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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 215)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Influence of Preservation of Normal Knee Contact Stress on Other
           Compartments with respect to the Tibial Insert Design for Unicompartmental
           Knee Arthroplasty

    • Abstract: Recent advances in imaging technology and additive manufacturing have led to the introduction of customized unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) that can potentially improve functional performance due to customized geometries, including customized sagittal and coronal curvature and enhanced bone preservation. The purpose of this study involved evaluating the biomechanical effect of the tibial insert design on the customized medial UKA using computer simulations. We developed sagittal and coronal curvatures in a native knee mimetic femoral component design. We utilized three types of tibial insert design: flat, anatomy mimetic, and conforming design. We evaluated contact stress on the tibial insert and other compartments, including the lateral meniscus and articular cartilage, under gait and squat loading conditions. For the conforming UKA design, the tibial insert and lateral meniscus exhibited the lowest contact stress under stance phase gait cycle. However, for the conforming UKA design, the tibial insert and lateral meniscus exhibited the highest contact stress under swing phase gait cycle. For the flat UKA design, the articular cartilage exhibited the lowest contact stress under gait and squat loading conditions. The anatomy mimetic UKA design exhibited the most normal-like contact stress on the other compartments under gait and squat loading conditions. The results reveal the importance of conformity between the femoral component and the tibial insert in the customized UKA. Based on the results on the femoral component as well as the tibial insert in the customized UKA, the anatomy mimetic design preserves normal knee joint biomechanics and thus may prevent progressive osteoarthritis of the other knee compartments.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Nov 2019 07:05:05 +000
  • Human Gait Analysis Metric for Gait Retraining

    • Abstract: The combined gait asymmetry metric (CGAM) provides a method to synthesize human gait motion. The metric is weighted to balance each parameter’s effect by normalizing the data so all parameters are more equally weighted. It is designed to combine spatial, temporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait parameter asymmetries. It can also combine subsets of the different gait parameters to provide a more thorough analysis. The single number quantifying gait could assist robotic rehabilitation methods to optimize the resulting gait patterns. CGAM will help define quantitative thresholds for achievable balanced overall gait asymmetry. The study presented here compares the combined gait parameters with clinical measures such as timed up and go (TUG), six-minute walk test (6MWT), and gait velocity. The comparisons are made on gait data collected on individuals with stroke before and after twelve sessions of rehabilitation. Step length, step time, and swing time showed a strong correlation to CGAM, but the double limb support asymmetry has nearly no correlation with CGAM and ground reaction force asymmetry has a weak correlation. The CGAM scores were moderately correlated with TUG and strongly correlated to 6MWT and gait velocity.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 00:09:17 +000
  • Cushion Mechanism of Goat Hoof Bulb Tissues

    • Abstract: The hoof bulb sections of white goats were observed via scanning electron microscopy and stereomicroscopy in order to explore the cushion mechanism in the bulb tissue microstructures of hoofed animals. The hoof bulbs consisted of multilayer tissues, including an epidermal layer, a dermal layer, and subcutaneous tissues from outside to inside. A bionic model based on hoof bulb tissue composite structures was built with a normal model as the control. The microcosmic mechanics of the bulb tissues was analyzed via the finite element method. Simulations showed that when the bionic model was impacted by the top plates at the speed of 1-10 m/s, stress was concentrated in the epidermal layer and uniformly distributed in the dermal layer and dermal papillae, which effectively reduced the impact onto the ground. The cornified epidermal layer can resist the instant impact onto the ground, while the dermal papillae embedded in the dermal layer can store, release, and dissipate the impulsive energy, and the three parts synergically act in the cushion.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Nov 2019 13:05:09 +000
  • Conceptual Design and Computational Modeling Analysis of a Single-Leg
           System of a Quadruped Bionic Horse Robot Driven by a Cam-Linkage Mechanism

    • Abstract: In this study, the configuration of a bionic horse robot for equine-assisted therapy is presented. A single-leg system with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) is driven by a cam-linkage mechanism, and it can adjust the span and height of the leg end-point trajectory. After a brief introduction on the quadruped bionic horse robot, the structure and working principle of a single-leg system are discussed in detail. Kinematic analysis of a single-leg system is conducted, and the relationships between the structural parameters and leg trajectory are obtained. On this basis, the pressure angle characteristics of the cam-linkage mechanism are studied, and the leg end-point trajectories of the robot are obtained for several inclination angles controlled by the rotation of the motor for the stride length adjusting. The closed-loop vector method is used for the kinematic analysis, and the motion analysis system is developed in MATLAB software. The motion analysis results are verified by a three-dimensional simulation model developed in Solidworks software. The presented research on the configuration, kinematic modeling, and pressure angle characteristics of the bionic horse robot lays the foundation for subsequent research on the practical application of the proposed bionic horse robot.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Nov 2019 16:05:09 +000
  • Regional Elastic Properties of the Achilles Tendon Is Heterogeneously
           Influenced by Individual Muscle of the Gastrocnemius

