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International Marketing Review
Number of Followers: 15  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0265-1335
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  • Brand Origin Recall Accuracy (BORECA): a new measure of brand origin
           salience
    • Pages: 464 - 482
      Abstract: International Marketing Review, Volume 36, Issue 3, Page 464-482, May 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize and test a new concept named “Brand Origin RECall Accuracy” (BORECA) that assesses consumers’ ability to recall accurately the origins of brands they are aware of. It measures consumers’ brand awareness and brand origin (BO) awareness for a given product category. Design/methodology/approach Based on the accessibility–diagnosticity model and the limitations of the brand origin recognition accuracy concept, the authors propose and test the BORECA concept focusing on one product category (apparel) in an emerging country context, i.e. Tunisia (Mena). A sample of 374 respondents were surveyed on country-of-origin (COO)-category awareness, brand awareness, BO awareness and foreign vs local brand quality evaluation. Descriptive statistics, correlation indices, MANOVA and linear regression analysis were used in data analysis. Findings Results show a substantial BORECA score, i.e. highly accurate awareness of the origins of the recalled brands, affected by respondents’ age, gender and education level. The average BORECA score for local brands is higher than for foreign brands. The local BORECA score seems to positively correlate to respondents’ evaluation of local brand quality and negatively to foreign (dominant COO category) brands. Research limitations/implications Based on an aided recall task rather than simple recognition, BORECA provides a deeper assessment of brand awareness and BO awareness. The pressure induced by the task (knowledge test + retrieval effort) may cause anxiety bias that inhibits the recall of other brands and BOs. Practical implications Nationalistic and ethnocentric tendencies emerging in the findings point to some branding strategies for both local and foreign companies. Originality/value The paper provides a good indication of BO salience in an emerging economy. It seeks to explain the impact of the BORECA score for local brands on the perceived quality of both local and foreign brands.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T11:46:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-03-2018-0087
       
  • Standing out vs fitting in: luxury value perception and acculturation
    • Pages: 483 - 510
      Abstract: International Marketing Review, Volume 36, Issue 3, Page 483-510, May 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of American culture-oriented values, Chinese culture-oriented values and self-improvement values on luxury value perception through acculturation by examining an acculturated sample (Chinese living in the USA), a host cultural sample (Caucasian-American) and a home cultural sample (Mainland Chinese). Design/methodology/approach In order to examine the acculturative changes of Chinese living in the USA in terms of the influence of American and Chinese culture-oriented values and self-improvement values on their luxury value perception, data were collected via three online samples: host (American), home cultural (Chinese) and acculturated (Chinese living in the USA). Effects of acculturation were tested via comparisons between acculturated to host and home cultural samples. Findings Compared to that of Mainland Chinese and Caucasian-Americans, luxury value perception of Chinese living in the USA is jointly influenced by both American and Chinese culture-oriented values. The influence of cultural values on luxury value perception of Chinese living in the USA is not strengthened by their wish to integrate into the American culture or to maintain their Chinese culture. Nevertheless, Chinese living in the USA show more significant self-improvement (standing out) and conformity (fitting in) motives in luxury value perception when they wish to integrate into the mainstream culture. Originality/value The authors surveyed acculturated sample, host and home cultural samples to test the bidimensional acculturation model (Berry, 1997) in the context of luxury consumption. Although the conceptual model is not fully supported, this research broadens current understanding of the effect of acculturation on luxury value perception.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-02-26T02:25:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-12-2017-0251
       
  • The impacts of organizational learning capacities on relationship-specific
           innovations
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Organizational learning is a critical factor in generating firm innovation. While the firms are working with global business partners, not only does their absorptive learning capacity (ALC) with business partners play an important role in generating innovation from the inter-partner firm relationship, but their joint learning capacity (JLC) does as well. However, little research has simultaneously examined absorptive and JLC on innovation in global supply chain relationships. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on the knowledge-based view, inter-partner learning theory and resource dependence theory, the current study investigates the effects of two organizational learning capacities on relationship-specific innovation: ALC (firm-level) and JLC (relationship level). In addition, a firm’s focus on exploitation/exploration strategy and supplier dependence is further incorporated into the study as moderators. Moreover, solutions to endogeneity issues are discussed and reported due to the usage of survey data. The model of this study was tested using data collected from 190 electronics firms in Taiwan as an emerging market. Findings The findings of this research reveal that JLC in the presence of absorptive capacity positively influences relationship-specific innovation. Furthermore, the exploitation focus of a firm positively moderates the effects of both absorptive and JLC on relationship-specific innovation. However, supplier dependence negatively moderates the effect of JLC. Research limitations/implications The research provides some theoretical implications for learning and innovation generation in global supply chains. Practical implications The paper provides some managerial implications for how to manage innovations in the global supply chain relationships. Originality/value This paper fulfills an identified need to study how innovation generation can be better managed in global supply chain contexts.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T02:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-07-2017-0130
       
