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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 269 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 207)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover Advances in Urology
  [SJR: 0.629]   [H-I: 16]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-6369 - ISSN (Online) 1687-6377
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors: A Developmental Perspective

    • Abstract: Germ cell tumors (GCTs) arising in infants, children, and adolescents present a set of special challenges. GCTs make up about 3% of malignancies in children aged 0–18 and nearly 15% of cancers in adolescents. Epidemiologic and molecular evidence suggests that GCTs in young children likely represent a distinct biologic group as compared to GCTs of older adolescents and adults. Despite this difference, pediatric GCTs are typically treated with cisplatin-based multiagent regimens similar to those used in adults. There is evidence that children are particularly vulnerable to late effects of conventional therapy, including ototoxicity, pulmonary abnormalities, and secondary malignancies, motivating the search for molecular targets for novel therapies. Evidence is accumulating that the genes and mechanisms controlling normal germ cell development are particularly relevant to the understanding of germ cell tumorigenesis. Perturbations in the epigenetic program of germ cell differentiation, with resulting effects on the regulation of pluripotency, may contribute to the marked histologic variability of GCTs. Perturbations in the KIT receptor signaling pathway have been identified via next-generation sequencing studies and in genome-wide association studies of testicular cancer susceptibility. Here, we review these and other biological insights that may fuel further translational and clinical research in childhood GCTs.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Kidney Stone Disease: An Update on Current Concepts

    • Abstract: Kidney stone disease is a crystal concretion formed usually within the kidneys. It is an increasing urological disorder of human health, affecting about 12% of the world population. It has been associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure. The etiology of kidney stone is multifactorial. The most common type of kidney stone is calcium oxalate formed at Randall’s plaque on the renal papillary surfaces. The mechanism of stone formation is a complex process which results from several physicochemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention of urinary stone constituents within tubular cells. These steps are modulated by an imbalance between factors that promote or inhibit urinary crystallization. It is also noted that cellular injury promotes retention of particles on renal papillary surfaces. The exposure of renal epithelial cells to oxalate causes a signaling cascade which leads to apoptosis by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Currently, there is no satisfactory drug to cure and/or prevent kidney stone recurrences. Thus, further understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney stone formation is a research area to manage urolithiasis using new drugs. Therefore, this review has intended to provide a compiled up-to-date information on kidney stone etiology, pathogenesis, and prevention approaches.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection as Primary Treatment for Metastatic
           Seminoma

    • Abstract: Reducing the long-term morbidity in testicular cancer survivors represents a major area of interest. External beam radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy are established treatments for seminoma; however, they are associated with late toxicities such as cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and secondary malignancy. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is a standard treatment for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) that has minimal long-term morbidity. Given the efficacy of RPLND in management of NSGCT, interest has developed in this surgery as a front-line treatment for seminoma with isolated lymph node metastasis to the retroperitoneum. Four retrospective studies have shown promising results when surgery is performed for seminomas with low-volume retroperitoneal metastases. To better determine if RPLND can be recommended as a primary treatment option, two prospective clinical trials (SEMS and PRIMETEST) are underway. This review will examine the literature, discuss the benefits/limitations of RPLND, and compare the methodologies of the two ongoing clinical trials.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 06:00:34 +000
       
  • Adolescent and Young Adult Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: Special
           Considerations

    • Abstract: While testicular germ cell tumors (T-GCTs) make up only 0.5% of pediatric malignancies and less than 2% of adult malignancies, they comprise 14% of adolescent malignancies, making it the most common solid tumor in this age group. The transition in incidence at this age is also accompanied by a transition in tumor histology with adolescents having mostly pure embryonal carcinoma and mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Similar to T-GCTs of all ages, surgical excision with orchiectomy is the standard initial step in treatment. Chemotherapy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, and targeted treatment of distant metastases make even widely disseminated disease treatable and curable. For this reason, in many ways, the future focus has expanded beyond survival alone to emphasize quality of life issues such as fertility and hypogonadism. However, adolescents remain the age group least studied or understood as they fall in between the ages included in most study designs. Also, they require the most psychosocial support because of the challenges unique to the adolescent period. In this review, we aim to highlight the known outcome data for T-GCTs in this population and also to discuss the unique aspects of treatment and support for this age group.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Spermatozoal Fractalkine Signaling Pathway Is Upregulated in Subclinical
           Varicocele Patients with Normal Seminogram and Low-Level Leucospermia