    • Abstract: Background. Anatomical studies and the mechanical property studies showed that there is a strong correlation between Achilles tendon (AT) elasticity and individual gastrocnemius muscle (the medial head of gastrocnemius (MG) and the lateral head of gastrocnemius (LG)) elasticity. Limited ankle dorsiflexion range of motion has been correlated with decreased flexibility of the MG/LG/AT complex. However, no studies have been conducted to examine the exact correlation between the Achilles tendon and the individual muscle of the gastrocnemius. Purposes. The purposes of the present study were (1) to evaluate intra- and interoperator reliabilities of elastic property measurements in the gastrocnemius muscle-Achilles tendon complex by using the shear wave elastography (SWE) and (2) to examine the correlation between the regional elastic properties of the AT and the individual muscle of the gastrocnemius. Methods. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 22.50 (3.02) years) were recruited in this study. The elastic properties of the AT and the individual muscle of the gastrocnemius were quantified using the SWE. Findings. The SWE has comparatively high reliability in quantifying the elastic properties of the muscle-tendon range from good to excellent. The intraoperator ICC of the gastrocnemius muscle-Achilles tendon complex was 0.77 to 0.95, while the interoperator ICC was 0.76 to 0.94. The minimal detectable change (MDC) of the muscle was 1.72 kPa, while the AT was 32.90 kPa. A significant correlation was found between the elastic modulus of AT and the elastic modulus of the MG ( and at the relaxing position and and at the neutral position). Conclusions. The SWE has the potential to assess localized changes in muscle-tendon elastic properties, provide more intuitive relations between elastic properties of the muscle tendon and function, and evaluate the therapeutic effect of the muscle tendon. A significant correlation between the AT and the MG was found, and it may provide a new treatment idea (targeted to the tight muscle heads) for the clinical setting to treat subjects with AT disorders.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Nov 2019 00:09:07 +000
  • Experimental Study on Drag Reduction Characteristics of Bionic Earthworm
           Self-Lubrication Surface

    • Abstract: In the present study, a coupling bionic method is used to study the drag reduction characteristics of corrugated surface with lubrication. In order to test the drag reduction features, bionic specimen was prepared inspired by earthworm surface and lubrication. Based on the reverse engineering method, nonsmooth curve of earthworm surface was extracted and the bionic corrugated sample was designed, and the position of lubrication hole was established by experimental testing. The lubricating drag reduction performance, the influence of normal pressure, the forward velocity, and the flow rate of lubricating fluid on the forward resistance of the bionic specimens were analyzed through a single factor test by using the self-developed test equipment. The model between the forward resistance and the three factors was established through the ternary quadratic regression test. The results show that the drag reduction effect is obvious, the drag reduction rate is 22.65% to 34.89%, and the forward resistance decreases with the increase of the forward velocity, increases with the increase of the normal pressure, and decreases first and then becomes stable with the increase of flow rate of lubricating fluid. There are secondary effects on forward resistance by the three factors, and the influencing order is as follows: normal pressure>flow rate of lubricating fluid>forward velocity.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Oct 2019 15:05:11 +000
  • Kinematic Parameters for Tracking Patient Progress during Upper Limb
           Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation: An Observational Study on Subacute Stroke

    • Abstract: Background. Upper limb robot-assisted therapy (RT) provides intensive, repetitive, and task-specific treatment, and its efficacy for stroke survivors is well established in literature. Biomechanical data from robotic devices has been widely employed for patient’s assessment, but rarely it has been analysed for tracking patient progress during RT. The goal of this retrospective study is to analyse built-in kinematic data registered by a planar end-effector robot for assessing the time course of motor recovery and patient’s workspace exploration skills. A comparison of subjects having mild and severe motor impairment has been also conducted. For that purpose, kinematic data recorded by a planar end-effector robot have been processed for investigating how motor performance in executing point-to-point trajectories with different directions changes during RT. Methods. Observational retrospective study of 68 subacute stroke patients who conducted 20 daily sessions of upper limb RT with the InMotion 2.0 (Bionik Laboratories, USA): planar point-to-point reaching tasks with an “assist as needed” strategy. The following kinematic parameters (KPs) were computed for each subject and for each point-to-point trajectory executed during RT: movement accuracy, movement speed, number of peak speed, and task completion time. The Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used with clinical outcomes. the Friedman test and post hoc Conover’s test (Bonferroni’s correction) were applied to KPs. A secondary data analysis has been conducted by comparing patients having different severities of motor impairment. The level of significance was set at value < 0.05. Results. At the RT onset, the movements were less accurate and smoothed, and showed higher times of execution than those executed at the end of treatment. The analysis of the time course of KPs highlighted that RT seems to improve the motor function mainly in the first sessions of treatment: most KPs show significant intersession differences during the first 5/10 sessions. Afterwards, no further significant variations occurred. The ability to perform movements away from the body and from the hemiparetic side remains more challenging. The results obtained from the data stratification show significant differences between subjects with mild and severe motor impairment. Conclusion. Significant improvements in motor performance were registered during the time course of upper limb RT in subacute stroke patients. The outcomes depend on movement direction and motor impairment and pave the way to optimize healthcare resources and to design patient-tailored rehabilitative protocols.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 12:05:09 +000
  • Measurement and Analysis of Gait Pattern during Stair Walk for Improvement
           of Robotic Locomotion Rehabilitation System

