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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 203)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.591
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-6334 - ISSN (Online) 1687-6342
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Nature-Inspired Drugs: Expanding Horizons of Contemporary Therapeutics

    • PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:09:23 +000
  • Synthesis of an Activatable Tetra-Substituted Nickel
           Phthalocyanines-4(3H)-quinazolinone Conjugate and Its Antibacterial

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of nickel(II)phthalocyanines (NiPcs) bearing four 4(3H)-quinazolinone ring system units, (qz)4NiPcs 4a–d. The electronic factors in the 4(3H)-quinazolinone moiety that attached to the NiPc skeleton had a magnificent effect on the antibacterial activity of the newly synthesized (qz)4NiPcs 4a–d against Escherichia coli. The minimum MICs and MBCs value were recorded for compounds 4a, 4b, 4c, and 4d, respectively. The results indicated that the studied (qz)4NiPcs 4a–d units possessed a broad spectrum of activity against Escherichia coli. Their antibacterial activities were found in the order of 4d > 4c > 4b > 4a against Escherichia coli, and the strongest antibacterial activity was achieved with compound 4d.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Apr 2019 08:05:20 +000
  • GRP78/BIP/HSPA5 as a Therapeutic Target in Models of Parkinson’s
           Disease: A Mini Review

    • Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. Reports from postmortem studies in the human PD brain, and experimental PD models reveal that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. In times of stress, the unfolded or misfolded proteins overload the folding capacity of the ER to induce a condition generally known as ER stress. During ER stress, cells activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to handle increasing amounts of abnormal proteins, and recent evidence has demonstrated the activation of the ER chaperone GRP78/BiP (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein/binding immunoglobulin protein), which is important for proper folding of newly synthesized and partly folded proteins to maintain protein homeostasis. Although the activation of this protein is essential for the initiation of the UPR in PD, there are inconsistent reports on its expression in various PD models. Consequently, this review article aims to summarize current knowledge on neuroprotective agents targeting the expression of GRP78/BiP in the regulation of ER stress in experimental PD models.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Mar 2019 12:05:06 +000
  • Gnidia glauca- and Plumbago zeylanica-Mediated Synthesis of Novel Copper
           Nanoparticles as Promising Antidiabetic Agents

    • Abstract: Rapid, eco-friendly, and cost-effective one-pot synthesis of copper nanoparticles is reported here using medicinal plants like Gnidia glauca and Plumbago zeylanica. Aqueous extracts of flower, leaf, and stem of G. glauca and leaves of P. zeylanica were prepared which could effectively reduce Cu2+ ions to CuNPs within 5 h at 100°C which were further characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Further, the CuNPs were checked for antidiabetic activity using porcine pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition followed by evaluation of mechanism using circular dichroism spectroscopy. CuNPs were found to be predominantly spherical in nature with a diameter ranging from 1 to 5 nm. The phenolics and flavonoids in the extracts might play a critical role in the synthesis and stabilization process. Significant change in the peak at ∼1095 cm−1 corresponding to C-O-C bond in ether was observed. CuNPs could inhibit porcine pancreatic α-amylase up to 30% to 50%, while they exhibited a more significant inhibition of α-glucosidase from 70% to 88%. The mechanism of enzyme inhibition was attributed due to the conformational change owing to drastic alteration of secondary structure by CuNPs. This is the first study of its kind that provides a strong scientific rationale that phytogenic CuNPs synthesized using G. glauca and P. zeylanica can be considered to develop candidate antidiabetic nanomedicine.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Feb 2019 13:05:08 +000
  • Analysis of In Vitro Osteoblast Culture on Scaffolds for Future Bone
           Regeneration Purposes in Dentistry

    • Abstract: One of the main focuses of tissue engineering is to search for tridimensional scaffold materials, complying with nature’s properties for tissue regeneration. Determining material biocompatibility is a fundamental step in considering its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze osteoblast cell adhesion and viability on different materials to determine which was more compatible for future bone regeneration. Tridimensional structures were fabricated with hydroxyapatite, collagen, and porous silica. The bovine bone was used as material control. Biocompatibility was determined by seeding primary osteoblasts on each tridimensional structure. Cellular morphology was assessed by SEM and viability through confocal microscopy. Osteoblast colonization was observed on all evaluated materials’ surface, revealing they did not elicit osteoblast cytotoxicity. Analyses of four different materials studied with diverse compositions and characteristics showed that adhesiveness was best seen for HA and viability for collagen. In general, the results of this investigation suggest these materials can be used in combination, as scaffolds intended for bone regeneration in dental and medical fields.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Feb 2019 12:05:02 +000
  • Effect of “DXB-2030,” a Polyherbal Formulation, on Experimental
           Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Associated with Hyperandrogenism

    • Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate “DXB-2030,” a polyherbal combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum, Aloe vera, Sphaeranthus indicus, Nardostachys jatamansi, and Symplocos racemosa extracts in an experimental model of testosterone propionate (TP), induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in female rats. Thirty animals were divided into 3 groups of 10 each; group 1 served as normal control; group 2 was administered with TP and served as positive control; along with TP, group 3 was treated with “DXB-2030” at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o., for 60 days. At the end of the study period, the animals were subjected for the estimation of serum testosterone levels, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), weight of the ovaries, estrous cycle, and histopathological evaluation. An in vitro assay on GLUT4 expression was carried out to understand the effect of “DXB-2030” on insulin resistance. Results showed that treatment with “DXB-2030” reversed the TP-induced changes by increasing the GLUT4 expression and decreasing the body weight, testosterone levels, AUC of glucose in OGTT, and the cystic follicles of the ovaries, thus indicating its beneficial effect in PCOS by ameliorating the metabolic dysfunction and reproductive impairment, which are the pathophysiological conditions associated with PCOS. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that “DXB-2030” was effective in the management of experimental PCOS and hence may be recommended in the treatment of PCOS.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:10:11 +000
  • Antibacterial Activity of Coumarins and Carbazole Alkaloid from Roots of
           Clausena anisata

    • Abstract: Clausena anisata is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of parasitic infections, irritation (boils, ringworm, and eczema), flatworm infestations, influenza, abdominal cramps, and constipation. Phytochemical screening test of dichloromethane/methanol (1 : 1) roots extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, coumarins, phenols, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, and free reducing sugars and the absence of saponins. Silica gel column chromatographic separation of the dichloromethane/methanol (1 : 1) extract afforded a carbazole alkaloid derivative of heptazoline (1) and three coumarins (2–4), including the known coumarins imperatorin (3) and chalepin (4). Structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and DEPT-135). Antibacterial activity of the crude extracts and isolated compounds was screened using agar diffusion method against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus substilis. The results of antibacterial test revealed derivative of heptaphylline (1) and imperatorin (3) exhibited comparable antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. substilis (14 and 13 mm zone of inhibition, respectively) to that of ciprofloxacin (15 mm zone of inhibition) at a concentration of 20 µg/mL. Chalepin (4) revealed more antibacterial activity against B. substilis (16 mm zone of inhibition) compared to ciprofloxacin (15 mm).
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:10:04 +000
  • Allergic Airway-Induced Hypersensitivity Is Attenuated by Bergapten in
           Murine Models of Inflammation

    • Abstract: Bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen, 5-MOP) is a plant-derived furocoumarin with demonstrated anti-inflammatory action. The present study investigated its effects on allergic inflammation in two related pathways of mast cell degranulation. Compound 48/80 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to activate the IgE-independent pathway while bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as allergen for the IgE-dependent pathway. The modulatory effect of bergapten on mast cell degranulation, neutrophil extravasation, protein concentration, lung histopathology, and oxidative stress was assessed. Bergapten at 10, 30, and 100 μg/ml for 15 min stabilized mast cells in rat mesenteric tissue from disruption in vitro and when administered in vivo at 3, 10, and 30 mg kg−1 for 1 h protected mice from fatal anaphylaxis induced by compound 48/80. Similarly, treatment of LPS-challenged mice with bergapten (3, 10, and 30 mg kg−1) for 24 h significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, mean protein concentration, and inflammatory cell infiltration of pulmonary tissues when compared to the saline-treated LPS-challenged control. In addition, lung histology of the bergapten-treated LPS-challenged mice showed significantly less oedema, congestion, and alveolar septa thickening when compared to the saline-treated LPS-challenged disease control. LPS-induced oxidative stress was significantly reduced through increased tissue activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase and reduced malondialdehyde levels on treatment with bergapten. In the triple antigen-induced active anaphylaxis, daily administration of bergapten at 3, 10, and 30 mg kg−1 for 10 days, respectively, protected previously sensitized and challenged mice against anaphylactic shock. Overall, our study demonstrates the ability of bergapten to attenuate allergic airway-induced hypersensitivity in murine models of inflammation, suggesting its possible therapeutic benefit in this condition.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Novelty of Bioengineered Iron Nanoparticles in Nanocoated Surgical Cotton:
           A Green Chemistry

