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Publisher: Emerald   (Total: 335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 335 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 4)
Accounting Auditing & Accountability J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Accounting Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 7)
Accounting, Auditing and Accountability J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, h-index: 40)
Advances in Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.514, h-index: 5)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 5)
Advances in Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.228, h-index: 2)
Advances in Gender Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 7)
Advances in Intl. Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 5)
Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
African J. of Economic and Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.125, h-index: 2)
Agricultural Finance Review     Hybrid Journal  
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194, SJR: 0.391, h-index: 18)
American J. of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.215, h-index: 25)
Arts and the Market     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia Pacific J. of Marketing and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.244, h-index: 15)
Asia-Pacific J. of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, h-index: 7)
Asian Association of Open Universities J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. on Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Review of Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.29, h-index: 7)
Aslib J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.65, h-index: 29)
Aslib Proceedings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.657, h-index: 26)
Baltic J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 14)
Benchmarking : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.556, h-index: 38)
British Food J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.329, h-index: 35)
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 4)
Business Process Re-engineering & Management J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.614, h-index: 42)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.201, h-index: 6)
Career Development Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.686, h-index: 32)
China Agricultural Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.238, h-index: 10)
China Finance Review Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.216, h-index: 12)
Circuit World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 17)
Collection Building     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.829, h-index: 10)
COMPEL: The Intl. J. for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 22)
Competitiveness Review : An Intl. Business J. incorporating J. of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.508, h-index: 8)
Corporate Communications An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.703, h-index: 26)
Corporate Governance Intl. J. of Business in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.309, h-index: 29)
Critical Perspectives on Intl. Business     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.32, h-index: 15)
Cross Cultural & Strategic Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.356, h-index: 13)
Development and Learning in Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.138, h-index: 8)
Digital Library Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Direct Marketing An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.533, h-index: 32)
Drugs and Alcohol Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 4)
Education + Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 30)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 10)
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Employee Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.435, h-index: 22)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.387, h-index: 39)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.541, h-index: 28)
Equal Opportunities Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.239, h-index: 9)
EuroMed J. of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 9)
European Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.481, h-index: 21)
European J. of Innovation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.596, h-index: 30)
European J. of Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.933, h-index: 55)
European J. of Training and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 23)
Evidence-based HRM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.371, h-index: 18)
Foresight     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 20)
Gender in Management : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 22)
Grey Systems : Theory and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 17)
Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 4)
History of Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 2)
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 4)
Human Resource Management Intl. Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 6)
Humanomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.14, h-index: 4)
IMP J.     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Growth and Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.163, h-index: 4)
Industrial and Commercial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.217, h-index: 14)
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.322, h-index: 19)
Industrial Management & Data Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.63, h-index: 69)
Industrial Robot An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.375, h-index: 32)
Info     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.25, h-index: 21)
Information and Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Information Technology & People     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 28)
Interactive Technology and Smart Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 1)
Interlending & Document Supply     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.48, h-index: 13)
Internet Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.746, h-index: 57)
Intl. J. for Lesson and Learning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. for Researcher Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Accounting and Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Bank Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.515, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Clothing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.279, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Conflict Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 38)