    • Abstract: Background. Robotic locomotion rehabilitation systems have been used for gait training in patients who have had a stroke. Most commercialized systems allow patients to perform simple exercises such as balancing or level walking, but an additional function such as stair-walk training is required to provide a wide range of recovery cycle rehabilitation. In this study, we analyzed stair-gait patterns and applied the result to a robotic rehabilitation system that can provide a vertical motion of footplates. Methods. To obtain applicable data for the robotic system with vertically movable footplates, stair-walk action was measured using an optical marker-based motion capture system. The spatial position data of joints during stair walking was obtained from six healthy adults who participated in the experiment. The measured marker data were converted into joint kinematic data by using an algorithm that included resampling and normalization. The spatial position data are represented as angular trajectories and the relative displacement of each joint on the anatomical sagittal plane and movements of hip joints on the anatomical transverse plane. Results. The average range of motion (ROM) of each joint was estimated as () at the hip, at the knee, and at the ankle during ascent and as at the hip, at the knee, and at the ankle during descent. Additionally, we attempted to create a more natural stair-gait pattern by analyzing the movement of the hip on the anatomical transverse plane. The hip movements were estimated to within and for hip translation and to within and for hip rotation during stair ascent and stair descent, respectively. Conclusions. Based on the results, standard patterns of stair ascent and stair descent were derived and applied to a lower-limb rehabilitation robot with vertically movable footplates. The relative trajectory from the experiment ascertained that the function of stair walking in the robotic system properly worked within a normal ROM.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Oct 2019 06:05:01 +000
  • Bioimaging Innovations in Bionics and Biomechanics

    • PubDate: Mon, 14 Oct 2019 04:05:01 +000
  • Effect of Common Pavements on Interjoint Coordination of Walking with and
           without Robotic Exoskeleton

    • Abstract: Background. The analysis and comprehension of the coordination control of a human gait on common grounds benefit the development of robotic exoskeleton for motor recovery. Objective. This study investigated whether the common grounds effect the interjoint coordination of healthy participants with/without exoskeletons in walking. Methods. The knee-ankle coordination and hip-knee coordination of 8 healthy participants in a sagittal plane were measured on five kinds of pavements (tiled, carpet, wooden, concrete, and pebbled) with/without exoskeletons, using the continuous relative phase (CRP). The root mean square of CRP (CRPRMS) over each phase of the gait cycle is used to analyze the magnitude of dephasing between joints, and the standard deviation of CRP (CRPSD) in the full gait cycle is used to assess the variability of coordination patterns between joints. Results. The CRPHip-Knee/RMS of the carpet pavement with exoskeleton is different from that of other pavements (except the tiled pavement) in the midstance phase. The CRPHip-Knee/RMS on the pebble pavement without exoskeleton is less than that on the other pavements in all phases. The CRPHip-Knee/SD of the pebble pavement without exoskeleton is smaller than that of other pavements. The CRPKnee-Ankle/SD with/without exoskeleton is similar across all pavements. Conclusion. The compressive capacity of the pavement and the unevenness of the pavement are important factors that influence interjoint coordination, which can be used as key control elements of gait to adapt different pavements for robotic exoskeleton. Novelty. We provide a basis of parameter change of kinematics on different common grounds for the design and optimization of robotic exoskeleton for motor recovery.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Oct 2019 06:05:04 +000
  • Bioinspired Implementation and Assessment of a Remote-Controlled Robot

    • Abstract: Daily activities are characterized by an increasing interaction with smart machines that present a certain level of autonomy. However, the intelligence of such electronic devices is not always transparent for the end user. This study is aimed at assessing the quality of the remote control of a mobile robot whether the artefact exhibits a human-like behavior or not. The bioinspired behavior implemented in the robot is the well-described two-thirds power law. The performance of participants who teleoperate the semiautonomous vehicle implementing the biological law is compared to a manual and nonbiological mode of control. The results show that the time required to complete the path and the number of collisions with obstacles are significantly lower in the biological condition than in the two other conditions. Also, the highest percentage of occurrences of curvilinear or smooth trajectories are obtained when the steering is assisted by an integration of the power law in the robot’s way of working. This advanced analysis of the performance based on the naturalness of the movement kinematics provides a refined evaluation of the quality of the Human-Machine Interaction (HMI). This finding is consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the power law and jerk minimization. In addition, the outcome of this study supports the theory of a CNS origin of the power law. The discussion addresses the implications of the anthropocentric approach to enhance the HMI.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Sep 2019 14:15:00 +000
  • Numerical Analysis of a Dental Zirconium Restoration and the Stresses That
           Occur in Dental Tissues

    • Abstract: When it is about restorative dental materials, aesthetics is traditionally preferred. This has led to the selection of materials very visually similar to the enamel, but unfortunately, their mechanical properties are not similar. This often translates into disadvantages than advantages. In the present work, a comparison is made of the stresses that occur during dental occlusion (dental bit) in a healthy dental organ and those that are generated in a dental organ with a dental zirconium restoration. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of the Finite Element Method, in computational biomodels, from Cone-Beam Tomography, to obtain the stresses generated during dental occlusion. It was found that the normal and von Mises stresses generated are substantially greater in the molar with restoration compared to those produced in the healthy molar. In addition, the normal function of the enamel and dentin to disperse these stresses to prevent them from reaching the pulp is altered. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the indiscriminate use of this restoration material and consider other aspects, in addition to aesthetics and biocompatibility for the choice of restorative materials such as biomechanical compatibility.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Sep 2019 13:05:24 +000
  • Gait Characteristics of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy during
           Inclined Treadmill Walking under a Virtual Reality Environment