    • Abstract: Background. Fractalkine is produced in seminal plasma in small amounts and correlates with sperm motility. Purpose. To investigate the possible effect of low-level leucospermia on spermatozoa oxidative stress and sDNA fragmentation in patients with subclinical varicocele and apparently normal seminogram, and also to study the role of spermatozoal fractalkine and its receptor (CX3CR1) gene expression as a marker of spermatozoa inflammatory response. Methods. This study included 80 patients with subclinical varicocele (45 fertile and 35 infertile) and 45 age-matched fertile volunteers. In semen samples, fractalkine and CX3CR1 gene expression were investigated by qRT-PCR. Moreover, seminal plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Results. There are significant decrease in semen quality and significant increase in seminal leucocytes count in subclinical varicocele. Our results show a significant increase in MDA and TAC levels, DNA fragmentation, and expression levels of fractalkine and its receptor (CX3CR1) in subclinical varicocele groups. Conclusion. Subclinical varicocele induces seminal and spermatozoal subclinical inflammatory response in the form of low-level leucospermia and increased mRNA expression of the fractalkine signaling pathway, leading to increased spermatozoal ROS production, oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation. These could cooperate in the pathogenesis of delayed fertility in males with subclinical varicocele.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Impact on the Quality of Erections after Completing a Low-Intensity
           Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment Cycle on a Group of 710 Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the response to low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy in a group of patients with organic vascular erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods. This is an observational retrospective study. The researchers reviewed 710 patients with a clinical diagnosis of organic vascular erectile dysfunction (ED) of more than 3-month duration from male sexual health clinics of the Boston Medical Group from 12 cities in Spain and 4 in Mexico. Patients received 5 outpatient shock wave therapy sessions. They were evaluated with the erection hardness score (EHS) before the first session (n = 710), at the end of the last session (n = 710), and one month after the last session (n = 412). Results. In the first examination, the EHS improved in 43.1% (306/710) of subjects compared to the baseline measurement and ability to penetrate increased from 26.8% to 44% . In the second examination, the ability to penetrate was 37.9%, lower than in the first but higher than the baseline .Conclusions. The results suggest that the shock wave therapy with or without concomitant treatments improved the quality of erections in patients with erectile dysfunction treated in specialised male sexual health clinics. This trial is registered with NCT03237143.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Recent Pathophysiological Aspects of Peyronie’s Disease: Role of Free
           Radicals, Rationale, and Therapeutic Implications for Antioxidant
           Treatment—Literature Review

    • Abstract: Peyronie’s disease (PD) is a chronic inflammation of tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa that causes an inelastic plaque resulting in penis deformation. Although its etiology is not completely known, there is general consensus that PD is genetically transmitted and secondary to penile trauma. In recent years, numerous studies demonstrated the role played by oxidative stress in PD pathogenesis, and other studies have described successful use of antioxidants in PD treatment. Oxidative stress is an integral part of this disease, influencing its progression. In the early stages of PD, the inflammatory infiltrate cells produce high quantities of free radicals and proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, with consequent activation of transcription factor NF-κB. While conservative therapies commonly used in the early stages of PD include oral substances (Potaba, tamoxifen, colchicine, and vitamin E), intralesional treatment (verapamil, interferon, steroids, and more recently collagenase clostridium histolyticum-Xiaflex), and local physical treatment (iontophoresis, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, and penile extender), the significant results obtained by emerging treatments with the antioxidants cited in this article suggest these therapeutic agents interfere at several levels with the disease’s pathogenetic mechanisms. Antioxidants therapy outcomes are interesting for good clinical practice and also confirm the fundamental role played by oxidative stress in PD.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Persistence of Silodosin Monotherapy and the Reasons for Withdrawal
           from Treatment of Previously Untreated Japanese Patients with Lower
           Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    • Abstract: Objectives. The persistence of silodosin and the reasons for withdrawal from treatment of previously untreated Japanese patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) were evaluated in real-life clinical practice. Methods. A total of 81 previously untreated Japanese patients diagnosed with LUTS/BPH were treated with silodosin monotherapy and prospectively followed for 4 years. The persistence rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. If silodosin had to be terminated or a patient did not come to the hospital, the reason was determined. Results. The 6-month, 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and 4-year persistence rates were 63.0%, 56.8%, 50.6%, 44.4%, and 35.8%, respectively. The most frequent reason (22.2%) for withdrawal was symptom resolution. After silodosin treatment, the international prostate symptom score and the quality of life index were significantly improved and maintained for 4 years. Conclusions. 35.8% of previously untreated Japanese patients continued silodosin for 4 years. Many patients terminated silodosin for various reasons, the most frequent of which was symptom resolution. The effects of silodosin were maintained when the patients continued treatment. Trial Registration. This study was approved by the institutional review board of Hokkaido Prefectural Esashi Hospital (number 2007-2) and was registered in a public trial registry (UMIN000026910).
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Study of Patients with Primary Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors Treated
           Using Multimodal Therapy

