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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 88)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 206)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Research on an Ankle Joint Auxiliary Rehabilitation Robot with a
           Rigid-Flexible Hybrid Drive Based on a 2-SPS Mechanism

    • Abstract: An ankle joint auxiliary rehabilitation robot has been developed, which consists of an upper platform, a lower platform, a dorsiflexion/plantar flexion drive system, a varus/valgus drive system, and some connecting parts. The upper platform connects to the lower platform through a ball pin pair and two driving branch chains based on the SPS mechanism. Although the robot has two degrees of freedom (DOF), the upper platform can realize three kinds of motion. To achieve ankle joint auxiliary rehabilitation, the ankle joint of patients on the upper platform makes a bionic motion. The robot uses a centre ball pin pair as the main support to simulate the motion of the ankle joint; the upper platform and the centre ball pin pair construct a mirror image of a patient’s foot and ankle joint, which satisfies the human body physiological characteristics; the driving systems adopt a rigid-flexible hybrid structure; and the dorsiflexion/plantar flexion motion and the varus/valgus motion are decoupled. These structural features can avoid secondary damage to the patient. The rehabilitation process is considered, and energy consumption of the robot is studied. An experimental prototype demonstrates that the robot can simulate the motion of the human foot.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jul 2019 10:05:06 +000
  • Real-Time Needle Force Modeling for VR-Based Renal Biopsy Training with
           Respiratory Motion Using Direct Clinical Data

    • Abstract: Realistic tool-tissue interactive modeling has been recognized as an essential requirement in the training of virtual surgery. A virtual basic surgical training framework integrated with real-time force rendering has been recognized as one of the most immersive implementations in medical education. Yet, compared to the original intraoperative data, there has always been an argument that these data are represented by lower fidelity in virtual surgical training. In this paper, a dynamic biomechanics experimental framework is designed to achieve a highly immersive haptic sensation during the biopsy therapy with human respiratory motion; it is the first time to introduce the idea of periodic extension idea into the dynamic percutaneous force modeling. Clinical evaluation is conducted and performed in the Yunnan First People’s Hospital, which not only demonstrated a higher fitting degree (AVG: 99.36%) with the intraoperation data than previous algorithms (AVG: 87.83%, 72.07%, and 66.70%) but also shows a universal fitting range with multilayer tissue. 27 urologists comprising 18 novices and 9 professors were invited to the VR-based training evaluation based on the proposed haptic rendering solution. Subjective and objective results demonstrated higher performance than the existing benchmark training simulator. Combining these in a systematic approach, tuned with specific fidelity requirements, haptically enabled medical simulation systems would be able to provide a more immersive and effective training environment.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jun 2019 11:05:04 +000
  • Soft Tissue/Bone Decomposition of Conventional Chest Radiographs Using
           Nonparametric Image Priors

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. When radiologists diagnose lung diseases in chest radiography, they can miss some lung nodules overlapped with ribs or clavicles. Dual-energy subtraction (DES) imaging performs well because it can produce soft tissue images, in which the bone components in chest radiography were almost suppressed but the visibility of nodules and lung vessels was still maintained. However, most routinely available X-ray machines do not possess the DES function. Thus, we presented a data-driven decomposition model to perform virtual DES function for decomposing a single conventional chest radiograph into soft tissue and bone images. Methods. For a given chest radiograph, similar chest radiographs with corresponding DES soft tissue and bone images are selected from the training database as exemplars for decomposition. The corresponding fields between the observed chest radiograph and the exemplars are solved by a hierarchically dense matching algorithm. Then, nonparametric priors of soft tissue and bone components are constructed by sampling image patches from the selected soft tissue and bone images according to the corresponding fields. Finally, these nonparametric priors are integrated into our decomposition model, the energy function of which is efficiently optimized by an iteratively reweighted least-squares scheme (IRLS). Results. The decomposition method is evaluated on a data set of posterior-anterior DES radiography (503 cases), as well as on the JSRT data set. The proposed method can produce soft tissue and bone images similar to those produced by the actual DES system. Conclusions. The proposed method can markedly reduce the visibility of bony structures in chest radiographs and shows potential to enhance diagnosis.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jun 2019 13:30:05 +000
  • Influence of Treadmill Speed and Perturbation Intensity on Selection of
           Balancing Strategies during Slow Walking Perturbed in the Frontal Plane

