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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 298 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 207)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
  [SJR: 0.23]   [H-I: 13]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • The Structure and Flexural Properties of Typha Leaves

    • Abstract: The Typha leaf has a structure of lightweight cantilever beam, exhibiting excellent mechanical properties with low density. Especially, the leaf blade evolved high strength and low density with high porosity. In this paper, the structure of Typha leaf was characterized by microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the relationship with flexural properties was analyzed. The three-point bending test was performed on leaves to examine flexural properties, which indicated that the flexural properties vary from the base to the apex in gradient. The cross-sectional geometry shape of the leaf blade presented a strong influence on the optimized flexural stiffness. The load carrying capacity of the leaf depended on the development level of the epidermal tissue, the vascular bundle, the mechanical tissue, and the geometric properties. The investigation can be the basis for lightweight structure design and the application in the bionic engineering field.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Crashworthiness Design for Bionic Bumper Structures Inspired by Cattail
           and Bamboo

    • Abstract: Many materials in nature exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In this study, we evaluated the bionic bumper structure models by using nonlinear finite element (FE) simulations for their crashworthiness under full-size impact loading. The structure contained the structural characteristics of cattail and bamboo. The results indicated that the bionic design enhances the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the bumper. The numerical results showed that the bionic cross-beam and bionic box of the bionic bumper have a significant effect on the crashworthiness of the structure. The crush deformation of bionic cross-beam and box bumper model was reduced by 33.33%, and the total weight was reduced by 44.44%. As the energy absorption capacity under lateral impact, the bionic design can be used in the future bumper body.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Study on Effects of Titanium Surface Microporous Coatings Containing Zinc
           on Osteoblast Adhesion and Its Antibacterial Activity

    • Abstract: Metal surface structure/biomedical function integration is the current research focus. In previous studies, we have successfully prepared the microporous coatings containing zinc on the pure titanium surface by MAO. In the study, osteoblasts were seeded on the surface of the microporous coatings containing zinc and the adhesion of osteoblasts were evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of the microporous coatings containing zinc is observed through in vitro bacterial experiments. The result indicates that the adhesion ability of osteoblasts on the surface of microporous coatings containing zinc was very good, and the coatings could obviously inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and had good antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the microporous coatings containing zinc on titanium surface have good osteogenic and antibacterial properties and have good application prospect.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Oct 2017 06:26:03 +000
       
  • Using a Bayesian Network to Predict L5/S1 Spinal Compression Force from
           Posture, Hand Load, Anthropometry, and Disc Injury Status

    • Abstract: Stochastic biomechanical modeling has become a useful tool most commonly implemented using Monte Carlo simulation, advanced mean value theorem, or Markov chain modeling. Bayesian networks are a novel method for probabilistic modeling in artificial intelligence, risk modeling, and machine learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Bayesian networks for biomechanical modeling using a static biomechanical model of spinal forces during lifting. A 20-node Bayesian network model was used to implement a well-established static two-dimensional biomechanical model for predicting L5/S1 compression and shear forces. The model was also implemented as a Monte Carlo simulation in MATLAB. Mean L5/S1 spinal compression force estimates differed by 0.8%, and shear force estimates were the same. The model was extended to incorporate evidence about disc injury, which can modify the prior probability estimates to provide posterior probability estimates of spinal compression force. An example showed that changing disc injury status from false to true increased the estimate of mean L5/S1 compression force by 14.7%. This work shows that Bayesian networks can be used to implement a whole-body biomechanical model used in occupational biomechanics and incorporate disc injury.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Analysis of Drag Reduction Methods and Mechanisms of Turbulent