  • “It’s a new game out there”: e-commerce in
           internationalising retail SMEs
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how market factors (pertaining to institutions, competition and resources) shape the international strategies of an online retailer. Design/methodology/approach A single qualitative case study research design is employed to conduct in-depth analyses of a Swedish internationalising small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) in the retail business. Findings The findings show that online retailers can use partnerships to tackle industry dynamics and break into foreign markets. This type of “piggy-back internationalisation” can be an effective strategy of handling foreign market dynamics in the entry phase: that is to say, the short term. Reliance upon relationships, however, may paradoxically inhibit retailers’ abilities to stay competitive in the post-entry phase (i.e. the long term) since they become cut-off from the first-hand market learning. Research limitations/implications The authors provide propositions based upon the findings to support further research in the international marketing and international retailing literature. Practical implications The findings enhance the understanding of how electronic commerce affects SME internationalisation. They also generate new insights into the use of possible international expansion strategies for managers in retail SMEs. Originality/value This study introduces a new theoretical perspective to build upon international retail research and contributes to the international retail literature with relevant insights into both advantages and disadvantages of using partnerships to overcome challenges related to international online retailing.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T01:56:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-03-2018-0107
       
  • Does non-profit brand image mean the same across cultures' An
           exploratory evaluation of non-profit brand image in three countries
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The current challenges international charities face with regards to their deteriorating image, as a result of recent scandals (e.g. Oxfam, Save the Children), provide the impetus for this exploratory research, where the purpose of this paper is to examine the conceptualization and dimensionality of non-profit brand image across national cultures. Design/methodology/approach The study employs a quantitative research design, using multi-country samples from India, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the UK. The authors first examine the psychometric properties of the non-profit brand image scale via confirmatory factor analysis across countries, identifying the optimal model for invariance testing. Further, the authors use multi-group invariance analysis to evaluate whether non-profit brand image (using an 18-item scale and six factors) provides equivalent measurement across cultures. Findings The study shows that individuals in the three countries perceive non-profit brand image equally, and as consisting of perceptions of usefulness, efficiency, affect, dynamism, reliability and ethicality. However, the results also indicate that the means of the dimensions of non-profit brand image are not comparable across different cultures. Originality/value The study extends limited current literature on non-profit brand image in international contexts, deriving insightful suggestions for further theoretical approaches in this under-developed research domain. It also yields key implications for charities and other non-profit organizations operating internationally, as they can use non-profit brand image and its dimensions as actionable tools in their communication campaigns to shape their brand image.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T11:40:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-10-2018-0284
       
  • Crafting strategy for international marketing: outside-in or
           inside-out'
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Drawing on the resource-based view, dynamic capabilities and exploration literatures, the purpose of this paper is to simultaneously investigate the impact of outside-in (OI) and inside-out (IO) strategic approaches on international strategic performance. Design/methodology/approach A survey-based quantitative study was used. The final sample consisted of 202 internationally active SBUs of Israeli firms. Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Findings OI approach to strategy enhances international performance more than IO does. OI is antecedent of exploratory marketing capabilities (MCs), while IO is antecedent of exploratory technological capabilities (TCs). The direct positive effect of exploratory MCs on performance is twice as strong as exploratory TCs are. Additionally, exploratory MCs positively impact performance through product adaptation. Practical implications To enhance international performance, managers should devote attention to an OI approach by incorporating a market orientation with responsive flexibility. Managers should be aware that exploratory MCs are more important in an international context than exploratory TCs are. Stakeholders such as venture capitalists can use the OI–IO model to predict which international venture is more promising. Originality/value This paper contributes to the international marketing field by shedding light on the OI–IO debate, its transformation into exploratory capabilities and how it relates to the standardization–adaptation debate. New and broad OI–IO’s conceptualizations are developed and new viewpoints for understanding how international marketing should work and what motivates firms to adapt are offered. Overall, an OI–IO typology helps to bring order to an otherwise confusing conceptual landscape.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T11:36:20Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2018-0016
       