    • Abstract: Background. Common understanding is that adequate foot placement (stepping strategy) is crucial in maintaining stability during walking at normal speed. The aim of this study was to investigate strategies that humans use to cope with lateral perturbations during very slow walking. Methods. Ten healthy individuals underwent an experimental protocol whereby a set of perturbations directed inward (medially to a stance leg) and outward (laterally to a stance leg) of three intensities (,, and of body weight), applied at three instances of a stance phase, were delivered in random order to the pelvis using a balance assessment robot while walking on a treadmill at three walking speeds (,, and ). We analyzed the peak center of mass displacements; step length, step width, and step times; and the lateral component of ground reaction force for perturbations that were delivered at the beginning of the gait cycle. Results. Responses after inward perturbations were similar at all tested speeds and consistently employed stepping strategy that was further facilitated by a shortened stance. Wider and shorter steps were applied with increased perturbation intensity. Responses following outward perturbations were more complex. At S1, hip strategy (impulse-like increase of mediolateral ground reaction force) augmented with ankle strategy (mediolateral shift of the center of pressure) mainly contributed to responses already during the stance phase. The stance duration was significantly longer for all perturbation intensities. At S2, the relative share of hip strategy was reduced while with increased perturbation intensity, stepping strategy was gradually added. The stance duration was significantly longer for F1 and F2. At S3, stepping strategy was mainly used while the duration of stance was similar to the one in unperturbed walking. Responses following both inward and outward perturbations at all speeds were characterized by temporary slowing down movement in a sagittal plane that was more pronounced with increased perturbation intensity. Conclusions. This study provides novel insights into balancing strategies used at slower walking speeds which may be more relevant to understand the challenges of gait stability following perturbations in the frontal plane in clinical populations.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 11:05:23 +000
  • Biomechanical Analysis of the Forces Exerted during Different Occlusion
           Conditions following Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy Treatment for
           Mandibular Deficiency

    • Abstract: The bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) technique is commonly used to correct mandibular deficiency. If the patient is exposed to excessive external forces after the procedure, occlusal changes or nonunion may occur. However, previous studies only focused on single external forces on the mandible and did not conduct relevant research on the forces exerted by different occlusion conditions. The main purpose of this study was to use finite element analysis methods to determine the biomechanics of four common occlusion conditions after BSSO surgical treatment. This study constructed a finite element analysis computer model of a miniplate implanted in the lower jaw. The structure of the model consisted of the mandible, miniplate, and screws. In addition, external forces were applied to the superficial masseter, deep masseter, medial pterygoid, anterior temporalis, middle temporalis, and posterior temporalis muscles to simulate the incisal clench, intercuspal position (ICP), right unilateral molar clench (RMOL), and right group function occlusion conditions. Subsequently, this study observed the effects of these conditions on the miniplate, screws, and mandible, including the von Mises stress values. The results showed that all of the different occlusion conditions that this study evaluated placed high stress on the miniplate. In the ICP and RMOL occlusion conditions, the overall mandibular structure experienced very high stress. The screw on the proximal segment near the bone gap experienced high stress, as did the screw on the buccal side. According to the present analysis, although the data were not directly obtained from clinical practice, the finite element analysis could evaluate the trend of results under different external forces. The result of this study recommended that patients without intermaxillary fixation avoid the ICP and RMOL occlusion conditions. It can be used as a pilot study in the future for providing clinicians more information on the biomechanics of implantation.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 10:05:10 +000
  • Relationships between Hamstrings-to-Quadriceps Ratio and Variables
           Describing Countermovement and Drop Jumps

    • Abstract: The impact of the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio on sport movement performance has not been sufficiently described. However, it seems that in movements involving eccentric-concentric muscular contractions, a higher hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio should have a positive impact on human movement performance. The present study is aimed at identifying relationships between the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and variables describing countermovement and drop jumps. The study was carried out in a group of 14 female soccer players. The tests were conducted using a Kistler force plate, an SG electrogoniometer, and the Biodex System 4 Pro dynamometer. Each player performed three countermovement jumps (CMJ) and three drop jumps (DJ) from heights of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The peak torques of knee extensors and flexors were measured in isometric conditions and in isokinetic conditions at angular velocities of 30o/s, 60o/s, 90o/s, and 120o/s. Statistically significant relationships were found between the variables that describe CMJ, DJ 15, DJ 30, and hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio at some, though not all, of the angular velocities measured. No significant relationships were found between the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and variables that describe DJ 45 and DJ 60. The heights of CMJ, DJ 15, and DJ 30 were increased with higher hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios. Analogous relationships were found between the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and relative mechanical power during the take-off phase of the CMJ. Significant relationships between the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and variables that describe vertical jump are likely to be observed if adequate angular velocity is used in the measurement of muscle torque.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 08:05:10 +000
  • Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model of Thoracolumbar
           Kyphotic Deformity following Vertebral Column Decancellation