    • Abstract: Turbulent flow is a difficult issue in fluid dynamics, the rules of which have not been totally revealed up to now. Fluid in turbulent state will result in a greater frictional force, which must consume great energy. Therefore, it is not only an important influence in saving energy and improving energy utilization rate but also an extensive application prospect in many fields, such as ship domain and aerospace. Firstly, bionic drag reduction technology is reviewed and is a hot research issue now, the drag reduction mechanism of body surface structure is analyzed, such as sharks, earthworms, and dolphins. Besides, we make a thorough study of drag reduction characteristics and mechanisms of microgrooved surface and compliant wall. Then, the relevant drag reduction technologies and mechanisms are discussed, focusing on the microbubbles, the vibrant flexible wall, the coating, the polymer drag reduction additives, superhydrophobic surface, jet surface, traveling wave surface drag reduction, and the composite drag reduction methods. Finally, applications and advancements of the drag reduction technology in turbulence are prospected.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Sep 2017 07:10:54 +000
       
  • A Survey of Bioinspired Jumping Robot: Takeoff, Air Posture Adjustment,
           and Landing Buffer

    • Abstract: A bioinspired jumping robot has a strong ability to overcome obstacles. It can be applied to the occasion with complex and changeable environment, such as detection of planet surface, postdisaster relief, and military reconnaissance. So the bioinspired jumping robot has broad application prospect. The jumping process of the robot can be divided into three stages: takeoff, air posture adjustment, and landing buffer. The motivation of this review is to investigate the research results of the most published bioinspired jumping robots for these three stages. Then, the movement performance of the bioinspired jumping robots is analyzed and compared quantitatively. Then, the limitation of the research on bioinspired jumping robots is discussed, such as the research on the mechanism of biological motion is not thorough enough, the research method about structural design, material applications, and control are still traditional, and energy utilization is low, which make the robots far from practical applications. Finally, the development trend is summarized. This review provides a reference for further research of bioinspired jumping robots.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 02:02:36 +000
       
  • New Design of a Soft Robotics Wearable Elbow Exoskeleton Based on Shape
           Memory Alloy Wire Actuators

    • Abstract: The elbow joint is a complex articulation composed of the humeroulnar and humeroradial joints (for flexion-extension movement) and the proximal radioulnar articulation (for pronation-supination movement). During the flexion-extension movement of the elbow joint, the rotation center changes and this articulation cannot be truly represented as a simple hinge joint. The main goal of this project is to design and assemble a medical rehabilitation exoskeleton for the elbow with one degree of freedom for flexion-extension, using the rotation center for proper patient elbow joint articulation. Compared with the current solutions, which align the exoskeleton axis with the elbow axis, this offers an ergonomic physical human-robot interface with a comfortable interaction. The exoskeleton is actuated with shape memory alloy wire-based actuators having minimum rigid parts, for guiding the actuators. Thanks to this unusual actuation system, the proposed exoskeleton is lightweight and has low noise in operation with a simple design 3D-printed structure. Using this exoskeleton, these advantages will improve the medical rehabilitation process of patients that suffered stroke and will influence how their lifestyle will change to recover from these diseases and improve their ability with activities of daily living, thanks to brain plasticity. The exoskeleton can also be used to evaluate the real status of a patient, with stroke and even spinal cord injury, thanks to an elbow movement analysis.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Macrodamage Accumulation Model for a Human Femur

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to more fully understand the mechanical behavior of bone tissue that is important to find an alternative material to be used as an implant and to develop an accurate model to predict the fracture of the bone. Predicting and preventing bone failure is an important area in orthopaedics. In this paper, the macrodamage accumulation models in the bone tissue have been investigated. Phenomenological models for bone damage have been discussed in detail. In addition, 3D finite element model of the femur prepared from imaging data with both cortical and trabecular structures is delineated using MIMICS and ANSYS® and simulated as a composite structure. The damage accumulation occurring during cyclic loading was analyzed for fatigue scenario. We found that the damage accumulates sooner in the multiaxial than in the uniaxial loading condition for the same number of cycles, and the failure starts in the cortical bone. The damage accumulation behavior seems to follow a three-stage growth: a primary phase, a secondary phase of damage growth marked by linear damage growth, and a tertiary phase that leads to failure. Finally, the stiffness of the composite bone comprising the cortical and trabecular bone was significantly different as expected.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prediction of Epileptic Seizure by Analysing Time Series EEG Signal Using
           -NN Classifier