  • Towards a framework for understanding ethnic consumers’ acculturation
           strategies in a multicultural environment
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose While it is essential to further research the growing diversity in western metropolitan cities, little is currently known about how the members of various ethnic communities acculturate to multicultural societies. The purpose of this paper is to explore immigrants’ cosmopolitanism and acculturation strategies through an analysis of the food consumption behaviour of ethnic consumers in multicultural London. Design/methodology/approach The study was set within the socio-cultural context of London. A number of qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews, observation and photographs were used to assess consumers’ acculturation strategies in a multicultural environment and how that is influenced by consumer cosmopolitanism. Findings Ethnic consumers’ food consumption behaviour reflects their acculturation strategies, which can be classified into four groups: rebellion, rarefaction, resonance and refrainment. This classification demonstrates ethnic consumers’ multi-directional acculturation strategies, which are also determined by their level of cosmopolitanism. Research limitations/implications The taxonomy presented in this paper advances current acculturation scholarship by suggesting a multi-directional model for acculturation strategies as opposed to the existing uni-directional and bi-directional perspectives and explicates the role of consumer cosmopolitanism in consumer acculturation. The paper did not engage host communities and there is hence a need for future research on how and to what extent host communities are acculturated to the multicultural environment. Practical implications The findings have direct implications for the choice of standardisation vs adaptation as a marketing strategy within multicultural cities. Whilst the rebellion group are more likely to respond to standardisation, increasing adaptation of goods and service can ideally target members of the resistance and resonance groups and more fusion products should be exclusively earmarked for the resonance group. Originality/value The paper makes original contribution by introducing a multi-directional perspective to acculturation by delineating four-group taxonomy (rebellion, rarefaction, resonance and refrainment). This paper also presents a dynamic model that captures how consumer cosmopolitanism impinges upon the process and outcome of multi-directional acculturation strategies.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T11:32:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-03-2018-0103
       
  • Advancing global consumer culture research
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper provides a perspective to the article by Cleveland and Bartsch in this issue. The purpose of this paper is to focus on examining objective global brand performance data in four industries and discuss the practicality of global vs country-level marketing strategy. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on data from Euromonitor, the analysis evaluates global brand performance in four industries over the last decade. Findings In most industries, global brands are less dominant than what is often assumed. Originality/value This commentary aims to bring a new perspective to the global consumer culture discussion and may spur valuable future research on the topic.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T11:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-11-2018-0333
       
  • Consumer cultural identity: local and global cultural identities and
           measurement implications
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to offer a framework for considering the interplay between local (national) and global (world-based) identities and consumption practices with attention to various conceptualizations and measurements of consumer cultural identity. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper reviewing major works on consumer cultural identities and offering a framework for future considerations of the interplay between global and local identities. Findings The framework identifies two dimensions which underlie consumer cultural identity conceptualizations and measurements: first, consumer engagement with globalization–localization discourses, and second, more general identity beliefs vs consumption-based identity beliefs. Clustering and categorical measure approaches (vs a compensatory approach) are preferred for identifying and exploring global/local/glocal and unengaged consumer cultural identity segments. Research foci should guide use of global and/or local general identity vs consumption-based identity beliefs as predictors of marketplace outcomes or as segmentation variables. Research limitations/implications The conceptualization of consumer cultural identity is based on Berry et al.’s (1986) early work on acculturation and Arnett’s (2002) bicultural identity theorizing, and thus the authors acknowledge four consumer segments, those with: stronger global (weaker local) identity, stronger local (weaker global) identity, strong global and local identities and those unengaged with global–local discourses. The authors review measurement approaches to examine consumer cultural identity and determine that categorical and clustering (vs compensatory) approaches are consistent with the conceptualization of consumer cultural identity segments. Practical implications International marketers can gain insights into major conceptualizations and measurements of consumer cultural identity, and understand the advantages and limitations of different measurement approaches. The authors highlight two important dimensions underlying cultural identity that demand managers’ attention and consideration for strategic decisions. Social implications – this paper brings attention to various conceptualizations and measures of consumer cultural identity, highlighting the need to further examine differences between various cultural identity segments, specifically the unengaged consumers and glocally engaged consumers. Originality/value The paper provides a broadened lens to understanding conceptualizations and measurements of consumer cultural identity, identifying two dimensions underlying consumer cultural identity: consumer engagement with globalization–localization discourses, and more general identity beliefs vs consumption-based identity beliefs.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T10:53:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-11-2018-0320
       
