Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Leg Locomotion Adaption for Quadruped Robots with Ground Compliance

    • Abstract: Locomotion control for quadruped robots is commonly applied on rigid terrains with modelled contact dynamics. However, the robot traversing different terrains is more important for real application. In this paper, a single-leg prototype and a test platform are built. The Cartesian coordinates of the foot-end are obtained through trajectory planning, and then, the virtual polar coordinates in the impedance control are obtained through geometric transformation. The deviation from the planned and actual virtual polar coordinates and the expected force recognized by the ground compliance identification system are sent to the impedance controller for different compliances. At last, several experiments are carried out for evaluating the performance including the ground compliance identification, the foot-end trajectory control, and the comparison between pure position control and impedance control.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2020 14:05:01 +000
  • Research on Claw Motion Characteristics and Cavitation Bubbles of Snapping

    • Abstract: Snapping shrimp produces a high-speed jet through the rapid closure of the snapper claw, which stimulates the formation of cavitation bubbles of various shapes. In order to explore the fast motion characteristics of snapper claw, the formation and change process of cavitation, and the physical principles underlying the biological phenomena, the equivalent model of snapper claw was constructed through CT scanning technology. A high-speed camera was used to capture the claw’s motion characteristics, thereby simulating the production of cavitation bubbles by snapping shrimp. The results show that the rotation speeds of different species of snapping shrimps are different, as well as their motion characteristics. Cavitation is formed by the interaction of the pressure drop caused by the vortex at the nozzle with the inertia of the liquid inside the socket. Under the influence of the jet, the shapes of bubbles change from ring to cone, and eventually collapse into bubble clouds.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Sep 2020 10:50:03 +000
  • A Review of Different Stimulation Methods for Functional Reconstruction
           and Comparison of Respiratory Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    • Abstract: Background. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common severe trauma in clinic, hundreds of thousands of people suffer from which every year in the world. In terms of injury location, cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) has the greatest impact. After cervical spinal cord injury, the lack of innervated muscles is not enough to provide ventilation and other activities to complete the respiratory function. In addition to the decline of respiratory capacity, respiratory complications also have a serious impact on the life of patients. The most commonly used assisted breathing and cough equipment is the ventilator, but in recent years, the functional electrical stimulation method is being used gradually and widely. Methods. About hundred related academic papers are cited for data analysis. They all have the following characteristics: (1) basic conditions of patients were reported, (2) patients had received nerve or muscle stimulation and the basic parameters, and (3) the results were evaluated based on some indicators. Results. The papers mentioned above are classified as four kinds of stimulation methods: muscle electric/magnetic stimulation, spinal dural electric stimulation, intraspinal microstimulation, and infrared light stimulation. This paper describes the stimulation principle and application experiment. Finally, this paper will compare the indexes and effects of typical stimulation methods, as well as the two auxiliary methods: training and operation. Conclusions. Although there is limited evidence for the treatment of respiratory failure by nerve or muscle stimulation after cervical spinal cord injury, the two techniques seem to be safe and effective. At the same time, light stimulation is gradually applied to clinical medicine with its strong advantages and becomes the development trend of nerve stimulation in the future.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:50:03 +000
  • Flexion Angles of Finger Joints in Two-Finger Tip Pinching Using 3D Bone
           Models Constructed from X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) Images

    • Abstract: The motion analysis of two-finger tip pinching using the thumb and index finger provides crucial data for designing the motion mechanism of electric prosthetic hands. The purpose of this study is to determine the joints that have high mobility during two-finger tip pinching by measuring the flexion angle of each joint. Ten Japanese men with normal hand were selected. CT images were obtained while the hands adopted the following four postures: a basic posture not pinching a cylinder, and three postures pinching wooden cylinders with different diameters (2, 10, and 30 mm). Three-dimensional bone models of the thumb and index finger were created using the CT images and used to measure the flexion angles of the joints. The flexion angles of the proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints of the index finger significantly decreased as the diameter of the cylinder increased. However, even when the diameter of the cylinder changed, the flexion angle of the distal interphalangeal joint of the index finger, and the flexion and rotation angles of all of the thumb joints did not change. When pinching objects of different sizes with a two-finger tip pinch, the posture of the thumb is fixed, and only the posture of the index finger changes. When designing the two-finger tip pinch motion for an electric prosthetic hand, it is sufficient to drive the joints of the index finger only.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 13:20:01 +000
  • Prediction of Passive Torque on Human Shoulder Joint Based on BPANN