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate gait characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy during inclined treadmill walking under a virtual reality environment. Methods. Ten spastic cerebral palsy (CP) children and ten typically developing (TD) children were asked to walk at their comfortable speed on a treadmill at a ground level and 10° inclined. Three-dimensional kinematic data and ground reaction force data were captured in a computer-assisted rehabilitation environment system. Kinetic parameters and dynamic balance parameters were calculated using a standard biomechanical approach. Results. During uphill walking, both groups decreased walking speed and stride length and increased peak pelvis tilt, ankle dorsiflexion, and hip flexion. Compared with TD children, CP children had decreased walking speed and stride length, decreased peak hip abduction moment, increased stance phase percentage, increased peak ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion, and increased peak hip extension moment. The peak trunk rotation angle, ankle angle at initial contact, and stride length showed a significant interaction effect. Conclusions. CP children showed similar adjustments for most gait parameters during uphill walking as TD children. With a lower walking speed, CP children could maintain similar dynamic balance as TD children. Uphill walking magnifies the existing abnormal gait patterns of the cerebral palsy children. We suggest that during a treadmill training with an inclination, the walking speed should be carefully controlled in the case of improving peak joint loading too much.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Aug 2019 08:05:10 +000
  • Contributions of Limb Joints to Energy Absorption during Landing in Cats

    • Abstract: There is a high risk of serious injury to the lower limbs in a human drop landing. However, cats are able to jump from the same heights without any sign of injury, which is attributed to the excellent performance of their limbs in attenuating the impact forces. The bionic study of the falling cat landing may therefore contribute to improve the landing-shock absorbing ability of lower limbs in humans. However, the contributions of cat limb joints to energy absorption remain unknown. Accordingly, a motion capture system and plantar pressure measurement platform were used to measure the joint angles and vertical ground reaction forces of jumping cats, respectively. Based on the inverse dynamics, the joint angular velocities, moments, powers, and work from different landing heights were calculated to expound the synergistic mechanism and the dominant muscle groups of cat limb joints. The results show that the buffering durations of the forelimbs exhibit no significant difference with increasing height while the hindlimbs play a greater role than the forelimbs in absorbing energy when jumping from a higher platform. Furthermore, the joint angles and angular velocities exhibit similar variations, indicating that a generalized motor program can be adopted to activate limb joints for different landing heights. Additionally, the elbow and hip are recognized as major contributors to energy absorption during landing. This experimental study can accordingly provide biological inspiration for new approaches to prevent human lower limb injuries.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Aug 2019 07:05:10 +000
  • Modelling Cell Origami via a Tensegrity Model of the Cytoskeleton in
           Adherent Cells

    • Abstract: Cell origami has been widely used in the field of three-dimensional (3D) cell-populated microstructures due to their multiple advantages, including high biocompatibility, the lack of special requirements for substrate materials, and the lack of damage to cells. A 3D finite element method (FEM) model of an adherent cell based on the tensegrity structure is constructed to describe cell origami by using the principle of the origami folding technique and cell traction forces. Adherent cell models contain a cytoskeleton (CSK), which is primarily composed of microtubules (MTs), microfilaments (MFs), intermediate filaments (IFs), and a nucleoskeleton (NSK), which is mainly made up of the nuclear lamina and chromatin. The microplate is assumed to be an isotropic linear-elastic solid material with a flexible joint that is connected to the cell tensegrity structure model by spring elements representing focal adhesion complexes (FACs). To investigate the effects of the degree of complexity of the tensegrity structure and NSK on the folding angle of the microplate, four models are established in the study. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of the NSK can increase the folding angle of the microplate, indicating that the cell is closer to its physiological environment, while increased complexity can reduce the folding angle of the microplate since the folding angle is depended on the cell types. The proposed adherent cell FEM models are validated by comparisons with reported results. These findings can provide theoretical guidance for the application of biotechnology and the analysis of 3D structures of cells and have profound implications for the self-assembly of cell-based microscale medical devices.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Aug 2019 00:07:17 +000
  • Prediction Algorithm of Parameters of Toe Clearance in the Swing Phase

    • Abstract: The adaptive control of gait training robots is aimed at improving the gait performance by assisting motion. In conventional robotics, it has not been possible to adjust the robotic parameters by predicting the toe motion, which is considered a tripping risk indicator. The prediction of toe clearance during walking can decrease the risk of tripping. In this paper, we propose a novel method of predicting toe clearance that uses a radial basis function network. The input data were the angles, angular velocities, and angular accelerations of the hip, knee, and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the beginning of the swing phase. In the experiments, seven subjects walked on a treadmill for 360 s. The radial basis function network was trained with gait data ranging from 20 to 200 data points and tested with 100 data points. The root mean square error between the true and predicted values was 3.28 mm for the maximum toe clearance in the earlier swing phase and 2.30 mm for the minimum toe clearance in the later swing phase. Moreover, using gait data of other five subjects, the root mean square error between the true and predicted values was 4.04 mm for the maximum toe clearance and 2.88 mm for the minimum toe clearance when the walking velocity changed. This provided higher prediction accuracy compared with existing methods. The proposed algorithm used the information of joint movements at the start of the swing phase and could predict both the future maximum and minimum toe clearances within the same swing phase.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Aug 2019 00:07:15 +000
  • Anthropomorphism Index of Mobility for Artificial Hands