    • Abstract: Electroencephalographic signal is a representative signal that contains information about brain activity, which is used for the detection of epilepsy since epileptic seizures are caused by a disturbance in the electrophysiological activity of the brain. The prediction of epileptic seizure usually requires a detailed and experienced analysis of EEG. In this paper, we have introduced a statistical analysis of EEG signal that is capable of recognizing epileptic seizure with a high degree of accuracy and helps to provide automatic detection of epileptic seizure for different ages of epilepsy. To accomplish the target research, we extract various epileptic features namely approximate entropy (ApEn), standard deviation (SD), standard error (SE), modified mean absolute value (MMAV), roll-off (), and zero crossing (ZC) from the epileptic signal. The -nearest neighbours (-NN) algorithm is used for the classification of epilepsy then regression analysis is used for the prediction of the epilepsy level at different ages of the patients. Using the statistical parameters and regression analysis, a prototype mathematical model is proposed which helps to find the epileptic randomness with respect to the age of different subjects. The accuracy of this prototype equation depends on proper analysis of the dynamic information from the epileptic EEG.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparison of Machine Learning Methods for the Arterial Hypertension
           Diagnostics

    • Abstract: The paper presents results of machine learning approach accuracy applied analysis of cardiac activity. The study evaluates the diagnostics possibilities of the arterial hypertension by means of the short-term heart rate variability signals. Two groups were studied: 30 relatively healthy volunteers and 40 patients suffering from the arterial hypertension of II-III degree. The following machine learning approaches were studied: linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine with radial basis, decision trees, and naive Bayes classifier. Moreover, in the study, different methods of feature extraction are analyzed: statistical, spectral, wavelet, and multifractal. All in all, 53 features were investigated. Investigation results show that discriminant analysis achieves the highest classification accuracy. The suggested approach of noncorrelated feature set search achieved higher results than data set based on the principal components.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 09:27:07 +000
       
  • Ankle-Foot Orthosis Made by 3D Printing Technique and Automated Design
           Software

    • Abstract: We described 3D printing technique and automated design software and clinical results after the application of this AFO to a patient with a foot drop. After acquiring a 3D modelling file of a patient’s lower leg with peroneal neuropathy by a 3D scanner, we loaded this file on the automated orthosis software and created the “STL” file. The designed AFO was printed using a fused filament fabrication type 3D printer, and a mechanical stress test was performed. The patient alternated between the 3D-printed and conventional AFOs for 2 months. There was no crack or damage, and the shape and stiffness of the AFO did not change after the durability test. The gait speed increased after wearing the conventional AFO (56.5 cm/sec) and 3D-printed AFO (56.5 cm/sec) compared to that without an AFO (42.2 cm/sec). The patient was more satisfied with the 3D-printed AFO than the conventional AFO in terms of the weight and ease of use. The 3D-printed AFO exhibited similar functionality as the conventional AFO and considerably satisfied the patient in terms of the weight and ease of use. We suggest the possibility of the individualized AFO with 3D printing techniques and automated design software.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Positioning Performance of Power and Manual Drivers in Posterior Spinal
           Fusion Procedures

    • Abstract: This work presents an analysis and comparison of the efficacy of two methods for pedicle screw placement during posterior spinal fusion surgery. A total of 100 screws (64 manual and 36 power driven), all placed utilizing a surgical navigation system, were analyzed and compared. Final screw placement was compared to initial surgical plans using the navigation system, and the final screw locations were analyzed on the basis of angular deviation from these planned trajectories as well as screw translation within a critical reference plane. The power driver was found to insignificantly decrease the resulting angular deviation of these pedicle screws with a mean deviation of 3.35 degrees compared to 3.44 degrees with the manual driver (). Conversely, the power driver was found to increase the translational distance in the critical region, with mean deviations of 2.45 mm for the power driver compared to 1.54 mm with the manual driver. The increase in translational deviation was significant () indicating that there may be some loss in performance from the adoption of the power driver.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A FEM-Experimental Approach for the Development of a Conceptual Linear
           Actuator Based on Tendril’s Free Coiling