    • Abstract: The current focus of nanotechnology is to develop environmentally safe methodologies for the formulation of nanoparticles. The phytochemistry of Zingiber officinale inspired us to utilize it for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles. GC-MS analysis revealed the phytochemical profile of ginger. Out of 20 different chemicals, gingerol was found to be the most potent phytochemical with a retention time of 40.48 min. The present study reports a rapid synthesis method for the formation of iron nanoparticles and its potential efficacy as an antibacterial agent and an antioxidant. Because of its antibacterial property, ginger extract was used to coat surgical cotton. Synthesized ginger root iron nanoparticles (GR-FeNPs) were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis, and particle size analysis. XRD confirmed the crystalline structure of iron oxide nanoparticles as it showed the crystal plane (2 2 0), (3 1 1), (2 2 2), and (4 0 0). The particle size analyzer (PSA) showed the average size of the particles, 56.2 nm. The antimicrobial activity of the FeNPs was tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. E. coli showed maximum inhibition as compared with the other organisms. Antioxidant activity proved the maximum rate of free radicals at 160 µg/mL produced by nanoparticles. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of nanocoated surgical cotton was evaluated on the first day and 30th day after coating, which clearly showed excellent growth inhibition of organisms, setting a new path in the field of medical microbiology. Hence, iron-nanocoated surgical cotton synthesized using green chemistry, which is antimicrobial and cost effective, might be economically helpful and provide insights to the medical field, replacing conventional wound healing treatments, for better prognosis.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Role of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in Cancer Prevention
           and Cancer Promotion

    • Abstract: The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed by medical practitioners in many clinical conditions for the symptomatic treatment of pain and fever. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, these drugs have been investigated for their anticancer effects in numerous studies. This is because chronic inflammation has long been linked to carcinogenesis. As such, anti-inflammatory drugs are believed to play a role in cancer treatment and prevention. In the past few decades, research has shown that NSAIDs may decrease the risk of certain types of cancer. However, there is also a growing body of research that proves the contrary. Furthermore, NSAIDs are well known for many side effects, including some life-threatening ones. This review will discuss the relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer, the role of NSAIDs in cancer prevention and cancer promotion, and some of the potentially lethal side effects of these drugs.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Jan 2019 10:05:25 +000
  • Antimutagenic and Synergistic Cytotoxic Effect of Cisplatin and Honey Bee
           Venom on 4T1 Invasive Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line

    • Abstract: Introduction. Honey bee venom (HBV) has various biological activities such as the inhibitory effect on several types of cancer. Cisplatin is an old and potent drug to treat most of the cancers. Our aim in the present study was to determine antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of HBV on mammary carcinoma, exclusively and in combination with cisplatin. Methods. In this study, 4T1 cell line was cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), at 37°C in humidified CO2 incubator. The cell viabilities were examined by the MTT assay. Also, HBV was screened‏ for its antimutagenic activity via the Ames test. The results were assessed by SPSS software version 19 and one-way ANOVA method considering level of significance. Results. The results showed that 6 mg/ml of HBV, 20 μg/ml of cisplatin, and 6 mg/ml HBV with 10 μg/ml cisplatin could induce approximately 50% of 4T1 cell death. The concentration 7 mg/ml of HBV with of 62.76% inhibitory rate showed the highest antimutagenic activity in comparison with other treatment groups. Conclusions. The MTT assay demonstrated that HBV and cisplatin could cause cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin also promoted by HBV. Ames test outcomes indicated that HBV could act as a significant mutagenic agent. The antimutagenic activity of HBV was increased considerably in the presence of S9 mix. Therefore, our findings have revealed that HBV can enhance the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin drug and its cancer-preventing effects.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Jan 2019 13:05:15 +000
  • Disease-Modifying Effects of Long-Term and Continuous Use of Nonsteroidal
           Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in Spondyloarthritis

