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J. of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Polish J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
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South Australian Geographical J.     Open Access  
Statistics in Transition New Series : An Intl. J. of the Polish Statistical Association     Open Access  
Transport Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
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Journal of Nematology
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0022-300X - ISSN (Online) 2640-396X
Published by Exeley Inc Homepage  [23 journals]
  • Front Matter / Table of Contents

    • Authors: Editors Editors
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • In Memoriam: Virginia Rogers Ferris: August 13, 2017

    • Authors: Andrea M. Skantar
      Pages: 231 - 232
      Abstract: Nematologist Virginia R. Ferris passed away Sunday, August 13, 2017 following a short illness.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Morphological and Molecular Identification of Longidorus euonymus and
           Helicotylenchus multicinctus from the Rhizosphere of Grapevine and Banana
           in Greece.

    • Authors: Emmanuel A. Tzortzakakis, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Pablo Castillo, Juan E. Palomares-Rius, Antonio Archidona-Yuste
      Pages: 233 - 235
      Abstract: Plant-parasitic nematodes such as Longidorus euonymus and Helicotylenchus multicintctus are species widely distributed in central Europe as well as in Mediterranean area. In Greece, both species have been previously reported but no morphometrics or molecular data were available for these species. Nematode surveys in the rhizosphere of grapevines in Athens carried out in 2016 and 2017, yielded a Longidorus species identified as Longidorus euonymus. Similarly, a population of Helicotylenchus multicinctus was detected infecting banana roots from an outdoor crop in Tertsa, Crete. For both species, morphometrics and molecular data of Greek populations were provided, resulting in the first integrative identification of both nematode species based on morphometric and molecular markers, confirming the occurrence of these two nematodes in Greece as had been stated in earlier reports.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • An 18S rDNA Perspective on the Classification of Criconematoidea

    • Authors: Thomas Powers, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers
      Pages: 236 - 244
      Abstract: In the nematode family Criconematidae, a taxonomy primarily based on cuticle characters has created classifications that are notoriously volatile. Molecular characters may lead to their stabilization. A phylogenetic tree of Criconematoidea was constructed using 166 new near full-length 18S rDNA sequences and 58 sequences from GenBank. Bayesian and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses produced trees with similar topologies. Major features include a strongly supported clade that includes Criconematidae and Hemicycliophoridae, excluding Paratylenchidae and Tylenchulidae. Another well-supported clade groups Criconema, Ogma, Crossonema, and Hemicriconemoides plus Xenocriconemella, combining nematodes with cuticular scales with those without scales at any life stage. Mesocriconema, Discocriconemella limitanea, Hemicaloosia, and Lobocriconema are recognized as monophyletic groups, but Criconemoides is paraphyletic. Both trees support an unexpected sister relationship between Bakernema and Hemicycliophora. The 18S rDNA dataset was insufficient for distinguishing genus boundaries between Criconema, Ogma, and Crossonema. The relationships depicted by the 18S rDNA phylogeny suggest that key morphological characters used in the classification of Criconematidae are not homologous.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Taxonomy and Systematics of the Genus Makatinus Heyns, 1965 (Nematoda:
           Dorylaimida: Aporcelaimidae)

    • Authors: Reyes Peña-Santiago, Ingrid Varela
      Pages: 245 - 253
      Abstract: The taxonomy and the systematics of the genus Makatinus are discussed by means of the characterization of its morphological pattern and the first molecular (D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA) analysis of a representative of this taxon, Makatinus crassiformis from Costa Rica. The presence of two or more pairs of male ad-cloacal genital papillae is the most characteristic autapomorphy of the genus, but the status of its species on this concern differ among them. Both morphological and molecular data support a relationship with Aporcelaimellus, which, however, might not be as close as usually assumed. An emended diagnosis of the genus, a key to species identification, and a compendium of their morphometrics are provided. Makatinus siddiqii is regarded as species inquirenda, Makatinus simus is retained under Eudorylaimus, and Makatinus tritici becomes a junior synonym of Aporcelaimellus tritici.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Morphological, Morphometric, and Molecular Characterization of
           Intraspecific Variations within Indian Populations of Meloidogyne
           graminicola

