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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 78)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 203)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Stiff Substrates Enhance Endothelial Oxidative Stress in Response to
           Protein Kinase C Activation

    • Abstract: Arterial stiffness, which increases with aging and hypertension, is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. While stiffer substrates are known to affect single endothelial cell morphology and migration, the effect of substrate stiffness on endothelial monolayer function is less understood. The objective of this study was to determine if substrate stiffness increased endothelial monolayer reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to protein kinase C (PKC) activation and if this oxidative stress then impacted adherens junction integrity. Porcine aortic endothelial cells were cultured on varied stiffness polyacrylamide gels and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which stimulates PKC and ROS without increasing actinomyosin contractility. PMA-treated endothelial cells on stiffer substrates increased ROS and adherens junction loss without increased contractility. ROS scavengers abrogated PMA effects on cell-cell junctions, with a more profound effect in cells on stiffer substrates. Finally, endothelial cells in aortae from elastin haploinsufficient mice (Eln+/-), which were stiffer than aortae from wild-type mice, showed decreased VE-cadherin colocalization with peripheral actin following PMA treatment. These data suggest that oxidative stress may be enhanced in endothelial cells in stiffer vessels, which could contribute to the association between arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Apr 2019 10:05:04 +000
  • Kriging Surrogate Model for Resonance Frequency Analysis of Dental
           Implants by a Latin Hypercube-Based Finite Element Method

    • Abstract: The dental implantation in clinical operations often encounters difficulties and challenges of failure in osseointegration, bone formulation, and remodeling. The resonance frequency (RF) can effectively describe the stability of the implant in physical experiments or numerical simulations. However, the exact relationship between the design variables of dental implants and RF of the system is correlated, complicated, and dependent. In this study, an appropriate mathematical model is proposed to evaluate and predict the implant stability and performance. The model has merits not only in the prediction reliability and accuracy but also in the compatibility and flexibility, in both experimental data and numerical simulation results. The Kriging surrogate model is proposed to present the numerical relationship between RF and material parameters of dental implants. The Latin Hypercube (LH) sampling method as a competent and sophisticated method is applied and combined with the finite element method (FEM). The methods developed in this paper provide helpful guidance for designers and researchers in the implantation design and surgical plans.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 13:05:02 +000
  • Research on Kinematics and Stability of a Bionic Wall-Climbing Hexapod

    • Abstract: Wall-climbing hexapod robot as a bionic robot has become a focus for extensive research, due to a wide range of practical applications. The most contribution of this paper is to analyze the kinematics and stability of a wall-climbing hexapod robot, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the stable walking and control of the robot on the wall. Firstly, the kinematics model of the wall-climbing hexapod robot is established based on the D-H method. Then, in order to keep the robot from tipping over, the stability of the wall-climbing hexapod robot is analyzed in depth, obtaining the critical condition which makes the robot to tip over. Afterward, the kinematics simulation of the wall-climbing hexapod robot is operated to analyze motion performances. Finally, the experiments are used to validate the proposed kinematics model and stability. The experimental results show that the kinematics model and stability condition of the wall-climbing hexapod robot are correct.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Apr 2019 04:05:13 +000
  • An Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of the Ponseti Method in Clubfoot

    • Abstract: Congenital clubfoot is a complex pediatric foot deformity, occurring in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and resulting in significant disability, deformity, and pain if left untreated. The Ponseti method of manipulation is widely recognized as the gold standard treatment for congenital clubfoot; however, its mechanical aspects have not yet been fully explored. During the multiple manipulation-casting cycles, the tendons and ligaments on the medial and posterior aspect of the foot and ankle, which are identified as the rate-limiting tissues, usually undergo weekly sequential stretches, with a plaster of Paris cast applied after the stretch to maintain the length gained. This triggers extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue growth, but due to the viscoelastic properties of tendons and ligaments, the initial strain size, rate, and loading history will affect the relaxation behavior and mechanical strength of the tissue. To increase the efficiency of the Ponseti treatment, we discuss the theoretical possibilities of decreasing the size of the strain step and interval of casting and/or increasing the overall number of casts. This modification may provide more tensile stimuli, allow more time for remodeling, and preserve the mechanical integrity of the soft tissues.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Mar 2019 12:05:14 +000
  • Optimization of Semiautomated Calibration Algorithm of Multichannel
           Electrotactile Feedback for Myoelectric Hand Prosthesis