Intl. J. of Contemporary Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.329, h-index: 35)
Intl. J. of Culture Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Development Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Educational Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.424, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.179, h-index: 1)
Intl. J. of Emerging Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Energy Sector Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.25, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.694, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Event and Festival Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.32, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Gender and Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.638, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.352, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Health Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Human Rights in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Information and Learning Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.173, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.145, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Law and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Law in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.111, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Leadership in Public Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Intl. J. of Lean Six Sigma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.562, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.998, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Managerial Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Managing Projects in Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Manpower     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 37)
Intl. J. of Mentoring and Coaching in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Intl. J. of Migration, Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.261, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.594, h-index: 32)
Intl. J. of Operations & Production Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.198, h-index: 94)
Intl. J. of Organizational Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.222, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Pervasive Computing and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.165, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.304, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.694, h-index: 66)
Intl. J. of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.254, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Productivity and Performance Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.785, h-index: 31)
Intl. J. of Public Sector Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 37)
Intl. J. of Quality & Reliability Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.544, h-index: 63)
Intl. J. of Quality and Service Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.133, h-index: 1)
Intl. J. of Retail & Distribution Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.543, h-index: 36)
Intl. J. of Service Industry Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Social Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.227, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.325, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Sustainability in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.616, h-index: 29)
Intl. J. of Tourism Cities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Web Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.208, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Wine Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Workplace Health Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.358, h-index: 8)
Intl. Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.076, h-index: 57)
J. for Multicultural Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 11)
J. of Accounting & Organizational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 7)
J. of Accounting in Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
J. of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.291, h-index: 7)
J. of Advances in Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.177, h-index: 9)
J. of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal  
J. of Applied Accounting Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Applied Research in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
J. of Asia Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 1)
J. of Assistive Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.215, h-index: 6)
J. of Business & Industrial Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 48)
J. of Business Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.381, h-index: 17)
J. of Centrum Cathedra     Open Access  
J. of Children's Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 9)
J. of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.188, h-index: 4)
J. of Chinese Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 3)
J. of Communication Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.735, h-index: 6)
J. of Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.613, h-index: 62)
J. of Corporate Real Estate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.633, h-index: 5)
J. of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118, SJR: 0.13, h-index: 1)
J. of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
J. of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 5)
J. of Documentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 0.936, h-index: 50)
J. of Economic and Administrative Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 26)
J. of Educational Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.848, h-index: 36)
J. of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.173, h-index: 10)
J. of Enterprise Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.433, h-index: 38)
J. of Enterprising Communities People and Places in the Global Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.212, h-index: 8)
J. of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
J. of European Industrial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of European Real Estate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.52, h-index: 7)
J. of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
J. of Family Business Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Fashion Marketing and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.529, h-index: 30)
