1 and 2%) during induction of anesthesia. Methods. Seventy-five scheduled surgical patients were randomly allocated into three groups. The patients of group D1 received AstraZeneca Diprivan 1% (Osaka, Japan) at a rate of 40 mg kg−1 h−1. Group M1 was given 1% Maruishi (Maruishi Pharmaceutical, Osaka, Japan) and group M2 was given 2% formulation at the same rate of propofol. Achieving hypnosis was defined as failure to open their eyes in response to a verbal command and the venous blood sample was withdrawn. Results. The hypnotic doses of M2 were significantly larger (D1: , M1: , and M2: mg, resp. (mean ± SD). ). Age and gender were selected as statistically significant covariates using general linear model-ANOVA. The blood concentration showed no significant difference among the groups (, , and μg mL−1, resp.). Conclusion. The required dose of propofol was different among the formulations; however, the serum concentration showed no significant difference. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000019925.
PubDate: Thu, 21 Jan 2016 12:19:10 +000