    • Abstract: The main drawback of the commercially available myoelectric hand prostheses is the absence of somatosensory feedback. We recently developed a feedback interface for multiple degrees of freedom myoelectric prosthesis that allows proprioceptive and sensory information (i.e., grasping force) to be transmitted to the wearer instantaneously. High information bandwidth is achieved through intelligent control of spatiotemporal distribution of electrical pulses over a custom-designed electrode array. As electrotactile sensations are location-dependent and the developed interface requires that electrical stimuli are perceived to be of the same intensity on all locations, a calibration procedure is of high importance. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the calibration procedure and optimize this process by leveraging a priori knowledge. For this purpose, we conducted a study with 9 able-bodied subjects performing 10 sessions of the array electrode calibration. Based on the collected data, we optimized and simplified the calibration procedure by adapting the initial (baseline) amplitude values in the calibration algorithm. The results suggest there is an individual pattern of stimulation amplitudes across 16 electrode pads for each subject, which is not affected by the initial amplitudes. Moreover, the number of user actions performed and the time needed for the calibration procedure are significantly reduced by the proposed methodology.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 13:05:01 +000
  • Experimental Implementation of Automatic Control of Posture-Dependent
           Stimulation in an Implanted Standing Neuroprosthesis

    • Abstract: Knowledge of the upper extremity (UE) effort exerted under real-world conditions is important for understanding how persons with motor or sensory disorders perform the postural shifts necessary to complete many activities of daily living while standing. To this end, a feedback controller, named the “Posture Follower Controller”, was developed to aid in task-dependent posture shifting by individuals with spinal cord injury standing with functional neuromuscular stimulation. In this experimental feasibility study, the controller modulated activation to the paralyzed lower extremity muscles as a function of the position of overall center of pressure (CoP), which was prescribed to move in a straight line in forward and diagonal directions. Posture-dependent control of stimulation enabled leaning movements that translated the CoP up to 48 mm away from the nominal position during quiet standing. The mean 95% prediction ellipse area, a measure of the CoP dispersion in the forward, forward-right, and forward-left directions, was ,, and , respectively. The average width of the prediction ellipses across the three directions was 15.1 mm, indicating that the CoP deviated from the prescribed path as task-dependent postures were assumed. The average maximal UE effort required to adjust posture across all leaning directions was 24.1% body weight, which is only slightly more than twice of what is required to maintain balance in an erect standing posture. These preliminary findings suggest that stimulation can be modulated to effectively assume user-specified, task-dependent leaning postures characterized by the CoP shifts that deviate away from the nominal position and which require moderate UE effort to execute.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 08:05:11 +000
  • Biologically Inspired and Rehabilitation Robotics

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Mar 2019 07:05:16 +000
  • Gait Analysis of Patients Subjected to the Atrophic Mandible Augmentation
           with Iliac Bone Graft

    • Abstract: In this study, we aimed to quantitatively monitor and describe the gait functions of patients, who underwent iliac crest bone grafting in atrophic jaw augmentation operation, by taking into account the alterations of gait parameters and muscle forces in the early recovery course. To do so, temporospatial and kinematic gait parameters of ten patients during pre- and postoperative periods were recorded, and forces of the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, and iliacus muscles were calculated. Three postoperative periods were specified as one week (post-op1), two weeks (post-op2), and three weeks (post-op3) after the surgery. Restoring process of the gait patterns was comparatively evaluated by analyzing the gait parameters and muscle forces for pre- and postoperative periods. Temporospatial and kinematic parameters of post-op3 were closer to those obtained in pre-op than those in post-op1 and post-op2 (). Muscle forces calculated in post-op3 showed the best agreement with those in pre-op among the postoperative periods in terms of both magnitude and correlation (). In conclusion, the patients began to regain their preoperative gait characteristics from the second week after surgery, but complete recovery in gait was observed three weeks after the surgery.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 09:05:10 +000
  • Modulation in Elastic Properties of Upper Trapezius with Varying Neck