    • Abstract: Spondyloarthritis or spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a group of related rheumatic disorders, which presents with axial and nonaxial features, affecting structures within the musculoskeletal system, as well as other bodily systems. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic options are available for SpA. For decades, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used as the first-line drugs to treat the disease. Research has shown that other than pain relief, NSAIDs have disease-modifying effects in SpA. However, to achieve these effects, continuous and/or long-term NSAID use is usually required. This review will give an overview of SpA, discuss NSAIDs and their disease-modifying effects in SpA, and highlight some of the important adverse effects of long-term and continuous NSAID use, particularly those related to the gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular systems.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Jan 2019 12:05:17 +000
  • Antipathogenic Potential of a Polyherbal Wound-Care Formulation
           (Herboheal) against Certain Wound-Infective Gram-Negative Bacteria

    • Abstract: This study investigated antipathogenic efficacy of a polyherbal wound-healing formulation Herboheal against three multidrug-resistant strains of gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with wound infections. Herboheal was evaluated for its quorum-modulatory potential against three different human-pathogenic bacteria, first in vitro through the broth dilution assay and then in vivo in the model host Caenorhabditis elegans. Herboheal at ≥0.1% v/v was able to inhibit (19–55%) in vitro production of quorum sensing-regulated pigments in all these bacteria and seemed to interfere with bacterial quorum sensing by acting as a signal-response inhibitor. This formulation could compromise haemolytic activity of all three bacteria by ∼18–69% and induced their catalase activity by ∼8–21%. Herboheal inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation up to 40%, reduced surface hydrophobicity of P. aeruginosa cells by ∼9%, and also made them (25%) more susceptible to lysis by human serum. Antibiotic susceptibility of all three bacteria was modulated owing to pretreatment with Herboheal. Exposure of these test pathogens to Herboheal (≥0.025% v/v) effectively reduced their virulence towards the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Repeated subculturing of P. aeruginosa on the Herboheal-supplemented growth medium did not induce resistance to Herboheal in this mischievous pathogen, and this polyherbal extract was also found to exert a post-extract effect on P. aeruginosa, wherein virulence of the Herboheal-unexposed daughter cultures, of the Herboheal-exposed parent culture, was also found to be attenuated. Overall, this study indicates Herboheal formulation to be an effective antipathogenic preparation and validates its indicated traditional therapeutic use as a wound-care formulation.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Jan 2019 14:05:08 +000
  • Nutraceuticals Inspiring the Current Therapy for Lifestyle Diseases

    • Abstract: Nutraceuticals are the pharmaceutically blended products that possess both nutritional as well as the medicinal value. Such a product is designed to improve the physical health, fight against day-to-day challenges such as stress, increase longevity, etc. Nowadays, emphasis is given to those herbs which are used as food and medicine due to its greater acceptance. Due to dynamic action, the popularity of nutraceuticals among people as well as healthcare providers has been increased over medicines and health supplements. This review documents herbs with a wide variety of therapeutic values such as immunity booster, antidiabetic, anticancer, antimicrobial, and gastroprotective. These herbs could be better options to formulate as nutraceuticals. Several nutraceuticals are described based on their availability as food, chemical nature, and mechanism of action.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 10:05:10 +000
  • In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Screening of Ethanol Extract of Lavandula
           stoechas and Investigation of Its Biochemical Composition

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to test antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Lavandula stoechas against 22 bacteria and 1 yeast. Also, biochemical composition of the extract was investigated. A wide range of Gram-positive, Gram-negative microorganisms, and multidrug resistant bacteria were selected to test the antimicrobial activity. As a result, the extract is observed to contain fenchone (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,3,3-trimethyl-, (1R)-) and camphor (+)-2-bornanone) as major components and showed antimicrobial activity against all studied microorganisms except Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results of the study present that L. stoechas is active against MDR strains too.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Jan 2019 07:05:11 +000
  • Oleander Stem and Root Standardized Extracts Mitigate Acute Hyperglycaemia
           by Limiting Systemic Oxidative Stress Response in Diabetic Mice