    • Abstract: Within the vastness of the plant species, certain living systems show tendril structures whose motion is of particular interest for biomimetic engineers. Tendrils sense and coil around suitable grips, and by shortening in length, they erect the remaining plant body. To achieve contraction, tendrils rotate along their main axis and shift from a linear to a double-spring geometry. This phenomenon is denoted as the free-coiling phase. In this work, with the aim of understanding the fundamentals of the mechanics behind the free coiling, a reverse-engineering approach based on the finite element method was firstly applied. The model consisted of an elongated cylinder with suitable material properties, boundary, and loading conditions, in order to reproduce the kinematics of the tendril. The simulation succeeded in mimicking coiling faithfully and was therefore used to validate a tentative linear actuator model based on the plant’s working principle. More in detail, exploiting shape memory alloy materials to obtain large reversible deformations, the main tendril features were implemented into a nickel-titanium spring-based testing model. The results of the experimental tests confirmed the feasibility of the idea in terms of both functioning principles and actual performance. It can be concluded that the final set-up can be used as a base for a prototype design of a new kind of a linear actuator.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bilateral, Misalignment-Compensating, Full-DOF Hip Exoskeleton: Design and
           Kinematic Validation

    • Abstract: A shared design goal for most robotic lower limb exoskeletons is to reduce the metabolic cost of locomotion for the user. Despite this, only a limited amount of devices was able to actually reduce user metabolic consumption. Preservation of the natural motion kinematics was defined as an important requirement for a device to be metabolically beneficial. This requires the inclusion of all human degrees of freedom (DOF) in a design, as well as perfect alignment of the rotation axes. As perfect alignment is impossible, compensation for misalignment effects should be provided. A misalignment compensation mechanism for a 3-DOF system is presented in this paper. It is validated by the implementation in a bilateral hip exoskeleton, resulting in a compact and lightweight device that can be donned fast and autonomously, with a minimum of required adaptations. Extensive testing of the prototype has shown that hip range of motion of the user is maintained while wearing the device and this for all three hip DOFs. This allowed the users to maintain their natural motion patterns when they are walking with the novel hip exoskeleton.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 06:48:26 +000
       
  • Structural-Geometric Functionalization of the Additively Manufactured
           Prototype of Biomimetic Multispiked Connecting Ti-Alloy Scaffold for
           Entirely Noncemented Resurfacing Arthroplasty Endoprostheses

    • Abstract: The multispiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold) prototype, inspired by the biological system of anchorage of the articular cartilage in the periarticular trabecular bone by means of subchondral bone interdigitations, is the essential innovation in fixation of the bone in resurfacing arthroplasty (RA) endoprostheses. The biomimetic MSC‐Scaffold, due to its complex geometric structure, can be manufactured only using additive technology, for example, selective laser melting (SLM). The major purpose of this work is determination of constructional possibilities for the structural-geometric functionalization of SLM‐manufactured MSC‐Scaffold prototype, compensating the reduced ability—due to the SLM technological limitations—to accommodate the ingrowing bone filling the interspike space of the prototype, which is important for the prototype bioengineering design. Confocal microscopy scanning of components of the SLM‐manufactured prototype of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty (THRA) endoprosthesis with the MSC‐Scaffold was performed. It was followed by the geometric measurements of a variety of specimens designed as the fragments of the MSC-Scaffold of both THRA endoprosthesis components. The reduced ability to accommodate the ingrowing bone tissue in the SLM‐manufactured prototypes versus that in the corresponding CAD models has been quantitatively determined. Obtained results enabled to establish a way of compensatory structural‐geometric functionalization, allowing the MSC‐Scaffold adequate redesigning and manufacturing in additive SLM technology.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • In Vivo Assessment of Elasticity of Child Rib Cortical Bone Using
           Quantitative Computed Tomography