    • Abstract: Background. Neck and shoulder complaints caused by poor posture may influence upper trapezius stiffness. The relationship between the shear elastic modulus of the upper trapezius and cervical flexion angles is unknown. Therefore, it is essential to assess upper trapezius stiffness during cervical flexion. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the intra- and interoperator reliabilities of evaluating upper trapezius stiffness and calculate the minimal detectable change (MDC); (2) examine the elastic modulus alterations of the upper trapezius during cervical flexion; and (3) explore the difference of upper trapezius stiffness between the dominant and nondominant sides. Methods. Twenty healthy male participants were recruited in this study. The shear modulus of the upper trapezius was evaluated by two independent investigators using shear wave elastography (SWE) during cervical flexion at 0° and 50°. Findings. The intraoperator (intraclass correlation coefficient –0.86) and interoperator (–0.98) reliabilities for measuring the shear elastic modulus of the upper trapezius during the cervical flexion ranged from good to excellent. An increase of 35.58% in upper trapezius stiffness was found at 0° to 50° of cervical flexion, and the MDC was 7.04 kPa. In addition, a significant difference was obtained in the elastic modulus of the upper trapezius muscle between the dominant and nondominant sides ().Conclusions. Our findings revealed that SWE could quantify the elastic modulus of the upper trapezius and monitor its changes. Therefore, further studies are required to delineate the modulation in upper trapezius muscle stiffness among subjects with neck and shoulder pain.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 00:06:29 +000
  • Robotic Ultrasonic Measurement of Residual Stress in Complex Curved
           Surface Components

    • Abstract: The automatic measurement, especially for products with complex shapes, has always been one of the most important application areas of robots. Aiming at the challenge of measuring residual stress under curved surface, in this paper, the residual stress ultrasonic measuring robot system with two manipulators is constructed, which is based on combining industrial robot technology with residual stress ultrasonic nondestructive measuring technology. The system is mainly composed of a motion control system, an ultrasonic detection system, and a data processing system. The robotic arm controls the movement of the two ultrasonic transducers along the set scanning path which is based on the geometric model of components and adjusts the transducer’s posture in time according to the shape of the workpiece being measured. The configuration information based on workpiece coordinate system is transformed into a position data that takes into consideration the first critical angle and can be recognized by the robot. Considering the effect of curvature, the principle model of residual stress measuring by the critical refraction longitudinal wave is established. The measured signal including the stress state of the measured region, as well as the actual position and posture information of the transducers, is processed by the computer in real time, which realizes automatic nondestructive measurement of residual stress under curved surface.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 00:06:25 +000
  • Coupling Musculoskeletal Dynamics and Subject-Specific Finite Element
           Analysis of Femoral Cortical Bone Failure after Endoprosthetic Knee

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. A common reconstruction procedure after a wide resection of bone tumors around the knee is endoprosthetic knee replacement. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of bone injury of the patient after endoprosthetic knee replacement during walking. Methods. A subject-specific finite element model of the femur-prosthesis-tibia complex was established via CT scans. To obtain its physiologically realistic loading environments, the musculoskeletal inverse dynamic analysis was implemented. The extracted muscle forces and ground forces were then applied to the finite element model to investigate bone stress distribution at various stages of the gait cycle. Results. The maximum femur stress of each stage varied from 33.14 MPa to 70.61 MPa in the gait cycle. The stress concentration position with a distance of 267.2 mm to the tibial plateau showed a good agreement with the patient injury data. Conclusions. Overall results indicated the reasonability of the simulation method to determine loading environments and injury characteristics which the patient experienced with knee endoprosthesis during walking.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Feb 2019 13:05:07 +000
  • Host Mesh Fitting of a Generic Musculoskeletal Model of the Lower Limbs to
           Subject-Specific Body Surface Data: A Validation Study

    • Abstract: Challenges remain in accurately capturing the musculoskeletal geometry of individual subjects for clinical and biomechanical gait analysis. The aim of this study was to use and validate the Host Mesh Fitting (HMF) technique for fitting a generic anatomically based musculoskeletal model to 3D body surface data of individual subjects. The HMF technique is based on the free-form idea of deforming geometrically complex structures according to the deformation of a surrounding volumetric mesh. Using the HMF technique, an anatomically based model of the lower limbs of an adult female subject (29 years) was customized to subject-specific skin surface data of five typically developing children (mean age 10.2 years) and six children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) (mean age 9.6 years). The fitted lengths and volumes of six muscle-tendon structures were compared against measures from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images for validation purposes. The HMF technique resulted in accurate approximations of the lower limb shapes of all subjects in both study groups. The average error between the MR data and the fitted muscle-tendon lengths from HMF was in children without CP and in children with CP, respectively. The average error between the MR data and the fitted muscle volumes from HMF was in children without CP and in children with CP, respectively. This study presents a crucial step towards personalized musculoskeletal modelling for gait analysis by demonstrating the feasibility of fitting a generic anatomically based lower limb model to 3D body surface data of children with and without CP using the HMF technique. Additional improvements in the quality of fit are expected to be gained by developing age-matched generic models for different study groups, accounting for subject-specific variations in subcutaneous body fat, as well as considering supplementary data from ultrasound imaging to better capture physiological muscle tissue properties.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Feb 2019 08:05:12 +000
  • Validity and Reliability of Upper Limb Functional Assessment Using the
           Microsoft Kinect V2 Sensor