    • Authors: Rajan Salalia, R. K. Walia, Vishal Singh Somvanshi, Puneet Kumar, Anil Kumar
      Pages: 254 - 267
      Abstract: Fourteen populations of Meloidogyne graminicola were collected from different agroecological regions of India. Morphological and morphometrical comparisons were made for various nematode life stages. Three populations (Hisar, New Delhi, and Samastipur) were different from typical M. graminicola on the basis of the length of eggs; J2 length, a-value, hyaline tail portion; male length, distance up to excretory pore, spicule and gubernaculum lengths; female length and width, stylet length, distance up to excretory pore, EPST (distance of excretory pore from anterior end / stylet length [females]) ratio, and vulval length. Morphological and morphometrical comparison with closely related species M. graminis, M. oryzae, M. salasi, M. triticoryzae, and M. lini clustered these populations into two groups: Anand, Bhubaneswar, Hyderabad, Jammu, Jorhat, Kalyani, Kanpur, Ludhiana, Mandya, Palampur, Vellayani grouped with M. graminicola, M. triticoryzae and M. salasi; whereas, Hisar, New Delhi, Samastipur grouped with M. oryzae and M. graminis. Molecular phylogenetic analysis using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) suggested that in spite of morphological differences, these populations belonged to M. graminicola.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Description of a New Anguinid Nematode, Nothotylenchus phoenixae n. sp.
           (Nematoda: Anguinidae) Associated with Palm Date Trees and Its
           Phylogenetic Relations within the Family Anguinidae

    • Authors: Mehrab Esmaeili, Ramin Heydari, Weimin Ye
      Pages: 268 - 275
      Abstract: Nothotylenchus phoenixae n. sp. is described and illustrated from soil samples of palm trees in Kermanshah Province, western Iran. The new species is characterized by a body length of 784 (663 to 925) mmin females and 677 to 715 mmin males; a delicate stylet 6 (5 to 7) mmlong and six lines in the lateral field; median bulb of pharynx fusiform, nonmuscular, and nonvalvate; isthmus elongate, slender ending to a pyriform basal pharyngeal bulb not overlapping intestine; postvulval uterine sac well developed, 15 (14 to 17) mm long, female tail elongate-conoid with pointed terminus; and male with adanal bursa and spicules 21 to 22 mm long (n = 2). The new species comes close in morphology and morphometrics to five known species of the genus, namely N. affinis, N. hexaglyphus, N. persicus, N. taylori, and N. uniformis. Molecular analyses of the partial 18S, D2/D3 expansion segments of the partial 28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed this as a new species. The sequences of the partial 18S and 28S D2/D3 regions confirmed the close phylogenetic relationship between N. phoenixae n. sp. and other anguinids, but Nothotylenchus is clearly separated from Ditylenchus species and should be considered as a valid genus.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Morphological and Molecular Characteristics of Pratylenchus haiduongensis
           sp. n., a New Species of Root–Lesion Nematodes Associated with Carrot in
           Vietnam