    • Abstract: The extracts of different parts of Nerium oleander L. are used as antidiabetic remedy in the traditional medicinal systems of different parts of the world. Despite these uses in ethnomedicinal system, the antihyperglycemic potentials of oleander stem (NOSE) and root (NORE) extracts have not been pharmacologically evaluated. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic ethnomedicinal claims of NOSE and NORE, primarily focusing on glucose homeostasis and associated metabolic implications. Alloxan-treated mice with hyperglycaemia (blood glucose >200 mg/dL) were treated with oleander 70% hydromethanolic extracts (200 mg/kg) for 20 consecutive days, and the results were compared with positive control glibenclamide. Blood glucose level was 52–65% lowered () in oleander treated groups, which was otherwise 4.62 times higher in diabetic mice, compared to control. Insulin resistance was lowered 51–36% irrespective of any significant () changes in insulin sensitivity throughout the treatments. Improved serum insulin remained associated with lowered glucose level (rP = −0.847 and −0.772; ). Markers of hyperglycaemia-related hepatic glycogen, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), hyperlipidaemia, hepatic injury, and diabetic nephropathy were normalized as well. Improvement of systemic intrinsic antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) were correlated (rP = −0.952 to −0.773; ) with lower lipid peroxidation by-product malondialdehyde (MDA) in the circulation. Principal component analysis coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis represented shift in metabolic homeostasis in diabetic mice, which was further normalized by oleander and glibenclamide treatment. Additionally, molecular docking studies of the phenolic acids measured by HPLC with intracellular cytoprotective transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) revealed strong molecular interactions. The results collectively support the ethnomedicine antidiabetic claims of oleander stem and root and suggest that the oleander mediated elevation of systemic antioxidant status is likely responsible for the improved glycaemic control.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Jan 2019 10:05:05 +000
  • Depression as a Neuroendocrine Disorder: Emerging
           Neuropsychopharmacological Approaches beyond Monoamines

    • Abstract: Depression is currently recognized as a crucial problem in everyday clinical practice, in light of ever-increasing rates of prevalence, as well as disability, morbidity, and mortality related to this disorder. Currently available antidepressant drugs are notoriously problematic, with suboptimal remission rates and troubling side-effect profiles. Their mechanisms of action focus on the monoamine hypothesis for depression, which centers on the disruption of serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. Nevertheless, views on the pathophysiology of depression have evolved notably, and the comprehension of depression as a complex neuroendocrine disorder with important systemic implications has sparked interest in a myriad of novel neuropsychopharmacological approaches. Innovative pharmacological targets beyond monoamines include glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, various endocrine axes, as well as several neurosteroids, neuropeptides, opioids, endocannabinoids and endovanilloids. This review summarizes current knowledge on these pharmacological targets and their potential utility in the clinical management of depression.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Jan 2019 10:05:22 +000
  • Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of
           Pereskia bleo

    • Abstract: Different solvent extracts of Pereskia bleo leaves were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities based on the Folin–Ciocalteu test and DPPH scavenging activities. The antibacterial activities against four bacteria, namely, Gram-positive bacteria: Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 (SP) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29737 (SA) and Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 (EC) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (PA), were also performed based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. The findings demonstrated that both the methanolic and chloroform extracts displayed strong activities against SA, SP, EC, and PA while the hexane extract demonstrated the weakest activities towards all the four bacteria. The methanolic extract also exhibited higher TPC and possessed higher antioxidant activity with the IC50 value 33.83 µg/mL compared to the chloroform and hexane extracts. As such, the methanolic extract has a higher ability to scavenge free radical compared to other extracts. Due to the interesting result, activities are shown by the methanolic and chloroform crude extracts of P. bleo; hence, the study has been extended to the isolation of bioactive compounds to uncover its great potential as a natural source for antibacterial and antioxidant agents.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 09:22:32 +000
  • Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Is Associated with a Set-Point Variation in
           the Calcium-Parathyroid Hormone-Vitamin D Axis: Results from a German