    • Abstract: Elasticity of the child rib cortical bone is poorly known due to the difficulties in obtaining specimens to perform conventional tests. It was shown on the femoral cortical bone that elasticity is strongly correlated with density for both children and adults through a unique relationship. Thus, it is assumed that the relationships between the elasticity and density of adult rib cortical bones could be expanded to include that of children. This study estimated in vivo the elasticity of the child rib cortical bone using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Twenty-eight children (from 1 to 18 y.o.) were considered. Calibrated QCT images were prescribed for various thoracic pathologies. The Hounsfield units were converted to bone mineral density (BMD). A relationship between the BMD and the elasticity of the rib cortical bone was applied to estimate the elasticity of children’s ribs in vivo. The estimated elasticity increases with growth (7.1 ± 2.5 GPa at 1 y.o. up to 11.6 ± 1.9 GPa at 18 y.o.). This data is in agreement with the few previous values obtained using direct measurements. This methodology paves the way for in vivo assessment of the elasticity of the child cortical bone based on calibrated QCT images.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A New Model to Study Fatigue in Dental Implants Based on Probabilistic
           Finite Elements and Cumulative Damage Model

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to predict the fatigue life of two different connections of a dental implant as in load transfer to bone. Two three-dimensional models were created and assembled. All models were subjected to a natural masticatory force of 118 N in the angle of 75° to the occlusal plane. All degrees of freedom in the inferior border of the cortical bone were restrained, and the mesial and distal borders of the end of the bone section were constrained. Fatigue material data and loads were assumed as random variables. Maximum principal stresses on bone were evaluated. Then, the probability of failure was obtained by the probabilistic approach. The maximum principal stress distribution predicted in the cortical and trabecular bone is 32 MPa for external connection and 39 MPa for internal connection. A mean life of 103 and 210 million cycles were obtained for external and internal connection, respectively. Probability cumulative function was also evaluated for both connection types. This stochastic model employs a cumulative damage model and probabilistic finite element method. This methodology allows the possibility of measured uncertainties and has a good precision on the results.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:27:04 +000
       
  • Bionic Design for Reducing Adhesive Resistance of the Ridger Inspired by a
           Boar’s Head

    • Abstract: The main feature of the boar’s head used to root around for food is the front part, which is similar to the ridger in terms of function, load, and environment. In this paper, the boar’s head was selected as the biological prototype for developing a new ridger. The point cloud of the head was captured by a 3D scanner, and then, the head surface was reconstructed using 3D coordinates. The characteristic curves of the front part of the boar’s head were extracted, and then, five cross-sectional curves and one vertical section curve were fitted. Based on the fitted curves, five kinds of bionic ridgers were designed. The penetrating resistances of the bionic ridgers and traditional ridger were tested at different speeds in an indoor soil bin. The test results showed that bionic ridger B had the best penetrating resistance reduction ratio of 16.67% at 4.2 km/h velocity. In order to further evaluate the performance of the best bionic ridger (bionic ridger B), both the bionic ridger and traditional ridger were tested in a field under the same working conditions. The field results indicate that the bionic ridger reduces penetrating resistance by 6.91% compared to the traditional ridger, and the test results validate that the bionic ridger has an effect on reducing penetrating resistance.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 05:42:12 +000
       
  • Reliability of an Integrated Ultrasound and Stereophotogrammetric System
           for Lower Limb Anatomical Characterisation

    • Abstract: Background. Lower extremity analysis for preoperative total knee and hip arthroplasty routines can increase surgery success rate and hence reduce associated costs. Current tools are limited by being invasive, limited to supine analysis, or too expensive. This study aimed to propose and validate a device, OrthoPilot®, based on the combined use of a stereophotogrammetric and ultrasound system which can in vivo and noninvasively measure varus/valgus, flexion/extension, femur and tibia torsion, and femur and tibia lengths. Methods. A phantom was measured by four operators to determine the resolution of the system. Interoperator variability was measured on three operators who measured the above six variables on both legs of three subjects in standing and supine positions. Intraoperator variability was assessed on data from three repeats from 9 subjects (18 legs). Results. All 6 variables were reliably detected on a phantom, with a resolution of 1 mm and 0.5°. Inter- and intraoperator consistency was observed for varus/valgus, flexion/extension, and length measurements on the healthy subjects in standing and supine positions (all ICC > 0.93). For torsion measurements, there was a considerable variation. Conclusion. The proposed system, when used on healthy subjects, allowed reliable measurements of key parameters for preoperative procedures in both supine and standing positions. Accuracy testing and further validation on patient populations will be the next step toward its clinical adoption.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 07:32:32 +000
       