    • Abstract: Background. Vertebral column decancellation (VCD) is a new spinal osteotomy technique to correct thoracolumbar kyphotic deformity (TLKD). Relevant biomechanical research is needed to evaluate the safety of the technique and the fixation system. We aimed to develop an accurate finite element (FE) model of the spine with TLKD following VCD and to provide a reliable model for further biomechanical analysis. Methods. A male TLKD patient who had been treated with VCD on L2 and instrumented from T10 to L4 was a volunteer for this study. The CT scanning images of the postoperative spine were used for model development. The FE model, simulating the spine from T1 to the sacrum, includes vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal ligaments, pedicle screws, and rods. The model consists of 509580 nodes and 445722 hexahedrons. The ranges of motion (ROM) under different loading conditions were calculated for validation. The stresses acting on rods, screws, and vertebrae were calculated. Results. The movement trend, peak stress, and ROM calculated by the current FE model are consistent with previous studies. The FE model in this study is able to simulate the mechanical response of the spine during different motions with different loading conditions. Under axial compression, the rod was the part bearing the peak stress. During flexion, the stress was concentrated on proximal pedicle screws. Under extension and lateral bending, an osteotomized L1 vertebra bore the greatest stress on the model. During tests, ligament disruption and unit deletion were not found, indicating an absence of fracture and fixation breakage. Discussion. A subject-specific FE model of the spine following VCD is developed and validated. It can provide a reliable and accurate digital platform for biomechanical analysis and surgical planning.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 May 2019 08:05:05 +000
  • Exploring Vibration Transmission Rule of an Artificial Spider Web for
           Potential Application in Invulnerability of Wireless Sensor Network

    • Abstract: Significant similarities exist between a spider web and wireless sensor network in terms of topology. Combining the unique advantages of the spider web in nature, such as invulnerability and robustness, with communication technology of a wireless sensor network presents high research value and broad development prospects. In this paper, a sort of a spiral artificial spider web based on 3D printing and its associated vibration testing device is proposed, which is used to study the transmission rule of vibration information of the spider web under given excitation conditions. It provides useful inspiration for establishment of an invulnerable communication rule of wireless sensor network. In order to investigate vibration transmission characteristics of the artificial spider web, vibration images are recorded and analyzed by a high-speed photography system, and vibration intensity is characterized by use of peak-to-peak value. Furthermore, vibration performance of the artificial spider web is studied under conditions of integrity and destruction, respectively. Our test observation reveals the vibration transmission rule of the unique structure of the spider web, providing a novel analysis method for improving invulnerability of the wireless sensor network.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 May 2019 09:05:15 +000
  • Functional Epithelium Remodeling in Response to Applied Stress under In
           Vitro Conditions

    • Abstract: Mathematical modeling is often used in tissue engineering in order to overcome one of its major challenges: transformation of complex biological and rheological behaviors of cells and tissue in a mathematically predictive and physically manipulative engineering process. The successive accomplishment of this task will greatly help in quantifying and optimizing clinical application of the tissue engineering products. One of the problems emerging in this area is the relation between resting and migrating cell groups, as well as between different configurations of migrating cells and viscoelasticity. A deeper comprehension of the relation between various configurations of migrating cells and viscoelasticity at the supracellular level represents the prerequisite for optimization of the performance of the artificial epithelium. Since resting and migrating cell groups have a considerable difference in stiffness, a change in their mutual volume ratio and distribution may affect the viscoelasticity of multicellular surfaces. If those cell groups are treated as different phases, then an analogous model may be applied to represent such systems. In this work, a two-step Eyring model is developed in order to demonstrate the main mechanical and biochemical factors that influence configurations of migrating cells. This model could be also used for considering the long-time cell rearrangement under various types of applied stress. The results of this theoretical analysis point out the cause-consequence relationship between the configuration of migrating cells and rheological behavior of multicellular surfaces. Configuration of migrating cells is influenced by mechanical and biochemical perturbations, difficult to measure experimentally, which lead to uncorrelated motility. Uncorrelated motility results in (1) decrease of the volume fraction of migrating cells, (2) change of their configuration, and (3) softening of multicellular surfaces.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 May 2019 07:05:12 +000
  • Knee Joint Biomechanical Gait Data Classification for Knee Pathology
           Assessment: A Literature Review

    • Abstract: Background. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature on knee joint biomechanical gait data analysis for knee pathology classification. The review is prefaced by a presentation of the prerequisite knee joint biomechanics background and a description of biomechanical gait pattern recognition as a diagnostic tool. It is postfaced by discussions that highlight the current research findings and future directions. Methods. The review is based on a literature search in PubMed, IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, and Google Scholar on April 2019. Inclusion criteria admitted articles, written in either English or French, on knee joint biomechanical gait data classification in general. We recorded the relevant information pertaining to the investigated knee joint pathologies, the participants’ attributes, data acquisition, feature extraction, and selection used to represent the data, as well as the classification algorithms and validation of the results. Results. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Conclusions. The review reveals that the importance of medical applications of knee joint biomechanical gait data classification and recent progress in data acquisition technology are fostering intense interest in the subject and giving a strong impetus to research. The review also reveals that biomechanical data during locomotion carry essential information on knee joint conditions to infer an early diagnosis. This survey paper can serve as a useful informative reference for research on the subject.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 May 2019 07:05:13 +000
  • Pelvic Drop Changes due to Proximal Muscle Strengthening Depend on
           Foot-Ankle Varus Alignment

