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Publisher: Emerald   (Total: 335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 335 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administraci√≥n     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 4)
Accounting Auditing & Accountability J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Accounting Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 7)
Accounting, Auditing and Accountability J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 40)
Advances in Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.514, h-index: 5)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 5)
Advances in Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 2)
Advances in Gender Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 7)
Advances in Intl. Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 5)
Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
African J. of Economic and Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.125, h-index: 2)
Agricultural Finance Review     Hybrid Journal  
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.391, h-index: 18)
American J. of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.215, h-index: 25)
Arts and the Market     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific J. of Marketing and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.244, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.182, h-index: 7)
Asian Association of Open Universities J.     Open Access  
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. on Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Review of Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 7)
Aslib J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.65, h-index: 29)
Aslib Proceedings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.657, h-index: 26)
Baltic J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 14)
Benchmarking : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.556, h-index: 38)
British Food J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.329, h-index: 35)
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 4)
Business Process Re-engineering & Management J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, h-index: 42)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.201, h-index: 6)
Career Development Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 32)
China Agricultural Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 10)
China Finance Review Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 12)
Circuit World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 17)
Collection Building     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.829, h-index: 10)
COMPEL: The Intl. J. for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 22)
Competitiveness Review : An Intl. Business J. incorporating J. of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.508, h-index: 8)
Corporate Communications An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.703, h-index: 26)
Corporate Governance Intl. J. of Business in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.309, h-index: 29)
Critical Perspectives on Intl. Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.32, h-index: 15)
Cross Cultural & Strategic Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.356, h-index: 13)
Development and Learning in Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.138, h-index: 8)
Digital Library Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Direct Marketing An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 32)
Drugs and Alcohol Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 4)
Education + Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 30)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.141, h-index: 10)
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Employee Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.435, h-index: 22)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 39)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 28)
Equal Opportunities Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.239, h-index: 9)
EuroMed J. of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 9)
European Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 21)
European J. of Innovation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 30)
European J. of Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 55)
European J. of Training and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 23)
Evidence-based HRM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 18)
Foresight     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 20)
Gender in Management : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 22)
Grey Systems : Theory and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 17)
Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
History of Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 2)
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 4)
Human Resource Management Intl. Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 6)
Humanomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.14, h-index: 4)
IMP J.     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Growth and Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.163, h-index: 4)
Industrial and Commercial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 14)
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 19)
Industrial Management & Data Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 69)
Industrial Robot An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.375, h-index: 32)
Info     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.25, h-index: 21)
Information and Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Information Technology & People     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 28)
Interactive Technology and Smart Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Interlending & Document Supply     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 13)
Internet Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.746, h-index: 57)
Intl. J. for Lesson and Learning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. for Researcher Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Accounting and Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Bank Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.515, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Clothing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Conflict Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of Contemporary Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.329, h-index: 35)
Intl. J. of Culture Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Development Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Educational Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.424, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.179, h-index: 1)
Intl. J. of Emerging Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Energy Sector Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.25, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.694, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Event and Festival Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.32, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Gender and Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Health Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Human Rights in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Information and Learning Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.173, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Law and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Law in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Leadership in Public Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Lean Six Sigma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.562, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Managerial Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Managing Projects in Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Manpower     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 37)
Intl. J. of Mentoring and Coaching in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Intl. J. of Migration, Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.594, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Operations & Production Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.198, h-index: 94)
Intl. J. of Organizational Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.222, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Pervasive Computing and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.694, h-index: 66)
Intl. J. of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.254, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Productivity and Performance Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.785, h-index: 31)
Intl. J. of Public Sector Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 37)
Intl. J. of Quality & Reliability Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.544, h-index: 63)
Intl. J. of Quality and Service Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.133, h-index: 1)
Intl. J. of Retail & Distribution Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, h-index: 36)
Intl. J. of Service Industry Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Social Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.227, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.325, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Sustainability in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 29)
Intl. J. of Tourism Cities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Web Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.208, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Wine Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Workplace Health Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 8)
Intl. Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.076, h-index: 57)
J. for Multicultural Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
J. of Accounting & Organizational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 7)
J. of Accounting in Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.291, h-index: 7)
J. of Advances in Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.177, h-index: 9)
J. of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Applied Accounting Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Applied Research in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
J. of Asia Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 1)
J. of Assistive Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.215, h-index: 6)
J. of Business & Industrial Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 48)
J. of Business Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.381, h-index: 17)
J. of Centrum Cathedra     Open Access  
J. of Children's Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 9)
J. of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 4)
J. of Chinese Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 3)
J. of Communication Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.735, h-index: 6)
J. of Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 62)
J. of Corporate Real Estate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 5)
J. of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 1)
J. of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
J. of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 5)
J. of Documentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 0.936, h-index: 50)
J. of Economic and Administrative Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 26)
J. of Educational Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.848, h-index: 36)
J. of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.173, h-index: 10)
J. of Enterprise Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 38)
J. of Enterprising Communities People and Places in the Global Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 8)
J. of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of European Industrial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of European Real Estate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.52, h-index: 7)
J. of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Family Business Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Fashion Marketing and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 30)
J. of Financial Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 5)
J. of Financial Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Financial Management of Property and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 1)
J. of Financial Regulation and Compliance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Financial Reporting and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
J. of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 8)
J. of Global Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Global Responsibility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Health Organisation and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 27)
J. of Historical Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.376, h-index: 8)
J. of Hospitality and Tourism Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.672, h-index: 10)
J. of Human Resource Costing & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)

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Journal Cover Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
  [SJR: 0.215]   [H-I: 25]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-5599
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Deposition time effects on structure and corrosion resistance of duplex
           MAO/Al coatings on AZ31B Mg alloy
    • First page: 357
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose To investigate the effects of deposition time on the structure and anti-corrosion properties of a micro-arc oxidation (MAO)/Al coating on AZ31B Mg alloy. Design/methodology/approach To fabricate the coating via a combined process of MAO with multi-arc ion plating (M-AIP).The structure, composition, and corrosion resistance of the coatings were evaluated using SEM, EDS, XRD, and electrochemical methods. Findings The Al-layer is tightly deposited with a good mechanical interlock along the rough interface due to the Al diffusion. However, the Al-layer reduces the anti-corrosion of MAO-coated Mg alloy because of structural defects such as droplets and cavities, which act as channels for corrosive media infiltration towards the substrate. Fortunately, the Al layer improves the substrate corrosion resistance owing to its passive behaviour, and the corrosion resistance can be enhanced with increasing deposition time. All results indicate that a buffer layer fabricated through the duplex process improves the interfacial compatibility between the hard coating and soft Mg alloys. Originality/value ► An MAO/Al duplex coating was fabricated via a combined process of MAO and PVD. ► MAO/Al duplex coatings exhibit obviously passive behaviours on AZ31 Mg alloy. ► The structure and corrosion resistance of MAO/Al coatings were investigated.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-04-2016-1666
       