    • Abstract: The increasing development of anthropomorphic artificial hands makes necessary quick metrics that analyze their anthropomorphism. In this study, a human grasp experiment on the most important grasp types was undertaken in order to obtain an Anthropomorphism Index of Mobility (AIM) for artificial hands. The AIM evaluates the topology of the whole hand, joints and degrees of freedom (DoFs), and the possibility to control these DoFs independently. It uses a set of weighting factors, obtained from analysis of human grasping, depending on the relevance of the different groups of DoFs of the hand. The computation of the index is straightforward, making it a useful tool for analyzing new artificial hands in early stages of the design process and for grading human-likeness of existing artificial hands. Thirteen artificial hands, both prosthetic and robotic, were evaluated and compared using the AIM, highlighting the reasons behind their differences. The AIM was also compared with other indexes in the literature with more cumbersome computation, ranking equally different artificial hands. As the index was primarily proposed for prosthetic hands, normally used as nondominant hands in unilateral amputees, the grasp types selected for the human grasp experiment were the most relevant for the human nondominant hand to reinforce bimanual grasping in activities of daily living. However, it was shown that the effect of using the grasping information from the dominant hand is small, indicating that the index is also valid for evaluating the artificial hand as dominant and so being valid for bilateral amputees or robotic hands.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Jul 2019 00:05:15 +000
  • A Computationally Efficient Finite Element Pedestrian Model for Head
           Safety: Development and Validation

    • Abstract: Head injuries are often fatal or of sufficient severity to pedestrians in vehicle crashes. Finite element (FE) simulation provides an effective approach to understand pedestrian head injury mechanisms in vehicle crashes. However, studies of pedestrian head safety considering full human body response and a broad range of impact scenarios are still scarce due to the long computing time of the current FE human body models in expensive simulations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop and validate a computationally efficient FE pedestrian model for future studies of pedestrian head safety. Firstly, a FE pedestrian model with a relatively small number of elements (432,694 elements) was developed in the current study. This pedestrian model was then validated at both segment and full body levels against cadaver test data. The simulation results suggest that the responses of the knee, pelvis, thorax, and shoulder in the pedestrian model are generally within the boundaries of cadaver test corridors under lateral impact loading. The upper body (head, T1, and T8) trajectories show good agreements with the cadaver data in vehicle-to-pedestrian impact configuration. Overall, the FE pedestrian model developed in the current study could be useful as a valuable tool for a pedestrian head safety study.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jul 2019 13:05:15 +000
  • Research on an Ankle Joint Auxiliary Rehabilitation Robot with a
           Rigid-Flexible Hybrid Drive Based on a 2-SPS Mechanism

    • Abstract: An ankle joint auxiliary rehabilitation robot has been developed, which consists of an upper platform, a lower platform, a dorsiflexion/plantar flexion drive system, a varus/valgus drive system, and some connecting parts. The upper platform connects to the lower platform through a ball pin pair and two driving branch chains based on the SPS mechanism. Although the robot has two degrees of freedom (DOF), the upper platform can realize three kinds of motion. To achieve ankle joint auxiliary rehabilitation, the ankle joint of patients on the upper platform makes a bionic motion. The robot uses a centre ball pin pair as the main support to simulate the motion of the ankle joint; the upper platform and the centre ball pin pair construct a mirror image of a patient’s foot and ankle joint, which satisfies the human body physiological characteristics; the driving systems adopt a rigid-flexible hybrid structure; and the dorsiflexion/plantar flexion motion and the varus/valgus motion are decoupled. These structural features can avoid secondary damage to the patient. The rehabilitation process is considered, and energy consumption of the robot is studied. An experimental prototype demonstrates that the robot can simulate the motion of the human foot.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jul 2019 10:05:06 +000
  • Real-Time Needle Force Modeling for VR-Based Renal Biopsy Training with
           Respiratory Motion Using Direct Clinical Data

    • Abstract: Realistic tool-tissue interactive modeling has been recognized as an essential requirement in the training of virtual surgery. A virtual basic surgical training framework integrated with real-time force rendering has been recognized as one of the most immersive implementations in medical education. Yet, compared to the original intraoperative data, there has always been an argument that these data are represented by lower fidelity in virtual surgical training. In this paper, a dynamic biomechanics experimental framework is designed to achieve a highly immersive haptic sensation during the biopsy therapy with human respiratory motion; it is the first time to introduce the idea of periodic extension idea into the dynamic percutaneous force modeling. Clinical evaluation is conducted and performed in the Yunnan First People’s Hospital, which not only demonstrated a higher fitting degree (AVG: 99.36%) with the intraoperation data than previous algorithms (AVG: 87.83%, 72.07%, and 66.70%) but also shows a universal fitting range with multilayer tissue. 27 urologists comprising 18 novices and 9 professors were invited to the VR-based training evaluation based on the proposed haptic rendering solution. Subjective and objective results demonstrated higher performance than the existing benchmark training simulator. Combining these in a systematic approach, tuned with specific fidelity requirements, haptically enabled medical simulation systems would be able to provide a more immersive and effective training environment.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jun 2019 11:05:04 +000
  • Soft Tissue/Bone Decomposition of Conventional Chest Radiographs Using
           Nonparametric Image Priors