    • Abstract: Objective. To quantify the concurrent accuracy and the test-retest reliability of a Kinect V2-based upper limb functional assessment system. Approach. Ten healthy males performed a series of upper limb movements, which were measured concurrently with Kinect V2 and the Vicon motion capture system (gold standard). Each participant attended two testing sessions, seven days apart. Four tasks were performed including hand to contralateral shoulder, hand to mouth, combing hair, and hand to back pocket. Upper limb kinematics were calculated using our developed kinematic model and the UWA model for Kinect V2 and Vicon. The interdevice coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the validity of the kinematic waveforms. Mean absolute bias and Pearson’s correlation were used to evaluate the validity of the angles at the points of target achieved (PTA) and the range of motion (ROM). The intersession CMC and RMSE and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess the test-retest reliability of Kinect V2. Main Results. Both validity and reliability are found to be task-dependent and plane-dependent. Kinect V2 had good accuracy in measuring shoulder and elbow flexion/extension angular waveforms (), moderate accuracy of measuring shoulder adduction/abduction angular waveforms (-0.82), and poor accuracy of measuring shoulder internal/external angles (). We also found high test-retest reliability of Kinect V2 in most of the upper limb angular waveforms (-0.99), angles at the PTA (-0.91), and the ROM (-0.96). Significance. Kinect V2 has great potential as a low-cost, easy implemented device for assessing upper limb angular waveforms when performing functional tasks. The system is suitable for assessing relative within-person change in upper limb motions over time, such as disease progression or improvement due to intervention.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Feb 2019 07:05:24 +000
  • A Comparative Analysis of Standardised Threads for Use in Implants for
           Direct Skeletal Attachment of Limb Prosthesis: A Finite Element Analysis

    • Abstract: The aim of the research was to determine the optimal thread’s shape to be used in implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prosthesis. In addition, by testing appropriate parameters’ modification of the suitable thread, an attempt was made to maximise its effectiveness. The analyses included three thread types described in the ISO standards: shallow, symmetrical, and asymmetrical. The obtained results suggest that shallow thread ensures the lowest equivalent and directional stress peaks generated in the bone as well as favourable stress patterns and profiles during implant loading in relation to symmetrical and asymmetrical threads. Moreover, shallow thread ensured the generation of single equivalent and directional stress peaks, while symmetrical and asymmetrical threads provided additional stress peak for equivalent as well as for each of directional peaks. Subsequently, optimisation of the shallow thread’s shape was conducted by changing two relevant thread’s parameters (flank angle and rounding arc) which influence the generated stress distribution. The highest reduction of stress peaks was obtained while reducing the rounding arc by 0.2 mm. Therefore, it can be stated that the proposed modification of the HA thread can lead to obtaining a higher biomechanical effectiveness of implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prosthesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 09:05:26 +000
  • Increased Perceptual and Motor Performance of the Arms of Elite Water Polo

    • Abstract: Background. It has been stated that long-term participation in sport training can influence the motor asymmetry of the arms with a decreased interlimb difference. However, whether this pattern is observable in different sports and with different variables, like perceptual performance, still needs to be tested. Therefore, we investigated if long-term sports participation might modify the motor and perceptual performance asymmetries of arms in water polo players. It was hypothesized that water polo players would perform with less interlimb asymmetry in comparison to nonathletes. Methods. Right-handed water polo players and nonathletes were tested on motor performance for both arms during a reaching task. Thirteen water polo players and thirteen nonathletes performed reaching movements under two experimental conditions: (a) right arm and (b) left arm. Velocity, accuracy, hand path deviation from linearity, and reaction time were calculated for each trial and for both arms. The potential interlimb differences in movement performance could be assessed by testing. Results. Consistent with the hypothesis, our findings showed that water polo players displayed substantially less asymmetry in the performance of accuracy and reaction time. Conclusions. These findings suggest that performance asymmetries of arms can be altered via intense long-term practice.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 11:05:01 +000
  • Research on the Design Method of a Bionic Suspension Workpiece Based on
           the Wing Structure of an Albatross