  • Electrochemical property analysis of SiO2-Al2O3 coated steel by
           electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
    • First page: 365
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the corrosion resistance of SiO2-Al2O3 coating on mild steel. Design/methodology/approach SiO2-Al2O3 was coated using sol-gel method and electrochemical measurements were applied to assess the performance of the coated steel. Findings The main conclusion is that SiO2-Al2O3 coated specimens acquired a higher corrosion resistance than that of uncoated specimen. icorr values of the coated specimens were between 12 and 14 times smaller than those of uncoated specimen. The coated specimens exhibited a higher Rcor value at EIS analysis. The high values of Rcor and low values of CPEdl observed within the SiO2-Al2O3 coated samples imply an improved anti-corrosion capability. Originality/value In this work, there are three points of originality. Firstly, steel specimens were coated with ormosil-based solution by applying sol–gel dip coating method. Secondly, both SiO2 and Al2O3 coating were applied simultaneously at a considerably low temperature i.e. 200 °C. Finally, the performance of the coated materials against wet corrosion was improved significantly.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:16:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-06-2016-1678
       
  • Effect of main controlling factor on the corrosion behaviour of API X65
           pipeline steel in the CO2/oil/water environment
    • First page: 371
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper was to investigate the corrosion behavior of API X65 pipeline steel in the simulated CO2/oil/water emulsion using weight loss technique, potentiodynamic polarization technique and characterization of the corroded surface techniques. Design/methodology/approach The weight loss analysis, electrochemical study and surface investigation were carried out on API X65 pipeline steel that had been immersed in the CO2/oil/water corrosive medium to understand the corrosion behavior of gathering pipeline steel. The weight loss tests were carried out in a 3L autoclave, and effects of temperature, CO2 partial pressure, water cut and flow velocity on the CO2 corrosion rate of API X65 pipeline steel were studied. Electrochemical studies were carried out in a three-electrode electrochemical cell with the test temperature was 60°C and the CO2 partial pressure was 1 atm by recording open circuit potential/time and potentiodynamic polarization characteristics. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of corrosion product scales were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The phases of corrosion product scales were investigated using X-ray diffraction. Findings The results showed that water cut was the main controlling factor of API X65 steel corrosion under the conditions of CO2/oil/water multiphase flow, and it had significant impact on corrosion morphology. In the case of higher water cut or pure water phase, general corrosion occurred on the steel surface. While water cut was below 70%, corrosion morphology transformed into localized corrosion, crude oil decreased corrosion rate significantly and played a role of inhibitor. Crude oil hindered the corrosion scales from being dissolved by corrosive medium, and changed dimension and accumulation pattern of the crystal grain, thickness and structure of the corrosion scales, thus it influenced the corrosion rate. The primary corrosion product of API X65 steel was ferrous carbonate (FeCO3), which could act as a protective film at low water cut so that the corrosion rate can be reduced. Originality/value The results can be helpful in selecting the suitable corrosion inhibitors and targeted anti-corrosion measures for CO2/oil/water corrosive environment.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-04-2016-1665
       
  • Corrosion behavior of ZnO-polyester nanocomposite powder coating
    • First page: 380
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose The low resistance against penetration of water, oxygen and the other corrosive ions through the paths of coating is one the most important problems. So protective properties of coating such as polyester must be promoted. Recently, the use of nanoparticles in the matrix of polymer coating in order to increase their protection and mechanical properties has been prospering greatly. The purpose of this study is to improve the corrosion resistance of the polyester powder coating with ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal method in a microwave. Using of polyester – ZnO nanocomposite coating as powder, combining them by ball milling process and coating them by electrostatic process are innovative and have not been used before it. Design/methodology/approach Polyester powder as the matrix and ZnO nanoparticles as reinforcing were combined in three different weigh percentage (0.5, 1, 2 %Wt.) and formed polymer nanocomposite by ball milling process. Then, the fabricated nanocomposite powder was applied to the surface of carbon steel using an electrostatic device and then, the coatings were cured in the furnace. The morphology of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated by transmission electron microscope. Also, the morphology of polyester powder and fabricated coatings were studied by scanning electron microscope. The effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the corrosion resistance of coated samples was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test at various times (1-90 days) of immersion in 3.5% NaCl electrolyte. Findings SEM results reveal that there are no obvious crack and defects in the nanocomposite coatings. In contrast, the pure polyester coatings having many cracks and pores in their structure. According to the EIS results, the corrosion resistance of nanocomposite coating compared to pure coating is higher. The value obtained from EIS test show that, corrosion resistance for coating that containing 1 %wt. nanoparticle was 32150000 (Ωcm2), which was 6 times bigger than that of pure coating. In addition to providing a barrier against diffusion of electrolyte, ZnO nanoparticles act as a corrosion inhibitor and thus increases the corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of coating containing 0.5 %Wt. nanoparticles compared to that of with 1 %Wt. nanoparticles was lower. The low content of nanoparticles caused partial covering the porosity of coating which in turn leads to provide weaker barrier properties. The increase in quantity of nanoparticles from 1 to 2 %Wt. also caused a decrease in corrosion resistance which is attributed to the agglomeration of nanoparticles. Originality/value The results of this study indicated the significant effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the protective performance and corrosion resistance of the polyester powder coating. Evaluation of coating surface and interface with SEM technique revealed that nanocomposite coating compared with pure polyester coating provided a coating with lower number of pores and with higher quality. The EIS measurements represented that polymeric coating that containing nanoparticles compared to pure coating provide a better corrosion resistance. In addition to providing a barrier against diffusion of electrolyte, ZnO nanoparticles act as a corrosion inhibitor and thus increases the corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of coating containing 0.5 %Wt. nanoparticles compared to that of with 1 %Wt. nanoparticles was lower. The low content of nanoparticles caused partial covering the porosity of coating which in turn leads to provide weaker barrier properties. The increase in quantity of nanoparticles from 1 to 2 %Wt. also caused a decrease in corrosion resistance which is attributed to the agglomeration of nanoparticles.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-08-2016-1707
       
  • New corrosion inhibitors based on epoxidized natural rubber for coating
           protection of metals under UV irradiation
    • First page: 389
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose In the present work, under severe conditions of an inert atmosphere and high temperature, epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) with 25% epoxidation level reacts with different aliphatic amine compounds such as ethyl amine (EA), propyl amine (PA) and butyl amine (BA) to prepare ENR/EA, ENR/PA, ENR/BA compounds as respectively. The produced compounds were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and oxirane oxygen content determination. Different concentrations of the produced compounds were added to epoxy and urethane acrylate coating formulations to evaluate them as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel under UV irradiation. Corrosion resistance tests and weight loss measurements of the coated steel panels were made. It was found that coating formulations containing the prepared ENR/EA compound could protect metal surface from corrosion and corrosion inhibitors efficiency of the prepared compounds were arranged as follows: ENR/EA  ENR/PA  ENR/BA. The optimum concentrations for all inhibitors which give the best inhibition efficiency for corrosion are 0.4-0.6 phr. Design/methodology/approach Corrosion scratch tests were carried out according to ASTM D 1654-92 (2000)- The weight loss of coated steel was measured according to ASTM D 2688-94 (1999)-The measurement of film hardness was carried out with a Wolff–Wilborn pencil hardness tester according to ASTM D 3363 (2000) Findings Findings from national center for radiation reseaech and technology- cairo-egypt Originality/value my research paper is original
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-01-2016-1628
       