  • Comparison of Joint Loading in Badminton Lunging between Professional and
           Amateur Badminton Players

    • Abstract: The knee and ankle are the two most injured joints associated with the sport of badminton. This study evaluates biomechanical factors between professional and amateur badminton players using an injury mechanism model. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic motion and kinetic loading differences of the right knee and ankle while performing a maximal right lunge. Amateur players exhibited greater ankle range of motion (, ) and inversion joint moment (, ) in the frontal plane as well as greater internal joint rotation moment (, ) in the horizontal plane. In contrast, professional badminton players presented a greater knee joint moment in the sagittal (, ) and frontal (, ) planes, which may be associated with increased knee ligamentous injury risk. To avoid injury, the players need to forcefully extend the knee with internal rotation, strengthen the muscles around the ankle ligament, and maximise joint coordination during training. The injuries recorded and the forces responsible for the injuries seem to have developed during training activity. Training programmes and injury prevention strategies for badminton players should account for these findings to reduce potential injury to the ankle and knee.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Influence of Cleats-Surface Interaction on the Performance and Risk of
           Injury in Soccer: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Objective. To review the influence of cleats-surface interaction on the performance and risk of injury in soccer athletes. Design. Systematic review. Data Sources. Scopus, Web of science, PubMed, and B-on. Eligibility Criteria. Full experimental and original papers, written in English that studied the influence of soccer cleats on sports performance and injury risk in artificial or natural grass. Results. Twenty-three articles were included in this review: nine related to performance and fourteen to injury risk. On artificial grass, the soft ground model on dry and wet conditions and the turf model in wet conditions are related to worse performance. Compared to rounded studs, bladed ones improve performance during changes of directions in both natural and synthetic grass. Cleat models presenting better traction on the stance leg improve ball velocity while those presenting a homogeneous pressure across the foot promote better kicking accuracy. Bladed studs can be considered less secure by increasing plantar pressure on lateral border. The turf model decrease peak plantar pressure compared to other studded models. Conclusion. The soft ground model provides lower performance especially on artificial grass, while the turf model provides a high protective effect in both fields.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Fluid Shear Stress and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Increase Endothelial
           Cell-Associated Vitronectin

    • Abstract: Vitronectin is a matricellular protein that plays an important role in both coagulation and angiogenesis through its effects on cell adhesion and the plasminogen system. Vitronectin is known to bind to endothelial cells upon integrin activation. However, the effect of integrin activation by shear stress and growth factors on cell-associated vitronectin and plasminogen system activity has not yet been studied. We therefore exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells to steady laminar flow, oscillating disturbed flow, or fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 24 hours. We then measured cell-associated vitronectin by Western blot and plasminogen system activity using a Chromozym assay. Steady laminar flow, oscillating disturbed flow, and FGF-2 all increased cell-associated vitronectin, although the vitronectin molecular weight varied among the different conditions. FGF-2 also increased cell-associated vitronectin in microvascular endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. The increase in cell-associated vitronectin increased plasminogen system activity. Confocal microscopy showed that vitronectin was primarily located in the basal and intracellular regions. αvβ5 integrin inhibition via genistein, an anti-αvβ5 antibody, or β5 siRNA knockdown abrogated the FGF-2-induced increase in cell-associated vitronectin and increased plasminogen system activity. These data show that shear stress and growth factors increase cell-associated vitronectin through integrin activation, which may affect coagulation and angiogenesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • CathROB: A Highly Compact and Versatile Remote Catheter Navigation System