    • Abstract: Objectives. Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (PMGCTs) are rare, which often makes them difficult to treat. Herein, we examined patients with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment. Methods. We examined 6 patients (median age: 25 years, range: 19–27 years) with PMGCTs who underwent multimodal treatment between April 2001 and March 2015. Three patients had seminomas, 2 patients had yolk sac tumors, and 1 patient had choriocarcinoma. The median observation period was 32.5 months (range: 8–84 months). Results. Three of the 6 patients received initial operation followed by 3-4 courses of chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) or etoposide and cisplatin (EP)). One patient developed multiple lung metastases 17 months after surgery; received salvage chemotherapy with vinblastine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin; and achieved complete remission. The remaining 3 patients received initial BEP and EP chemotherapy. Multiple lung metastases and supraclavicular lymph node metastases were detected in 2 of these patients at the initial diagnosis. The patients underwent resections to remove residual tumor after treatment, and no viable tumor cells were found. Conclusions. Reliable diagnosis and immediate multimodal treatments are necessary for patients with PMGCTs. The 6 patients treated in our hospital have never experienced recurrence after the multimodal treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 May 2017 09:27:00 +000
       
  • Study of Testicular Structure in Fetuses with Prune Belly Syndrome

    • Abstract: Purpose. To compare the structure of the testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS) to normal controls. Materials and Methods. We studied 6 testes obtained from 3 fetuses with PBS and 14 testes from 7 male fetuses. The testicular specimens were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), to observe the seminiferous tubules; Weigert’s solution to observe elastic fibers; and picrosirius red to observe collagen. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney test (). Results. Quantitative analysis documented no differences () in number of seminiferous tubules (ST) in PBS testes (mean = 8.87%, ), when compared to the control (mean = 11.4%, ) and no differences () in diameter of ST in PBS testes (mean = 52.85 μm, ) when compared to the control group (mean = 53.17 μm, ), but we did observe a lower number () of Leydig cells in the PBS testes (mean = 67.03% and ) when compared to the control group (mean = 90.1% and ). Conclusions. Our study showed a lower concentration of Leydig cells in the triad syndrome fetuses.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Do Routine Preoperative and Intraoperative Urine Cultures Benefit
           Pediatric Vesicoureteral Reflux Surgery?