  • Data driven modeling of fireside corrosion rate
    • First page: 397
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose In this paper an efficient artificial neural network (ANN) model using multi-layer perceptron (MLP) philosophy has been proposed to predict the fireside corrosion rate of superheater tubes in coal fire boiler assembly using operational data of an Indian typical thermal power plant. Design/methodology/approach : An efficient gradient based network training algorithm has been employed to minimize the network training errors. The input parameters comprise of coal chemistry, namely coal ash and sulfur contents, flue gas temperature, SOX concentrations in flue gas, fly ash chemistry (wt% Na2O and K2O). Findings Effects of coal ash and sulfur contents, wt% of Na2O and K2O in fly ash and operating variables such as flue gas temperature and percentage excess air intake for coal combustion on the fireside corrosion behavior of superheater boiler tubes have been computationally investigated and parametric sensitivity analysis has been undertaken. Originality/value Quite good agreement between ANN model predictions and the measured values of fireside corrosion rate has been observed which is corroborated by the regression fit between these values.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-11-2016-1732
       
  • A novel fixing method for Mg-based specimens used in the in-vitro
           immersion test
    • First page: 405
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose The aim was to predict the in-vivo degradation behaviour of Mg-based implants through in-vitro immersion test. Design/methodology/approach A novel placement mode arming to mimic the in-vivo situation was investigated in this work. Specimens are mounted on bones and then immersed in dynamic Hank's solution. Findings The degradation behaviour of the specimen's two sides is unequal. The bottom-side which clings to the bone was isolated from solution in the early stage. During the late immersion period, there is crevice corrosion appearing on the bottom-side. Weight loss and mechanical properties of specimens were also affected by the placement mode. Research limitations/implications Placement mode reported here have guiding significance for degradation behaviour of bio-implants in the clinical study. Originality/value A novel placement mode arming to mimic the in-vivo situation was investigated in this work, which was better fit the actual in vivo immersion situation.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-12-2015-1623
       
  • The influence of temperature on the corrosion inhibition of API 5L X42
           pipeline steel in HCl medium by Gum Arabic
    • First page: 409
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate the influence of temperature (25 to 65 C°) on the adsorption and the inhibition efficiency of Gum Arabic for the corrosion of API 5L X42 pipeline steel in 1M HCl. Design/methodology/approach Inhibition behaviour on steel in HCl has been studied in relation to the concentration of the inhibitor as well as the temperature using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Thermodynamic parameters of adsorption were calculated from the viewpoint of adsorption theory. Findings The results show that, at a temperature range from 25 to 65 C°, Gum Arabic was good inhibitor for API 5L X42 pipeline steel and its inhibition efficiency was significantly stable. The maximum inhibition efficiency (93 %) is obtained at 4 g l-1. In absence and presence of GA, there is almost no change in the corrosion mechanism occurs regardless of the temperature. The adsorption of (GA) on steel surface is an exothermic process. The adsorption of (GA) involves physical adsorption. Practical implications The use of Gum Arabic as an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor is practical for carbon steel in hydrochloric acid. Originality/value The stability of inhibition efficiency of Gum Arabic at a temperature range from 25 to 65 C° could find possible applications in acid pickling, industrial acid cleaning and acid descaling.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-11-2016-1734
       
  • Inhibiters replacement of chilled water system in nuclear unit
    • First page: 418
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose The aims of this investigation were to study the corrosion control of B10 copper-nickel alloy using the LiOH-N2H4 compound inhibitors, and to evaluate the feasibility of replacing the original inhibitors (NaNO2-Na2MoO4) with the new ones (LiOH-N2H4) for the chilled water system in nuclear unit. Design/methodology/approach The corrosion resistance performance of B10 copper-nickel alloy was evaluated during the whole replacement process of inhibiters using electrochemical tests and surface analysis techniques. Findings The results indicated that the corrosion of B10 copper-nickel alloy could be prevented effectively using LiOH to increase the pH value of solution higher than 10.0 and using N2H4 to consume dissolved oxygen. During the replacement process of inhibitors from NaNO2-Na2MoO4 to LiOH-N2H4, the corrosion resistance performance of B10 copper-nickel alloy had not decreased greatly. The new LiOH-N2H4 inhibitor, which could enhance the compactness of rust, was able to reduce the corrosion rate of rusted B10 metal. Originality/value It is feasible and operable to replace the NaNO2-Na2MoO4 inhibitors with the LiOH-N2H4 inhibitors for the corrosion prevention of B10 copper-nickel alloy. The research results can provide guidelines for the inhibitors selection of chilled water system in nuclear unit.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-02-2016-1647
       
  • Failure analysis of coated galvanized steel panels
    • First page: 424
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to determine the mode and cause of failure of polyester-coated galvanized corrugated steel sheets that exhibited degradation of the coating after 7 months into service. Design/methodology/approach Visual inspection and light microscopy revealed the extent of damage exhibited by the panels. Standard metallographic techniques were used to prepare samples obtained from both unused and failed sections. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the surface morphology, microstructural features, elemental composition and structure of the samples. Findings The failure occurred in the form of delamination and blistering of coated layer. Presence of solar radiation, humidity and water retention resulted in loss of adhesion leading to coating delamination and flaking especially at the top surface. The coating at the bottom surface of the panels showed evidence of blistering caused by water vapor differential that existed between the environment and the coating due to prolonged (4 months) wet conditions that existed at the manufacturer’s site during storage. Practical implications It was recommended that the coated panels are stored in covered area where direct exposure to atmospheric conditions can be prevented. If open storage is unavoidable then the use of tarpaulin or plastic sheet as covering and vapor-phase inhibitors was recommended. Originality/value This paper provides an account of failure analysis of metal sheet panels. It identifies the mode and cause of failure and also provides recommendations to avoid such occurrences in the future. The information contained in this paper is useful for plant engineers and project managers working in metal sheet industry.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:16:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-05-2016-1669
       
  • Corrosion inhibition of organic amine on Q235 steel in ammonium sulfate
           slurry of ammonia flue gas desulfurization system
    • First page: 432
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose Diethylenetriamine (DETA) as an inhibitor on Q235 (Gr. D) steel in ammonia flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system was evaluated. Design/methodology/approach This research was carried out by weight loss, electrochemical measurements, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The effects of DETA on crystallization of ammonium sulfate as well as its co-crystallization were also investigated by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Findings The inhibition efficiency of DETA reached a maximum value of 98.96%. DETA is postulated to adsorb on Q235 steel surface, resulting in the formation of a protective film by the accumulation of many flat particles, and the thickness of protective film is 8µm. DETA had no effect on the crystallization of ammonium sulfate product. Originality/value DETA can be used in AFGD system as an inhibitor to protect the equipment well.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-03-2015-1522
       