    • Abstract: Background. Higher levels of parathyroid hormone have been associated with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in people with and without HIV infection. Yet, alterations in calcium levels have never been elucidated in detail. Objective. To compare the association of parathyroid hormone with serum calcium levels and other markers of calcium and bone metabolism in people living with HIV on TDF- and non-TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy. Patients and Methods. A retrospective single center cohort study in Munich, Germany. Median and interquartile ranges and absolute and relative frequencies were used to describe continuous and categorical variables, respectively. The Mann–Whitney U test and chi2-test were used for comparisons. Multivariate median regression was performed in a stepwise backward approach. Results. 1,002 patients were included (786 (78.4%) male; median age 48 (40–55) years). 564 patients (56.3%) had a TDF-containing ART regimen. PTH concentrations were 46.9 (33.0–64.7) pg/mL and 35.2 (26.4–55.4) pg/mL (), 43.3 (30.8–59.8) pg/mL and 31.8 (22.3–49.6) pg/mL (), 46.1 (29.5–65.4) pg/mL and 33.4 (22.6–50.1) pg/mL (), and 37.8 (25.3–57.9) pg/mL and 33.8 (20.1–45.3) pg/mL () within the first, second, third, and fourth quartile of corrected calcium levels for patients with and without TDF-containing ART, respectively. In multivariate median regression, PTH concentration was significantly associated with Cacorr. (−32.2 (−49.8 to −14.8); ), female sex (5.2 (1.2–9.2); ), 25(OH)D (−0.4 (−0.5 to −0.3); ), and TDF-use (9.2 (6.0–12.5); ).Discussion. Higher levels of PTH seem to be needed to maintain normal calcium levels in PLWH on TDF-containing ART compared to non-TDF-containing ART. Optimal concentrations for 25-hydroxy vitamin D and calcium might therefore be different in people using TDF than expected from general populations but also people living with HIV with non-TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy. This might require different supplementation strategies but warrants further investigation.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Evaluation of Novel 3-Hydroxyflavone Analogues as HDAC Inhibitors against
           Colorectal Cancer

    • Abstract: Alteration of epigenetic enzymes is associated with the pathophysiology of colon cancer with an overexpression of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) enzyme in this tissue. Numerous reports suggest that targeting HDAC8 is a viable strategy for developing new anticancer drugs. Flavonols provide a rich source of molecules that are effective against cancer; however, their clinical use is limited. The present study investigated the potential of quercetin and synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone analogues to inhibit HDAC8 enzyme and evaluated their anticancer property. Synthesis of the analogues was carried out, and cytotoxicity was determined using MTT assay. Nonspecific and specific HDAC enzyme inhibition assays were performed followed by the expression studies of target proteins. Induction of apoptosis was studied through annexin V and caspase 3/7 activation assay. Furthermore, the analogues were assessed against in vivo colorectal cancer. Among the synthesized analogues, QMJ-2 and QMJ-5 were cytotoxic against HCT116 cells with an IC50 value of 68 ± 2.3 and 27.4 ± 1.8 µM, respectively. They inhibited HDAC enzyme in HCT116 cells at an IC50 value of 181.7 ± 22.04 and 70.2 ± 4.3 µM, respectively, and inhibited human HDAC8 and 1 enzyme at an IC50 value of
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Therapeutic Properties of Stingless Bee Honey in Comparison with European
           Bee Honey

    • Abstract: Both honeybees (Apis spp.) and stingless bees (Trigona spp.) produce honeys with high nutritional and therapeutics value. Until recently, the information regarding potential health benefits of stingless bee honey (SBH) in medical databases is still scarce as compared to the common European bee honey (EBH) which is well known for their properties as therapeutic agents. Although there have been very few reports on SBH, empirically these products would have similar therapeutic quality as the EBH. In addition, due to the structure of the nest, few studies reported that the antimicrobial activity of SBH is a little bit stronger than EBH. Therefore, the composition of both the types of honey as well as the traditional uses and clinical applications were compared. The results of various studies on EBH and SBH from tissue culture research to randomised control clinical trials were collated in this review. Interestingly, there are many therapeutic properties that are unique to SBH. Therefore, SBH has a great potential to be developed for modern medicinal uses.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Phenolic Rich Fractions from Mycelium and Fruiting Body of Ganoderma
           lucidum Inhibit Bacterial Pathogens Mediated by Generation of Reactive
           Oxygen Species and Protein Leakage and Modulate Hypoxic Stress in HEK 293
           Cell Line

    • Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) fungus (Family Ganodermataceae) is widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and many Asian countries on account of its numerous medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, energy enhancing, and immunostimulatory. This broad spectrum of therapeutic effects exhibited by G. lucidum is ascribed to its abundance in several classes of chemical constituents, namely, carbohydrates, flavonoids, minerals, phenolics, proteins, and steroids which possess substantial bioactivities. The aim of the current study was to prepare phenolic rich fractions (PRFs) from aqueous extract of the Indian variety of G. lucidum mycelium and fruiting body. These fractions were assessed for their antioxidant capacity by TPC (total phenolic content), TFC (total flavonoid content), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and ABTS [2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid] assays. Quantification of flavonoids and nucleobases present in the fractions was carried out by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The antibacterial activity of the fractions was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the PRFs was established to be generation of reactive oxygen species and leakage of proteins within bacterial cells. Additionally, the protective effect of the PRFs in counteracting hypoxia was observed in HEK 293 cell lines.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Niosome: A Promising Nanocarrier for Natural Drug Delivery through
           Blood-Brain Barrier