    • Authors: Thi Duyen Nguyen, Thi Mai Linh Le, Huu Tien Nguyen, Thi Anh Duong Nguyen, Gracia Liebanas, Quang Phap Trinh
      Pages: 276 - 285
      Abstract: Pratylenchus haiduongensis sp. n. is described as associated with carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Sch€ubl. & G. Martens) in Hai Duong Province, Vietnam. P. haiduongensis sp. n. is characterized by the lip region with three annuli and slightly separated from the body. Stylet knobs are rounded (never indented anteriorly). The lateral field includes four incisures, bearing areolation at the pharynx region and tail region and occasionally appears in the vulval region. Sometimes the appearances of oblique broken striaes divide the lateral field into five or six incisures. The ovary is distinct with one row of oocytes. Spermatheca is oval in shape with round central cavity, without sperm or reduced in some specimens. The postvuval uterine sac is long surpassing the vulva body diameter by 2 to 2.5 times (PUS = 31 to 65 mm). High vulva position with V = 66 to 75%. The tail shape can be subhemispherical with a smooth, slightly indented, broadly smooth, or cleft terminus observed in some specimens. The matrix code of P. haiduongensis sp. n. is: A2, B1, C4, D(1,3), E1, F(5,6), G(1,2), H(1,4); I(1,2,3,4), J1, K(1,2) according to Castillo and Vovlas (2007). The LSU–D2D3 segment and the ITS–rDNA region of this species were amplified and sequenced. The morphological characters and molecular phylogenetic analyses confirmed that this is a new species of the genus Pratylenchus in Vietnam.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A New Species of the Rare Genus Anguillonema Fuchs, 1938 (Nematoda:
           Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) with Its Molecular Phylogenetic Study

    • Authors: Mahyar Mobasseri, Majid Pedram, Ebrahim Pourjam
      Pages: 286 - 294
      Abstract: Anguillonema amolensis n. sp. is described and illustrated based on its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characters. The new species is characterized by its 575 to 820 mm long and wide body (body width at vulva = 30 to 59 mm), irregularly ventrally curved after fixation, five to six lines in lateral fields, 6.0 to 7.5 mm long stylet with small rounded knobs, pharynx lacking a median bulb, pharyngo-intestinal junction anterior to nerve ring and excretory pore, females with monodelphic-prodelphic reproductive system, 15 to 19 mm long conical tail with broad rounded tip, and males absent. The new species is compared with two known species of the genus, Anguillonema poligraphi and A. crenati. Molecular phylogenetic studies of the new species using partial sequences of small subunit (SSU) rDNA revealed that it forms a clade with an unidentified nematode species and two species of the genus Howardula. In phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the 28S rDNA (D2-D3 segment), the new species formed a monophyletic group with species belonging to two genera Howardula and Parasitylenchus.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Nematicidal Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    • Authors: Feixue Cheng, Jian Wang, Zhiqiang Song, Ju'e Cheng, Deyong Zhang, Yong Liu
      Pages: 295 - 303
      Abstract: Plant-parasitic nematodes are important agricultural pests and often cause serious crop losses. Novel, environmental friendly nematicides are urgently needed because of the harmful effects of some existing nematicides on human health. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was reported as a potential biodegradable herbicide, insecticide, or plant-growth promoting agent. Lack of information on ALA against plant-parasitic nematodes prompted this investigation to determine the effects of ALA on Meloidogyne incognita, Heterodera glycines, Pratylenchus coffeae, and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. A series of in vitro assays and one greenhouse trial were conducted to examine the nematicidal effects of ALA. The results demonstrated that ALA exhibited a strong effect of suppression against the four nematodes tested. ALA also inhibited hatching of M. incognita and H. glycines. Results from the greenhouse experiment indicated that treatment of soil with 6.0 mM ALA significantly reduced the root-gall index (RGI) and egg mass number per root system compared with the uninoculated control (P # 0.05). The metabolism assays indicated that ALA treatment significantly altered the nematode metabolism including the total protein production, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and oxidase activities. This study suggested that ALA is a promising nematicide against plant-parasitic nematodes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Influence of Root Exudates and Soil on Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans
           to Meloidogyne arenaria

