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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 334 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 334 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Dataset Papers in Science     Open Access  
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epidemiology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 199)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
  [SJR: 0.23]   [H-I: 13]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [334 journals]
  • Reliability of an Integrated Ultrasound and Stereophotogrammetric System
           for Lower Limb Anatomical Characterisation

    • Abstract: Background. Lower extremity analysis for preoperative total knee and hip arthroplasty routines can increase surgery success rate and hence reduce associated costs. Current tools are limited by being invasive, limited to supine analysis, or too expensive. This study aimed to propose and validate a device, OrthoPilot®, based on the combined use of a stereophotogrammetric and ultrasound system which can in vivo and noninvasively measure varus/valgus, flexion/extension, femur and tibia torsion, and femur and tibia lengths. Methods. A phantom was measured by four operators to determine the resolution of the system. Interoperator variability was measured on three operators who measured the above six variables on both legs of three subjects in standing and supine positions. Intraoperator variability was assessed on data from three repeats from 9 subjects (18 legs). Results. All 6 variables were reliably detected on a phantom, with a resolution of 1 mm and 0.5°. Inter- and intraoperator consistency was observed for varus/valgus, flexion/extension, and length measurements on the healthy subjects in standing and supine positions (all ICC > 0.93). For torsion measurements, there was a considerable variation. Conclusion. The proposed system, when used on healthy subjects, allowed reliable measurements of key parameters for preoperative procedures in both supine and standing positions. Accuracy testing and further validation on patient populations will be the next step toward its clinical adoption.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 07:32:32 +000
       
  • Comparison of Joint Loading in Badminton Lunging between Professional and
           Amateur Badminton Players

    • Abstract: The knee and ankle are the two most injured joints associated with the sport of badminton. This study evaluates biomechanical factors between professional and amateur badminton players using an injury mechanism model. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic motion and kinetic loading differences of the right knee and ankle while performing a maximal right lunge. Amateur players exhibited greater ankle range of motion (, ) and inversion joint moment (, ) in the frontal plane as well as greater internal joint rotation moment (, ) in the horizontal plane. In contrast, professional badminton players presented a greater knee joint moment in the sagittal (, ) and frontal (, ) planes, which may be associated with increased knee ligamentous injury risk. To avoid injury, the players need to forcefully extend the knee with internal rotation, strengthen the muscles around the ankle ligament, and maximise joint coordination during training. The injuries recorded and the forces responsible for the injuries seem to have developed during training activity. Training programmes and injury prevention strategies for badminton players should account for these findings to reduce potential injury to the ankle and knee.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Influence of Cleats-Surface Interaction on the Performance and Risk of
           Injury in Soccer: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Objective. To review the influence of cleats-surface interaction on the performance and risk of injury in soccer athletes. Design. Systematic review. Data Sources. Scopus, Web of science, PubMed, and B-on. Eligibility Criteria. Full experimental and original papers, written in English that studied the influence of soccer cleats on sports performance and injury risk in artificial or natural grass. Results. Twenty-three articles were included in this review: nine related to performance and fourteen to injury risk. On artificial grass, the soft ground model on dry and wet conditions and the turf model in wet conditions are related to worse performance. Compared to rounded studs, bladed ones improve performance during changes of directions in both natural and synthetic grass. Cleat models presenting better traction on the stance leg improve ball velocity while those presenting a homogeneous pressure across the foot promote better kicking accuracy. Bladed studs can be considered less secure by increasing plantar pressure on lateral border. The turf model decrease peak plantar pressure compared to other studded models. Conclusion. The soft ground model provides lower performance especially on artificial grass, while the turf model provides a high protective effect in both fields.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Fluid Shear Stress and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Increase Endothelial
           Cell-Associated Vitronectin

    • Abstract: Vitronectin is a matricellular protein that plays an important role in both coagulation and angiogenesis through its effects on cell adhesion and the plasminogen system. Vitronectin is known to bind to endothelial cells upon integrin activation. However, the effect of integrin activation by shear stress and growth factors on cell-associated vitronectin and plasminogen system activity has not yet been studied. We therefore exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells to steady laminar flow, oscillating disturbed flow, or fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 24 hours. We then measured cell-associated vitronectin by Western blot and plasminogen system activity using a Chromozym assay. Steady laminar flow, oscillating disturbed flow, and FGF-2 all increased cell-associated vitronectin, although the vitronectin molecular weight varied among the different conditions. FGF-2 also increased cell-associated vitronectin in microvascular endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. The increase in cell-associated vitronectin increased plasminogen system activity. Confocal microscopy showed that vitronectin was primarily located in the basal and intracellular regions. αvβ5 integrin inhibition via genistein, an anti-αvβ5 antibody, or β5 siRNA knockdown abrogated the FGF-2-induced increase in cell-associated vitronectin and increased plasminogen system activity. These data show that shear stress and growth factors increase cell-associated vitronectin through integrin activation, which may affect coagulation and angiogenesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • CathROB: A Highly Compact and Versatile Remote Catheter Navigation System