    • Abstract: Background. Strengthening of hip and trunk muscles can modify pelvis and hip movements. However, the varus alignment of the foot-ankle complex (FAC) may influence the effects of muscle strengthening, due to the relationship of FAC alignment with pelvic and hip kinematics. This study evaluated the effects of hip and trunk muscle strengthening on pelvis and hip kinematics during walking, in subgroups with larger and smaller values of FAC varus alignment. In addition, this study evaluated the effects of hip and trunk muscle strengthening on hip passive and active properties, in the same subgroups. Methods. Fifty-three women, who were divided into intervention and control groups, participated in this nonrandomized controlled trial. Each group was split into two subgroups with larger and smaller values of FAC varus alignment. Hip and trunk muscle strengthening was performed three times a week for two months, with a load of 70% to 80% of one repetition maximum. Before and after strengthening, we evaluated (1) pelvis and hip excursions in the frontal and transverse planes during walking, (2) isokinetic hip passive external rotator torque, and (3) isokinetic concentric and eccentric peak torques of the hip external rotator muscles. Mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were carried out for each dependent variable related to walking kinematics and isokinetic measurements ().Results. The subgroup with smaller varus alignment, of the intervention group, presented a reduction in pelvic drop after strengthening (). The subgroup with larger varus alignment increased pelvic drop after strengthening, with a marginal significance (). The other kinematic excursions did not change (pelvic anterior rotation , hip internal rotation , and hip adduction ). The intervention group showed increases in passive torque (), peak concentric torque (), and peak eccentric torque (), independently of FAC alignment. These results suggest that FAC varus alignment influences the effects of strengthening and should be considered when hip and trunk muscle strengthening is used to reduce pelvic drop during walking.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 May 2019 07:05:21 +000
  • The Evaluation of Different Radiological Measurement Parameters of the
           Degree of Collapse of the Vertebral Body in Vertebral Compression

    • Abstract: For compression fracture, vertebral body height loss (VBHL) and kyphotic angle (KA) are two important imaging parameters for determining the prognosis and appropriate treatment. This study used previous measurement methods to assess the degree of VBHL and KA, compare and examine differences between various measurement methods, and examine the correlation between relevant measurement parameters and intravertebral cleft (IVC) in the vertebral body. The radiographic images (lateral view of the T-L spine) of 18 patients with a single-level vertebral compression fracture were reviewed. We measured 9 characteristic lengths and angles on plain radiographs, including anterior vertebral height (AVH) and AVH of the adjacent upper and lower levels, middle vertebral height (MVH) and MVH of the adjacent upper and lower levels, posterior vertebral height (PVH), and vertebral body width, and assessed 6 parameters, including vertebral compression ratio (VBCR), percentage of anterior height compression (PAHC), percentage of middle height compression (PMHC), kyphotic angle (KA), calculated kyphotic angle (CKA), and IVC. The results showed that VBCR is a simple and rapid method of VBHL assessment, but it may result in an underestimation of the degree of VBHL compared to PAHC. When or , the probability of IVC occurring on the vertebral body was higher which means the higher risk of vertebral body instability. The results of this study could provide a reference for surgeons when using imaging modalities to assess the degree of vertebral body collapse.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 May 2019 11:05:07 +000
  • Muscular Force Patterns during Level Walking in ACL-Deficient Patients
           with a Concomitant Medial Meniscus Tear

    • Abstract: Background. The abnormal knee joint motion patterns caused by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency are thought to be associated with articular cartilage degeneration. High rates of meniscus tear combined with ACL rupture are observed, and these knees suffer a higher risk of early cartilage degeneration. Research Question. This study investigated lower limb muscular force patterns of ACL-deficient knees with a concomitant medial meniscus tear. Methods. 12 volunteers and 22 patients were recruited, including 12 patients with isolated ACL deficiency (ACLD) and 10 ACL-deficient patients with a concomitant medial meniscus tear (ACLDM). Level walking data at a self-selected speed were collected before surgery. Then, a musculoskeletal dynamic analysis system, AnyBody, was applied to simulate tibiofemoral flexion moments and muscle forces. Results. Our results indicate that the tibiofemoral peak flexion and extension moments in ACLDM patients are significantly lower than in controls. The rectus femoris force in ACLDM patients was significantly lower than in isolated ACL-deficient patients and the controls during mid and terminal stance phase, while no significant difference was found in hamstring and vastus force. Additionally, the gastrocnemius force in ACL-deficient patients both with and without a medial meniscus tear was lower than in controls during mid-stance phase. Significance. The ACLDM patients had lower peak tibiofemoral flexion moment, lower gastrocnemius force in mid-stance phase, and lower rectus femoris force during the mid and terminal stance phase. These results may help clinicians to better understand the muscle function and gait pattern in ACL-deficient patients with a concomitant medial meniscus tear.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 May 2019 09:05:10 +000
  • A Prototype Intraoral Periapical Sensor with High Frame Rates for a 2.5D
           Periapical Radiography System