    • Abstract: In upper limb rehabilitation training by exploiting robotic devices, the qualitative or quantitative assessment of human active effort is conducive to altering the robot control parameters to offer the patients appropriate assistance, which is considered an effective rehabilitation strategy termed as assist-as-needed. Since active effort of a patient is changeable for the conscious or unconscious behavior, it is considered to be more feasible to determine the distributions of the passive resistance of the patient’s joints versus the joint angle in advance, which can be adopted to assess the active behavior of patients combined with the measurement of robotic sensors. However, the overintensive measurements can impose a burden on patients. Accordingly, a prediction method of shoulder joint passive torque based on a Backpropagation neural network (BPANN) was proposed in the present study to expand the passive torque distribution of the shoulder joint of a patient with less measurement data. The experiments recruiting three adult male subjects were conducted, and the results revealed that the BPANN exhibits high prediction accurate for each direction shoulder passive torque. The results revealed that the BPANN can learn the nonlinear relationship between the passive torque and the position of the shoulder joint and can make an accurate prediction without the need to build a force distribution function in advance, making it possible to draw up an assist-as-needed strategy with high accuracy while reducing the measurement burden of patients and physiotherapists.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Aug 2020 11:50:08 +000
  • Cartesian Control of Sit-to-Stand Motion Using Head Position Feedback

    • Abstract: Sit-to-stand (STS) motion is an indicator of an individual’s physical independence and well-being. Determination of various variables that contribute to the execution and control of STS motion is an active area of research. In this study, we evaluate the clinical hypothesis that besides numerous other factors, the central nervous system (CNS) controls STS motion by tracking a prelearned head position trajectory. Motivated by the evidence for a task-oriented encoding of motion by the CNS, we adopt a robotic approach for the synthesis of STS motion and propose this scheme as a solution to this hypothesis. We propose an analytical biomechanical human CNS modeling framework where the head position trajectory defines the high-level task control variable. The motion control is divided into low-level task generation and motor execution phases. We model CNS as STS controller and its Estimator subsystem plans joint trajectories to perform the low-level task. The motor execution is done through the Cartesian controller subsystem that generates torque commands to the joints. We do extensive motion and force capture experiments on human subjects to validate our analytical modeling scheme. We first scale our biomechanical model to match the anthropometry of the subjects. We do dynamic motion reconstruction through the control of simulated custom human CNS models to follow the captured head position trajectories in real time. We perform kinematic and kinetic analyses and comparison of experimental and simulated motions. For head position trajectories, root mean square (RMS) errors are 0.0118 m in horizontal and 0.0315 m in vertical directions. Errors in angle estimates are 0.55 rad, 0.93 rad, 0.59 rad, and 0.0442 rad for ankle, knee, hip, and head orientation, respectively. RMS error of ground reaction force (GRF) is 50.26 N, and the correlation between ground reaction torque and the support moment is 0.72. Low errors in our results validate (1) the reliability of motion/force capture methods and anthropometric technique for customization of human models and (2) high-level task control framework and human CNS modeling as a solution to the hypothesis. Accurate modeling and detailed understanding of human motion can have significant scope in the fields of rehabilitation, humanoid robotics, and virtual characters’ motion planning based on high-level task control schemes.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Aug 2020 06:35:07 +000
  • Design Criteria of Soft Exogloves for Hand Rehabilitation-Assistance Tasks

    • Abstract: This paper establishes design criteria for soft exogloves (SEG) to be used as rehabilitation or assistance devices. This research consists in identifying, selecting, and grouping SEG features based on the analysis of 91 systems that have been proposed during the last decade. Thus, function, mobility, and usability criteria are defined and explicitly discussed to highlight SEG design guidelines. Additionally, this study provides a detailed description of each system that was analysed including application, functional task, palm design, actuation type, assistance mode, degrees of freedom (DOF), target fingers, motions, material, weight, force, pressure (only for fluids), control strategy, and assessment. Such characteristics have been reported according to specific design methodologies and operating principles. Technological trends are contemplated in this contribution with emphasis on SEG design opportunity areas. In this review, suggestions, limitations, and implications are also discussed in order to enhance future SEG developments aimed at stroke survivors or people with hand disabilities.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 04:35:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “The Analysis of Biomechanical Properties of Proximal
           Femur after Implant Removal”

    • PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:05:12 +000
  • Design and Analysis of the Bionic Mechanical Foot with High Trafficability
           on Sand

    • Abstract: The ostrich foot has excellent travelling performance on sand and plays a vital role in efficient locomotion. The tendon-bone assembly characteristics of an ostrich foot were studied by gross anatomy, and the 3D model of ostrich foot was reconstructed and analyzed using reverse engineering techniques. Further, the bionic mechanical foot, suitable for locomotion on loose sand, was designed based on the structural characteristics of ostrich foot and its rigid-flexible coupling mechanism of tendon-bone synergies. The travelling performance on sand of the bionic mechanical foot was tested on a test platform by using Simi Motion. After analyzing the angle changes of the ankle joint and the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, the displacement changes of the knee joint, the ankle joint, the MTP joint, and each phalanx along the -axis, the plantar pressure distribution, and the footprints, we drew the conclusion that the bionic mechanical foot is helpful to reduce the sinkage and improve the trafficability on sand ground. This study provides a new research method for the walking mechanism of a robot and deep space exploration platform walking on soft ground.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jul 2020 08:20:04 +000
  • Analysis of Stiffness and Energy Consumption of Nonlinear Elastic Joint
           Legged Robot

    • Abstract: In order to reduce the energy consumption of the legged robot in walking, this paper designs a kind of nonlinear elastic joint from the flexible variable-stiffness joint based on the mammal walking on the limb and optimizes the leg structure of the legged robot. The motor is rigidly connected to the articulated lever. When the lever is accelerated or decelerated, the elastic unit is introduced. The system can be considered as a special variable-rate elastic system. This paper will study it from theory and simulation experiments. Based on the dynamic analysis, a functional relationship between the output torque and the torsion spring stiffness and between the energy consumption and the torsion spring stiffness was established. By finding the extremum, the two optimum torsional spring stiffness that can minimize the required output average torque and the energy consumed during one cycle of motion were deduced. The results show that using this design in a reasonable position can effectively reduce the energy consumption of the system and can achieve up to a 50% reduction in energy consumption.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jul 2020 08:20:04 +000
  • Single-Actuator-Based Lower-Limb Soft Exoskeleton for Preswing Gait

    • Abstract: In this research, we proposed a lower-limb soft exoskeleton for providing assistive forces to patients with muscle weakness during the preswing phase of a gait cycle. Whereas conventional soft exoskeletons employ two motors to assist each leg individually, we designed a single motor for actuation. Our design assists hip flexion for light weights and prevents some slip problems that can arise from rotary motors. The actuation mechanism was based on a pulley system that converted the power supplied by the single motor into linear reciprocating motions of a slider. When the single motor rotated, the slider moved linearly, first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The slider pulled knee braces through cables with an assistive force of 100 N. The actuation was triggered when the system detected that the backward swing of the wearer’s thigh had ended. A prototype was designed, fabricated, and examined with 7 subjects (average age, 24). Subjects were measured while they wore our exoskeleton in power-off and power-on modes. Comparisons proved that wearing the exoskeleton caused a negligible deviation of gait, and that the soft exoskeleton could reduce metabolic cost during walking. The research results are expected to be beneficial for lightweight soft exoskeletons and integration with exosuits that provide assistive forces through the wearer’s entire gait.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jul 2020 00:35:01 +000
  • Vein Distribution on the Deformation Behavior and Fracture Mechanisms of
           Typical Plant Leaves by Quasi In Situ Tensile Test under a Digital