  • Temporal dynamism in country of origin effect
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to enrich country of origin (COO) effect in international marketing theory by adding the understanding of temporal dynamism into COO research. Design/methodology/approach Utilizing a qualitative and interdisciplinary phenomenological approach, this paper analyses historical and contemporary sources triangulated with contemporary primary interview data. The example of how perceptions of Italians about the values typical of the British Sixties varied over time periods is presented. Findings COO perceptions are both malleable and in evolution. Results show that values from earlier peak periods of appeal can be combined and recombined differently over time due to the varying historical and contemporary resonances of COO values. Research limitations/implications This study focuses on COO applied to two product areas, fashion and music, over a limited time period, in a two-country study and so the findings are not fully generalizable, but rather are transferable to similar contexts. Practical implications The fact that COO is neither static nor atemporal facilitates a segmented approach for international marketing managers to review and renew international brands. This enriched COO theory provides a rich and variable resource for developing and revitalizing brands. Originality/value The major contribution of this paper is that temporal dynamism, never before discussed in international marketing theory, renders COO theory more timeless; this addresses some critiques recently made about its relevance and practicality. The second contribution is the original research design that models interdisciplinary scholarship, enabling a thorough historical look at international marketing.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T09:42:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-08-2016-0165
       
  • An institution-based view of firms’ early internationalization
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the differential effects of national export promotion policies (EPPs) on firms’ early internationalization using the institution-based view (IBV) as our theoretical foundation. Early or speedy internationalization is an important topic for academics, executives and policy makers. However, the effect of the regulatory dimension of institutions incorporating governmental policies on firms’ early internationalization remains unexplored in the literature. Design/methodology/approach The study was survey-based and the authors engaged in quantitative analysis using data drawn from the apparel industry in a least-developed country (LDC), i.e. Bangladesh. The authors employed 174 valid questionnaires in the analysis. To test the proposed hypotheses, an ordered-logistic regression modeling technique was used. Findings The findings reveal a positive effect of those national policies focusing on market development, guarantee-related and technical support schemes. Two individual elements of direct finance-related assistance, namely, bank loans and cash subsidy are also found to be influential. Originality/value The study contributes to the literature and extends the IBV by establishing that the industry-specific regulatory policies designed by home country governments can play a critical role in international expansion of new ventures from an LDC. In particular, the study established the critical role of national EPPs in driving firms’ early internationalization and thereby, contributing to the international marketing and international entrepreneurship (IE) literature. Least-developed countries provide different institutional environments for entrepreneurship. They thus provide an atypical context within the field of IE. By incorporating sample firms from an LDC, the authors address the knowledge gap related to those countries. The implications of the authors’ findings for national and enterprise development policies are also considered.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T09:37:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-03-2018-0108
       
  • Conceptualizing and operationalizing local and global cultural identities:
           a comment
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective on the Strizhakova and Coulter article in this issue, with particular focus on the conceptualization of local and global identities. Findings Strizhakova and Coulter (2019) offer valuable service in their discussion of the conceptualization and measurement of local and global identities. The authors suggest that local identity should not always be reduced to a local-as-national identity, but may be relevant as a sub-national or regional identity. The authors also find that another relevant identity-relevant construct is that of consumer disidentification that represents active rejection of one’s national identity as opposed to the passive disinterest represented by the unengaged category. Originality/value This commentary offers a new perspective to the local-global identity discourse by integrating consumer disidentification as the active rejection of identity.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T09:33:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-12-2018-0363
       