J. of Financial Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 373, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 5)
J. of Financial Economic Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
J. of Financial Management of Property and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 1)
J. of Financial Regulation and Compliance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
J. of Financial Reporting and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
J. of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 8)
J. of Global Mobility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Global Responsibility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Health Organisation and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.67, h-index: 27)
J. of Historical Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.376, h-index: 8)
J. of Hospitality and Tourism Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.672, h-index: 10)
J. of Human Resource Costing & Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
  [SJR: 0.694]   [H-I: 28]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1355-2554
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Seeking recognition and growth
    • Pages: 846 - 849
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Volume 23, Issue 6, Page 846-849, October 2017.

      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T09:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-10-2017-410
  • The Innovative and Entrepreneurial Nature of Sport: A Critical Assessment
    • Pages: 1071 - 1074
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Volume 23, Issue 6, Page 1071-1074, October 2017.

      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T09:39:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-10-2017-409
  • Critical Perspectives on Entrepreneurship: Challenging Dominant Discourses
    • Pages: 1074 - 1076
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Volume 23, Issue 6, Page 1074-1076, October 2017.

      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T09:39:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-10-2017-408
  • Does public sector crowd out entrepreneurship' Evidence from the EU
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The decision to engage in entrepreneurial activities is grounded in personal characteristics (motivation) and external environmental factors. One of the main external factors might be the structure of the regional economic activity. Does a high share of the public sector affect positively regional entrepreneurship or vice versa' Does the diversity in regional economic activity is conducive for entrepreneurial development or the regional comparative advantage as expressed by spatial economies of scale offering more entrepreneurial opportunities' Even though economic analysis has extensively examined the impact of the public sector size on the overall national economic activity (the crowding out effect), this impact has not been into scrutiny at regional level on microeconomic issues, such as the decision to engage in entrepreneurial activities. The authors further investigate the relation between diversity and entrepreneurship at regional level. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses data for 264 NUTS II EU regions. The time span of the data set is 1999-2008. The paper applies panel data analysis to explain the cross-time cross-section variation of the dependent variable: the self-employment share in total employment at regional level. In order to measure the existence of crowding out from public sector to regional entrepreneurship, the authors use the share of regional public sector gross value added over total regional gross value added. The diversity of the regional economic activity is measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Concentration Index across sectors. Findings The findings of the paper show that there is a negative correlation between public sector share and regional entrepreneurship. Hence, as at national level, the increase in the role of the public sector in the regional economic system crowds out regional entrepreneurship. The second finding indicates that the impact of the diversity of the regional economic activity on regional entrepreneurship is inconclusive. Originality/value The originality of this paper is due to the fact that the role of the public sector on regional economic phenomena, such as entrepreneurship, is examined for the first time. Also, the investigation of the relationship between diversity (vs localization economies) and entrepreneurship is performed using data for the full sample of regions of the European Union. The findings of the paper have significant policy implications since they provide useful inputs for the design of the regional development policy. The reduction of the public sector at regional level may contribute in entrepreneurial development and finally in regional economic growth and prosperity. Besides, the regional industrial policy should focus on the exploitation of the spatially constraint economies of scope in the framework of the Triple Helix model.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T09:30:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-03-2017-0100
  • Beekeeping as a family artisan entrepreneurship business
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Throughout Macedonia, beekeeping is becoming popular regardless of ethnicity. Studying ethnicity, the purpose of this paper is to determine what beekeepers in Macedonia thought in their own words about their beekeeping entrepreneurship. The objective is to identify whether motivations of ethnic Albanian beekeepers in Macedonia were the same or different compared to those of ethnic Macedonians in the same country, and if different, how. Design/methodology/approach To accomplish this objective, in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 beekeepers in Macedonia. A total of 29 interviews were conducted face-to-face and the other 11 by phone. The first set of interviews took place between December 2016 and February 2017, followed by more interviews in June 2017. In total, 27 respondents said they were ethnic Albanians, and 13 identified themselves as ethnic Macedonians. Also, ten respondents were women. While eight were full-time beekeepers, 32 were part-time beekeepers. Findings The results indicated that beekeeping businesses play a significant role in the transition economy of Macedonia. Beekeeping provides additional earnings that support rural families and keeps them financially stable. The majority of both Albanians and Macedonians understood that beekeeping on a part-time job basis provided a needed supplement to their income. Some part-time beekeepers