    • Abstract: Angiosperm leaf venation is based on two major patterns, typically dicotyledonous branching and monocotyledonous parallel veins. The influence of these patterns on deformation and fracture properties is poorly understood. In this paper, three species of dicotyledons with netted venation and three species of monocots with parallel venation were selected, and the effect of vein distribution of leaves on their mechanical properties and deformation behavior was investigated. Whole images of leaves were captured using a digital camera, and their vein traits were measured using the image processing software Digimizer. A self-developed mechanical testing apparatus with high precision and low load was used to measure the tensile properties of leaves. The deformation behavior of the leaf was captured using a digital microscope during the tensile test. Results showed that the vein architecture of monocots and dicots is different, which had a remarkable effect on their mechanical properties, deformation behavior, and crack propagation behavior. The greater the diameter and the more the number of veins parallel to the tensile direction, the higher the tensile force, tensile strength, and elastic modulus of the leaves. The netted venation leaves evinced the elastic-plastic fracture type, and the hierarchy venation provided resistance to fracture propagation of cracks in the leaves by lengthening the crack path. The leaves with parallel venation behaved in a predominantly brittle manner or elastic fracture type, and the parallel venation inhibited the initiation of cracks in the leaves by increasing the load at complete fracture of the leaves. The investigation provides reference for a stiffened plate/shell structure and bionic anticrack design.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 17:35:00 +000
  • Potential of IMU-Based Systems in Measuring Single Rapid Movement
           Variables in Females with Different Training Backgrounds and

    • Abstract: The aim of this paper is to determine the discriminative potential of the IMU-based system for the measurement of rapid hand movement properties, i.e., relevant kinematic variables in relation to different groups of participants. The measurement of the kinematics of the rapid hand movement was performed using a standard hand tapping test. The sample in this research included a total of 70 female participants and was divided into 3 subsamples. The discriminant analysis has identified two functions, DF1 and DF2, that explain 91.1 and 8.1% of the variance, respectively. The differences between the examined subsamples originate from the variables grouped in DF1, which were statistically significant (). In relation to this function, the national volleyball team centroid position was shifted with -1.108 and -1.968 standard deviation values from the control group and youth volleyball team, respectively. The difference between control and Voll_Youth groups was -0.860 standard deviation value. The factors with the greatest discriminative potential among the groups represent the temporal characteristics of the rapid hand movement, i.e., the time elapsed between the onset of the movement and the first and second tap, as defined by the variables and , respectively. The established findings clearly indicate that IMU sensors are practically applicable in relation to the sensitive measurement of rapid arm movement capability of female athletes.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:35:05 +000
  • The Analysis of Biomimetic Caudal Fin Propulsion Mechanism with CFD

    • Abstract: In nature, fish not only have extraordinary ability of underwater movement but also have high mobility and flexibility. The low energy consumption and high efficiency of fish propulsive method provide a new idea for the research of bionic underwater robot and bionic propulsive technology. In this paper, the swordfish was taken as the research object, and the mechanism of the caudal fin propulsion was preliminarily explored by analyzing the flow field structure generated by the swing of caudal fin. Subsequently, the influence of the phase difference of the heaving and pitching movement, the swing amplitude of caudal fin, and Strouhal number (St number) on the propulsion performance of fish was discussed. The results demonstrated that the fish can obtain a greater propulsion force by optimizing the motion parameters of the caudal fin in a certain range. Lastly, through the mathematical model analysis of the tail of the swordfish, the producing propulsive force principle of the caudal fin and the caudal peduncle was obtained. Hence, the proposed method provided a theoretical basis for the design of a high-efficiency bionic propulsion system.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jun 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Sport Biomechanics Applications Using Inertial, Force, and EMG Sensors: A
           Literature Overview

    • Abstract: In the last few decades, a number of technological developments have advanced the spread of wearable sensors for the assessment of human motion. These sensors have been also developed to assess athletes’ performance, providing useful guidelines for coaching, as well as for injury prevention. The data from these sensors provides key performance outcomes as well as more detailed kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data that provides insight into how the performance was obtained. From this perspective, inertial sensors, force sensors, and electromyography appear to be the most appropriate wearable sensors to use. Several studies were conducted to verify the feasibility of using wearable sensors for sport applications by using both commercially available and customized sensors. The present study seeks to provide an overview of sport biomechanics applications found from recent literature using wearable sensors, highlighting some information related to the used sensors and analysis methods. From the literature review results, it appears that inertial sensors are the most widespread sensors for assessing athletes’ performance; however, there still exist applications for force sensors and electromyography in this context. The main sport assessed in the studies was running, even though the range of sports examined was quite high. The provided overview can be useful for researchers, athletes, and coaches to understand the technologies currently available for sport performance assessment.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jun 2020 18:50:01 +000
  • Modeling and Experimentation of the Unidirectional Orthodontic Force of
           Second Sequential Loop Orthodontic Archwire