    • Abstract: An air suspension platform uses air pressure to realize the suspension function during the suspension process, and it has the disadvantage of large air pressure and a small suspension force. In this study, an air suspension platform was built using bionic design to reduce the required air pressure and increase the suspension force. A suspension structure mapping model was established according to the physiological structure characteristics of albatross wings. A bionic model was established by using the theoretical calculation formula and structural size parameters of the structural design. A 3D printer was used to manufacture the physical prototype of the suspended workpiece. Based on this, a suspension test rig was built. Six sets of contrast experiments were designed. The experimental results of the suspension test bench were compared with the theoretical calculation results. The results show that the buoyancy of the suspended workpiece with a V-shaped surface at a 15-degree attack angle was optimal for the same air pressure as the other workpieces. The surface structure of the suspended workpiece was applied to the air static pressure guide rail. By comparing the experimental data, the air pressure of the original air suspension guide rail was reduced by 37%, and the validity of the theory and design method was verified.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 13:05:00 +000
  • Development of a Mechanistic Hypothesis Linking Compensatory Biomechanics
           and Stepping Asymmetry during Gait of Transfemoral Amputees

    • Abstract: Objective. Gait asymmetry is a common adaptation observed in lower-extremity amputees, but the underlying mechanisms that explain this gait behavior remain unclear for amputees that use above-knee prostheses. Our objective was to develop a working hypothesis to explain chronic stepping asymmetry in otherwise healthy amputees that use above-knee prostheses. Methods. Two amputees (both through-knee; one with microprocessor knee, one with hydraulic knee) and fourteen control subjects participated. 3D kinematics and kinetics were acquired at normal, fast, and slow walking speeds. Data were analyzed for the push-off and collision limbs during a double support phase. We examined gait parameters to identify the stepping asymmetry then examined the external work rate (centre of mass) and internal (joint) power profiles to formulate a working hypothesis to mechanistically explain the observed stepping asymmetry. Results. Stepping asymmetry at all three gait speeds in amputees was characterized by increased stance phase duration of the intact limb versus relatively normal stance phase duration for the prosthesis limb. The prosthesis limb contributed very little to positive and negative work during the double support phase of gait. To compensate, the intact leg at heel strike first provided aid to the deficient prosthetic ankle/foot during its push-off by doing positive work with the intact knee, which caused a delayed stance phase pattern. The resulting delay in toe-off of the intact limb then facilitated the energy transfer from the more robust intact push-off limb to the weaker colliding prosthesis side. This strategy was observed for both amputees. Conclusions. There is a sound scientific rationale for a mechanistic hypothesis that stepping asymmetry in amputee participants is a result of a motor adaptation that is both facilitating the lower-leg trajectory enforced by the prosthesis while compensating for the lack of work done by the prosthesis, the cost of which is increased energy expenditure of the intact knee and both hips.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effect of Mechanical Overloading on Surface Roughness of the Coronary

    • Abstract: Background. Surface roughness can be used to identify disease within biological tissues. Quantifying surface roughness in the coronary arteries aids in developing treatments for coronary heart disease. This study investigates the effect of extreme physiological loading on surface roughness, for example, due to a rupture of an artery. Methods. The porcine left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries were dissected ex vivo. Mechanical overloading was applied to the arteries in the longitudinal direction to simulate extreme physiological loading. Surface roughness was calculated from three-dimensional reconstructed images. Surface roughness was measured before and after damage and after chemical processing to dehydrate tissue specimens. Results. Control specimens confirmed that dehydration alone results in an increase of surface roughness in the circumferential direction only. No variation was noted between the hydrated healthy and damaged specimens, in both the longitudinal ( and ) and circumferential ( and ) directions. After dehydration, an increase in surface roughness was noted for damaged specimens in both the longitudinal () and circumferential () directions. Conclusions. Mechanical overloading applied in the longitudinal direction did not significantly affect surface roughness. However, when combined with chemical processing, a significant increase in surface roughness was noted in both the circumferential and longitudinal directions. Mechanical overloading causes damage to the internal constituents of the arteries, which is significantly noticeable after dehydration of tissue.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jan 2019 07:05:28 +000
  • A Biomechanical Analysis of Lower Limb Movement on the Backcourt Forehand
           Clear Stroke among Badminton Players of Different Levels