    • Abstract: Several remote catheter navigation systems have been developed and are now commercially available. However, these systems typically require specialized catheters or equipment, as well as time-consuming operations for the system set-up. In this paper, we present CathROB, a highly compact and versatile robotic system for remote navigation of standard tip-steerable electrophysiology (EP) catheters. Key features of CathROB include an extremely compact design that minimizes encumbrance and time for system set-up in a standard cath lab, a force-sensing mechanism, an intuitive command interface, and functions for automatic catheter navigation and repositioning. We report in vitro and in vivo animal evaluation of CathROB. In vitro results showed good accuracy in remote catheter navigation and automatic repositioning (1.5 ± 0.6 mm for the left-side targets, 1.7 ± 0.4 mm for the right-side targets). Adequate tissue contact was achieved with remote navigation in vivo. There were no adverse events, including absence of cardiac perforation or cardiac damage, indicative of the safety profile of CathROB. Although further preclinical and clinical studies are required, the presented CathROB system seems to be a promising solution for an affordable and easy-to-use remote catheter navigation.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • An Investigation into a Gear-Based Knee Joint Designed for Lower Limb
           Prosthesis

    • Abstract: A gear-based knee joint is designed to improve the performance of mechanical-type above-knee prostheses. The gear set with the help of some bracing, and bracket arrangement, is used to enable the prosthesis to follow the residual limb movement. The motion analysis and finite-element analysis (FEA) of knee joint components are carried out to assess the feasibility of the design. The maximum stress of 29.74 MPa and maximum strain of 2.393e−004 are obtained in the gear, whereas the maximum displacement of 7.975 mm occurred in the stopper of the knee arrangement. The factor of safety of 3.5 obtained from the FE analysis indicated no possibility of design failure. The results obtained from the FE analysis are then compared with the real data obtained from the literature for a similar subject. The pattern of motion analysis results has shown a great resemblance with the gait cycle of a healthy biological limb.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Gravity Compensation and Feedback of Ground Reaction Forces for Biped
           Balance Control

    • Abstract: This paper considers the balance control of a biped robot under a constant external force or on a sloped ground. We have proposed a control method with feedback of the ground reaction forces and have realized adaptive posture changes that ensure the stability of the robot. However, fast responses have not been obtained because effective control is achieved by an integral feedback that accompanies a time delay necessary for error accumulation. To improve this response, here, we introduce gravity compensation in a feedforward manner. The stationary state and its stability are analyzed based on dynamic equations, and the robustness as well as the response is evaluated using computer simulations. Finally, the adaptive behaviors of the robot are confirmed by standing experiments on the slope.
      PubDate: Sun, 07 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with
           Submaximal and Maximal Loading

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible kinematic and muscular activity changes with maximal loading during squat maneuver. Fourteen healthy male individuals, who were experienced at performing squats, participated in this study. Each subject performed squats with 80%, 90%, and 100% of the previously established 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured for the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae by using an 8-channel dual-mode portable EMG and physiological signal data acquisition system (Myomonitor IV, Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA). Kinematical data were analyzed by using saSuite 2D kinematical analysis program. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (). Overall muscle activities increased with increasing loads, but significant increases were seen only for vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during 90% and 100% of 1RM compared to 80% while there was no significant difference between 90% and 100% for any muscle. The movement pattern in the hip joint changed with an increase in forward lean during maximal loading. Results may suggest that maximal loading during squat may not be necessary for focusing on knee extensor improvement and may increase the lumbar injury risk.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 May 2017 06:46:17 +000
       
  • An Ultrasound Imaging-Guided Robotic HIFU Ablation Experimental System and
           Accuracy Evaluations