    • Abstract: The abnormal tooth arrangement is one of the most common clinical features of malocclusion which is mainly caused by the tooth root compression malformation. The second sequential loop is mostly used for the adjusting of the abnormal tooth arrangement. Now, the shape devise of orthodontic archwire depends completely on the doctor’s experience and patients’ feedback, this practice is time-consuming, and the treatment effect is unstable. The orthodontic-force of the different parameters of the second sequence loop, including different cross-sectional parameters, material parameters, and characteristic parameters, was compared and simulated for the abnormal condition of root compression deformity. In this paper, the analysis and experimental study on the unidirectional orthodontic-force were carried out. The different parameters of the second sequential loop are analyzed, and the equivalent beam deflection theory is used to analyze the relationship between orthodontic-force and archwire parameters. Based on the structural analysis of the second sequential loop, the device for measuring orthodontic force has been designed. The orthodontic force with different structural characteristics of archwire was compared and was measured. Finally, the correction factor was developed in the unidirectional orthodontic-force forecasting model to eliminate the influence of inherent error. The average relative error rate of the theoretical results of the unidirectional orthodontic-force forecasting model is between 12.6% and 8.75%, which verifies the accuracy of the prediction model.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Jun 2020 17:50:01 +000
  • Locomotion Variations of Arch Index and Interlimb Symmetry in Shod and
           Barefoot Populations

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the variations of arch index from static standing to dynamic walking and running; furthermore, the interlimb symmetry was checked in the two populations. A total of eighty male participants were recruited for this study, with forty habitually barefoot and forty habitually shod males, respectively. Arch index (AI) was calculated following the previously established “gold standard” measurement via contact areas recorded from EMED. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to compare the difference between static and dynamic walking and running arch index. Paired-samples -test and symmetry index (SI) were used to investigate the symmetry of the left foot arch index and right foot arch index. It was found that the dynamic arch index was significantly higher than the static arch index in barefoot and shod males, showing an increase from static weight-bearing standing to dynamic walking and running. However, interlimb (right-left) symmetry in the foot arch index was observed in the two populations. Dynamic changes of the arch index may provide implications that need to be considered while designing shoe lasts or insoles. Knowledge of the healthy arch index range reported from this study could also be used as a standard baseline to probe into foot and arch disorders.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 May 2020 15:05:02 +000
  • Application of an Accelerometric System for Determination of Stiffness
           during a Hopping Task

    • Abstract: Currently, there are several computational methods for stiffness during a hopping task, but they do not necessarily yield the same values. Therefore, it is essential that the simplicity of the equipment used does not affect the measurement validity. The aim of this study is to compare the stiffness values during a hopping task recorded in a laboratory environment and those acquired using the Myotest accelerometer. The measurements were performed on a group of 30 untrained female students (age: years, body height: , and body mass: ). According to the manual for the Myotest accelerometric system, each study participant performed three sets of 5 hops. Vertical stiffness was determined based on two measurement methods, one using the Myotest accelerometer and the other using Kistler force plates. The mean value (±SD) of vertical stiffness was in the countermovement phase and in the take-off phase. Furthermore, the stiffness determined using the Myotest was . However, significant relationships between the vertical stiffness in the countermovement phase and the Myotest stiffness () and between the vertical stiffness in the take-off phase and the Myotest stiffness () were found. The relationships between the vertical stiffness (in the countermovement and take-off phases) and the stiffness estimated using the Myotest allow us to conclude that despite the significantly overestimated stiffness value, the Myotest accelerometer can still be used for determination of the stiffness trends, e.g., following training. The overestimated stiffness values can result both from inaccuracy in the determination of ground contact time and flight time by the Myotest accelerometer and from the use of an equation that assumes that the movement of the center of mass has a harmonic profile.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 May 2020 09:20:07 +000
  • Study on the Prosthesis Structural Design and Vibration Characteristics
           Based on the Conduction Effect of Human Middle Ear