    • Abstract: Most of the previous studies have been focused on the upper limb biomechanical characteristic in the clear stroke among different level badminton players, but research on the lower limb is limited. The aim of this study is to explore the lower limb kinematics and foot pressure in the backcourt forehand clear stroke among badminton players to give theoretical reference in teaching and answer the questions occurring in the process of learning the actions. Ten professional badminton players (PP) and ten amateur players (AP) were recruited in this study. Plantar pressure analyses indicated that both the PP and the AP were in contact with the ground over the forefoot without the midfoot and heel. The work suggests that when designing professional badminton sports shoes, the designers should focus on strengthening footwear resistance in the metatarsal and forefoot area, especially the first metatarsal area, to meet the requirement of the movement demand and take the badminton movement characteristics in different regions of the design. The peak ankle dorsiflexion, eversion, and internal rotation angle levels of the AP are lower than those of the PP. It is important for the AP group to enhance their ankle strength to prevent injury and improve performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 13:05:09 +000
  • Bionics and Human Biomechanics Applied in Intelligent Crash Tests of Cars

    • PubDate: Tue, 08 Jan 2019 08:05:10 +000
  • Measurement of Flexion Angle of the Finger Joint during Cylinder Gripping
           Using a Three-Dimensional Bone Model Built by X-Ray Computed Tomography

    • Abstract: Motion analysis of the thumb and the four fingers during human gripping of a cylindrical object is a prerequisite for designing motion mechanisms in electronic arm prostheses and robotic hands. Conventional measurement methods include the use of angle sensors or multiple video recording of markers. In the present study, we performed X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging on fingers gripping cylinders of three different diameters (10, 60, and 120 mm) and constructed a bone model based on these CT images to directly measure the flexion angle of each finger joint. We then compared the results with the flexion angles of joints measured using other methods. The subjects comprised 10 Japanese men with no hand injuries or diseases. Our results showed that smaller cylinder diameters were associated with significant increases in the flexion angle of all the joints of the four fingers. When focusing on the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP), there was no significant difference between any of the fingers for each of the cylinders, except between the index and middle fingers for the 10 mm-diameter cylinder. When focusing on the 10 mm-diameter cylinder, the flexion angle of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) of each finger was significantly larger than that of the DIP and metacarpophalangeal joint (MP). However, no such significant difference was noted for the 120 mm-diameter cylinder. The coupling ratio (CR), which is the ratio of the flexion angles of the DIP and PIP, was significantly smaller for the 10 mm-diameter cylinder than for the 60 mm-diameter cylinder. However, there were no significant differences in CR between any of the fingers. A comparison of our study results with those derived using other methods indicated quantitative consistency for the DIP and PIP. However, for the MP, we noted differences that may be explained by the difficulty in determining the longitudinal axis of the metacarpal using other methods.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Jan 2019 13:05:03 +000
  • Effect of Low-Frequency Vibration on Muscle Response under Different
           Neurointact Conditions

    • Abstract: Stretch reflex is an important factor that influences the biomechanical response of the human body under whole-body vibration. However, there is a lack of quantitative evaluation at lower frequencies. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vibration on the stretch reflex and, in particular, to explore the quantitative relationship between dynamic muscle responses and low-frequency vibrations. The gastrocnemius muscle of 45 Sprague-Dawley rats was dissected. Sinusoidal vibrations of five discrete frequencies (2~16 Hz) with peak-to-peak amplitudes of 1 mm were applied to the gastrocnemius muscles with 2 mm or 3 mm prelengthening. Variables including dynamic muscle force, vibration acceleration, and displacement were recorded in two conditions, with and without the stretch reflex. Results showed that the dynamic muscle forces decreased by 20% on average for the 2 mm prelengthening group after the stretch reflex was blocked and by 24% for the 3 mm prelengthening group. Statistical analysis indicated that the amplitude of dynamic muscle force in the “with stretch reflex” condition was significantly larger than that in the “without stretch reflex” condition (). The tension-length curve was found to be a nonlinear hysteresis loop that changed with frequency. The phase difference between the dynamic muscle force and the length change was affected significantly by vibration frequency (), and the minimum frequency was 4–8 Hz. Experimental results of this study could benefit musculoskeletal model by providing a theoretical support to build a stretch reflex model for low-frequency vibration.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Jan 2019 08:05:09 +000
  • Assessment of Long-Term Badminton Experience on Foot Posture Index and
           Plantar Pressure Distribution