  • Structure and corrosion behavior of Al-Co-Ti alloy system
    • First page: 443
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose Ternary Al-Co-Ti alloy system with various cobalt compositions is investigated within this study.Structural characterization of AlxCoy-2Ti2 alloys were performed by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical test. The effect of the addition of 5%,10%,15%,20%,25%,30% Co and 2% Ti on the structural evolution shows that both intermetallic compounds formation and structure morphology are related to corrosion resistance as well at the as elaborated state as after subsequent heat treatment at 500°C during short time. According to the microstructural characterizations, we can notice that the substitution of cobalt has an important effect on the corrosion resistance and plays a role for the formation of the passive film. Design/methodology/approach The alloys in this study were obtained by a high frequency induction fusion. Powders from aluminum, cobalt and titanium (99.999%) in proportions defined according to the composition aimed of alloy have been used. The total mass of the sample to be elaborated lies between 8g and10g.Cold compaction was achieved for mixed powder intended for high fusion Frequency (HF)..For electrochemical tests, the sample was cut by a diamond wheel to obtain a square section of dimensions 1cm². Afterward we connect this sample with a copper electrical wire. The last stage is the envelope in an acrylic resin realized in a The used electrolyte is a salt environment 3.5 % NaCl (35g of NaCl by liter of distilled water at room temperature (25 ± 1°C), aerated and with moderated agitation V=250 r .min- plastic mold. This mold is displayed to the ambient air during 10 minutes to allow the resin to solidify. 1. Findings ]. The aim of this work is to establish the influence of the addition of Cobalt and titanium on structural change and related corrosion behavior improvement in aluminum. A particular attention is accorded to Al-15%Co-2%Ti alloy. Originality/value that among the studied alloys with different cobalt content, a precise composition of 15% Co and 2 % titanium appears to have interesting electrochemical characteristics for both regarding the corrosion potential, the corrosion current and particularly the corrosion rate which is very small when compared at that of other alloys as well in the as-solidified state that after heat treatment. This composition is located halfway between the stainless steel 304 and the Al- Fe and Al-Co-Ce alloys.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-05-2016-1674
       
  • Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole-SiO2 composite coating on 316
           stainless steel for corrosion protection
    • First page: 452
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose Consequently, the goal of this paper is to synthesize polypyrrole/SiO2 composite coating on 316 stainless steel by cyclic voltammogram, and preliminary do research about the valuable effects of SiO2 particle incorporation within the polymer matrix Design/methodology/approach This study is based on elaboration of coating by electrochemical process and of SiO2 by sol-gel process Findings EIS studies revealed that compared with PPy, PPy-SiO2 coating acts as a more protective layer on 316SS against corrosion in 3.5% NaCl. SEM studies revealed that the PPy-SiO2 coated 316SS showed more uniform and compact morphology. Originality/value In order to fully dispersed silica, sol-gel method is usded. Hydroxyl group is generated on the surface of inorganic particle by sol-gel method, which improve the inorganic particle dispersion.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-02-2016-1650
       
  • Microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis and performance test of novel
           thiadiazole derivatives as an inhibitor of oil transportation pipelines
    • First page: 461
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 4, June 2017.
      Purpose In order to improve the anti-corrosion of oil transportation pipelines Design/methodology/approach we provides a simple, efficient and inexpensive of one-pot method for the novel Thiadiazole Derivatives synthesized using 2substituted [1, 3, 4] thiadiazole, P2O5 and chloroacetic acid as materials by using XH-200A computer microwave solid-liquid phase synthesizer. The results showed that microwave heating can be finished the reaction sufficiently in 20 min, and the optimal addition reaction conditions were n([1, 3, 4] Thiadiazole):n(chloroacetic acid): P2O5 =1: 1.2: 1.3. Under such conditions, the yield of the title products was 54%. Findings The structure of the title compounds were all confirmed by FT-IR and 1HNMR. Water-based inhibitors corrosion behaviors on the SS surface in 1mol/L HCl solution at r. t. were also studied by weight loss methods and polarization curves. The results of the curves showed that an appropriate amount of 2a (40 ppm) can improve the anti-corrosion efficiency, whereas an excessive 2a (e. g 50 ppm) may not significantly increase the anti-corrosion. Originality/value In view of in continuation of our studies, the present work was microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis of 2-substitued [1, 3, 4] thiadiazole derivatives were explored, and it anti-corrosion performance were tested by weight loss methods and polarization curves.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T11:16:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-10-2016-1719
       
  • Influence of calcium nitrite on the passive films of rebar in simulated
           concrete pore solution
    • First page: 265
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose This paper studied the influences of the calcium nitrite on the passive films of rebar to reveal the fundamental causes that the calcium nitrite prolongs the durability service life of the reinforced concrete structures further. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive experimental study of the passive films, such as components, surface morphologies, electric structure and compactness was carried out in the saturated calcium hydroxide solution which is normally used to simulate concrete pore solution by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), mott-schottcky and potentiostatic polarization, respectively. Findings The results showed that the passivation behavior of rebar has been changed dramatically by the addition of calcium nitrite. That is, the passive film formed in the solution with the addition of 10g/L Ca(NO2)2 had less donor density (Nd), more positive plat potential, smoother surface, and lower content of Fehydrox than that formed in the solution without Ca(NO2)2. Originality/value the study focuses on the passive films, and provides a more clear cognition the durability service life extension of the reinforced concrete structures caused by the addition of calcium nitrite.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:17:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-05-2016-1667
       
  • Evaluation of acid corrosion resistance of Portland cement composites
           impregnated with polymer sulfur composite.
    • First page: 273
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) was impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites was made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The durability of prepared cement composite samples was tested in 5% solution of HCl and 5% solution of H2SO4 as a function of immersion time. The changes in mechanical strength and mass of the samples were periodically mea¬sured. Cement composites impregnated with sulfur composite exhibited limited mechanical strength and mass loss, while physico-mechanical properties of Portland cement concrete regressed rapidly. The loss in weight of ordinary concrete impregnated with sulfur composite, kept in aqueous solutions of acids, hydroxides, salts and in water for a year was determined using 100×100×100 [mm] samples. The same samples were then used in compressive strength tests. Design/methodology/approach Specific chemical environments affect indus¬trial objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated with a special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot were applied as industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement, and water. The durability of the prepared cement composite samples was tested in 5% solution of HCl and 5% solution of H2SO4 as a function of immersion time. The changes in mechanical strength and mass of the samples were periodically measured. Cement composites impregnated with sulfur composite exhibited limited mechanical strength and mass loss, while the physico-mechanical properties of the Portland cement concrete regressed rapidly. The loss in weight of ordinary concrete impregnated with sulfur composite, kept in aqueous solutions of acids, hydroxides, salts, and in water for a year was determined using 100 x 100 x 100 mm samples. The same samples were then used in compressive strength tests. The image analysis used for surface destruction monitoring, performed by scanning microscopy for the determination of damaged surface area and the original surface area before acid resistance testing, showed similar results. Based on the image analysis results, a model for predicting the degradation of mechanical strength during durability testing was established. The fact that the calculated and experimental strength values were not vastly different proved the validity of the proposed model. A brief summary of new products related to the special sulfur composite is given as follows: impregnation, repair, overlays, and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Sulfur composite as a polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications. Findings Author comments: 1. The article is original. 2. The article has been written by the stated authors who are ALL aware of its content and approve its submission. 3. The article has not been published previously. 4. The article is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. 5. No conflict of interest exists, or if such conflict exists , the exact nature must be declared. 6. If accepted, the article will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in any language, without the written concent of the publisher. Originality/value Author comments: 1. The article is original. 2. The article has been written by the stated authors who are ALL aware of its content and approve its submission. 3. The article has not been published previously. 4. The article is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. 5. No conflict of interest exists, or if such conflict exists , the exact nature must be declared. 6. If accepted, the article will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in any language, without the written concent of the publisher.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:17:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-08-2016-1700
       