are also working as auto-mechanics, locksmiths, medical doctors, restaurant/cafeteria owners, and tailors. A few in the sample were retired from their jobs or full-time beekeepers. An important difference between ethnic Albanian beekeepers and ethnic Macedonians in Macedonia is that the majority of ethnic Albanian participants see beekeeping as following in “my father’s footsteps”, while most Macedonians were motivated by the perceived opportunity of having a good business. Research limitations/implications Limitations of the research are twofold. First, financial data of family beekeeping are not available, which would be useful in determining the contribution made to economic development. It is common, especially in transition economies such as the western Balkans, that financial results are very sensitive to their owners. Second, unavailable databases for beekeepers make any quantitative approach difficult, if not impossible, resulting in most research using the qualitative research approach. Originality/value This paper is one of the first to treat beekeeping as a form of artisan entrepreneurship, which also contributes to the understanding of family business. As in other countries, the important and operation of the family business among family members in Macedonia is passed from generation to generation. The results of this research revealed the value of networking, which was found to be very important to income. For beekeepers to develop, grow, and be branded in the community, networking is an important ingredient.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T12:46:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2017-0245
  • A cognitive map of sustainable decision-making in entrepreneurship
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Under what conditions do entrepreneurs make the sustainable decisions they need to develop socially and environmentally responsible new businesses' Explanations of sustainable decision-making have involved various cognitive features; however, it is not yet clear how they play a role in empirical terms and, moreover, how they combine to induce business decisions based on social, environmental and economic considerations. The purpose of this paper is to explore how five cognitive factors combine and causally connect to produce sustainable decision-making in entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach This study uses fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to examine the decision-making of 37 sustainable entrepreneurs. It focuses on a substantive conception of entrepreneurial behaviour to uncover the cognitive antecedents underlying entrepreneurial decisions that involve the explicit development and implementation of measures, targets and strategies aimed at improving its impact on people and the environment. Findings The configurational analysis reveals a typology comprising five combinations of cognitive factors constituting a comprehensive cognitive map of sustainable decision-making in entrepreneurship, namely: purpose-driven, determined; value-based, vacillating; value-based, unintended; single motive, single solution; and purpose-driven, hesitant. Research limitations/implications This study demonstrates that no single condition is necessary nor sufficient for triggering decision-making involving social and environmental concerns, revealing five mental models leading to sustainable decision-making. In doing so, this paper responds to recent calls that stress the need for studies capable of uncovering the complex constellation of cognitive factors underlying entrepreneurial sustainable behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Originality/value This paper provides a systematic characterization of the cognitive underpinnings of sustainable decision-making and offers a basis for organizing the study of sustainable outcomes and configurations of cognitive antecedents. It reconciles prior efforts aimed at characterizing sustainability decisions in the context of SMEs and new enterprises, challenging current models based on awareness, experience and ethical normative frameworks.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T09:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-03-2017-0110
  • Cultural and creative entrepreneurs: understanding the role of
           entrepreneurial identity
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how entrepreneurs in the cultural and creative industries develop an entrepreneurial identity. It also aims to expand research on cultural and creative entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on longitudinal qualitative cases and analyses the potential entrepreneurial identity development of eight cultural and creative entrepreneurs from Germany. The researchers create a framework to ascertain whether and, if so, how cultural and creative entrepreneurs develop an entrepreneurial identity. Findings The findings suggest that cultural and creative entrepreneurs do develop an entrepreneurial identity and incorporate their cultural and creative identity into that entrepreneurial identity whereas self-reflection is a key driver in the development. Practical implications Cultural and creative entrepreneurs are a key driver of economic development. Hence, it is important to generate a more detailed understanding of their entrepreneurial mind-set and their behaviour. Originality/value The study suggests that cultural and creative entrepreneurs actively develop an entrepreneurial identity and that self-reflection, communication with other entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial experience are the main drivers of their identity development. Nevertheless, their cultural and creative identity does have an influence on their entrepreneurial identity. In addition, the study demonstrates how such entrepreneurs develop their identity.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T11:53:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2016-0215
  • Is women empowerment a zero sum game' Unintended consequences of
           microfinance for women’s empowerment in Ghana