    • Abstract: Several remote catheter navigation systems have been developed and are now commercially available. However, these systems typically require specialized catheters or equipment, as well as time-consuming operations for the system set-up. In this paper, we present CathROB, a highly compact and versatile robotic system for remote navigation of standard tip-steerable electrophysiology (EP) catheters. Key features of CathROB include an extremely compact design that minimizes encumbrance and time for system set-up in a standard cath lab, a force-sensing mechanism, an intuitive command interface, and functions for automatic catheter navigation and repositioning. We report in vitro and in vivo animal evaluation of CathROB. In vitro results showed good accuracy in remote catheter navigation and automatic repositioning (1.5 ± 0.6 mm for the left-side targets, 1.7 ± 0.4 mm for the right-side targets). Adequate tissue contact was achieved with remote navigation in vivo. There were no adverse events, including absence of cardiac perforation or cardiac damage, indicative of the safety profile of CathROB. Although further preclinical and clinical studies are required, the presented CathROB system seems to be a promising solution for an affordable and easy-to-use remote catheter navigation.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • An Investigation into a Gear-Based Knee Joint Designed for Lower Limb
           Prosthesis

    • Abstract: A gear-based knee joint is designed to improve the performance of mechanical-type above-knee prostheses. The gear set with the help of some bracing, and bracket arrangement, is used to enable the prosthesis to follow the residual limb movement. The motion analysis and finite-element analysis (FEA) of knee joint components are carried out to assess the feasibility of the design. The maximum stress of 29.74 MPa and maximum strain of 2.393e−004 are obtained in the gear, whereas the maximum displacement of 7.975 mm occurred in the stopper of the knee arrangement. The factor of safety of 3.5 obtained from the FE analysis indicated no possibility of design failure. The results obtained from the FE analysis are then compared with the real data obtained from the literature for a similar subject. The pattern of motion analysis results has shown a great resemblance with the gait cycle of a healthy biological limb.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Gravity Compensation and Feedback of Ground Reaction Forces for Biped
           Balance Control

    • Abstract: This paper considers the balance control of a biped robot under a constant external force or on a sloped ground. We have proposed a control method with feedback of the ground reaction forces and have realized adaptive posture changes that ensure the stability of the robot. However, fast responses have not been obtained because effective control is achieved by an integral feedback that accompanies a time delay necessary for error accumulation. To improve this response, here, we introduce gravity compensation in a feedforward manner. The stationary state and its stability are analyzed based on dynamic equations, and the robustness as well as the response is evaluated using computer simulations. Finally, the adaptive behaviors of the robot are confirmed by standing experiments on the slope.
      PubDate: Sun, 07 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with
           Submaximal and Maximal Loading

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible kinematic and muscular activity changes with maximal loading during squat maneuver. Fourteen healthy male individuals, who were experienced at performing squats, participated in this study. Each subject performed squats with 80%, 90%, and 100% of the previously established 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Electromyographic (EMG) activities were measured for the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and erector spinae by using an 8-channel dual-mode portable EMG and physiological signal data acquisition system (Myomonitor IV, Delsys Inc., Boston, MA, USA). Kinematical data were analyzed by using saSuite 2D kinematical analysis program. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance (). Overall muscle activities increased with increasing loads, but significant increases were seen only for vastus medialis and gluteus maximus during 90% and 100% of 1RM compared to 80% while there was no significant difference between 90% and 100% for any muscle. The movement pattern in the hip joint changed with an increase in forward lean during maximal loading. Results may suggest that maximal loading during squat may not be necessary for focusing on knee extensor improvement and may increase the lumbar injury risk.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 May 2017 06:46:17 +000
       
  • An Ultrasound Imaging-Guided Robotic HIFU Ablation Experimental System and
           Accuracy Evaluations