  • Corrosion of copper exposed to Zhanjiang and Zhuhai atmospheric
           environments
    • First page: 286
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose The aim was to study the initial corrosion behavior of copper in the substations of Zhanjiang and Zhuhai. Design/methodology/approach The copper exposed at substation of Guangdong coastal in southern China for up to 12 months. The rust layer formed on the copper has been examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy spectrum, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical polarization techniques. Findings 1) The corrosion weight loss of copper at zhanjiang exposure site is a little more serious than zhuhai exposure site in every exposure period; 2) The corrosion products of copper have different changes in color and composition at two exposure sites; 3) The tensile strength of copper has a slight decrease after one year exposure. Originality/value The atmospheric exposure experiments of copper in the substations of zhanjiang and zhuhai have adopted at first time. And corrosion behavior of copper were investigated, it can provide a reference for material select of substation.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:18:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-04-2016-1660
       
  • Corrosion behavior of two candidate PEMFC's bipolar plate materials
    • First page: 293
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose This article aims at evaluation of corrosion behavior of bare and PbO2 coated stainless steel 316L, as prospective candidates for bipolar plates, in simulated PEM fuel cell’s environment under operating potentials. Design/methodology/approach A set of potentiodynamic, as well as potentiostatic electrochemical experiments was carried out under both anodic and cathodic potentials. Gathered data were analyzed via Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm for further investigation. X-ray diffraction analysis was also used for determining coatings characteristics upon completion of electrochemical experiments. Findings Results revealed that bare SS316L is a better candidate for bipolar plate material under anodic potential, since it is cathodically protected. However, lead dioxide coated SS316L is favorable under cathodic potential, since bare specimen will suffer localized corrosion in the form of pitting. Research limitations/implications It would be of interest if all the experiments are carried out in a PEM fuel cell stack. Practical implications This research strives to promote the use of electrochemical noise measurement for practical corrosion monitoring of coated bipolar plates in fuel cells. Originality/value This research strives to promote the use of electrochemical noise measurement for practical corrosion monitoring of coated bipolar plates in fuel cells.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:17:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-05-2015-1540
       
  • Protection of hot subsea risers by using thermally sprayed aluminum
    • First page: 299
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose In spite of the high interest in thermally sprayed aluminium (TSA) to protect offshore structures, pipelines, risers etc., data correlating the exposure of TSA-coated steel in hot seawater to its performance is lacking. No information is available on the performance of TSA in hot seawater, especially when damaged. This paper addresses this knowledge gap and reports the corrosion performance of damaged TSA on carbon steel exposed to boiling synthetic seawater for different periods (up to 5000h). It also attempts to understand the mechanism of formation of calcareous deposits in boiling synthetic seawater by using various characterisation tools. Design/methodology/approach Twin wire arc spray was used to coat carbon steel specimens with commercially pure aluminium. Holiday was drilled on the coated surface to expose the underlying steel, amounting to 4% of the specimen surface area. These specimens were then exposed to boiling synthetic seawater for different periods: 2h, 68h, 188h, 335h and 5000h. During exposure the potential was monitored (vs SCE) and linear polarisation resistance (LPR) method was used to calculate the corrosion rate. After exposure these specimens were analysed by using characterisation tools such as XRD and SEM/EDX. Findings The TSA-coated steel samples with 4% holiday showed a corrosion rate of ~0.008-0.015 mm y-1 and a stable potential (Ecorr) around 800 mV (SCE), when exposed to boiling synthetic seawater for ~5000 h. Microstructural characterisation established that the deposits comprised brucite [Mg(OH)2] only (this is very different to what has been reported at ambient temperatures). The stable potentials obtained after 5000 h suggest that the brucite layers provided effective corrosion mitigation. Thus, TSA seems to show the potential to protection hot carbon steel risers, even when damage exposing the external steel surface to the seawater is present. Originality/value The mechanism of calcareous deposit formation has been studied for many years, but most of the previously reported studies concentrate on low or ambient temperature behaviour. The reported mainly concentrate on the application of cathodic protection, rather than the effect of thermally sprayed aluminium. This is the first journal paper where the behaviour of damaged TSA in boiling synthetic seawater has been reported. The formation of brucite-only layer in the damaged area adjacent to the steel surface in boiling synthetic seawater is novel. And the mechanism of formation of this layer has been explained in the paper.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:18:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-02-2016-1643
       
  • Experimental and theoretical studies on inhibition of benzothiazines
           against corrosion of mild steel in acidic medium
    • First page: 306
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose The aim of this paper was to investigate the corrosion inhibition potential of two synthesised benzothiazines, namely 3,4-dihydro-2-methoxycarbonylmethyl-3-oxo-2H-1,4-benzothiazine (1), and Ethyl 3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H – 1,4-benzothiazine-2-carboxylate (2) on mild steel corrosion in 1M H2SO4. Design/methodology/approach Corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE %) was studied by weight loss measurements, potentiodyanmic polarization method, AC impedance spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Quantum chemical approach was used to complement the experimental results. Findings The results obtained show that the IE% increased with inhibitor concentration and follow the order 2 > 1 obeying Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated quantum chemical indices were consistent with experimental results. Originality/value This paper provides information on the inhibitive properties of new set of benzothiazines on mild steel corrosion in 1M H2SO4.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:17:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-07-2015-1562
       
  • Performance of Ni-Cu/ZrO2 nano-composite coatings fabricated by
           electrodeposition technique
    • First page: 315
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the incorporated zirconia (ZrO2) nano-particles on the performance of the deposited layer Ni-Cu alloy on steel sheet. Design/methodology/approach The aim was to produce Ni-Cu-ZrO2 nano composite coatings by electrodeposition technique and estimate the influence of ZrO2 nano particles on the performance of Ni-Cu alloy. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited layers were assessed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), respectively. Nanoindentation was used as well-advanced technique for measuring microhardness and Young’s modulus values of different coatings. The corrosion resistance in 3.5 % NaCl solution of electrodeposited films has been investigated. Findings The main conclusion is that the surface morphologies of Ni-Cu-ZrO2 nanocomposite coatings were fine granular compared with Ni-Cu alloy. The corrosion behavior illustrated that the incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles with Ni-Cu film improved the corrosion resistance. Significant improvement was also demonstrated in the hardness of nanocomposite coatings. Originality/value The results presented in this work are an insight into understanding the incorporation of ceramic reinforcement with metal or alloys films (matrix) on carbon steel using the electrodeposition technique. The development of corrosion resistance of Ni-Cu alloys has been considered as a promising behavior. In this work a consistent assessment of the results achieved on laboratory scale.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:17:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-05-2016-1672
       