    • Abstract: As a bridge from the sound signal in the air to the sound perception of the inner ear auditory receptor, the tympanic membrane and ossicular chain of the middle ear transform the sound signal in the outer ear through two gas-solid and solid-liquid conversions. In addition, through the lever principle formed by three auditory ossicle structure, the sound was concentrated and amplified to the inner ear. However, the sound transmission function of the middle ear will be decreased by disease, genetic, or trauma. Hence, using middle ear prosthesis to replace the damaged ossicles can restore the conduction function. The function realization of middle ear prosthesis depends on the vibration response of the prosthesis from the tympanic membrane to the stapes plate on the human auditory perception frequency, which is affected by the way the prosthesis combined with the tympanic membrane, the material, and the geometric shape. In this study, reasonable prosthetic structures had been designed for different types of ossicular chain injuries, and the frequency response characteristics were analyzed by the finite element method then. Moreover, in order to achieve better vibration frequency response, a ball structure was designed in the prosthesis to simulate its amplification function. The results showed that the middle ear prostheses constructed by different injury types can effectively transfer vibration energy. In particular, the first- and second-order resonant frequencies and response amplitudes are close to each other when ball structure models of different materials are added. Instead, the resonance frequency of the third stage formed by aluminum alloy ball materials is larger than that of the other two, which showed good response features.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 May 2020 00:50:01 +000
  • A Proposed Algorithm to Assess Concussion Potential in Rear-End Motor
           Vehicle Collisions: A Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Concussions represent an increasing economic burden to society. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are of the leading causes for sustaining a concussion, potentially due to high head accelerations. The change in velocity (i.e., delta-) of a vehicle in a MVC is an established metric for impact severity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to analyze findings from previous research to determine the relation between delta- and linear head acceleration, including occupant parameters. Data was collected from previous research papers comprising both linear head acceleration and delta- at the time of incident, head position of the occupant, awareness of the occupant prior to impact, as well as gender, age, height, and weight. Statistical analysis revealed the following significant power relation between delta- and head acceleration: (,). Further analysis revealed that alongside delta-, the occupant’s gender and head position prior to impact were significant predictors of head acceleration ( and , respectively). The strongest model developed in this paper is considered physiologically implausible as the delta- corresponding to a theoretical concussion threshold of 80 g exceeds the delta- associated with probability of fatality. Future research should be aimed at providing a more thorough data set of the occupant head kinematics in MVCs to help develop a stronger predictive model for the relation between delta- and head linear and angular acceleration.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 May 2020 09:20:01 +000
  • Using Wearable Inertial Sensors to Estimate Kinematic Parameters and
           Variability in the Table Tennis Topspin Forehand Stroke

    • Abstract: The study examined kinematic parameters and their inter- and intrasubject variability in the topspin forehand of seven top-level table tennis players. A wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU) system measured the movement of the playing hand to analyze the Ready position, Backswing, and Forward events, and a racket-mounted piezoelectric sensor captured the racket-ball Contact. In a four-phase cycle (Backswing, Hitting, Followthrough, and Back to Ready position), body sensors recorded the cycle and phase duration; angles in the sagittal plane at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist of the playing hand and at the knee joints; and acceleration of the playing hand at the moment of racket-ball contact. The coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated to determine the variability of kinematic parameters within and between players. The observed variability in stroke time duration was low () indicating constancy. The small-to-medium intraindividual variability of angles () indicates that each player used a broadly repeatable technique. The large intraindividual variability in movement was probably functional (i.e., motor adjustment and injury avoidance). Interindividual and intraindividual variability of knee and elbow angles was low; wrist extension was the most variable parameter () for all tasks, and shoulder joint variability was medium-to-large. Variability in hand acceleration was low (). Individual players achieved relatively constant hand acceleration at the moment of contact, possibly because angular changes at one joint (e.g., shoulder) could be compensated for by changes at another (e.g., wrist). These findings can help to guide the teaching-learning process and to individualize the training process.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 May 2020 14:50:01 +000
  • Knee Joint Biomechanics in Physiological Conditions and How Pathologies
           Can Affect It: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: The knee joint, as the main lower limb motor joint, is the most vulnerable and susceptible joint. The knee injuries considerably impact the normal living ability and mental health of patients. Understanding the biomechanics of a normal and diseased knee joint is in urgent need for designing knee assistive devices and optimizing a rehabilitation exercise program. In this paper, we systematically searched electronic databases (from 2000 to November 2019) including ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, and IEEE/IET Electronic Library for potentially relevant articles. After duplicates were removed and inclusion criteria applied to the titles, abstracts, and full text, 138 articles remained for review. The selected articles were divided into two groups to be analyzed. Firstly, the real movement of a normal knee joint and the normal knee biomechanics of four kinds of daily motions in the sagittal and coronal planes, which include normal walking, running, stair climbing, and sit-to-stand, were discussed and analyzed. Secondly, an overview of the current knowledge on the movement biomechanical effects of common knee musculoskeletal disorders and knee neurological disorders were provided. Finally, a discussion of the existing problems in the current studies and some recommendation for future research were presented. In general, this review reveals that there is no clear assessment about the biomechanics of normal and diseased knee joints at the current state of the art. The biomechanics properties could be significantly affected by knee musculoskeletal or neurological disorders. Deeper understanding of the biomechanics of the normal and diseased knee joint will still be an urgent need in the future.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Apr 2020 08:50:01 +000
  • Impact of Different Developmental Instars on Locusta migratoria Jumping