    • Abstract: Niosomes (the nonionic surfactant vesicles), considered as novel drug delivery systems, can improve the solubility and stability of natural pharmaceutical molecules. They are established to provide targeting and controlled release of natural pharmaceutical compounds. Many factors can influence on niosome construction such as the preparation method, type and amount of surfactant, drug entrapment, temperature of lipids hydration, and the packing factor. The present review discusses about the most important features of niosomes such as their diverse structures, the different preparation approaches, characterization techniques, factors that affect their stability, their use by various routes of administration, their therapeutic applications in comparison with natural drugs, and specially the brain targeting with niosomes-ligand conjugation. It also provides recent data about the various types of ligand agents which make available active targeting drug delivery to the central neuron system. This system has an optimistic upcoming in pharmaceutical uses, mostly with the improving availability of innovative schemes to overcome blood-brain barrier and targeting the niosomes to the brain.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. (Anil): Plant Profile, Phytochemistry, and
           Pharmacology Review

    • Abstract: Indigoferasuffruticosa Mill. (Fabaceae) is known as anil or anileira and also with other names, due to the production of a blue pigment, which is commonly used for yarn dyeing. It is distributed in some states of Brazil (Pernambuco, Paraíba, Mato Grosso, São Paulo, Bahia, Pará, and others) and is used in the popular medicine as a febrifuge, antispasmodic, diuretic, abortive, analgesic, purgative, or soothing agent against stomach and urinary problems, jaundice, and ulcers and also as an insecticide. In addition, I. suffruticosa can be used as animal feed. This review aimed at providing important data on the botanical, distribution, ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicity of I. suffruticosa based on the scientific literature. Information on I. suffruticosa was gathered via the Internet (from Elsevier, NCBI, and Sci-Hub) and libraries in the period from February to March 2016. More than 40 chemical compounds have been identified and a few compounds isolated, and the main origins are the essential oils, organic extracts, and aqueous extracts of different parts of the plant. I. suffruticosa and its active compounds possess wide pharmacological actions in the literature, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidative, antitumor, antimutagenic, anticonvulsant, gastroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Therefore, as an important traditional popular medicine, further studies on I. suffruticosa are required for the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Use of Flavonoids and Cinnamates, the Main Photoprotectors with Natural

    • Abstract: Many pathological problems are initiated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), such as skin cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The UVA (320–400 nm) and UVB (290–320 nm) wavelengths may cause effects such as photoaging, DNA damage, and a series of cellular alterations. The UVA radiation can damage the DNA, oxidize the lipids, and produce dangerous free radicals, which can cause inflammation, modify the gene expression in response to stress, and weaken the skin immune response. With a minor penetration, the UVB radiation is more harmful, being responsible for immediate damage. Ultraviolet radiation light emitted by the sun is considered necessary for the existence of life but cause radiation problems, especially in the skin. The photoprotective activities of plant extracts and isolated composts were evaluated by many reports, as well as the correlation of these compounds with the antioxidant activity. This review presents plant compounds with interest to the cosmetic industry to be used in sunscreens such as flavonoids and cinnamates.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Clustering, Pathway Enrichment, and Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis
           of Gene Expression in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    • Abstract: Neuronal developmental disorder is a class of diseases in which there is impairment of the central nervous system and brain function. The brain in its developmental phase undergoes tremendous changes depending upon the stage and environmental factors. Neurodevelopmental disorders include abnormalities associated with cognitive, speech, reading, writing, linguistic, communication, and growth disorders with lifetime effects. Computational methods provide great potential for betterment of research and insight into the molecular mechanism of diseases. In this study, we have used four samples of microarray neuronal developmental data: control, RV (resveratrol), NGF (nerve growth factor), and RV + NGF. By using computational methods, we have identified genes that are expressed in the early stage of neuronal development and also involved in neuronal diseases. We have used MeV application to cluster the raw data using distance metric Pearson correlation coefficient. Finally, 60 genes were selected on the basis of coexpression analysis. Further pathway analysis was done using the Metascape tool, and the biological process was studied using gene ontology database. A total of 13 genes AKT1, BAD, BAX, BCL2, BDNF, CASP3, CASP8, CASP9, MYC, PIK3CD, MAPK1, MAPK10, and CYCS were identified that are common in all clusters. These genes are involved in neuronal developmental disorders and cancers like colorectal cancer, apoptosis, tuberculosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), neuron death, and prostate cancer pathway. A protein-protein interaction study was done to identify proteins that belong to the same pathway. These genes can be used to design potential inhibitors against neurological disorders at the early stage of neuronal development. The microarray samples discussed in this publication are part of the data deposited in NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus (Yadav et al., 2018) and are accessible through GEO Series (accession number GSE121261).
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 05:50:53 +000
  • Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Allium sativum Cloves from China
           and Taşköprü, Turkey