    • Abstract: X-ray radiography is currently used in dentistry and can be divided into two categories: two-dimensional (2D) radiographic images (e.g., using periapical film, cephalometric film, and panoramic X-ray) and three-dimensional (3D) radiographic images (e.g., using dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)). Among them, 2D periapical film images are most commonly used. However, 2D periapical film compresses 3D image information into a 2D image, which means that depth cannot be identified from the image. Such compressed images lose a considerable amount of information, reducing their clinical applicability. A 2.5D periapical radiography system prototype was developed by our research team. Our previous study indicated that this prototype could be used to capture images at different depths of an object. However, the prototype was limited by its commercially available intraoral periapical sensor, which had a low temporal resolution and could not capture multiple images in a short period of time. Therefore, the total time required for image capture was too long for practical clinical application. The present study developed a high-frame-rate intraoral periapical sensor with a sensor imaging speed of up to 15 Hz. The primary components of the developed intraoral periapical sensor include a scintillator, complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip, component circuit board, and video processing board. The external dimensions of the sensor are  mm3. The performance of the developed high-frame-rate intraoral periapical sensor was verified through qualified and quantified analyses using line pairs. The results showed that the resolution of the developed intraoral periapical sensor could reach 18 lp/mm. The sensor was further installed in our 2.5D periapical radiography system to conduct image capturing. The results indicated that the developed sensor could be used for high-frame-rate imaging to incorporate tomosynthesis to obtain reconstructed slice images of different depths. The developed sensor has the potential for clinical dentistry applications in the future.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Apr 2019 11:05:05 +000
  • Stiff Substrates Enhance Endothelial Oxidative Stress in Response to
           Protein Kinase C Activation

    • Abstract: Arterial stiffness, which increases with aging and hypertension, is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. While stiffer substrates are known to affect single endothelial cell morphology and migration, the effect of substrate stiffness on endothelial monolayer function is less understood. The objective of this study was to determine if substrate stiffness increased endothelial monolayer reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to protein kinase C (PKC) activation and if this oxidative stress then impacted adherens junction integrity. Porcine aortic endothelial cells were cultured on varied stiffness polyacrylamide gels and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which stimulates PKC and ROS without increasing actinomyosin contractility. PMA-treated endothelial cells on stiffer substrates increased ROS and adherens junction loss without increased contractility. ROS scavengers abrogated PMA effects on cell-cell junctions, with a more profound effect in cells on stiffer substrates. Finally, endothelial cells in aortae from elastin haploinsufficient mice (Eln+/-), which were stiffer than aortae from wild-type mice, showed decreased VE-cadherin colocalization with peripheral actin following PMA treatment. These data suggest that oxidative stress may be enhanced in endothelial cells in stiffer vessels, which could contribute to the association between arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Apr 2019 10:05:04 +000
  • Kriging Surrogate Model for Resonance Frequency Analysis of Dental
           Implants by a Latin Hypercube-Based Finite Element Method

    • Abstract: The dental implantation in clinical operations often encounters difficulties and challenges of failure in osseointegration, bone formulation, and remodeling. The resonance frequency (RF) can effectively describe the stability of the implant in physical experiments or numerical simulations. However, the exact relationship between the design variables of dental implants and RF of the system is correlated, complicated, and dependent. In this study, an appropriate mathematical model is proposed to evaluate and predict the implant stability and performance. The model has merits not only in the prediction reliability and accuracy but also in the compatibility and flexibility, in both experimental data and numerical simulation results. The Kriging surrogate model is proposed to present the numerical relationship between RF and material parameters of dental implants. The Latin Hypercube (LH) sampling method as a competent and sophisticated method is applied and combined with the finite element method (FEM). The methods developed in this paper provide helpful guidance for designers and researchers in the implantation design and surgical plans.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 13:05:02 +000
  • Research on Kinematics and Stability of a Bionic Wall-Climbing Hexapod

    • Abstract: Wall-climbing hexapod robot as a bionic robot has become a focus for extensive research, due to a wide range of practical applications. The most contribution of this paper is to analyze the kinematics and stability of a wall-climbing hexapod robot, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the stable walking and control of the robot on the wall. Firstly, the kinematics model of the wall-climbing hexapod robot is established based on the D-H method. Then, in order to keep the robot from tipping over, the stability of the wall-climbing hexapod robot is analyzed in depth, obtaining the critical condition which makes the robot to tip over. Afterward, the kinematics simulation of the wall-climbing hexapod robot is operated to analyze motion performances. Finally, the experiments are used to validate the proposed kinematics model and stability. The experimental results show that the kinematics model and stability condition of the wall-climbing hexapod robot are correct.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Apr 2019 04:05:13 +000
  • An Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of the Ponseti Method in Clubfoot