    • Abstract: Ontogenetic locomotion research focuses on the evolution of locomotion behavior in different developmental stages of a species. Unlike vertebrates, ontogenetic locomotion in invertebrates is poorly investigated. Locusts represent an outstanding biological model to study this issue. They are hemimetabolous insects and have similar aspects and behaviors in different instars. This research is aimed at studying the jumping performance of Locusta migratoria over different developmental instars. Jumps of third instar, fourth instar, and adult L. migratoria were recorded through a high-speed camera. Data were analyzed to develop a simplified biomechanical model of the insect: the elastic joint of locust hind legs was simplified as a torsional spring located at the femur-tibiae joint as a semilunar process and based on an energetic approach involving both locomotion and geometrical data. A simplified mathematical model evaluated the performances of each tested jump. Results showed that longer hind leg length, higher elastic parameter, and longer takeoff time synergistically contribute to a greater velocity and energy storing/releasing in adult locusts, if compared to young instars; at the same time, they compensate possible decreases of the acceleration due to the mass increase. This finding also gives insights for advanced bioinspired jumping robot design.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Mar 2020 15:50:02 +000
  • Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Noise Reduction of Nonpneumatic
           Tire Using Nonsmooth Riblet Surface

    • Abstract: Unlike conventional pneumatic tires, the nonpneumatic tires (NPT) are explosion proof and simple to maintain and provide low rolling resistance. At high vehicle speeds, however, the complex airflow produced by the open flexible-spoke structure of NPT yields high aerodynamic noise, which contributes to sound pollution in the vehicular traffic environment. Inspired by the idea that a nonsmooth riblet structure can affect fluid flow and offer noise reduction, the analyses of the effect of the nonsmooth riblet surface on the aerodynamic noise of an NPT and noise reduction mechanism were presented in this paper. First, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to analyze the surface pressure coefficient characteristics of a smooth flexible-spoke tire rolling at a speed of 80 km/h and subsequently validating the numerical simulation results by comparing them with published test results. Secondly, large eddy simulation (LES) and the Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings (FW-H) method were, respectively, used to determine the transient flow and far-field aerodynamic noise. Then, the mechanism of noise reduction was investigated using a vortex theory. Based on the vortex theory, the positions and strengths of noise sources were determined using the Lamb vector. Finally, according to the fluid boundary layer theory, a nonsmooth riblet surface was arranged on the surface of the spokes, and the influences of the riblet structure parameters, including size, position, and direction, on aerodynamic noise were analyzed. Based on the vortex theory, it was found that the nonsmooth riblet structure can reduce the Lamb vector, suppress the generation of flow vortices, decrease acoustic source strength, and effectively decrease noise up to 5.18 dB using the optimized riblet structure. The study results provide a theoretical basis for the structural design of a new low-noise NPT.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 02:35:00 +000
  • A Systematic Review of Real-Time Medical Simulations with Soft-Tissue
           Deformation: Computational Approaches, Interaction Devices, System
           Architectures, and Clinical Validations