    • Abstract: Objective. To determine if routine preoperative and intraoperative urine cultures (UCx) are necessary in pediatric vesicoureteral (VUR) reflux surgery by identifying their association with each other, preoperative symptoms, and surgical outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of patients undergoing ureteral reimplant(s) for primary VUR at a tertiary academic medical center between years 2000 and 2014 was done. Preoperative UCx were defined as those within 30 days before surgery. A positive culture was defined as >50,000 colony forming units of a single organism. Results. A total of 185 patients were identified and 87/185 (47.0%) met inclusion criteria. Of those, 39/87 (45%) completed a preoperative UCx. Only 3/39 (8%) preoperative cultures returned positive, and all of those patients were preoperatively symptomatic. No preoperatively asymptomatic patients had positive preoperative cultures. Intraoperative cultures were obtained in 21/87 (24.1%) patients; all were negative. No associations were found between preoperative culture results and intraoperative cultures or between culture result and postoperative complications. Conclusions. In asymptomatic patients, no associations were found between the completion of a preoperative or intraoperative UCx and surgical outcomes, suggesting that not all patients may require preoperative screening. Children presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) prior to ureteral reimplantation may benefit from preoperative UCx.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 10:14:42 +000
       
  • Incidence of Urethral Stricture in Patients with Adult Acquired Buried
           Penis

    • Abstract: Introduction. Concealed-buried penis is an acquired condition associated with obesity, challenging to both manage and repair. Urethral stricture is a more common disorder with multiple etiologies. Lichen sclerosus is a significant known cause of urethral stricture, implicated in up to 30%. We hypothesize that patients with buried penis have a higher rate of urethral stricture and lichen sclerosus than the general population. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed a single surgeon’s (CM) case logs for patients presenting with a buried penis. All patients were evaluated for urethral stricture with cystoscopy or retrograde urethrogram either prior to or at the time of repair for buried penis. Those that had surgical repair or biopsy were reviewed for presence of lichen sclerosus. Results. 39 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 13 (33%) had associated stricture disease. The location of the strictures was bulbar urethra (38%), penile urethra (15%), and meatus or fossa navicularis (62%). Five patients had lichen sclerosus and urethral stricture disease, while 3 had lichen sclerosus without stricture. 11/13 stricture patients were treated. Six underwent dilation, 3 underwent meatotomy, and 2 underwent urethroplasty. No significant recurrences of stricture were seen. Conclusion. Patients with a concealed penis are more likely than the general population to have a urethral stricture and/or LS. Patients presenting with concealed penis should also be evaluated for a urethral stricture.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 06:45:36 +000
       
  • Distribution of Neuroendocrine Cells in the Transition Zone of the
           Prostate

    • Abstract: Objectives. To evaluate the distribution of neuroendocrine (NE) cells which may influence the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in the transition zone (TZ). Methods. We reviewed specimens from 80 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy in our institution and evaluated the density of NE cells in the TZ. They were histologically classified into 3 groups: those with no adenomatous nodule in the TZ (group A), those with small nodules with normal epithelium and stroma around them in the TZ (group B), and those with large nodules occupying the TZ (group C). In the patients of group B, intra-adenoma (adenomatous nodules) and extra-adenoma (normal tissue) NE cells in the TZ were separately counted. Results. There were 22, 23, and 35 patients in groups A, B, and C, respectively. The median density of NE cells in the TZ of group B patients, 2.80/mm2, was significantly higher than that of NE cells in group A, 1.43/mm2, and group C, 0.61/mm2 (). In group B, the median density of extra-adenoma NE cells was significantly higher than that of intra-adenoma. Conclusions. Many NE cells exist around small adenoma in the TZ. NE cells may influence the initial growth of BPH in a paracrine fashion. Trial Registration. This study approved by our institutional review board was retrospectively registered (#272-14).
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 09:48:20 +000
       
  • Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with
           Renal Calculi and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Report
           of 11 Cases

    • Abstract: Nephrolithiasis accelerates the renal failure in the patients with ADPKD. In order to evaluate the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of calculus in these patients, 11 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and renal stones were included in the study. Two patients had bilateral renal stones. All patients were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound guidance. 13 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed in 1 stage by the urology team under ultrasound guidance. 5 people received second operation with flexible nephroscopy in lateral position. The success rate and morbidity and mortality of the technique and hospital stay were recorded. Results. The puncture procedure was fully successful in all cases. The renal function improved in these patients. 5 patients had moderate fever after the surgery. 5 patients received flexible nephroscopy to take out the residual calculi. 2 persons had ESWL therapy after the surgery. Conclusion. PCNL is an ideal, safe, and effective method to remove the stones from those patients with no definite increase in the risk of complication. The outcome and stone-free rate are satisfactory comparable to the PCNL in the patients without ADPKD.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 07:24:10 +000
       