    • Authors: Chang Liu, Patricia Timper, Pingsheng Ji, Tesfamariam Mekete, Soumi Joseph
      Pages: 304 - 310
      Abstract: The bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is a parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Endospores of P. penetrans attach to the cuticle of second-stage juveniles (J2) and subsequently sterilize infected females. When encumbered by large numbers of spores, juveniles are less mobile and their ability to infect roots is reduced. This study looked at different factors that influence spore attachment of P. penetrans to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria. Pretreatment of J2 with root exudates of eggplant (Solanum melongena cv. Black beauty) reduced spore attachment compared with pretreatment with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), suggesting that the nematode surface coat was altered or the spore recognition domains on the nematode surface were blocked. Spore attachment was equally reduced following exposure to root exudates from both host and nonhost plants for M. arenaria, indicating a common signal that affects spore attachment. Although phytohormones have been shown to influence the lipophilicity of the nematode surface coat, auxins and kinetins did not affect spore attachment compared with PBS. Root exudates reduced spore attachment more in sterilized soil than in natural soil. Sterilization may have eliminated microbes that consume root exudates, or altered the chemical components of the soil solution or root exudates. Root exudates caused a greater decrease in spore attachment in loamy sand than in a sandy loam soil. The sandy loam had higher clay content than the loamy sand, which may have resulted in more adsorption of compounds in the root exudates that affect spore attachment. The components of the root exudates could have also been modified by soil type. The results of this study demonstrate that root exudates can decrease the attachment of P. penetrans endospores to root-knot nematodes, indicating that when these nematodes enter the root zone their susceptibility to spore attachment may decrease.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Vertical Distribution of Pasteuria penetrans Parasitizing Meloidogyne
           incognita on Pittosporum tobira in Florida

    • Authors: Richard Baidoo, Tesfamariam Mekete Mengistu, Janete A. Brito, Robert McSorley, Robert H. Stamps, William T. Crow
      Pages: 311 - 315
      Abstract: Pasteuria penetrans is considered as the primary agent responsible for soil suppressiveness to root-knot nematodes widely distributed in many agricultural fields. A preliminary survey on a Pittosporum tobira field where the grower had experienced a continuous decline in productivity caused by Meloidogyne incognita showed that the nematode was infected with Pasteuria penetrans. For effective control of the nematode, the bacterium and the host must coexist in the same root zone. The vertical distribution of Pasteuria penetrans and its relationship with the nematode host in the soil was investigated to identify (i) the vertical distribution of P. penetrans endospores in an irrigated P. tobira field and (ii) the relationship among P. penetrans endospore density, M. incognita J2 population density, and host plant root distribution over time. Soil bioassays revealed that endospore density was greater in the upper 18 cm of the top soil compared with the underlying depths. A correlation analysis showed that the endospore density was positively related to the J2 population density and host plant root distribution. Thus, the vertical distribution of P. penetrans was largely dependent on its nematode host which in turn was determined by the distribution of the host plant roots. The Pasteuria was predominant mostly in the upper layers of the soil where their nematode host and the plant host roots are abundant, a factor which may be a critical consideration when using P. penetrans as a nematode biological control agent.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Superparasitism and Population Regulation of the Mosquito-Parasitic
           Mermithid Nematodes Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus

    • Authors: Manar Sanad, Jennifer S. Sun, Muhammad S. M. Shamseldean, Yi Wang, Randy Gaugler
      Pages: 316 - 320
      Abstract: Superparasitism is a common phenomenon in mosquito-parasitic mermithid nematodes. Multiple nematodes are needed in a single host to produce males. Host selection behavior and intraspecific competition among Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus were investigated against their host, Culex pipiens pipiens in laboratory experiments. In a choice assay between previously infected and uninfected host larvae, infectious preparasites of both nematode species could distinguish not only between infected and uninfected hosts, but even between different parasite loads in showing a strong preference for uninfected hosts or hosts with a low parasite load. Host heart rate declined briefly immediately after parasitism. Superparasitism resulted in increased parasite mortality. Scramble competition within mosquito larvae for limited host nutrients, coupled with a skewed sex ratio favoring males, is assumed to lead to parasite population decline and subsequently toward host-parasite population equilibrium. The ability of mermithid preparasites to accurately assess parasite load likely plays an important role in host population dynamics and regulation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A New Race (X12) of Soybean Cyst Nematode in China