  • Corrosion performance of aluminium in atmospheric, underground and
           seawater splatter zone in the northeastern coast of Arabian Peninsula
    • First page: 326
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the atmospheric corrosion behavior of aluminum exposed to the industrial and coastal environment of northeastern Arabian Peninsula for a period of 15 months. Design/methodology/approach The samples were exposed under atmospheric, underground, and splatter zone conditions at the coastal region. Soil, groundwater, seawater and air particulate samples obtained from the exposure site were analyzed. Secondary electron microscopy was utilized to identify and study the microstructural features of the corrosion products formed at the surface of the test coupons. The corrosion rates of the samples were determined by weight loss method. Findings The results showed that aluminum exhibited a moderate corrosion rate despite high degree of variation in temperature and humidity and large concentrations of chloride and sulfate in this region. Splatter zone environment was the most corrosive due to high chloride concentration in seawater as well as alternating wetting-drying cycles. Originality/value In this paper, corrosion of aluminum was evaluated in atmospheric, soil and splatter zone conditions along the northeastern coast of Arabian Peninsula and was also compared with those reported for other international locations.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:17:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-05-2016-1677
       
  • A simple thermodynamic model on the cracking of concrete due to rust
           formed after casting
    • First page: 335
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose This paper uses thermodynamic data to estimate the pressure exerted by the crystallization of iron oxyhydroxides following the equation proposed by Correns and Steinborn. Design/methodology/approach Standard free energy and molar volume data have been considered for goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite and hematite, which are described in the literature as the most commonly found mineral phase rust constituents. Findings The studied mineral phases generate higher to lower crystallization pressure values in the following order: goethite > lepidocrocite > hematite > magnetite. The crystallization pressures calculated for these phases are in the 32350 MPa range, which is higher than the tensile strength of concrete (of the order of 0.210 MPa) and thus leads to failure of the cover concrete. Originality/value the aim of this paper is to shed light on this issue by calculating the stresses generated by the crystallization of iron oxide from a supersaturated solution using thermodynamic data. A deliberately simplistic method was proposed, taking as reference the Correns-Steinborn model (Correns and Steinborn, 1939; Correns, 1949). The crystalline phases considered in this paper are those most commonly found in the literature as rust constituents, i.e. goethite (-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (-Fe2O3). The FeO synthetic phase was also included as a reference.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:17:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-11-2015-1602
       
  • Oxidation behaviour of amorphous steel: impact on electromagnetic
           properties
    • First page: 340
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose High silicon amorphous steels are gaining preference as material of choice for the fabrication of the core of low and medium power electrical transformers because they present a better electromagnetic behaviour compared to that offered by common grain-oriented and non-oriented high silicon steels. The effects that the environmental conditions present during the high temperature annealing of cores exert on the surface oxidation and electromagnetic changes experienced by a commercial amorphous steel alloy are presented in this investigation. Design/methodology/approach The effect of environmental impact on the correct development of annealing practices during the manufacture process of amorphous steel cores used in distribution transformers was studied by the development of an oxidation reactor. With this installation it was possible to simulate environmental conditions that could affect the surface of magnetic cores made from amorphous steel. Findings It was found that: 1) The surface oxidation of amorphous steels affects their electromagnetic behaviour 2) Environmentally induced surface degradation can be modelled at laboratory scale 3)Oxide formation does not affect the amorphous condition of the alloy Originality/value The effect of surface oxidation induced by the existence of water vapour in the annealing process of cores made from amorphous steels and its impact on the electromagnetic behavior of these alloys has been barely studied.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:17:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-09-2015-1577
       
  • Corrosion inhibition of Monel 400 in hydrochloric solution by some green
           leaves
    • First page: 347
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 3, May 2017.
      Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitive action of some green leaves on Monel 400 alloy in acidic media. Design/methodology/approach Green leaves of Mespilum japonica, Ricinus communis L, and Vitis vinifera were immersed in methanol solutions, separately, and filtrated after 48 hours of immersion, the obtained filtrates were examined as corrosion inhibitors of Monel 400 alloy in hydrochloric acid solution (1.0 M HCl). The performance of these inhibitors was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior of Monel 400 was also studied. Findings The results obtained showed that all tested inhibitors performed as good corrosion inhibitors. The inhibition process is attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitors on Monel surface. The adsorption behavior was found to follow Langmiur isotherm. The inhibition efficiencies of extracts increased with increasing the concentration of each inhibitor and deceased with increasing the temperature. Practical implications These inhibitors could have application in industries where hydrochloric solutions were used to remove the surface impurities of Monel 400. Originality/value This paper helps to find new corrosion inhibitors that are safe and eco-friendly.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T12:17:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-05-2016-1673
       
  • Influence of sour oil on calcareous deposit nucleation
    • First page: 129
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose Investigating the influence of sour crude oil contaminant on the calcareous scale deposition under cathodic protection of carbon steel in artificial seawater. Design/methodology/approach Electrochemical and surface characterizations using chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques. Findings Results showed that sour oil limited the deposit nucleation regarding its volume concentrations. The inhibition mechanism was examined to be simultaneous acts of pH reduction and mackinawite formation beside minor physical adsorption of oil molecules on steel electrode. Originality/value There is no paper concerning the proposed subject and the idea of this work is fully novel which is of great significance due to the consequences of disastrous oil spill phenomena on the integrity of exposed offshore facilities in terms of optimum protection against probable corrosion mechanisms.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-10-2015-1582
       
  • Inhibitive action of tara tannin in rust converter formulation
    • First page: 136
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the ability of commercial tara powder to convert rust into iron tannate and evaluate their use as raw material for the formulation of water based rust converter. Design/methodology/approach Water-borne acrylic primers were formulated with tara powder and aqueous tara extract and applied on steel rusted by three different methods. The conversion of rusted steel by tara tannins was studied by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The acrylic primers, containing hydrolysable tannins, were coated with alkyd finish and were evaluated in comparison to commercial systems in accelerated corrosion tests. The corrosion inhibition effects of Tara powder on mild steel in 0.1 M NaCl were studied by DC electrochemical techniques. Findings Tara tannin converts rust to ferric tannate and increases the magnetite content of rusted steel. The water-based acrylic primer formulated with aqueous extract of tara, alkyd coated finish, showed performance equivalent to pure alkyd system. Research limitations/implications The chlorides content in the commercial tara powder can be screened the beneficial effect of hydrolysable tannins to convert rust. Furthermore, the water-based rust converter formulated with acrylic resin may be sensitive to salt contamination of rust. Originality/value Hydrolysable tannins from commercial tara powder have not been studied yet in its application to the development of rust converters. A water-based primer formulated with commercial tara powder developed for the effective treatment of rusted surfaces can be of interest as an environmentally friendly to current commercial approaches.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:24Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-06-2015-1548
       
  • Experimental study on under deposit corrosion and its inhibition using
           electrochemical methods and electronic coupon technique
    • First page: 148
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose In this work, under deposit corrosion (UDC) behavior and the action effects of amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) were investigated in the oxygen contained solution. Design/methodology/approach Electrochemical methods and wire beam electrode (WBE) technique were used for the study of ATMP action effect for X65 steel under silica sand and CaCO3 particle deposit. Electronic coupon technique was used for the study of galvanic effect caused by the deposits and the action effect of ATMP. Findings ATMP would cause localized corrosion for the silica sand covered steel. However, it could inhibit the localized corrosion of the steel beneath CaCO3 particle deposit. Galvanic effect test showed that the galvanic effect caused by the deposits was an important factor for the acceleration of UDC. ATMP had an obvious promotion effect for the galvanic current between bare coupon and silica sand covered coupon and different degrees of localized corrosion were observed beneath both deposits. Originality/value We believe the paper may be of particular interest to the readers of your journal as the measurement methods for the under deposit corrosion of X65 pipeline steel. The experiment we did in the laboratory found that the inhibitor amino trimethylene phosphonic acid has a good inhibition effect for bare steel, but it would accelerate the under deposit corrosion. Different kinds of deposit would have different influences for the under deposit corrosion behavior with inhibitor added.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-11-2015-1593
       