    • Abstract: In recent years, noninvasive thermal treatment by using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has high potential in tumor treatment. The goal of this research is to develop an ultrasound imaging-guided robotic HIFU ablation system for tumor treatment. The system integrates the technologies of ultrasound image-assisted guidance, robotic positioning control, and HIFU treatment planning. With the assistance of ultrasound image guidance technology, the tumor size and location can be determined from ultrasound images as well as the robotic arm can be controlled to position the HIFU transducer to focus on the target tumor. After the development of the system, several experiments were conducted to measure the positioning accuracy of this system. The results show that the average positioning error is 1.01 mm with a standard deviation 0.34, and HIFU ablation accuracy is 1.32 mm with a standard deviation 0.58, which means this system is confirmed with its possibility and accuracy.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 01:33:51 +000
       
  • Effect of Drop Foot on Spatiotemporal, Kinematic, and Kinetic Parameters
           during Gait

    • Abstract: Background. The complexity of the structure and function of a living body can be affected by disorders and can cause various dysfunctions. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine compensatory mechanisms in subjects with drop foot during gait. Methods. The study evaluated 10 subjects with drop foot (DF) whose results were compared to a group of 10 healthy controls (C). Spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters during the gait cycle were collected using Vicon system synchronized with Kistler platforms. Results. Spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were significantly different between the analysed groups. In the DF group, the subjects walked almost 47% slower and performed 60% less steps per minute compared to the C group. The main problem in the DF group was insufficient ankle dorsiflexion in the 0–10% of the gait cycle. Mean values in the groups during the first 10% of the gait cycle were as follows: DF (−10.42 ± 5.7°) and C (−2.37 ± 1.47°), which affected the substantial differences in the values of muscle torque: DF (0.2 ± 0.1 Nm/kg) and C (−0.26 ± 0.06 Nm/kg). Conclusions. Comparative analysis for joint angles and torques demonstrated that the mechanism of compensation is the most noticeable in the knee joint and less in the hip joint.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Kinematics of the Normal Knee during Dynamic Activities: A Synthesis of
           Data from Intracortical Pins and Biplane Imaging

    • Abstract: Few studies have provided in vivo tibiofemoral kinematics of the normal knee during dynamic weight-bearing activities. Indeed, gold standard measurement methods (i.e., intracortical pins and biplane imaging) raise ethical and experimental issues. Moreover, the conventions used for the processing of the kinematics show large inconsistencies. This study aims at synthesising the tibiofemoral kinematics measured with gold standard measurement methods. Published kinematic data were transformed in the standard recommended by the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB), and a clustering method was applied to investigate whether the couplings between the degrees of freedom (DoFs) are consistent among the different activities and measurement methods. The synthesised couplings between the DoFs during knee flexion (from 4° of extension to −61° of flexion) included abduction (up to −10°); internal rotation (up to 15°); and medial (up to 10 mm), anterior (up to 25 mm), and proximal (up to 28 mm) displacements. These synthesised couplings appeared mainly partitioned into two clusters that featured all the dynamic weight-bearing activities and all the measurement methods. Thus, the effect of the dynamic activities on the couplings between the tibiofemoral DoFs appeared to be limited. The synthesised data might be used as a reference of normal in vivo knee kinematics for prosthetic and orthotic design and for knee biomechanical model development and validation.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effect of Body Mass on the Shoe-Athlete Interaction

    • Abstract: Long-distance running is known to induce joint overloading and elevate cytokine levels, which are the hallmarks for a variety of running-related injuries. To address this, footwear systems incorporate cushioning midsoles to mitigate injurious mechanical loading. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of athlete body mass on the cushioning capacity of technical footwear. An artificial heel was prototyped to fit the impact pattern of a heel-strike runner and used to measure shock attenuation by an automated drop test. Impact mass and velocity were modulated to simulate runners of various body mass and speeds. The investigation provided refined insight on running-induced impact transmission to the human body. The examined midsole system was optimized around anthropometric data corresponding to an average (normal) body mass. The results suggest that although modern footwear is capable of attenuating the shock waves occurring during foot strike, improper shoe selection could expose an athlete to high levels of peak stress that could provoke an abnormal cartilage response. The selection of a weight-specific cushioning system could provide optimum protection and could thus prolong the duration of physical exercise beneficial to maintaining a simulated immune system.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Mar 2017 09:53:22 +000
       
  • An Investigation into the Relation between the Technique of Movement and
           Overload in Step Aerobics