    • Authors: Yun Lian, Jianqiu Guo, Haichao Li, Yongkang Wu, He Wei, Jinshe Wang, Jinying Li, Weiguo Lu
      Pages: 321 - 326
      Abstract: The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a serious economic threat to soybean-producing regions worldwide. A new SCN population (called race X12) was detected in Shanxi province, China. Race X12 could reproduce on all the indicator lines of both race and Heterodera glycines (HG) type tests. The average number of females on Lee68 (susceptible control) was 171.40 with the lowest Female Index (FI) 61.31 on PI88788 and the highest FI 117.32 on Pickett in the race test. The average number of females on Lee68 was 323.17 with the lowest FI 44.18 on PI88788 and the highest FI 97.83 on PI548316 in the HG type test. ZDD2315 and ZDD24656 are elite resistant germplasms in China. ZDD2315 is highly resistant to race 4, the strongest infection race in the 16 races with FI 1.51 while being highly sensitive to race X12 with FI 64.32. ZDD24656, a variety derived from PI437654 and ZDD2315, is highly resistant to race 1 and race 2. ZDD24656 is highly sensitive to race X12 with FI 99.12. Morphological and molecular studies of J2 and cysts confirmed the population as the SCN H. glycines. This is a new SCN race with stronger virulence than that of race 4 and is a potential threat to soybean production in China.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The Mesostigmatid Mite Protogamasellus mica, an Effective Predator of
           Free-Living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    • Authors: Graham R. Stirling, A. Marcelle Stirling, David E. Walter
      Pages: 327 - 333
      Abstract: Protogamasellus mica was extracted from a sugarcane field in Australia and cultured on bacterial-feeding nematodes. Studies with various nematodes in laboratory arenas showed that one mite and its progeny reduced nematode numbers by between 26 and 50 nematodes/day. A bacterivore (Mesorhabditis sp.), a fungivore (Aphelenchus avenae), and two plant parasites (root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus zeae) were all reduced at much the same rate despite the fact that the nematodes are quite different in size and motility and belong to different trophic groups. When sugarcane was grown in the greenhouse for 8 wk, stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus annulatus), a plant parasite that feeds ectoparasitically on roots, was almost eliminated from pots inoculated with the mite, and numbers of microbivores and root-lesion nematode were markedly reduced. Huge reductions in nematode populations were also observed when mites were added to microcosms containing small quantities of defaunated soil. These results show that P. mica multiplies rapidly when nematodes are available as a food source and has the capacity to play a role in regulating populations of both plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes. Future research should focus on understanding the crop and soil management practices required to enable this mite and other predatory species to thrive.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Expression of CeHSP17 Protein in Response to Heat Shock and Heavy Metal
           Ions

    • Authors: Anastasia N. Ezemaduka, Yunbiao Wang, Xiujun Li
      Pages: 334 - 340
      Abstract: Small heat shock proteins (sHSP) are ubiquitously found in all organisms, and with other heat shock proteins (HSP) such as HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, HSP100 made up the molecular chaperone family. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes which include among others cell resistance to biological and environmental stress conditions. In this study, we show by western blotting that CeHSP17, an sHSP of Caenorhabiditis elegans, is significantly induced by high temperatures. Furthermore, in response to metal stress, the CeHSP17 protein expression was significantly induced by cadmium and zinc at high concentration of clearly cytotoxic range in wild-type C. elegans. Altogether, our results show the involvement of CeHSP17 protein in both environmental and biological stresses in C. elegans and establish for the first time the expression pattern of the CeHSP17 protein in response to thermal and metal stress conditions in C. elegans. The responses of CeHSP17 protein expression may serve as potential sensitive biomarker for metal-induced toxicity monitoring and environmental risk assessment.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
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