    • Abstract: Congenital clubfoot is a complex pediatric foot deformity, occurring in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and resulting in significant disability, deformity, and pain if left untreated. The Ponseti method of manipulation is widely recognized as the gold standard treatment for congenital clubfoot; however, its mechanical aspects have not yet been fully explored. During the multiple manipulation-casting cycles, the tendons and ligaments on the medial and posterior aspect of the foot and ankle, which are identified as the rate-limiting tissues, usually undergo weekly sequential stretches, with a plaster of Paris cast applied after the stretch to maintain the length gained. This triggers extracellular matrix remodeling and tissue growth, but due to the viscoelastic properties of tendons and ligaments, the initial strain size, rate, and loading history will affect the relaxation behavior and mechanical strength of the tissue. To increase the efficiency of the Ponseti treatment, we discuss the theoretical possibilities of decreasing the size of the strain step and interval of casting and/or increasing the overall number of casts. This modification may provide more tensile stimuli, allow more time for remodeling, and preserve the mechanical integrity of the soft tissues.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Mar 2019 12:05:14 +000
  • Optimization of Semiautomated Calibration Algorithm of Multichannel
           Electrotactile Feedback for Myoelectric Hand Prosthesis

    • Abstract: The main drawback of the commercially available myoelectric hand prostheses is the absence of somatosensory feedback. We recently developed a feedback interface for multiple degrees of freedom myoelectric prosthesis that allows proprioceptive and sensory information (i.e., grasping force) to be transmitted to the wearer instantaneously. High information bandwidth is achieved through intelligent control of spatiotemporal distribution of electrical pulses over a custom-designed electrode array. As electrotactile sensations are location-dependent and the developed interface requires that electrical stimuli are perceived to be of the same intensity on all locations, a calibration procedure is of high importance. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the calibration procedure and optimize this process by leveraging a priori knowledge. For this purpose, we conducted a study with 9 able-bodied subjects performing 10 sessions of the array electrode calibration. Based on the collected data, we optimized and simplified the calibration procedure by adapting the initial (baseline) amplitude values in the calibration algorithm. The results suggest there is an individual pattern of stimulation amplitudes across 16 electrode pads for each subject, which is not affected by the initial amplitudes. Moreover, the number of user actions performed and the time needed for the calibration procedure are significantly reduced by the proposed methodology.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 13:05:01 +000
  • Experimental Implementation of Automatic Control of Posture-Dependent
           Stimulation in an Implanted Standing Neuroprosthesis

    • Abstract: Knowledge of the upper extremity (UE) effort exerted under real-world conditions is important for understanding how persons with motor or sensory disorders perform the postural shifts necessary to complete many activities of daily living while standing. To this end, a feedback controller, named the “Posture Follower Controller”, was developed to aid in task-dependent posture shifting by individuals with spinal cord injury standing with functional neuromuscular stimulation. In this experimental feasibility study, the controller modulated activation to the paralyzed lower extremity muscles as a function of the position of overall center of pressure (CoP), which was prescribed to move in a straight line in forward and diagonal directions. Posture-dependent control of stimulation enabled leaning movements that translated the CoP up to 48 mm away from the nominal position during quiet standing. The mean 95% prediction ellipse area, a measure of the CoP dispersion in the forward, forward-right, and forward-left directions, was ,, and , respectively. The average width of the prediction ellipses across the three directions was 15.1 mm, indicating that the CoP deviated from the prescribed path as task-dependent postures were assumed. The average maximal UE effort required to adjust posture across all leaning directions was 24.1% body weight, which is only slightly more than twice of what is required to maintain balance in an erect standing posture. These preliminary findings suggest that stimulation can be modulated to effectively assume user-specified, task-dependent leaning postures characterized by the CoP shifts that deviate away from the nominal position and which require moderate UE effort to execute.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 08:05:11 +000
  • Biologically Inspired and Rehabilitation Robotics

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Mar 2019 07:05:16 +000
  • Gait Analysis of Patients Subjected to the Atrophic Mandible Augmentation
           with Iliac Bone Graft

    • Abstract: In this study, we aimed to quantitatively monitor and describe the gait functions of patients, who underwent iliac crest bone grafting in atrophic jaw augmentation operation, by taking into account the alterations of gait parameters and muscle forces in the early recovery course. To do so, temporospatial and kinematic gait parameters of ten patients during pre- and postoperative periods were recorded, and forces of the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, and iliacus muscles were calculated. Three postoperative periods were specified as one week (post-op1), two weeks (post-op2), and three weeks (post-op3) after the surgery. Restoring process of the gait patterns was comparatively evaluated by analyzing the gait parameters and muscle forces for pre- and postoperative periods. Temporospatial and kinematic parameters of post-op3 were closer to those obtained in pre-op than those in post-op1 and post-op2 (). Muscle forces calculated in post-op3 showed the best agreement with those in pre-op among the postoperative periods in terms of both magnitude and correlation (). In conclusion, the patients began to regain their preoperative gait characteristics from the second week after surgery, but complete recovery in gait was observed three weeks after the surgery.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 09:05:10 +000
  • Modulation in Elastic Properties of Upper Trapezius with Varying Neck