  • Process and performance of electroless nickel plating on AZ91D magnesium
           alloy
    • First page: 162
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of the investigation was to research the best process of electroless nickel plating on AZ91D magnesium alloy and the performance of electroless nickel plating coating. Design/methodology/approach Through single factor test and orthogonal test, electroless nickel plating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was researched. The plating rate and porosity were analyzed. The coating appearance of electroless nickel plating coating and magnesium alloy substrate was evaluated. The electrochemical properties of electroless nickel plating coating and substrate were researched using electrochemical workstation, and their compositions and structure were examined using XRD and SEM. Findings The results made by combination of experimental and orthogonal test showed that the best formula of electroless nickel plating was 8.8 g·L-1 nickel ion, 25 g·L-1 lactic acid, 28 g·L-1 reducing agent, 1.8 ml·L-1 corrosion inhibitor, 1 mg·L-1 stabilizer, temperature at 85 ℃, and pH value at 5.5. The plating was uniform, dense and no cracks. The electrochemical tests showed that the corrosion resistance of electroless nickel plating was better than that of magnesium alloy substrate. Originality/value The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy improved markedlyafter electroless nickel plating at the best formula and the plating covered magnesium alloy completely.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-03-2015-1513
       
  • Pitting inhibition in fiber dyeing solutions by two oxyanions
    • First page: 170
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose Pitting inhibition efficiency of SO4-- and NO3- on AISI 316L stainless steel in contact with Cl- containing fiber dyeing solutions together with the influence of the anions on absorption behavior of the solutions were investigated. The purpose of the work is to experimentally determine an optimized dyeing solution efficient on both; inhibition of the steel's pitting and exhaustion of the dyes dissolved. Design/methodology/approach Methods such as electrochemical cyclic polarization, UV-visible range spectrophotometry, and scanning electron microscopy have been used to asses the performance of two inhibitors on both pitting inhibition of the steel and dissolving ability over the reactive dyes. In order to find out a promising dyeing solution mixture in both aspects, Cl content of the original dyeing solution was replaced gradually with the inhibiting anions, where the total anionic content was kept constant to unchange the dye exhaustion potential of the solution. Then, those solutions came out with diverse pitting inhibition and dye absorption levels were compared together for reducing/avoiding the pitting issues of the reactive dyeing vessels of the industry. Findings Rather high absorption levels detected by visible range spectrophotometry on the solutions showing sound inhibition levels indicated possibility of unaltered reactive dyeing qualities with an enhanced vessel lifetime as the inhibitive anions replace Cl-. Nitrate performed better than sulfate both on inhibition and absorption in the dyeing solutions. Also, 316L vessels became open to an extra anodic protection in inhibitor added solutions. Research limitations/implications The findings are valid for a certain group of reactive dyes and dyeing solutions held at 70oC. However, the testing methods are available to almost any dyeing solution and dyeing temperature. Originality/value The work presents a combined testing of pitting inhibition and absorption behavior of dyeing solutions involving Cl-, that has not been reported so far. It shows that solution recipes least harmful to the steel vessels can be outlined for various reactive or other types of dye groups.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-06-2015-1554
       
  • Data driven modeling of corrosion and scale deposition rate in economizer
    • First page: 178
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose The aim was to study the effect of the parametric sensitivity of all critical parameters of feed water and other operating variables on the corrosion rate and oxide scale deposition on economizer tubes of a typical coal fired 250MW boiler. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) based ANN model has been developed to envisage the corrosion rate and oxide scale deposition rate in economizer tubes of a coal fired boiler. The neural network architecture has been optimized using an efficient gradient based network optimization algorithm to minimize the training and testing errors rapidly during simulation runs. Findings The parametric sensitivity of all critical parameters of feed water and other operating variables on the corrosion rate and oxide scale deposition activities has been investigated. It has been observed that, dissolved oxygen, dissolved copper content, residual hydrazine content and pH of the feed water have a relatively predominant influence on the corrosion rate whereas dissolved iron content, silica content , pH and temperature of the feed water have moderately major influence on oxide scale deposition phenomenon. There has been very good agreement between ANN model predictions and the measured values of corrosion rate and oxide scale deposition rate substantiated by the regression fit between these values. Originality/value The development of alternative model to predict corrosion rate and deposition rate on inner surface economizer tubes of a boiler accurately over first principle based kinetic.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-11-2015-1595
       
  • Chemical conditioning and monitoring to control and minimize
           chemistry-related damages in Heller dry cooled combined cycle power plants
           
    • First page: 188
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose An effective chemical conditioning technique was successfully tested and investigated to control and minimize the chemistry-related damages within mixed metallurgy steam and water cycle of Heller dry cooled combined cycle power plants, in which cooling water and condensate are completely mixed in direct contact condenser. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive experimental study was carried out in four mixed metallurgy steam and water cycles, fabricated with ferrous and aluminum-based alloys which have various corrosion resistance capabilities in contact with water. Chemical conditioning was conducted using both volatile and non-volatile alkalizing agents, and in order to perform chemical conditioning effectively, quality parameters (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, sodium, silica, iron, aluminum, and phosphate) were monitored by analyzing grab and online samples taken at eight key sampling points. Findings Results indicated that pH was the most critical parameter which was not mainly within the recommended ranges of widely used standards and guidelines at all key sampling points that generally increases the occurrence of chemistry-related damages. The other quality parameters were mostly satisfactory. Originality/value In this research, the development of a suitable chemical conditioning technique in mixed metallurgy steam and water cycles, fabricated with ferrous and aluminum-based alloys, was studied. The obtained results in this thorough research work was evaluated by comparison with the chemistry limits of the widely used standards and guidelines, and combined use of volatile and solid alkalizing agents was considered as a promising chemical conditioning technique for utilization in mixed metallurgy units of Heller dry cooled CCPPs.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-02-2016-1648
       
  • Inhibitor concentration on the corrosion behaviour of X70 steel in CO2
           environments
    • First page: 209
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose In this study, the corrosion behaviour of X70 steel in the presence and absence of various concentrations of inhibitor N-(2-o-Tolyl azophenyl)-acetamide (NTAA) in a CO2 environment was investigated. Design/methodology/approach The temperature was set at 80 °C and the flow velocity was 1.5 m/s. The inhibitor concentrations were 10, 20, 30, 60, and 80 ppm, and the CO2 partial pressure was 0.8 MPa. A weight loss method, pitting depth measurement, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the inhibition effects of the inhibitor NTAA. Findings The results showed that a small peak emerged in the curve of the corrosion rate versus inhibitor concentration plot at 20–30 ppm. Polarisation studies revealed that the anodic Tafel slopes changed greatly in the presence of an inhibitor; and NTAA behaved as an anodic type inhibitor. At concentration of 20–30 ppm, the incomplete coverage of the metal surface by inhibitor molecules resulted in macroscopic galvanic corrosion. Originality/value Corrosion behavior of X70 steel in the presence and absence of various concentration of an anode type inhibitor. Cathodic tafel slopes are almost unchanged, while the anodic tafel slopes change significantly with the increase of inhibitor concentration. The corrosion rates of 20 ppm and 30 ppm are almost three times of that of 10 ppm, which is due to the macroscopic galvanic corrosion caused by the inadequate coverage of inhibitor on steel surface.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-01-2016-1634
       