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Against the background of growing concerns that development interventions can sometimes be a zero sum game, the purpose of this paper is to examine the unintended consequences of microfinance for women empowerment in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach The study employs a participatory mixed-method approach including household questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions and key informant interviews to investigate the dynamics of microfinance effects on women in communities of different vulnerability status in Ghana. Findings The results of hierarchical regression, triadic closure and thematic analyses demonstrate that the economic benefits of microfinance for women is also directly associated with conflicts amongst spouses, girl child labour, polygyny and the neglect of perceived female domestic responsibilities due to women’s devotion to their enterprises. Originality/value In the light of limited empirical evidence on potentially negative impacts of women empowerment interventions in Africa, this paper fills a critical gap in knowledge that will enable NGOs, policy makers and other stakeholders to design and implement more effective interventions that mitigate undesirable consequences.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T11:54:34Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-04-2017-0114
  • Financing family firms in the Middle East: the choice between Islamic and
           conventional finance
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of non-economic factors on the financing decisions of family firms in the Middle East. To contextualize the study, the authors steer away from the traditional capital structure debate toward the choice of financing paradigm: conventional vs Islamic. Design/methodology/approach This study uses Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior due to its ability to delineate the influence of non-economic motivational factors on the financing decisions of family firms. This study also examines the influence of “familial stewardship (FS),” another non-economic factor which is highly relevant in a collectivistic context. The authors initially use SEM with Amos to analyze 115 surveys of family firm owner-managers. For deeper probing, the authors undertook an additional post hoc qualitative analysis of six case studies using semi-structured interviews. Findings The findings of this study suggest that owner-managers’ attitude toward Islamic finance plays a primary motivational role in influencing their intentions to use it. More importantly, the findings depict a significant influence of “FS” and subjective norm on the attitudes of owner-managers. This implies that financing decisions which involve religious beliefs are directly influenced by the decision maker’s personal attitude, which, in turn, is significantly influenced by familial and social pressures. Originality/value This study fills a gap in the family-firm financing literature by suggesting that when choosing religion-related financial products, attitude plays a far more significant role than other motivational factors. This study also contributes to the “familiness” area of research by empirically demonstrating that FS has a significant influence on owner-managers’ attitude toward financing choices.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T08:25:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-10-2016-0349
  • How entrepreneurial resilience generates resilient SMEs
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how entrepreneurial behaviors support small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) resilience, refine the concept of entrepreneurial resilience, and identify how SME resilience might be promoted. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative data were collected in the UK via 11 focus groups which provided a sub-sample of 19 SME participants. Findings Because of their experience operating in uncertain environments, their direct experience of adversity, and the informal organizational settings they inhabit, entrepreneurs are often highly resilient and possess capabilities that enable SMEs to be resilient. Entrepreneurial resilience provides a basis for SME resilience that differs significantly from best practices as understood in larger firms. Research limitations/implications Exploratory qualitative research on a small sample (n=19) limits the generalizability of this work. Further research could quantitatively test the paper’s findings and/or examine the link between entrepreneurial resilience and the resilience of larger firms. Practical implications Rather than encouraging formal planning and redundancy, policy and practice designed to promote the resilience of SMEs should pay greater attention to building capacities to cope with uncertainty, generating and leveraging personal relationships, and activating the ability to experiment and think creatively in response to crises. Originality/value This paper draws on organizational psychology research to refine understanding of entrepreneurial resilience and to empirically examine and inductively theorize the multi-level relationships between entrepreneurial resilience and SME resilience.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:24:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-11-2016-0396
  • The power of peers
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Although the role of creativity in the entrepreneurial process has long been analysed, only recently scholars have begun addressing its influence on entrepreneurial intentions, showing that complex dynamics characterise this relationship. The purpose of this paper is to understand the surrounding mechanisms (moderation and mediation) that connect creativity to entrepreneurial intentions, with a focus on social context and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 507 students from 17 to 21 years old. The effect of creativity on entrepreneurial intentions and the moderating role of social context were tested with a three-step hierarchical regression, while the mediating effect of self-efficacy was tested by a multiple regression analysis based on the bootstrapping method. Findings The results reveal that: peers who encourage entrepreneurship moderate the relationship between creativity and entrepreneurial intentions by strengthening this relationship, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy mediates the relationship between creativity and entrepreneurial intentions. Research limitations/implications In light of these results, institutions should draw attention to how creative potential in students differs in order to provide new educational programmes to strengthen self-efficacy in entrepreneurial students and support encouraging social context of peers in which entrepreneurial intentions can be fostered. Originality/value The study, by responding to the suggestions of conducting research on the interface between creativity and entrepreneurship (Shane and Nicolaou, 2015), brings new empirical details regarding the mechanisms that link creativity to entrepreneurial intentions. Furthermore, it casts light on the interaction between dispositional and social variables, showing the crucial role of peers in enhancing the interaction between creativity and intentions.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T11:10:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2016-0205