  • Impact Assessment of Urethral Meatus Morphology and Penile Biometry in
           Transurethral Prostate and Bladder Surgery

    • Abstract: Objective. To analyze the penile and urethral meatus biometry and its correlation with meatoplasty during endoscopic resections. We also propose a new classification for urethral meatus morphology. Materials and Methods. We prospectively studied 105 patients who underwent prostate and bladder transurethral resections. We performed standardized measurement of penile and urethral meatus biometry followed by penile photo in the front position. The need to perform meatoplasty or dilatation during resectoscope introduction was registered. Data were analyzed comparing the correlation between two groups: without intervention (Group A) and with intervention (Group B). Results. We observed in Group A and Group B, respectively, the average length of urethral meatus of 1.07 cm versus 0.75 cm () and average width of urethral meatus of 0.59 cm versus 0.38 cm (). Considering the morphology of the urethral meatus, we propose a new classification, in the following groups: (a) typical; (b) slit; (c) point-like; (d) horseshoe; and (e) megameatus. The point-like meatus was the one that most needed intervention, followed by the slit and the typical meatus (). Conclusions. Point-like and slit-shaped urethral meatus, as well as reduced length and width of the urethral meatus, are the determining factors.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effect of Obesity and Increased Waist Circumference on the Outcome of
           Laparoscopic Nephrectomy

    • Abstract: Introduction. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Obesity can be determined by body mass index (BMI); however waist circumference (WC) is a better measure of central obesity. This study evaluates the outcome of laparoscopic nephrectomy on patients with an abnormal WC. Methods. A WC of >88 cm for women and >102 cm for men was defined as obese. Data collected included age, gender, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score, renal function, anaesthetic duration, surgery duration, blood loss, complications, and duration of hospital stay. Results. 144 patients were assessed; 73 (50.7%) of the patients had abnormal WC for their gender. There was no difference between the groups for conversion to open surgery, number of ports used, blood loss, and complications. Abnormal WC was associated with a longer median anaesthetic duration, 233 min, IQR (215–265) versus 204 min, IQR (190–210), , and operative duration, 178 min, IQR (160–190) versus 137 min, IQR (128–162), . Patients with an abnormal WC also had a longer inpatient stay, . Conclusion. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is safe in obese patients. However, obese patients should be informed that their obesity prolongs the anaesthetic duration and duration of the surgery and is associated with a prolonged recovery.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Jan 2017 12:10:12 +000
       
  • Addition of Ceftriaxone and Amikacin to a Ciprofloxacin plus Metronidazole
           Regimen for Preventing Infectious Complications of Transrectal
           Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Background. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding single doses of ceftriaxone and amikacin to a ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole regimen on the reduction of infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS Bx). Materials and Methods. Four hundred and fifty patients who were candidates for TRUS Bx were divided into two groups of 225 each. The control group received ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally every 12 hours together with metronidazole 500 mg orally every 8 hours from the day prior to the procedure until the fifth postoperative day. In the second group, single doses of ceftriaxone 1 g by intravenous infusion and amikacin 5 mg/kg intramuscularly were administered 30–60 minutes before TRUS Bx in addition to the oral antimicrobials described for group 1. The incidence of infection was compared between the groups. Results. The incidence of infectious complications in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group (4.6% versus 0.9%, ). Conclusion. The addition of single doses of intramuscular amikacin and intravenously infused ceftriaxone to our prophylactic regimen of ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole resulted in a statistically significant reduction of infectious complications following TRUS Bx.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Does Leaving the Biopsy Needle in Povidone-Iodine Solution Reduce
           Infective Complications after Biopsy'