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. When radiologists diagnose lung diseases in chest radiography, they can miss some lung nodules overlapped with ribs or clavicles. Dual-energy subtraction (DES) imaging performs well because it can produce soft tissue images, in which the bone components in chest radiography were almost suppressed but the visibility of nodules and lung vessels was still maintained. However, most routinely available X-ray machines do not possess the DES function. Thus, we presented a data-driven decomposition model to perform virtual DES function for decomposing a single conventional chest radiograph into soft tissue and bone images. Methods. For a given chest radiograph, similar chest radiographs with corresponding DES soft tissue and bone images are selected from the training database as exemplars for decomposition. The corresponding fields between the observed chest radiograph and the exemplars are solved by a hierarchically dense matching algorithm. Then, nonparametric priors of soft tissue and bone components are constructed by sampling image patches from the selected soft tissue and bone images according to the corresponding fields. Finally, these nonparametric priors are integrated into our decomposition model, the energy function of which is efficiently optimized by an iteratively reweighted least-squares scheme (IRLS). Results. The decomposition method is evaluated on a data set of posterior-anterior DES radiography (503 cases), as well as on the JSRT data set. The proposed method can produce soft tissue and bone images similar to those produced by the actual DES system. Conclusions. The proposed method can markedly reduce the visibility of bony structures in chest radiographs and shows potential to enhance diagnosis.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jun 2019 13:30:05 +000
  • Influence of Treadmill Speed and Perturbation Intensity on Selection of
           Balancing Strategies during Slow Walking Perturbed in the Frontal Plane

    • Abstract: Background. Common understanding is that adequate foot placement (stepping strategy) is crucial in maintaining stability during walking at normal speed. The aim of this study was to investigate strategies that humans use to cope with lateral perturbations during very slow walking. Methods. Ten healthy individuals underwent an experimental protocol whereby a set of perturbations directed inward (medially to a stance leg) and outward (laterally to a stance leg) of three intensities (,, and of body weight), applied at three instances of a stance phase, were delivered in random order to the pelvis using a balance assessment robot while walking on a treadmill at three walking speeds (,, and ). We analyzed the peak center of mass displacements; step length, step width, and step times; and the lateral component of ground reaction force for perturbations that were delivered at the beginning of the gait cycle. Results. Responses after inward perturbations were similar at all tested speeds and consistently employed stepping strategy that was further facilitated by a shortened stance. Wider and shorter steps were applied with increased perturbation intensity. Responses following outward perturbations were more complex. At S1, hip strategy (impulse-like increase of mediolateral ground reaction force) augmented with ankle strategy (mediolateral shift of the center of pressure) mainly contributed to responses already during the stance phase. The stance duration was significantly longer for all perturbation intensities. At S2, the relative share of hip strategy was reduced while with increased perturbation intensity, stepping strategy was gradually added. The stance duration was significantly longer for F1 and F2. At S3, stepping strategy was mainly used while the duration of stance was similar to the one in unperturbed walking. Responses following both inward and outward perturbations at all speeds were characterized by temporary slowing down movement in a sagittal plane that was more pronounced with increased perturbation intensity. Conclusions. This study provides novel insights into balancing strategies used at slower walking speeds which may be more relevant to understand the challenges of gait stability following perturbations in the frontal plane in clinical populations.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 11:05:23 +000
  • Biomechanical Analysis of the Forces Exerted during Different Occlusion
           Conditions following Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy Treatment for
           Mandibular Deficiency

    • Abstract: The bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) technique is commonly used to correct mandibular deficiency. If the patient is exposed to excessive external forces after the procedure, occlusal changes or nonunion may occur. However, previous studies only focused on single external forces on the mandible and did not conduct relevant research on the forces exerted by different occlusion conditions. The main purpose of this study was to use finite element analysis methods to determine the biomechanics of four common occlusion conditions after BSSO surgical treatment. This study constructed a finite element analysis computer model of a miniplate implanted in the lower jaw. The structure of the model consisted of the mandible, miniplate, and screws. In addition, external forces were applied to the superficial masseter, deep masseter, medial pterygoid, anterior temporalis, middle temporalis, and posterior temporalis muscles to simulate the incisal clench, intercuspal position (ICP), right unilateral molar clench (RMOL), and right group function occlusion conditions. Subsequently, this study observed the effects of these conditions on the miniplate, screws, and mandible, including the von Mises stress values. The results showed that all of the different occlusion conditions that this study evaluated placed high stress on the miniplate. In the ICP and RMOL occlusion conditions, the overall mandibular structure experienced very high stress. The screw on the proximal segment near the bone gap experienced high stress, as did the screw on the buccal side. According to the present analysis, although the data were not directly obtained from clinical practice, the finite element analysis could evaluate the trend of results under different external forces. The result of this study recommended that patients without intermaxillary fixation avoid the ICP and RMOL occlusion conditions. It can be used as a pilot study in the future for providing clinicians more information on the biomechanics of implantation.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 10:05:10 +000
  • Relationships between Hamstrings-to-Quadriceps Ratio and Variables
           Describing Countermovement and Drop Jumps