    • Abstract: Background. Neck and shoulder complaints caused by poor posture may influence upper trapezius stiffness. The relationship between the shear elastic modulus of the upper trapezius and cervical flexion angles is unknown. Therefore, it is essential to assess upper trapezius stiffness during cervical flexion. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the intra- and interoperator reliabilities of evaluating upper trapezius stiffness and calculate the minimal detectable change (MDC); (2) examine the elastic modulus alterations of the upper trapezius during cervical flexion; and (3) explore the difference of upper trapezius stiffness between the dominant and nondominant sides. Methods. Twenty healthy male participants were recruited in this study. The shear modulus of the upper trapezius was evaluated by two independent investigators using shear wave elastography (SWE) during cervical flexion at 0° and 50°. Findings. The intraoperator (intraclass correlation coefficient –0.86) and interoperator (–0.98) reliabilities for measuring the shear elastic modulus of the upper trapezius during the cervical flexion ranged from good to excellent. An increase of 35.58% in upper trapezius stiffness was found at 0° to 50° of cervical flexion, and the MDC was 7.04 kPa. In addition, a significant difference was obtained in the elastic modulus of the upper trapezius muscle between the dominant and nondominant sides ().Conclusions. Our findings revealed that SWE could quantify the elastic modulus of the upper trapezius and monitor its changes. Therefore, further studies are required to delineate the modulation in upper trapezius muscle stiffness among subjects with neck and shoulder pain.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 00:06:29 +000
  • Robotic Ultrasonic Measurement of Residual Stress in Complex Curved
           Surface Components

    • Abstract: The automatic measurement, especially for products with complex shapes, has always been one of the most important application areas of robots. Aiming at the challenge of measuring residual stress under curved surface, in this paper, the residual stress ultrasonic measuring robot system with two manipulators is constructed, which is based on combining industrial robot technology with residual stress ultrasonic nondestructive measuring technology. The system is mainly composed of a motion control system, an ultrasonic detection system, and a data processing system. The robotic arm controls the movement of the two ultrasonic transducers along the set scanning path which is based on the geometric model of components and adjusts the transducer’s posture in time according to the shape of the workpiece being measured. The configuration information based on workpiece coordinate system is transformed into a position data that takes into consideration the first critical angle and can be recognized by the robot. Considering the effect of curvature, the principle model of residual stress measuring by the critical refraction longitudinal wave is established. The measured signal including the stress state of the measured region, as well as the actual position and posture information of the transducers, is processed by the computer in real time, which realizes automatic nondestructive measurement of residual stress under curved surface.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 00:06:25 +000
  • Coupling Musculoskeletal Dynamics and Subject-Specific Finite Element
           Analysis of Femoral Cortical Bone Failure after Endoprosthetic Knee

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. A common reconstruction procedure after a wide resection of bone tumors around the knee is endoprosthetic knee replacement. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of bone injury of the patient after endoprosthetic knee replacement during walking. Methods. A subject-specific finite element model of the femur-prosthesis-tibia complex was established via CT scans. To obtain its physiologically realistic loading environments, the musculoskeletal inverse dynamic analysis was implemented. The extracted muscle forces and ground forces were then applied to the finite element model to investigate bone stress distribution at various stages of the gait cycle. Results. The maximum femur stress of each stage varied from 33.14 MPa to 70.61 MPa in the gait cycle. The stress concentration position with a distance of 267.2 mm to the tibial plateau showed a good agreement with the patient injury data. Conclusions. Overall results indicated the reasonability of the simulation method to determine loading environments and injury characteristics which the patient experienced with knee endoprosthesis during walking.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Feb 2019 13:05:07 +000
  • Host Mesh Fitting of a Generic Musculoskeletal Model of the Lower Limbs to
           Subject-Specific Body Surface Data: A Validation Study

    • Abstract: Challenges remain in accurately capturing the musculoskeletal geometry of individual subjects for clinical and biomechanical gait analysis. The aim of this study was to use and validate the Host Mesh Fitting (HMF) technique for fitting a generic anatomically based musculoskeletal model to 3D body surface data of individual subjects. The HMF technique is based on the free-form idea of deforming geometrically complex structures according to the deformation of a surrounding volumetric mesh. Using the HMF technique, an anatomically based model of the lower limbs of an adult female subject (29 years) was customized to subject-specific skin surface data of five typically developing children (mean age 10.2 years) and six children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) (mean age 9.6 years). The fitted lengths and volumes of six muscle-tendon structures were compared against measures from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images for validation purposes. The HMF technique resulted in accurate approximations of the lower limb shapes of all subjects in both study groups. The average error between the MR data and the fitted muscle-tendon lengths from HMF was in children without CP and in children with CP, respectively. The average error between the MR data and the fitted muscle volumes from HMF was in children without CP and in children with CP, respectively. This study presents a crucial step towards personalized musculoskeletal modelling for gait analysis by demonstrating the feasibility of fitting a generic anatomically based lower limb model to 3D body surface data of children with and without CP using the HMF technique. Additional improvements in the quality of fit are expected to be gained by developing age-matched generic models for different study groups, accounting for subject-specific variations in subcutaneous body fat, as well as considering supplementary data from ultrasound imaging to better capture physiological muscle tissue properties.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Feb 2019 08:05:12 +000
  • Validity and Reliability of Upper Limb Functional Assessment Using the
           Microsoft Kinect V2 Sensor