    • Abstract: This study was aimed to analyze the foot posture index and plantar pressure characteristics of fifteen badminton players and fifteen controls. The hypothesis was that people with the habit of playing badminton would be significantly different with nonplaying people in foot posture index, 3D foot surface data, and plantar pressure distribution. Nine regions of plantar pressure were measured by using the EMED force platform, and badminton players showed significantly higher peak pressure in the hallux (), medial heel (), and lateral heel () and force-time integral in the hallux (), medial heel (), and lateral heel (). There is no asymmetrical plantar pressure distribution between the left foot and the right foot of players. The mean foot posture index values of male and female badminton players are 5.2 ± 1.95 and 5.7 ± 1.15, respectively, and comparatively, those values of male and female controls are 1.5 ± 1.73 and 1.7 ± 4.16, respectively. This study shows that significant differences in morphology between people with the habit of playing badminton and people without that habit could be taken as a factor for a future study in locomotion biomechanics characteristics and foot shape of badminton players and in a footwear design in order to reduce injury risks.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 09:50:31 +000
  • Presentation of an Approach on Determination of the Natural Frequency of
           Human Lumbar Spine Using Dynamic Finite Element Analysis

    • Abstract: Occurring resonance may negatively affect the health of the human lumbar spine. Hence, vibration generated in working and living environments should be optimized to avoid resonance when identifying the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine. The range of the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine has been investigated, but its specific numerical value has not been determined yet. This study aimed at presenting an approach based on resonance for predicting the specific numerical value of the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine. The changes in the numerical fluctuation amplitudes and the cycles of lumbar mechanical parameters during resonance are greater than those during nonresonant vibration. Given that the range of the natural frequency has been identified, vibrations at different excitation frequencies within this range can be applied in a human lumbar finite element model for dynamic finite element analysis. When the excitation frequency is close to the natural frequency, resonance occurs, causing great changes in the numerical fluctuation amplitudes and the cycles of lumbar mechanical parameters. Therefore, the natural frequency of the lumbar finite element model could be back-calculated. Results showed that the natural frequency of the established model was 3.5 Hz. Meanwhile, the closer the excitation frequency was to the natural frequency, the greater the changes in the numerical fluctuation amplitudes and cycles in the parameters would be. This study presented an approach for predicting the specific numerical value of the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine. Identifying the natural frequency assists in finding preventive measures for lumbar injury caused by vibration and in designing the vibration source in working and living environments to avoid approximating to the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 09:20:44 +000
  • Gait-Specific Optimization of Composite Footwear Midsole Systems,
           Facilitated through Dynamic Finite Element Modelling

    • Abstract: Objective. During the last century, running shoes have been subject to drastic changes with incremental however improvements as to injury prevention. This may be, among others, due to the limited insight that experimental methodologies can provide on their 3D in situ response. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of finite element (FE) modelling techniques, in optimizing a midsole system as to the provided cushioning capacity. Methods. A commercial running shoe was scanned by means of micro computed tomography and its gel-based midsole, reverse-engineered to a 200 μm accuracy. The resulting 3D model was subjected to biorealistic loading and boundary conditions, in terms of time-varying plantar pressure distribution and shoe-ground contact constraints. The mesh grid of the FE model was verified as to its conceptual soundness and validated against velocity-driven impact tests. Nonlinear material properties were assigned to all entities and the model subjected to a dynamic FE analysis. An optimization function (based on energy absorption criteria) was employed to determine the optimum gel volume and position, as to accommodate sequential cushioning in the rear-, mid-, and forefoot, of runner during stance phase. Results. The in situ developing stress fields suggest that the shock dissipating properties of the midsole could be significantly improved. Altering the position of the gel pads and varying their volume led to different midsole responses that could be tuned more efficiently to the specific strike and pronation pattern. Conclusions. The results suggest that midsole design can be significantly improved through biorealistic FE modelling, thus providing a new platform for the conceptual redesign and/or optimization of modern footwear.
      PubDate: Sun, 23 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Upper Limb Neuromuscular Activities and Synergies Comparison between Elite
           and Nonelite Athletics in Badminton Overhead Forehand Smash