    • Abstract: The impact of the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio on sport movement performance has not been sufficiently described. However, it seems that in movements involving eccentric-concentric muscular contractions, a higher hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio should have a positive impact on human movement performance. The present study is aimed at identifying relationships between the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and variables describing countermovement and drop jumps. The study was carried out in a group of 14 female soccer players. The tests were conducted using a Kistler force plate, an SG electrogoniometer, and the Biodex System 4 Pro dynamometer. Each player performed three countermovement jumps (CMJ) and three drop jumps (DJ) from heights of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The peak torques of knee extensors and flexors were measured in isometric conditions and in isokinetic conditions at angular velocities of 30o/s, 60o/s, 90o/s, and 120o/s. Statistically significant relationships were found between the variables that describe CMJ, DJ 15, DJ 30, and hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio at some, though not all, of the angular velocities measured. No significant relationships were found between the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and variables that describe DJ 45 and DJ 60. The heights of CMJ, DJ 15, and DJ 30 were increased with higher hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios. Analogous relationships were found between the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and relative mechanical power during the take-off phase of the CMJ. Significant relationships between the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and variables that describe vertical jump are likely to be observed if adequate angular velocity is used in the measurement of muscle torque.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 08:05:10 +000
  • Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model of Thoracolumbar
           Kyphotic Deformity following Vertebral Column Decancellation

    • Abstract: Background. Vertebral column decancellation (VCD) is a new spinal osteotomy technique to correct thoracolumbar kyphotic deformity (TLKD). Relevant biomechanical research is needed to evaluate the safety of the technique and the fixation system. We aimed to develop an accurate finite element (FE) model of the spine with TLKD following VCD and to provide a reliable model for further biomechanical analysis. Methods. A male TLKD patient who had been treated with VCD on L2 and instrumented from T10 to L4 was a volunteer for this study. The CT scanning images of the postoperative spine were used for model development. The FE model, simulating the spine from T1 to the sacrum, includes vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal ligaments, pedicle screws, and rods. The model consists of 509580 nodes and 445722 hexahedrons. The ranges of motion (ROM) under different loading conditions were calculated for validation. The stresses acting on rods, screws, and vertebrae were calculated. Results. The movement trend, peak stress, and ROM calculated by the current FE model are consistent with previous studies. The FE model in this study is able to simulate the mechanical response of the spine during different motions with different loading conditions. Under axial compression, the rod was the part bearing the peak stress. During flexion, the stress was concentrated on proximal pedicle screws. Under extension and lateral bending, an osteotomized L1 vertebra bore the greatest stress on the model. During tests, ligament disruption and unit deletion were not found, indicating an absence of fracture and fixation breakage. Discussion. A subject-specific FE model of the spine following VCD is developed and validated. It can provide a reliable and accurate digital platform for biomechanical analysis and surgical planning.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 May 2019 08:05:05 +000
  • Exploring Vibration Transmission Rule of an Artificial Spider Web for
           Potential Application in Invulnerability of Wireless Sensor Network

    • Abstract: Significant similarities exist between a spider web and wireless sensor network in terms of topology. Combining the unique advantages of the spider web in nature, such as invulnerability and robustness, with communication technology of a wireless sensor network presents high research value and broad development prospects. In this paper, a sort of a spiral artificial spider web based on 3D printing and its associated vibration testing device is proposed, which is used to study the transmission rule of vibration information of the spider web under given excitation conditions. It provides useful inspiration for establishment of an invulnerable communication rule of wireless sensor network. In order to investigate vibration transmission characteristics of the artificial spider web, vibration images are recorded and analyzed by a high-speed photography system, and vibration intensity is characterized by use of peak-to-peak value. Furthermore, vibration performance of the artificial spider web is studied under conditions of integrity and destruction, respectively. Our test observation reveals the vibration transmission rule of the unique structure of the spider web, providing a novel analysis method for improving invulnerability of the wireless sensor network.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 May 2019 09:05:15 +000
  • Functional Epithelium Remodeling in Response to Applied Stress under In
           Vitro Conditions