    • Abstract: In recent years, noninvasive thermal treatment by using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has high potential in tumor treatment. The goal of this research is to develop an ultrasound imaging-guided robotic HIFU ablation system for tumor treatment. The system integrates the technologies of ultrasound image-assisted guidance, robotic positioning control, and HIFU treatment planning. With the assistance of ultrasound image guidance technology, the tumor size and location can be determined from ultrasound images as well as the robotic arm can be controlled to position the HIFU transducer to focus on the target tumor. After the development of the system, several experiments were conducted to measure the positioning accuracy of this system. The results show that the average positioning error is 1.01 mm with a standard deviation 0.34, and HIFU ablation accuracy is 1.32 mm with a standard deviation 0.58, which means this system is confirmed with its possibility and accuracy.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 01:33:51 +000
       
  • Effect of Drop Foot on Spatiotemporal, Kinematic, and Kinetic Parameters
           during Gait

    • Abstract: Background. The complexity of the structure and function of a living body can be affected by disorders and can cause various dysfunctions. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine compensatory mechanisms in subjects with drop foot during gait. Methods. The study evaluated 10 subjects with drop foot (DF) whose results were compared to a group of 10 healthy controls (C). Spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters during the gait cycle were collected using Vicon system synchronized with Kistler platforms. Results. Spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were significantly different between the analysed groups. In the DF group, the subjects walked almost 47% slower and performed 60% less steps per minute compared to the C group. The main problem in the DF group was insufficient ankle dorsiflexion in the 0–10% of the gait cycle. Mean values in the groups during the first 10% of the gait cycle were as follows: DF (−10.42 ± 5.7°) and C (−2.37 ± 1.47°), which affected the substantial differences in the values of muscle torque: DF (0.2 ± 0.1 Nm/kg) and C (−0.26 ± 0.06 Nm/kg). Conclusions. Comparative analysis for joint angles and torques demonstrated that the mechanism of compensation is the most noticeable in the knee joint and less in the hip joint.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Kinematics of the Normal Knee during Dynamic Activities: A Synthesis of
           Data from Intracortical Pins and Biplane Imaging

    • Abstract: Few studies have provided in vivo tibiofemoral kinematics of the normal knee during dynamic weight-bearing activities. Indeed, gold standard measurement methods (i.e., intracortical pins and biplane imaging) raise ethical and experimental issues. Moreover, the conventions used for the processing of the kinematics show large inconsistencies. This study aims at synthesising the tibiofemoral kinematics measured with gold standard measurement methods. Published kinematic data were transformed in the standard recommended by the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB), and a clustering method was applied to investigate whether the couplings between the degrees of freedom (DoFs) are consistent among the different activities and measurement methods. The synthesised couplings between the DoFs during knee flexion (from 4° of extension to −61° of flexion) included abduction (up to −10°); internal rotation (up to 15°); and medial (up to 10 mm), anterior (up to 25 mm), and proximal (up to 28 mm) displacements. These synthesised couplings appeared mainly partitioned into two clusters that featured all the dynamic weight-bearing activities and all the measurement methods. Thus, the effect of the dynamic activities on the couplings between the tibiofemoral DoFs appeared to be limited. The synthesised data might be used as a reference of normal in vivo knee kinematics for prosthetic and orthotic design and for knee biomechanical model development and validation.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effect of Body Mass on the Shoe-Athlete Interaction

    • Abstract: Long-distance running is known to induce joint overloading and elevate cytokine levels, which are the hallmarks for a variety of running-related injuries. To address this, footwear systems incorporate cushioning midsoles to mitigate injurious mechanical loading. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of athlete body mass on the cushioning capacity of technical footwear. An artificial heel was prototyped to fit the impact pattern of a heel-strike runner and used to measure shock attenuation by an automated drop test. Impact mass and velocity were modulated to simulate runners of various body mass and speeds. The investigation provided refined insight on running-induced impact transmission to the human body. The examined midsole system was optimized around anthropometric data corresponding to an average (normal) body mass. The results suggest that although modern footwear is capable of attenuating the shock waves occurring during foot strike, improper shoe selection could expose an athlete to high levels of peak stress that could provoke an abnormal cartilage response. The selection of a weight-specific cushioning system could provide optimum protection and could thus prolong the duration of physical exercise beneficial to maintaining a simulated immune system.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Mar 2017 09:53:22 +000
       
 
 
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