    • Abstract: Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether leaving the biopsy needle used during prostate needle biopsy in 10% povidone-iodine (betadine) solution affects the infectious complications forming after biopsy. Material and Method. This study retrospectively evaluated the data of 176 patients with prostate biopsy performed between December 2012 and April 2014. Patients in Group 1 () were given ofloxacin as a prophylactic antibiotic before biopsy. Patients in Group 2 () had the biopsy needle left in povidone-iodine solution for 1 minute before each use, in addition to antibiotic prophylaxis. The two groups were compared in terms of infective complications developing after biopsy. Results were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney test and Fisher’s exact test. Results. The distribution of infective complications after biopsy according to group was as follows. Group 1, not using betadine, had 15.7% fever, 13.5% hospital stay, 12.4% urinary retention, 10.1% prostatitis, and 5.6% sepsis. The distribution of the same complications in Group 2 using betadine was identified as 5.7% fever, 4.6% hospital stay, 3.4% urinary retention, 2.3% prostatitis, and 0% sepsis. The use of betadine was found to significantly reduce the infectious complications after biopsy compared to the control group (). Conclusion. At the end of this study leaving the prostate needle in povidone-iodine solution before each use during prostate biopsy was found to reduce the infective complications and hospital stay after biopsy.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 08:32:46 +000
       
  • Quality of Health Information on the Internet for Urolithiasis on the
           Google Search Engine

    • Abstract: Purpose. To compare the quality of health information on the Internet for keywords related to urolithiasis, to assess for difference in information quality across four main Western languages, and to compare the source of sponsorship in these websites. Methods. Health On the Net (HON) Foundation principles were utilised to determine quality information. Fifteen keywords related to urolithiasis were searched on the Google search engine. The first 150 websites were assessed against the HON principles and the source of sponsorship determined. Results. A total of 8986 websites were analysed. A proportion of HON-accredited websites for individual search terms range between 2.5% and 12.0%. The first 50 websites were more likely to be HON-positive compared to websites 51–100 and 101–150. French websites searched were more likely to be HON-positive whereas German websites were less likely to be HON-positive than English websites. There was no statistically significant difference between the rate of HON-positive English and Spanish websites. The three main website sponsors were from government/educational sources (40.2%), followed by commercial (29.9%) and physician/surgeon sources (18.6%). Conclusions. Health information on most urolithiasis websites was not validated. Nearly one-third of websites in this study have commercial sponsorship. Doctors should recognise the need for more reliable health websites for their patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Dec 2016 09:27:51 +000
       
  • Radiofrequency Ablation-Assisted Zero-Ischemia Robotic Laparoscopic
           Partial Nephrectomy: Oncologic and Functional Outcomes in 49 Patients

    • Abstract: Introduction and Objectives. Robotic partial nephrectomy with peritumoral radiofrequency ablation (RFA-RPN) is a novel clampless technique. We describe oncologic and functional outcomes in a prospective cohort. Methods. From May, 2007, to December, 2009, 49 consecutive patients with renal masses
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2016 13:58:15 +000
       
  • Successful Nonoperative Management of High-Grade Blunt Renal Injuries

    • Abstract: Current management of high-grade blunt renal trauma favors a nonoperative approach when possible. We performed a retrospective study of high grade blunt renal injuries at our level I trauma center to determine the indications and success of nonoperative management (NOM). 47 patients with blunt grade IV or V injuries were identified between October 2004 and December 2013. Immediate operative patients (IO) were compared to nonoperatively managed (NOM). Of the 47 patients, 3 (6.4%) were IO and 44 (95.6%) NOM. IO patients had a higher heart rate on admission, 133 versus 100 in NOM (). IO patients had a higher rate of injury to the renal vein or artery (100%) compared to NOM group (18%) (). NOM failed in 3 of 44 patients (6.8%). Two required nonemergent nephrectomy and one required emergent exploration resulting in nephrectomy. Six NOM patients had kidney-related complications (13.6%). The renal salvage rate for the entire cohort was 87.2% and 93.2% for NOM. Nonoperative management for hemodynamically stable patients with high-grade blunt renal trauma is safe with a low risk of complications. Management decisions should consider hemodynamic status and visualization of active renal bleeding as well as injury grade in determining operative management.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Nov 2016 11:43:54 +000
       
  • Guy’s Stone Score (GSS) Based on Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) Findings
           