  • The myriad meanings of cultural identities
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide the authors’ response to three commentaries (Batra and Wu, 2019; Papadopoulos, 2019; Westjohn and Magnusson, 2019) on Strizhakova and Coulter (2019), “Consumer cultural identities: local and global cultural identities and measurement implications,” International Marketing Review. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper and a response to commentaries on the initial paper Strizhakova and Coulter (2019), “Consumer cultural identity: local and global cultural identities and measurement implications”. Findings This paper continues an important dialogue on the topic of multifaceted consumer cultural identities. Specifically, the authors discuss the myriad meanings of cultural identity, as well as meanings of global, local, disinterested/disidentified and glocal cultural beliefs. The paper offers directions and poses questions that warrant future research attention and have important implications for global and local brand managers. Originality/value The paper addresses important issues and future research directions about the provocative topic of consumer cultural identities, their meanings, measurements and practical/research implications.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-29T09:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2019-0015
       
  • Foreign retail banner longevity
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a robust examination of the factors that accelerate/decelerate the divestment timing of retail banners in international markets. Design/methodology/approach The sample represents 3,235 foreign market banner operations of 132 international retailers across 144 countries using an accelerated failure time (AFT) parametric survival modelling technique. Findings Banner divestment is accelerated by both weak financial performance and smaller size. Furthermore, there is a synergistic negative detriment to the combination of both factors on divestment. Banner divestment is decelerated by deploying the corporation’s dominant format in the home country. Moreover, inadequately performing dominant banners are allowed more time to turn around their operations than subpar non-dominant banners. Concurrently, when host country markets are growing, poorly performing dominant banners are given more time to improve performance. When home market performance weakens, smaller, poorly performing banner divestment is accelerated. Research limitations/implications The large data set covers more than half of the world so the authors are limited to observing corporate divestments without the benefit of the managerial decision-making process. The authors only have access to divestment data in annual units, which limits the ability to provide precise timing information. Though the authors have a wide variation in country conditions, data on smaller, poorer countries and domestic competitors is limited. Practical implications Small, poorly performing retail chains in foreign markets are divested faster than their counterparts. When retailers internationalize with their dominant chains, management tends to give these banners more time to succeed than non-dominant counterparts. Evidence also suggests that managers hesitate to withdrawal from a foreign market when the dominant banner is involved, regardless of a chain’s stunted growth and subpar performance. Originality/value This study provides the first examination of factors driving the divestment times of international retail chains using rigorous empirical survival time methodologies.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-13T11:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2018-0036
       
  • Global consumer culture: consequences for consumer research
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to comment on the conceptual framework highlighting the reinforcing nature of global consumer culture. Design/methodology/approach The approach is conceptual with illustrative examples. Findings The authors integrate the conceptual framework that highlights the reinforcing nature of global consumer culture with recent findings about the psychology of globalization. Specifically, the authors bring attention to the perceptual, cognitive and motivational consequences of globalization, as well as its effects on consumer identification. The authors illustrate how this integration provides insights for better predicting consumer behavior in a globalized world. Research limitations/implications One key aspect of globalization is the creation of multicultural spaces in contemporary societies. Taking a psychological approach, the authors discuss how consumers respond to the process of culture mixing at the heart of globalization. This has consequences for marketers’ global endeavors and provides a nuanced understanding of consumer behavior in a globalized world. Originality/value The paper integrates a novel framework with recent findings about the psychology of globalization, opening avenues for future research on global consumer cultures.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-13T11:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-11-2018-0316
       
  • The future of globalization: a comment
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present an afterword to Steenkamp’s reflections on the future of globalization published in this issue of International Marketing Review. Design/methodology/approach The paper is a commentary. Findings Through examples and arguments, the comment emphasizes the need to think locally even when pursuing global strategies, and raises the question of whether global consumer culture is desirable. Originality/value The comment builds on Steenkamp’s essay, and asks unique questions that global consumer culture scholars need to reflect upon.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-03T11:57:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2019-0009
       
  • Consumer cultural identity: a comment
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to comment on the article “Consumer cultural identity: Local and global cultural identities and measurement implications” by Yuliya Strizhakova and Robin Coulter. Design/methodology/approach The commentary summarizes the main characteristics of the authors’ study, positions it in the context of globalization, and suggests additional directions for potential future research. Findings The article by Strizhakova and Coulter has many strengths and provides a good base for new studies on consumer cultural identities and their global, local or glocal orientations. Originality/value This paper adds four points on the theme of “what else” might additional research in this area contribute: The need for further investigations into the cultural orientations of consumers in less developed countries; whether and how practitioners use the findings of academic research; the difficulties in absorbing and using the existing voluminous literature when designing new studies; and the benefits to be gained by introducing more granular perspectives in research about consumers’ cultural identities and their effects on their marketplace behaviour.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-02T08:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2019-0006
       