    • Abstract: Simulating deformations of soft tissues is a complex engineering task, and it is even more difficult when facing the constraint between computation speed and system accuracy. However, literature lacks of a holistic review of all necessary aspects (computational approaches, interaction devices, system architectures, and clinical validations) for developing an effective system of soft-tissue simulations. This paper summarizes and analyses recent achievements of resolving these issues to estimate general trends and weakness for future developments. A systematic review process was conducted using the PRISMA protocol with three reliable scientific search engines (ScienceDirect, PubMed, and IEEE). Fifty-five relevant papers were finally selected and included into the review process, and a quality assessment procedure was also performed on them. The computational approaches were categorized into mesh, meshfree, and hybrid approaches. The interaction devices concerned about combination between virtual surgical instruments and force-feedback devices, 3D scanners, biomechanical sensors, human interface devices, 3D viewers, and 2D/3D optical cameras. System architectures were analysed based on the concepts of system execution schemes and system frameworks. In particular, system execution schemes included distribution-based, multithread-based, and multimodel-based executions. System frameworks are grouped into the input and output interaction frameworks, the graphic interaction frameworks, the modelling frameworks, and the hybrid frameworks. Clinical validation procedures are ordered as three levels: geometrical validation, model behavior validation, and user acceptability/safety validation. The present review paper provides useful information to characterize how real-time medical simulation systems with soft-tissue deformations have been developed. By clearly analysing advantages and drawbacks in each system development aspect, this review can be used as a reference guideline for developing systems of soft-tissue simulations.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Feb 2020 14:20:02 +000
  • Study on Behind Helmet Blunt Trauma Caused by High-Speed Bullet

    • Abstract: The mechanism of Behind Helmet Blunt Trauma (BHBT) caused by a high-speed bullet is difficult to understand. At present, there is still a lack of corresponding parameters and test methods to evaluate this damage effectively. The purpose of the current study is therefore to investigate the response of the human skull and brain tissue under the loading of a bullet impacting a bullet-proof helmet, with the effects of impact direction, impact speed, and impactor structure being considered. A human brain finite element model which can accurately reconstruct the anatomical structures of the scalp, skull, brain tissue, etc., and can realistically reflect the biomechanical response of the brain under high impact speed was employed in this study. The responses of Back Face Deformation (BFD), brain displacement, skull stress, and dura mater pressure were extracted from simulations as the parameters reflecting BHBT risk, and the relationships between BHBT and bullet-proof equipment structure and performance were also investigated. The simulation results show that the frontal impact of the skull produces the largest amount of BFD, and when the impact directions are from the side, the skull stress is about twice higher than other directions. As the impact velocity increases, BFD, brain displacement, skull stress, and dura mater pressure increase. The brain damage caused by different structural bullet bodies is different under the condition of the same kinetic energy. The skull stress caused by the handgun bullet is the largest. The findings indicate that when a bullet impacts on the bullet-proof helmet, it has a higher probability of causing brain displacement and intracranial high pressure. The research results can provide a reference value for helmet optimization design and antielasticity evaluation and provide the theoretical basis for protection and rescue.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:50:05 +000
  • Analysis of Human Behavior for Robot Design and Control

    • PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2020 10:20:01 +000
  • An Intelligent Gesture Classification Model for Domestic Wheelchair
           Navigation with Gesture Variance Compensation

    • Abstract: Elderly and disabled population is rapidly increasing. It is important to uplift their living standards by improving the confidence towards daily activities. Navigation is an important task, most elderly and disabled people need assistance with. Replacing human assistance with an intelligent system which is capable of assisting human navigation via wheelchair systems is an effective solution. Hand gestures are often used in navigation systems. However, those systems do not possess the capability to accurately identify gesture variances. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to create an intelligent gesture classification system with a gesture model which was built based on human studies for every essential motion in domestic navigation with hand gesture variance compensation capability. Experiments have been carried out to evaluate user remembering and recalling capability and adaptability towards the gesture model. Dynamic Gesture Identification Module (DGIM), Static Gesture Identification Module (SGIM), and Gesture Clarifier (GC) have been introduced in order to identify gesture commands. The proposed system was analyzed for system accuracy and precision using results of the experiments conducted with human users. Accuracy of the intelligent system was determined with the use of confusion matrix. Further, those results were analyzed using Cohen’s kappa analysis in which overall accuracy, misclassification rate, precision, and Cohen’s kappa values were calculated.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jan 2020 01:20:02 +000
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