    • Abstract: Objective. To predict the success rate and complications following percutaneous nephrolithotomy via the upper pole using the Guy’s Stone Score (GSS) based on the findings of a preoperative intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Patients and Methods. Two hundred and twenty-seven renal operations, which were carried out using PCNL via the upper pole, were classified according to the GSS assigned. Any complications were classified according to the Clavien classification. The success rates and incidence of any complications were compared between each GSS. Results. The immediate success rates were 87.50% of GSS1, 71.43% of GSS2, 53.62% of GSS3, and 38.46% of GSS4, . There were statistically significant differences between the groups in stone size, overall immediate success rate, operative time, number of access tracts, and frequency of tubeless PCNL. Major complications (a Clavien score of 3–5) were significantly higher in the cases with a higher GSS. Conclusion. A GSS based on an IVP is a simple and reliable tool in predicting the success rate and possible complications following upper pole access PCNL.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Nov 2016 08:56:38 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “HDR Brachytherapy in the Management of High-Risk
           Prostate Cancer”

    • PubDate: Mon, 21 Nov 2016 07:37:33 +000
       
  • The Single Wire Ureteral Access Sheath, Both Safe and Economical

    • Abstract: Introduction. Novel disposable products for ureteroscopy are often inherently more expensive than conventional ones. For example, the Cook Flexor© Parallel™ (Flexor) access sheath is designed for ease and efficiency of gaining upper tract access with a solitary wire. We analyze the cost combinations, efficiency, and safety of disposable products utilized for upper tract access, including the Flexor and standard ureteral access sheath. Methods. We performed a retrospective review from January 2014 to October 2014 of patients undergoing URS for nephrolithiasis, who were prestented for various reasons (e.g., infection). Common combinations most utilized at our institution include “Classic,” “Flexor,” and “Standard.” Total costs per technique were calculated. Patient characteristics, operative parameters, and outcomes were compared among the groups. Results. The most commonly used technique involved a standard ureteral sheath and was the most expensive ($294). The second most utilized and least expensive combination involved the Flexor, saving up to $80 per case (27%). All access sheaths were placed successfully and without complications. There were no significant differences in operative time, blood loss, or complications. Conclusions. In prestented patients within this study, the Flexor combination was the most economical. Although the savings appear modest, long-term impact on costs can be substantial.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Nov 2016 06:03:42 +000
       
  • Pharmacological Relaxation of the Ureter When Using Ureteral Access
           Sheaths during Ureterorenoscopy: A Randomized Feasibility Study in a
           Porcine Model

    • Abstract: Objective. High intraluminal pressure during ureterorenoscopy (URS) increases risk of infectious and haemorrhagic complications. Intrarenal pressure may be reduced by the use of ureteral access sheaths (UASs), which on the other hand may cause ureteral damage. We have previously shown that the β-agonist isoproterenol (ISO), when administered topically in the irrigation fluid, is able to inhibit ureteral muscle tone and lower intrarenal pressure during URS. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ISO on the success rate of UAS insertion in a porcine model. Materials and Methods. 22 pigs in which a UAS could not initially be placed were randomized to endoluminal irrigation with either ISO (0.1 μg/mL) or saline before a new insertion trial. Subsequently, it was registered whether the UAS could be passed without resistance. During extraction of the sheath, any ureteral lesions were characterized ureteroscopically using the PULS classification system. Surgeons were blinded to randomization. Results. In the ISO group, the observed effect of irrigation was 63% successful UAS insertions, compared to 27% in the saline group. No serious lesions (
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Oct 2016 13:27:14 +000
       