  • Disasters, hope and globalization: exploring self-identification with
           global consumer culture in Japan
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose An unconscious concern regarding one’s inevitable death, known as mortality salience, may affect consumers’ brand choices in the aftermath of disastrous events, such as earthquakes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-identification with global consumer culture (IDGCC) in global brand purchase intention in response to disasters that heighten mortality salience. The roles of materialism, consumer ethnocentrism, cosmopolitanism and hope in this this process are also explored. Design/methodology/approach An online experiment was conducted with a large sample of Japanese consumers. Japan was selected because it had recently suffered from a series of devastating earthquakes. Participants’ mortality salience was primed with an earthquake scenario. All measures were adapted from prior research. The authors used structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses and validate the model. Findings The results reveal that IDGCC is a direct predictor of global brand purchase intention when mortality salience is high. It appears that identifying with global consumer culture and buying global brands enhances self-esteem and reduces anxiety for those with high IDGCC. As predicted, materialism and cosmopolitanism positively influence IDGCC, whereas consumer ethnocentrism does not impede IDGCC. Hope directly and positively affects global brand purchase intention. Research limitations/implications Some consumers who experience traumatic events may resist mortality salience and experience a heightened sense of global citizenship. Meanwhile, those with lower IDGCC may revert to in-group favoritism, whereas those with higher IDGCC tend to purchase global brands. Using a scenario to simulate the mental state evoked by a disaster limits generalizability. Practical implications The findings illuminate how firms should modify their international marketing strategies in the face of traumatic global events when targeting consumers with high vs low IDGCC in terms of framing messages about global brands. Additionally, using global brands that emphasize an optimistic outlook may help global marketers capture attention from consumers high in IDGCC. Originality/value This study is one of the first to address traumatic events and hope, relating these concepts to IDGCC and global brand purchase intention in an international marketing context.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-02T02:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-04-2018-0158
       
  • Fairy tales of global consumer culture in a polarizing world
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to respond to the essay by Cleveland and Bartsch in this issue. The paper also aims to counter argue the various drivers of global consumer culture (GCC). Design/methodology/approach Based on many findings from the study of consumer behavior, the assumed drivers of GCC are discussed and a suggestion for new research is made. Findings Instead of globalization processes that drive GCC, the most dominant process is a local-global-local cycle of global products and brands. Originality/value It offers a different approach to the study of global vs local products and brands. It is suggested that instead of continuing abstract discussions of GCC, scholars do more service to international marketing by researching developments in the real world.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-05-02T02:43:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-11-2018-0314
       
  • The uncertain future of globalization
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to offer a different perspective on the global consumer culture (GCC) phenomenon and identify new avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach The paper is a thought piece. Findings The unprecedented globalization of the marketplace in the last 50 years has given rise to the emergence of GCC, and the rise of global companies and global brands, among others. Yet, as one surveys the globalscape, there are developments on the horizon that might threaten continued globalization. In this paper, the author discusses these developments and their implications around three interrelated, yet distinct, components of globalization: global integration of world economies, GCC and global brands. Originality/value The paper identifies unique research opportunities to study GCC in an emerging business context in which continued global integration is not guaranteed, and where globalization headwinds could reduce the contribution of perceived brand globalness to brand value.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-02-28T12:14:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-12-2018-0355
       
  • Gradual Internationalization vs Born-Global/International new venture
           models
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose During the last two decades, studies on the theoretical models in the area of international business (IB), such as gradual internationalization and the born-global firms, have gained the attention of researchers. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the studies on the process of internationalization (Gradual Internationalization vs Born-Global/International new venture models) to identify the research gaps in this area and to prepare a future research agenda. Design/methodology/approach Systematic literature review method was employed for this review. The authors highlight the findings from prior studies, compare and contrast salient characteristics and features, based on the articles published in journals with an impact factor score of at least 1.0, and provide directions for research. Findings The authors find that there are several areas that were under-explored in prior research. There is a great potential for theoretical extension and theory development in this field as it covers the tenets of four subjects: IB, marketing, strategic management and entrepreneurship. Originality/value There is no comprehensive/integrated review exploring the methods/variables and constructs used in prior studies integrating gradual internationalization/born-global models based on all the articles published in well-regarded academic journals. This review seeks to provide deeper insights, which help us to contribute toward the development of this research field.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-02-28T11:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-10-2018-0280
       