  • The obsessive and harmonious nature of entrepreneurial passion
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of entrepreneurial passion and in doing so explores the relationship between harmonious and obsessive passion (OP) and resilience. A pathway between passion and entrepreneurial success (ES) that is mediated by sustained entrepreneurial commitment (SEC) and resilience is tested. Design/methodology/approach An online questionnaire survey was completed by (n=215) Australian entrepreneurs. Results were based on structural equation modelling analysis. Findings Harmonious passion contributes directly and indirectly to perceptions of ES through resilience; OP contributes to SEC which contributes to success through resilience. Research limitations/implications Limitations stem from the survey methodology used. Implications for incorporating harmonious and OP into training to ensure well developed entrepreneurs are raised. Originality/value This study is one of the few studies to test the theoretical constructs of passion and resilience in the entrepreneurship context, and seemingly the first to do so on an Australian sample of entrepreneurs. This research finds that both types of passion are important to individual level resilience and ultimately to ES. An OP for one’s venture is an important contributor to persisting with the venture.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T10:28:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-01-2017-0011
  • Growth expectations through innovative entrepreneurship
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a model suggesting that innovation may act as a motivating force that increases entrepreneurs’ growth expectations, in which entrepreneurs’ growth expectations are shaped by their subjective values and entrepreneurial experience moderates this relationship. Design/methodology/approach This paper conducts statistical analysis on a sample of 11,579 entrepreneurs from 24 countries who participated in the IIIP survey of innovation in 2011 under the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project. Findings The results suggest that entrepreneurs involved in innovative entrepreneurship are more likely to have higher growth expectations, with subjective values playing a direct and indirect role in entrepreneurs’ expectations of firm growth. Additionally, the results indicate that the duration of entrepreneurial experience moderates the relationship between strategic orientation and confidence in innovation. This finding suggests there is feedback between having beliefs about the benefits of innovation and being an innovative entrepreneur, resulting in an over-estimation – at least in comparative terms – regarding firm growth rates. This relationship is stronger for novice entrepreneurs since experienced entrepreneurs tend to be more cautious about their expectations of growing. Originality/value This study deepens our understanding of the complex processes through which organizational-level decisions ultimately influence individual-level factors. The present findings contribute to progress in this task by suggesting that strategies aimed at cultivating innovation feed entrepreneurs’ subjective values of innovation as well as expectations of growth. Although the duration of entrepreneurial experience moderates the relationship between acting as an innovative entrepreneur and subjective values of innovation, the results suggest that entrepreneurs’ expectations are primarily driven by their internal perceptions of reality.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T08:52:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-03-2017-0083
  • Identifying groups of entrepreneurial activities at universities
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify whether the entrepreneurial activities of universities in the UK can be statistically grouped together. Design/methodology/approach This paper is performing a principal component analysis (PCA) of the 2009/2010 UK Higher Education Business and Community Interaction Survey (HE-BCIS) data for the third stream activities of universities in the UK. Findings The PCA of the 144 included institutions identified four groups of entrepreneurial activities being engaged in by universities in the UK. Three of the four groups were related to spin-offs, labelled as “Staff Spin-off Activity”, “Non-HEI Owned Spin-Off Activity” and “Graduate Start-up Activity”. The remaining factor has been named “University Knowledge Exploitation Activity (UKEA)” and encompasses a wide range of university knowledge creation, exchange and exploitation activities. Research limitations/implications The research indicates, through a ranking system for each university for the various groups of entrepreneurial activities, that universities are often entrepreneurial in just one or two of the groups of entrepreneurial activities identified by the PCA. Identifying what is causing those differences is required to further understand why we see this variation across the HE sector. Originality/value The use of a PCA to identify groups of entrepreneurial activities is a novel approach. Typically studies use a select few indicators, such as spin-offs or patents to analyse the entrepreneurial activities of universities. This study uses PCA to group together statistically related activities which can then be used to identify what is driving these groups of activities in future studies.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T08:40:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-03-2017-0096
  • The perceptions of Australian senior entrepreneurs on the drivers of their
           entrepreneurial activity