  • Unusual Presentation of Duplex Kidneys: Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    • Abstract: Aim. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is rarely associated with a duplex collecting system. We review this unusual anomaly in terms of presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and surgical management. Method. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with a duplex system with UPJO. Result. Sixteen patients (6 girls, 10 boys) with 18 moieties were treated surgically and four patients were treated conservatively. The median age at surgery was two years (range, 2 months to 7 years). The lower pole and upper moiety were affected in 12 and two kidneys, respectively, and both were affected in two patients. The anomaly was right-sided in 12 moieties and left-sided in six. The duplication was incomplete in seven patients and complete in nine. The mean renal pelvis diameter at the time of surgery was 25.6 (range 11–48 mm) mm by USG. The mean renal function of the involved moiety was 28.3% before surgery. Management included pyelopyelostomy or ureteropyelostomy in six moieties, dismembered pyeloplasty in eight moieties, heminephrectomy in four cases, and simultaneous upper heminephrectomy and lower pole ureteropyelostomy in one patient. Conclusion. There is no standard approach for these patients and treatment should be individualized according to physical presentation, detailed anatomy, and severity of obstruction.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Oct 2016 06:18:43 +000
       
  • Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue
           Responses in a Rat Model

    • Abstract: Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Aug 2016 14:06:35 +000
       
  • A Clinicopathological Profile of Prostate Cancer in Trinidad and Tobago

    • Abstract: Aim. To conduct a clinicopathological review of all prostate biopsies performed in a tertiary referral centre in Trinidad and Tobago over a period of 30 months. Methods. The records of all patients who had prostate biopsies from January 2012 to July 2014 were reviewed. Clinical and pathologic data were compiled and subsequently analysed using SPSS version 20. Results. From January 2012 to July 2014, 617 transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies were performed. Pathological data were found for 546 patients of whom 283 (51.8%) were confirmed carcinoma of the prostate. Moderately differentiated tumors (Gleason 7) were the most common group. Using the D’Amico risk classification, most cases were found to be high risk (63.1%). Afro-Trinidadians comprised 72.1% of the patients with prostate cancer. Afro-Trinidadians were also more likely to have high risk and high grade disease as well as high PSA values. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that over half of our biopsies are eventually positive for cancer and most cases were high risk. Afro-Trinidadians comprised a disproportionate number of those diagnosed with prostate cancer and had a greater risk of high risk disease.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Jul 2016 13:56:56 +000
       
  • From Inflammation to Prostate Cancer: The Role of Inflammasomes

    • Abstract: Inflammation-associated studies entice specific attention due to inflammation’s role in multiple stages of prostate cancer development. However, mechanistic regulation of inflammation inciting prostate cancer remains largely uncharacterized. A focused class of inflammatory regulators known as inflammasomes has recently gained attention in cancer development. Inflammasomes are a multiprotein complex that drives a cascade of proinflammatory cytokines regulating various cellular activities. Inflammasomes activation is linked with infection, stress, or danger signals, which are common events within the prostate gland. In this study, we review the potential of inflammasomes in understanding the role of inflammation in prostate cancer.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2016 06:40:00 +000
       
  • Evaluation of Lymphorrhea and Incidence of Lymphoceles: 4DryField® PH in
           Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy

    • Abstract: Purpose. To investigate impact of polysaccharide hemostat 4DryField PH (4DF) applied on lymph node dissection area after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) on lymphorrhea and lymphocele (LC) formation. Methods. 104 consecutive patients underwent RRP, 51 without 4DF treatment (CT-group) and 53 with 4DF treatment (4DF-group). Groups were comparable (age, risk profile, and lymph node numbers). Postoperative drain loss (PDL) and development of early and late LC were analyzed (mean follow-up at 7 months: 100%). Results. PDL was 452.5 ± 634.2 mL without and 308.5 ± 214 mL with 4DF treatment. PDL > 1000 mL only occurred in CT-group (5/51). Overall, 45 LC (26 in CT- versus 19 in the 4DF-group) were diagnosed. At day 8, LC were equally distributed between groups. Incidence of late LC, however, was twice in controls (16/51) versus 4DF-patients (8/53). Symptomatic LC (4 in untreated patients, 2 in 4DF-patients) were treated with percutaneous drainage (duration: 45 days in untreated patients versus 12 days in 4DF-patients). Conclusion. Application of 4DF on lymph node dissection areas lessened total drain loss and significantly lowered high volume drain loss. Furthermore, 4DF reduced frequency of late lymphoceles and lymphoceles requiring treatment by half, as well as duration of percutaneous drainage by more than two-thirds.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2016 07:49:59 +000
       
 
 
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