    • Abstract: This study is aimed at comparing muscle activations and synergies in badminton forehand overhead smash (BFOS) between elite and nonelite players to clarify how the central nervous system (CNS) controls neuromuscular synergy and activation to generate complex overhead movements. EMG of five upper limb muscles was recorded through surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes from twenty players. Athletics is divided into two groups: elite and nonelite. Eventually, nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF) was utilized to the calculated electromyography signals for muscle synergy comparison. Similarities between elite and nonelite groups were calculated by scalar product method. Results presented that three muscles synergies could sufficiently delineate the found electromyography signals for elite and nonelite players. Individual muscle patterns were moderately to highly similar between elite and nonelite groups (between-group similarity range: 0.52 to 0.90). In addition, high similarities between groups were found for the shape of synergy activation coefficients (range: 0.85 to 0.89). These results indicate that the synergistic organization of muscle coordination during badminton forehand overhead smash is not profoundly affected by expertise.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 07:45:11 +000
  • Muscle Synergies: Use and Validation in Clinics, Robotics, and Sports

    • PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Biobjective Optimization Algorithms Using Neumann Series Expansion for
           Engineering Design

    • Abstract: In this paper, two novel algorithms are designed for solving biobjective optimization engineering problems. In order to obtain the optimal solutions of the biobjective optimization problems in a fast and accurate manner, the algorithms, which have combined Newton’s method with Neumann series expansion as well as the weighted sum method, are applied to deal with two objectives, and the Pareto optimal front is achieved through adjusting weighted factors. Theoretical analysis and numerical examples demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Moreover, an effective biobjective optimization strategy, which is based upon the two algorithms and the surrogate model method, is developed for engineering problems. The effectiveness of the optimization strategy is proved by its application to the optimal design of the dummy head structure in the car crash experiments.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Study on Three-Dimensional Digital Expression and Robot Bending Method of
           Orthodontic Archwire

    • Abstract: Malocclusion is the third largest oral disease in the world. At present, the most effective treatment method for malocclusion is the fixed orthodontic technique based on orthodontic archwires. Robotic archwire bending can overcome the shortcomings of manual bending such as low efficiency and low precision. The three-dimensional digital expression and robot bending method of orthodontic archwire are studied to realize the orthodontic archwire bending using a robot. Tooth is identified by the doctors’ common method. The shape, position, and constraint relationship of orthodontic archwire in three-dimensional space are expressed by the Bessel curve. The bending of the archwire curve is realized by transmitting the archwire curve into the alternative lines. The planning method of forming points and the spatial angle planning method are proposed. The archwire bending experiment is carried out with the maxillary information of a patient. The error rate of the experimental and ideal values is between 2.94% and 6.74%. It can meet the physician’s basic requirements after simple modification. Therefore, it can be considered that the method of using discrete Bessel curve to carry out the control point planning and angle planning is suitable for the orthodontic archwire-bending robot system, which has certain feasibility and practicability in clinical treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Systematic Review of Continuum Modeling of Skeletal Muscles: Current
           Trends, Limitations, and Recommendations

    • Abstract: Finite elasticity theory has been commonly used to model skeletal muscle. A very large range of heterogeneous constitutive laws has been proposed. In this review, the most widely used continuum models of skeletal muscles were synthetized and discussed. Trends and limitations of these laws were highlighted to propose new recommendations for future researches. A systematic review process was performed using two reliable search engines as PubMed and ScienceDirect. 40 representative studies (13 passive muscle materials and 27 active muscle materials) were included into this review. Note that exclusion criteria include tendon models, analytical models, 1D geometrical models, supplement papers, and indexed conference papers. Trends of current skeletal muscle modeling relate to 3D accurate muscle representation, parameter identification in passive muscle modeling, and the integration of coupled biophysical phenomena. Parameter identification for active materials, assumed fiber distribution, data assumption, and model validation are current drawbacks. New recommendations deal with the incorporation of multimodal data derived from medical imaging, the integration of more biophysical phenomena, and model reproducibility. Accounting for data uncertainty in skeletal muscle modeling will be also a challenging issue. This review provides, for the first time, a holistic view of current continuum models of skeletal muscles to identify potential gaps of current models according to the physiology of skeletal muscle. This opens new avenues for improving skeletal muscle modeling in the framework of in silico medicine.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
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