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Why is self-employment an attractive option for certain seniors and what drives seniors into business start-ups' In this study, the motivations and preferences of senior entrepreneurs in Australia, to become self-employed, by means of business start-ups, are explored. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical basis for policy implications. Design/methodology/approach A mixed methods study is conducted. Members of the National Senior’s Association in Australia were interviewed and surveyed. The semi-structured interviews identified the key factors influencing senior entrepreneurs in relation to self-employment and entrepreneurial choices at a later career stage. The survey collected information on intentionality, motivation, skills, opportunities, success, satisfaction, participation, barriers, benefits, education and training, and perceptions of policy support for senior entrepreneurs. Findings Respondents gave an account of the prevalence of pull factors motivating their choice of an entrepreneurial career. Multivariate statistical analysis of survey responses showed that senior entrepreneurs are more driven by opportunity than necessity and are primarily internally motivated. Research limitations/implications Results of this study suggest a weak link between motivation by others and the act of start-up, but this may also imply that those seniors who are more likely to become entrepreneurs are more likely to ignore the impulses from their social context. This requires further investigation to ensure a robust identification of drivers and an elimination of contextual effects. Further research is suggested to compose a relevant model structure in different contexts and a representative sample to confirm the model outcomes. Originality/value This is the first mixed methods study of the antecedents of senior entrepreneurs’ start-up intentions in Australia. The study also uses entrepreneurial activity as opposed to intention as its dependent variable, which allows for a more accurate evaluation of antecedents to the senior entrepreneurship phenomenon.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T08:30:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-12-2016-0424
  • Beyond effectuation
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to show that the entrepreneurial project ongoingly is transformed. Empirically, three defining junctions demonstrate the malleability of the entrepreneurial project in perpetual action, expanding beyond effectuation theory on what constitutes given means, affordable loss, and other key concepts from this theoretical perspective. Drawing upon actor-network theory (ANT), this study demonstrates how different framing and support devices implicate different human and non-human actors in changing interpositions within the entrepreneurial process. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a longitudinal case study design. The case provides an overview of a new business’s emergence based on three identified translations, each representing critical junctures in the business’s development. An ethnographic approach is selected, which combines observations with qualitative interviews. This design allows the authors to focus on how the project emerges and is continuously supported by allies but is sometimes not supported by various human and non-human actors. Findings This study demonstrates that the entrepreneurial project undertaken by the entrepreneurial network changes as new humans or non-humans become part of it. Including a resource in the network means simultaneously changing the network. This interactionism shows that what sparks interest or attracts resources to a business idea is not simply an influx of additional resources but is simultaneously a dynamic definition of the entrepreneurial endeavour. Originality/value This paper examines how ideas are transformed into business ventures by using the ANT to expand understanding from effectuation theory. This shows that means, for instance, are not given but are co-created by the process of translation. In addition, which losses are affordable can be determined by the process within which the entrepreneur frames the project and manages to associate allies within and into the network.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:58:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-01-2017-0039
  • Sustainable institutional entrepreneurship in practice
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how sustainable entrepreneurs (SEs) address the regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive institutional pillars when operating in conservative contexts. It aims to study in depth the use of sustainable innovation (SI) as a means of increasing legitimacy within the institutions, thus triggering an institutional change. Design/methodology/approach The paper opted for an exploratory study on the Tuscan geothermal heat pumps market, which presents a promising but still largely unexploited sustainability potential despite its low institutional support, using the open-ended approach of grounded theory. The data include interviews and archive data, such as newspapers, magazines. Findings The paper provides empirical insights on how sustainable institutional entrepreneurs (SIEs) have developed innovative business models based on direct relationship with the final customers and strategic partnerships as a means of increasing legitimacy within the normative and cultural-cognitive institutions, and subsequently in the regulative institutions, through: innovative value propositions aimed at changing industry norms and social beliefs; increasing the private benefit of innovative sustainable business models in order to trigger imitation dynamics; inter-sector strategic partnerships sharing the same sustainability objectives; the inclusion of the relevant actors in relation to the social norms and cultural-cognitive barriers in a value proposition. On the basis of these findings a model has been developed. Research limitations/implications The study enriches the sustainable entrepreneurship research stream by providing empirical evidence on how SEs foster changes in the three institutional pillars with SI. It also contributes to the institutional entrepreneurship research by extending the results of previous studies regarding institutional tactics. Practical implications The paper could help SIEs prioritizing changes in value propositions and strategic partnerships to create market-based coalitions, as a means of institutional legitimization for SI. Originality/value The study illustrates the relationship between the sustainable institutional entrepreneurial practices and each institutional pillar, including the cultural-cognitive institutions, which have been neglected in previous research. This allows formulating five key propositions that guide SEs in succeeding as both sustainable and institutional entrepreneurs.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:49:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-11-2015-0259
  • Can less be more' Mentoring functions, learning goal orientation, and
           novice entrepreneurs’ self-efficacy