    • Abstract: Mathematical modeling is often used in tissue engineering in order to overcome one of its major challenges: transformation of complex biological and rheological behaviors of cells and tissue in a mathematically predictive and physically manipulative engineering process. The successive accomplishment of this task will greatly help in quantifying and optimizing clinical application of the tissue engineering products. One of the problems emerging in this area is the relation between resting and migrating cell groups, as well as between different configurations of migrating cells and viscoelasticity. A deeper comprehension of the relation between various configurations of migrating cells and viscoelasticity at the supracellular level represents the prerequisite for optimization of the performance of the artificial epithelium. Since resting and migrating cell groups have a considerable difference in stiffness, a change in their mutual volume ratio and distribution may affect the viscoelasticity of multicellular surfaces. If those cell groups are treated as different phases, then an analogous model may be applied to represent such systems. In this work, a two-step Eyring model is developed in order to demonstrate the main mechanical and biochemical factors that influence configurations of migrating cells. This model could be also used for considering the long-time cell rearrangement under various types of applied stress. The results of this theoretical analysis point out the cause-consequence relationship between the configuration of migrating cells and rheological behavior of multicellular surfaces. Configuration of migrating cells is influenced by mechanical and biochemical perturbations, difficult to measure experimentally, which lead to uncorrelated motility. Uncorrelated motility results in (1) decrease of the volume fraction of migrating cells, (2) change of their configuration, and (3) softening of multicellular surfaces.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 May 2019 07:05:12 +000
  • Knee Joint Biomechanical Gait Data Classification for Knee Pathology
           Assessment: A Literature Review

    • Abstract: Background. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature on knee joint biomechanical gait data analysis for knee pathology classification. The review is prefaced by a presentation of the prerequisite knee joint biomechanics background and a description of biomechanical gait pattern recognition as a diagnostic tool. It is postfaced by discussions that highlight the current research findings and future directions. Methods. The review is based on a literature search in PubMed, IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, and Google Scholar on April 2019. Inclusion criteria admitted articles, written in either English or French, on knee joint biomechanical gait data classification in general. We recorded the relevant information pertaining to the investigated knee joint pathologies, the participants’ attributes, data acquisition, feature extraction, and selection used to represent the data, as well as the classification algorithms and validation of the results. Results. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Conclusions. The review reveals that the importance of medical applications of knee joint biomechanical gait data classification and recent progress in data acquisition technology are fostering intense interest in the subject and giving a strong impetus to research. The review also reveals that biomechanical data during locomotion carry essential information on knee joint conditions to infer an early diagnosis. This survey paper can serve as a useful informative reference for research on the subject.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 May 2019 07:05:13 +000
  • Pelvic Drop Changes due to Proximal Muscle Strengthening Depend on
           Foot-Ankle Varus Alignment

    • Abstract: Background. Strengthening of hip and trunk muscles can modify pelvis and hip movements. However, the varus alignment of the foot-ankle complex (FAC) may influence the effects of muscle strengthening, due to the relationship of FAC alignment with pelvic and hip kinematics. This study evaluated the effects of hip and trunk muscle strengthening on pelvis and hip kinematics during walking, in subgroups with larger and smaller values of FAC varus alignment. In addition, this study evaluated the effects of hip and trunk muscle strengthening on hip passive and active properties, in the same subgroups. Methods. Fifty-three women, who were divided into intervention and control groups, participated in this nonrandomized controlled trial. Each group was split into two subgroups with larger and smaller values of FAC varus alignment. Hip and trunk muscle strengthening was performed three times a week for two months, with a load of 70% to 80% of one repetition maximum. Before and after strengthening, we evaluated (1) pelvis and hip excursions in the frontal and transverse planes during walking, (2) isokinetic hip passive external rotator torque, and (3) isokinetic concentric and eccentric peak torques of the hip external rotator muscles. Mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were carried out for each dependent variable related to walking kinematics and isokinetic measurements ().Results. The subgroup with smaller varus alignment, of the intervention group, presented a reduction in pelvic drop after strengthening (). The subgroup with larger varus alignment increased pelvic drop after strengthening, with a marginal significance (). The other kinematic excursions did not change (pelvic anterior rotation , hip internal rotation , and hip adduction ). The intervention group showed increases in passive torque (), peak concentric torque (), and peak eccentric torque (), independently of FAC alignment. These results suggest that FAC varus alignment influences the effects of strengthening and should be considered when hip and trunk muscle strengthening is used to reduce pelvic drop during walking.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 May 2019 07:05:21 +000
  • The Evaluation of Different Radiological Measurement Parameters of the
           Degree of Collapse of the Vertebral Body in Vertebral Compression

    • Abstract: For compression fracture, vertebral body height loss (VBHL) and kyphotic angle (KA) are two important imaging parameters for determining the prognosis and appropriate treatment. This study used previous measurement methods to assess the degree of VBHL and KA, compare and examine differences between various measurement methods, and examine the correlation between relevant measurement parameters and intravertebral cleft (IVC) in the vertebral body. The radiographic images (lateral view of the T-L spine) of 18 patients with a single-level vertebral compression fracture were reviewed. We measured 9 characteristic lengths and angles on plain radiographs, including anterior vertebral height (AVH) and AVH of the adjacent upper and lower levels, middle vertebral height (MVH) and MVH of the adjacent upper and lower levels, posterior vertebral height (PVH), and vertebral body width, and assessed 6 parameters, including vertebral compression ratio (VBCR), percentage of anterior height compression (PAHC), percentage of middle height compression (PMHC), kyphotic angle (KA), calculated kyphotic angle (CKA), and IVC. The results showed that VBCR is a simple and rapid method of VBHL assessment, but it may result in an underestimation of the degree of VBHL compared to PAHC. When or , the probability of IVC occurring on the vertebral body was higher which means the higher risk of vertebral body instability. The results of this study could provide a reference for surgeons when using imaging modalities to assess the degree of vertebral body collapse.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 May 2019 11:05:07 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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