  • Reflections on global brands, global consumer culture and globalization
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore global brands, global consumer culture (GCC) and globalization, and offers a thesis in line with Steenkamp (2019) regarding the world’s continued move toward greater integration. Design/methodology/approach The study examines the three concepts articulated by Steenkamp (2019): global brands, GCC and globalization. Findings Globalization is often thought of as a necessary condition for the existence of global brands and GCC. However, global brands existed long before the transition toward an increasingly integrated world. Further, global branding is related to the development of GCC as an intermarket segment. The paper also highlights the absence of an operational definition for global brands and the overemphasis on consumer brands as the drivers of much of the research in global branding and GCC. Originality/value The paper offers a different perspective on the GCC phenomenon, and identifies new avenues for future research.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-02-26T02:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-11-2018-0342
       
  • Reflections on defining global brands, fragmentation and segmentation, and
           the emergence of richer brandscapes
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a response to papers written by Professors Samiee, Belk and Özsomer as commentary pieces on my original paper, “The uncertain future of globalization: implications for global consumer culture and global brands.” Design/methodology/approach The paper is in the form of an essay. Findings The commentaries highlight many areas of agreement with the overall thrust of the original paper, and also pinpoint novel and important additional avenues for reflection and research. Originality/value The paper builds on the commentaries, identifying additional ways forward for the field.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-02-26T02:30:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-12-2018-0356
       
  • Beyond reach: an extended model of global brand effects
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Despite considerable investigations of the various outcomes of perceived brand globalness (PBG), the concept itself remains ambiguous, demanding further conceptual refinement. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to global branding literature by suggesting an extended conceptualization of PBG, and empirically testing a corresponding extended model of global brand effects, relative to the conventional operationalization. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study (n=907) involving 63 brands across eight different product categories provides new insights into the composition of global brand effects by explicitly discriminating between different facets of consumers’ brand globalness perceptions (i.e. perceived market reach (PMR), perceived standardization (PST) and global consumer culture positioning (GCCP)). Findings The results clearly show that effects associated with global brands are not exclusively positive. While PMR and GCCP have positive effects on consumers’ brand evaluations and attitudes, PST has a strong negative effect on the same outcomes. These effects apply to both domestic and foreign global brands and occur irrespective of the perceived level of risk associated with a given product category. Originality/value The results provide managers a clearer picture of the up- and downsides of brand globalness perceptions and urge future studies on global brands to incorporate constructs that account for facets beyond a brand’s market reach to capture the phenomenon holistically.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-01-10T09:54:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2018-0032
       
  • Global and local brand stereotypes: formation, content transfer, and
           impact
    • Abstract: International Marketing Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The dominant paradigm in international branding research treats perceived brand globalness (PBG) and localness (PBL) as attributes algebraically participating in brand assessment and disregards the perception of brands as humanlike entities actively embedded in consumers’ social environments. Challenging this view and drawing from stereotype theory, the purpose of this paper is to suggest that PBG/PBL trigger the categorization of products under the superordinate mental categories of global/local brands which carry distinct stereotypical content. Such content transfers to every individual product for which category membership is established and shapes brand responses. Design/methodology/approach One experimental study (Study1, n=134) tests the process of global/local brand stereotype formation, identification and content transfer. Subsequently, two consumer surveys test the impact of brand stereotypes on brand approach/avoidance tendencies (Study2, n=328) and consumer–brand relationships (Study3, n=273). Data were analyzed with experimental techniques and structural equation modeling. Findings The findings suggest that upon categorization under the global or local brand class, individual brands are charged with the stereotypical content of the class. Global brands are predominantly stereotyped as competent while local brands are predominantly stereotyped as warm. Localness-induced warmth has uniformly positive effects, whereas globalness-induced competence acts as a double-edged sword which can both help and harm the brand. Originality/value This research contributes by proposing a novel conceptualization of global and local brands as groups of intentional marketplace agents stereotyped along their intentions and abilities, empirically establishing the process through which individual brands are assigned stereotypical judgments and demonstrating how these judgments impact critical brand outcomes and consumer–brand relationships.
      Citation: International Marketing Review
      PubDate: 2019-01-02T08:46:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IMR-01-2018-0017
       
 
 
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