    • Abstract: Objective. To quantify the concurrent accuracy and the test-retest reliability of a Kinect V2-based upper limb functional assessment system. Approach. Ten healthy males performed a series of upper limb movements, which were measured concurrently with Kinect V2 and the Vicon motion capture system (gold standard). Each participant attended two testing sessions, seven days apart. Four tasks were performed including hand to contralateral shoulder, hand to mouth, combing hair, and hand to back pocket. Upper limb kinematics were calculated using our developed kinematic model and the UWA model for Kinect V2 and Vicon. The interdevice coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the validity of the kinematic waveforms. Mean absolute bias and Pearson’s correlation were used to evaluate the validity of the angles at the points of target achieved (PTA) and the range of motion (ROM). The intersession CMC and RMSE and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess the test-retest reliability of Kinect V2. Main Results. Both validity and reliability are found to be task-dependent and plane-dependent. Kinect V2 had good accuracy in measuring shoulder and elbow flexion/extension angular waveforms (), moderate accuracy of measuring shoulder adduction/abduction angular waveforms (-0.82), and poor accuracy of measuring shoulder internal/external angles (). We also found high test-retest reliability of Kinect V2 in most of the upper limb angular waveforms (-0.99), angles at the PTA (-0.91), and the ROM (-0.96). Significance. Kinect V2 has great potential as a low-cost, easy implemented device for assessing upper limb angular waveforms when performing functional tasks. The system is suitable for assessing relative within-person change in upper limb motions over time, such as disease progression or improvement due to intervention.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Feb 2019 07:05:24 +000
  • A Comparative Analysis of Standardised Threads for Use in Implants for
           Direct Skeletal Attachment of Limb Prosthesis: A Finite Element Analysis

    • Abstract: The aim of the research was to determine the optimal thread’s shape to be used in implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prosthesis. In addition, by testing appropriate parameters’ modification of the suitable thread, an attempt was made to maximise its effectiveness. The analyses included three thread types described in the ISO standards: shallow, symmetrical, and asymmetrical. The obtained results suggest that shallow thread ensures the lowest equivalent and directional stress peaks generated in the bone as well as favourable stress patterns and profiles during implant loading in relation to symmetrical and asymmetrical threads. Moreover, shallow thread ensured the generation of single equivalent and directional stress peaks, while symmetrical and asymmetrical threads provided additional stress peak for equivalent as well as for each of directional peaks. Subsequently, optimisation of the shallow thread’s shape was conducted by changing two relevant thread’s parameters (flank angle and rounding arc) which influence the generated stress distribution. The highest reduction of stress peaks was obtained while reducing the rounding arc by 0.2 mm. Therefore, it can be stated that the proposed modification of the HA thread can lead to obtaining a higher biomechanical effectiveness of implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prosthesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 09:05:26 +000
  • Increased Perceptual and Motor Performance of the Arms of Elite Water Polo

    • Abstract: Background. It has been stated that long-term participation in sport training can influence the motor asymmetry of the arms with a decreased interlimb difference. However, whether this pattern is observable in different sports and with different variables, like perceptual performance, still needs to be tested. Therefore, we investigated if long-term sports participation might modify the motor and perceptual performance asymmetries of arms in water polo players. It was hypothesized that water polo players would perform with less interlimb asymmetry in comparison to nonathletes. Methods. Right-handed water polo players and nonathletes were tested on motor performance for both arms during a reaching task. Thirteen water polo players and thirteen nonathletes performed reaching movements under two experimental conditions: (a) right arm and (b) left arm. Velocity, accuracy, hand path deviation from linearity, and reaction time were calculated for each trial and for both arms. The potential interlimb differences in movement performance could be assessed by testing. Results. Consistent with the hypothesis, our findings showed that water polo players displayed substantially less asymmetry in the performance of accuracy and reaction time. Conclusions. These findings suggest that performance asymmetries of arms can be altered via intense long-term practice.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 11:05:01 +000
  • Research on the Design Method of a Bionic Suspension Workpiece Based on
           the Wing Structure of an Albatross

    • Abstract: An air suspension platform uses air pressure to realize the suspension function during the suspension process, and it has the disadvantage of large air pressure and a small suspension force. In this study, an air suspension platform was built using bionic design to reduce the required air pressure and increase the suspension force. A suspension structure mapping model was established according to the physiological structure characteristics of albatross wings. A bionic model was established by using the theoretical calculation formula and structural size parameters of the structural design. A 3D printer was used to manufacture the physical prototype of the suspended workpiece. Based on this, a suspension test rig was built. Six sets of contrast experiments were designed. The experimental results of the suspension test bench were compared with the theoretical calculation results. The results show that the buoyancy of the suspended workpiece with a V-shaped surface at a 15-degree attack angle was optimal for the same air pressure as the other workpieces. The surface structure of the suspended workpiece was applied to the air static pressure guide rail. By comparing the experimental data, the air pressure of the original air suspension guide rail was reduced by 37%, and the validity of the theory and design method was verified.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 13:05:00 +000
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