    • Abstract: In this study, antimicrobial activities of two different samples of Allium sativum L. from Turkey (TR) (Taşköprü, Kastamonu, Turkey) and China (CN) were determined. A broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (17 bacteria) including species of Bacillus, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Listeria, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus were used for testing antibacterial activity. In addition, antifungal activity against Candida albicans was also investigated. Antimicrobial activity was tested by using 3 different processes (chopping, freezing, and slicing by the disk diffusion method). The results showed that TR garlic presented more antimicrobial activity than CN garlic. Mechanism of activity of CN garlic could be proposed to be different from that of TR garlic.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • HPTLC Analysis of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl., a Siddha
           Medicinal Herb

    • Abstract: In the present study, HPTLC is used to detect the presence and amount of triterpenoids and phytosterols in different plant parts (fruit, stem, leaf, and root) of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl.; such analysis is done for the first time. Each plant part has its own medicinal value and is used as Siddha medicinal herb. The employed statistical analysis ensures that the developed method is reproducible and selective. The results show that the fruit samples contain highest amount of tested phytochemicals. This method can be used as an important tool to ensure the therapeutic dose in herbal formulations, standardization, and quality control of bulk drugs.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Nov 2018 06:32:58 +000
  • Antidiabetic Effects of the Ethanolic Root Extract of Uvaria chamae P.
           Beauv (Annonaceae) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Potential
           Alternative Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus has been a menace to mankind from time immemorial. However, a natural product such as U. chamae P. Beauv (Annonaceae) offers alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus. The study aimed at evaluating antidiabetic activity of the ethanolic root extract of U. chamae in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats after overnight fast with 150 mg/kg alloxan intraperitoneally. After 72 h, those with plasma glucose levels >200 mg/dl were classified as diabetic. Five diabetic rats in each group were treated daily for 14 days orally with 100, 250, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, glibenclamide (71 µg/kg) and pioglitazone (429 µg/kg), respectively, while another group was untreated. Control received 0.5 ml of Acacia senegal. Effects of extract on glucose, other biochemical, and hematological parameters were evaluated. α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of extract and its fractions were also evaluated. Percentage inhibition and IC50 values were determined. Diabetic control was achieved on the 7th day of the study with 100, 250, and 400 mg/kg of the extract showing glucose reduction of 72.14%, 78.75%, and 87.71%, respectively. The HDL-cholesterol levels of diabetic rats treated with extracts were significantly increased. Extract and its fractions caused α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition. Histologically, pancreas of diabetic rats treated with extract showed regenerated islet cells which were not seen in rats treated with glibenclamide and pioglitazone. This study showed that U. chamae has antidiabetic activity which may be through α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition and regeneration of pancreatic beta cells. Also, it may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing HDL-cholesterol levels.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Investigation of Antioxidant/Oxidant Status and Antimicrobial Activities
           of Lentinus tigrinus

    • Abstract: In the present study, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. mushroom was determined. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) of the mushroom were measured with Rel Assay kits. Antimicrobial activities were tested on 9 standard bacterial and fungal strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata) with a modified agar dilution method. It was determined that the TAS value of L. tigrinus was 1.748 ± 0.071, TOS value was 19.294 ± 0.237, and OSI was 1.106 ± 0.031. It was also found that mushroom extracts generally exhibited higher activity on Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. In conclusion, it was suggested that L. tigrinus can be used as a natural source due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
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