    • Abstract: The aim of this research was to determine the features of a step workout technique which may be related to motor system overloading in step aerobics. Subjects participating in the research were instructors () and students () without any prior experience in step aerobics. Kinematic and kinetic data was collected with the use of the BTS SMART system comprised of 6 calibrated video cameras and two Kistler force plates. The subjects’ task was to perform basic steps. The following variables were analyzed: vertical, anteroposterior, and mediolateral ground reaction forces; foot flexion and abduction and adduction angles; knee joint flexion angle; and trunk flexion angle in the sagittal plane. The angle of a foot adduction recorded for the instructors was significantly smaller than that of the students. The knee joint angle while stepping up was significantly higher for the instructors compared to that for the students. Our research confirmed that foot dorsal flexion and adduction performed while stepping up increased load on the ankle joint. Both small and large angles of knee flexion while stepping up and down resulted in knee joint injuries. A small trunk flexion angle in the entire cycle of step workout shut down dorsal muscles, which stopped suppressing the load put on the spine.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effects of Gait Speed of Femoroacetabular Joint Forces

    • Abstract: Alterations in hip joint loading have been associated with diseases such as arthritis and osteoporosis. Understanding the relationship between gait speed and hip joint loading in healthy hips may illuminate changes in gait mechanics as walking speed deviates from preferred. The purpose of this study was to quantify hip joint loading during the gait cycle and identify differences with varying speed using musculoskeletal modeling. Ten, healthy, physically active individuals performed walking trials at their preferred speed, 10% faster, and 10% slower. Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data were collected and used to estimate hip joint force via a musculoskeletal model. Vertical ground reaction forces, hip joint force planar components, and the resultant hip joint force were compared between speeds. There were significant increases in vertical ground reaction forces and hip joint forces as walking speed increased. Furthermore, the musculoskeletal modeling approach employed yielded hip joint forces that were comparable to previous simulation studies and in vivo measurements and was able to detect changes in hip loading due to small deviations in gait speed. Applying this approach to pathological and aging populations could identify specific areas within the gait cycle where force discrepancies may occur which could help focus management of care.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dual-Task Does Not Increase Slip and Fall Risk in Healthy Young and Older
           Adults during Walking

    • Abstract: Dual-task tests can identify gait characteristics peculiar to fallers and nonfallers. Understanding the relationship between gait performance and dual-task related cognitive-motor interference is important for fall prevention. Dual-task adapted changes in gait instability/variability can adversely affect fall risks. Although implicated, it is unclear if healthy participants’ fall risks are modified by dual-task walking conditions. Seven healthy young and seven healthy older adults were randomly assigned to normal walking and dual-task walking sessions with a slip perturbation. In the dual-task session, the participants walked and simultaneously counted backwards from a randomly provided number. The results indicate that the gait changes in dual-task walking have no destabilizing effect on gait and slip responses in healthy individuals. We also found that, during dual-tasking, healthy individuals adopted cautious gait mode (CGM) strategy that is characterized by reduced walking speed, shorter step length, increased step width, and reduced heel contact velocity and is likely to be an adaptation to minimize attentional demand and decrease slip and fall risk during limited available attentional resources. Exploring interactions between gait variability and cognitive functions while walking may lead to designing appropriate fall interventions among healthy and patient population with fall risk.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 06:39:15 +000
       
  • Influence of Different Patellofemoral Design Variations Based on Genesis
           II Total Knee Endoprosthesis on Patellofemoral Pressure and Kinematics

    • Abstract: In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), patellofemoral groove design varies greatly and likely has a distinct influence on patellofemoral biomechanics. To analyse the selective influence, five patellofemoral design variations were developed based on Genesis II total knee endoprosthesis (original design, being completely flat, being laterally elevated, being medially elevated, and both sides elevated) and made from polyamide using rapid prototyping. Muscle-loaded knee flexion was simulated on 10 human knee specimens using a custom-made knee simulator, measuring the patellofemoral pressure distribution and tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics. The measurements were carried out in the native knee as well as after TKA with the 5 design prototypes. The overall influence of the different designs on the patellofemoral kinematics was small, but we found detectable effects for mediolateral tilt ( for 35°–80° flexion) and translation of the patella ( for 20°–65° and 75°–90°), especially for the completely flat design. Considering patellofemoral pressures, major interindividual differences were seen between the designs, which, on average, largely cancelled each other out. These results suggest that the elevation of the lateral margin of the patellofemoral groove is essential for providing mediolateral guidance, but smooth contouring as with original Genesis II design seems to be sufficient. The pronounced interindividual differences identify a need for more patellofemoral design options in TKA.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl’s
           Airfoil

    • Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl’s wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl’s wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Jan 2017 11:51:35 +000
       
 
 
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