  • Pitting behavior and mechanism caused by Ca-Al-O-S composite inclusions in
           low-alloy steels
    • First page: 218
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose Pitting caused by Ca-Al-O-S composite inclusions of low alloy steel in 3wt.%NaCl solution and 0.01m NaHSO3 solution have been studied respectively. Design/methodology/approach The corrosion in 0.01m NaHSO3 was much weaker than in 3wt.%NaCl 3D display of the pitting formation and development process have been done by using SEM and LSCM. In addition, a corrosion mechanism of pitting formation by galvanic interaction of composite inclusion and base metal has been proposed. Findings Results show that in immersion test, metal base around inclusions were dissolved due to corrosion. Corrosion on metal base closer to inclusions were more severe. Originality/value a corrosion mechanism of pitting formation by galvanic interaction of composite inclusion and base metal has been proposed
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:20Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-05-2016-1675
       
  • The self-healing evaluation of microcapsule-based epoxy coatings applied
           on AA6061 Al alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution
    • First page: 225
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose The aim of this work is to investigate the self-healing performance of epoxy coatings containing microcapsules. The microcapsule-based coatings were applied on AA6061 Al alloy and immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution. Design/methodology/approach Microcapsules with urea–formaldehyde as the shell and linseed oil as the healing agent were prepared by in-situ polymerization in an oil-in-water emulsion. For sake of an optimum self-healing system some coating samples were prepared by using different microcapsule concentrations: 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt%. The scratch filling efficiency (SFE) as the theoretical estimate of the self-healing performance was calculated for the coating samples with different microcapsule concentrations. The scratch sealing efficiency (SSE) as a particularly crucial parameter in the self-healing evaluation of coatings was measured by both electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) techniques. Findings According to EIS and EN results, the coating samples containing 5% and 10% microcapsules provided the insignificant self-healing performance; while the coating sample containing 20% microcapsules exhibited the acceptable self-healing performance to AA6061 alloy in NaCl solution. The measured SSE values confirmed the good agreement of EN data with electrochemical parameters obtained from EIS technique. Originality/value This work is an attempt to evaluate the self-healing performance of microcapsule-based epoxy coatings applied on AA6061 Al alloy in sea water.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-01-2016-1640
       
  • The protection of TDPA deposited from mixed solutions with different
           water/ethanol ratios for aluminum alloy against corrosion in NaCl solution
           
    • First page: 233
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose To investigate the effect of water content of assembly solution on the adsorption behavior and corrosion protection performance of 1–tetradecylphosphonic acid (TDPA, CH3(CH2)13P(O)(OH)2 ) films on aluminum alloy surface in NaCl solution. Design/methodology/approach Self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of TDPA were prepared on the 2024 aluminum alloy surface in TDPA containing ethanol-water solutions with different water contents. The adsorption behavior of the SAMs on the alloy surface and their corrosion protection properties in a 3.5% NaCl solution were characterized by potentiodynamic polarization scan, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Findings The FTIR results demonstrated that the TDPA molecules were successfully adsorbed on the 2024 aluminum alloy surface, and the density of the SAMs increased with the increasing water content in the assembly solution. The electrochemical studies and corrosion morphologies observed by AFM showed that the optimal condition is 2 hour-assembling in solution B or solution C. The IE (corrosion inhibition efficiency) values follows the order solution B ≈ solution C > solution A at the first 2h assembly and solution B > solution C > solution A while the assembly time exceeded 2h. The dependence of corrosion inhibition performance of the SAM on the water content and on the assembly time is related to the balancing of competition between TDPA adsorption and dissolution of the alloy oxidation film. Originality/value It illustrates potential application prospects of TDPA for surface treatment of aluminum alloy. Via the comparison with our previous work, this paper provides useful information regarding the difference of corrosion inhibition properties of organic phosphonic acid for aluminum alloy between in neutral and in acid solution .
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-09-2015-1576
       
  • Detection of SCC on 304 stainless steel in neutral thiosulfate solutions
           using electrochemical noise based on chaos theory
    • First page: 241
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose This paper investigates stress cracking corrosion (SCC) process of sensitized 304 stainless steel (SS) during slow strain rate test by using the electrochemical noise (EN) technique. Design/methodology/approach EN data are interpreted based on chaos and wavelet analyses respectively, and correlation dimension and wavelet energy distribution are used as indicators for SCC process identification. Findings Experimental results reveal that the corrosion potential abruptly decreases from 180 mV to 100 mV at 6300 s and the current increases from 10 nA to 100 nA accordingly, which is attributed to passive film breakdown and crack initiation. Chaos and wavelet analyses results reveal that, as crack initiates, the correlation dimensions increase from 1.2 to 1.9, the corresponding distribution frequencies of maximum relative wavelet energy change from high frequency to low frequency. Originality/value SCC is monitored in lab, and crack initiation and propagation are identified by chaos and wavelet analyses. This work lays the foundation for SCC detection in field using EN.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-10-2015-1581
       
  • Effects of cold deformation on electrochemical corrosion behaviors of 304
           stainless steel
    • First page: 252
      Abstract: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Volume 64, Issue 2, March 2017.
      Purpose The effects of deformation induced martensite on electrochemical corrosion behaviors of 304 austenitic stainless steel was investigated in simulated primary water environment of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant with boric acid and lithium hydroxide contaminated with chloride by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) , Mott-Schotty curves and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Design/methodology/approach the effects of deformation induced martensite transformation on electrochemical corrosion behaviors of 304 austenitic stainless steel was investigated in simulated primary water environment of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant with boric acid and lithium hydroxide contaminated with 0.1MCl- by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Mott-Schotty curves and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in this paper. Findings The results revealed that the martensitic phase contents increased with the level of cold deformation. The general corrosion current density and the corrosion potential increased and decreased respectively with the increase of cold deformation degree. However, the pitting potential decreased as the cold deformation increased up to 20%, then a slight increase was observed at 35% cold working. It was found from Mott-Schottky curves and XPS analysis that with cold deformation degree increased from 0% to 35%, the doping concentrations of the oxide films increased, however, the film thickness decreased which indicates that both density and integrity of the films are degraded significantly as the deformation degree increases and this ultimately contribute to the significant increment of general corrosion rate and reduction of pitting corrosion resistance. Originality/value the effects of deformation induced martensite transformation on electrochemical corrosion behaviors of 304 austenitic stainless steel was investigated in simulated primary water environment of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant with boric acid and lithium hydroxide contaminated with 0.1MCl- by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Mott-Schotty curves and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in this paper.
      Citation: Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T11:18:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/ACMM-12-2015-1620
       
 
 
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