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose One of the main goals of entrepreneurial mentoring programs is to strengthen the mentees’ self-efficacy. However, the conditions in which entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) is developed through mentoring are not yet fully explored. The purpose of this paper is to test the combined effects of mentee’s learning goal orientation (LGO) and perceived similarity with the mentor and demonstrates the role of these two variables in mentoring relationships. Design/methodology/approach The current study is based on a sample of 360 novice Canadian entrepreneurs who completed an online questionnaire. The authors used a cross-sectional analysis as research design. Findings Findings indicate that the development of ESE is optimal when mentees present low levels of LGO and perceive high similarities between their mentor and themselves. Mentees with high LGO decreased their level of ESE with more in-depth mentoring received. Research limitations/implications This study investigated a formal mentoring program with volunteer (unpaid) mentors. Generalization to informal mentoring relationships needs to be tested. Practical implications The study shows that, in order to effectively develop self-efficacy in a mentoring situation, LGO should be taken into account. Mentors can be trained to modify mentees’ LGO to increase their impact on this mindset and mentees’ ESE. Originality/value This is the first empirical study that demonstrates the effects of mentoring on ESE and reveals a triple moderating effect of LGO and perceived similarity in mentoring relationships.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:22:13Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-09-2016-0299
  • From charity to social enterprise: the marketization of social care
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In Scotland, the self-directed support (SDS) legislation is a catch-all payment system which brings challenges to local authorities, service delivery organisations and the service users it is intended to empower. Set against a backdrop of cuts to local authorities and third-sector funding, this policy presents third-sector organisations with both the opportunities and challenges of commercialising their activities to become more sustainable. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence of the challenges faced by one charity as it engages in a process of hybridity to accommodate changes in its funding due to the introduction of SDS. Design/methodology/approach The paper utilises a case study approach. The paper captures the experiences and views of managers, staff and parents advocating for their children through interviews with a purposive sample from each group. The challenges of gathering data and giving a voice to caregivers advocating for children with complex needs are discussed, particularly the difficulties in accessing a hard to reach group. Findings The findings identifies issues which have arisen because of the proposed changed in strategic direction of the organisation due to the introduction of SDS and are all related to hybridity. The findings are arranged in four sub-sections based on the themes that emerged from the qualitative data generated from the interviews: the practical delivery of care; tensions between care and quality, the care workforce, and the parent perspective. Research limitations/implications SDS policy has had unexpected impacts and reactions whilst rolling out across regions in Scotland, but policymakers and those involved in the care sector, including consumers, face significant challenges in gathering evidence not only from the vulnerable populations this policy affects but also from organisations already under pressure from austerity-led cuts. This paper presents the challenges to organisations involved in caring for children with complex needs, who are a particularly neglected group of stakeholders. Practical implications Organically arising barriers to organisational transition from charity to social enterprise are presented, as staff and caregivers react to the prospect of SDS uptake affecting their organisation. Proactive attempts to embrace a hybrid approach by the organisation are analysed. Social implications Understanding how social care organisations and clients are reacting to the implementation of individual payments as opposed to the previous system of block contracts is crucial as the sector faces very real prospects of organisations closing when individuals are able to pick and choose care. A policy based on choice and control for the consumer risks removing choice through a loss of services in the marketplace, leaving vulnerable populations at risk. Originality/value This study is unique. No research has been done exploring the transition of charities servicing children with complex needs in anticipation of self-directed payments creating an open market. The paper further contributes to the existing knowledge regarding hybrid organisations within the third sector.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T10:10:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-10-2016-0344
  • Identifying and understanding entrepreneurial decision-making logics in
           entrepreneurship education
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose It is unclear how nascent entrepreneurs make decisions during the venture creation process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate decision-making logics and their transformation over time among student entrepreneurs who aim to create new business ventures in the higher education setting. Design/methodology/approach The study employs the mixed methods approach through the use of survey and observation data. The longitudinal survey data comprise three surveys collected via an internet-aided tool. The constructs of causation and effectuation are measured using previously tested scales (Chandler et al., 2011). Non-participant observation data were collected during the course, focussing on the venture creation processes of four different start-ups, and were analysed thematically. Findings The findings show three transformation patterns – doubts in how to proceed, unwillingness to proceed, and unsatisfactory team dynamics – that led individuals towards a coping decision-making logic in which no causation or effectuation is emphasised. The findings illustrate that, despite this stage of decision-making logic, the learning process continues: Even if no new business venture is launched, entrepreneurship education can still generate learning outcomes that improve students’ understanding of entrepreneurship as well as understanding of themselves as entrepreneurs. Originality/value This study brings the theories of causation and effectuation into the teaching of entrepreneurship. Of particular value to scholars is the fact that the study generates new understanding of the decision-making logics during new venture creation. Accordingly, this study sheds new light on the transformation and complementarity of the decision-making logic of an individual as new ventures emerge in an educational context reflecting the real-life start-up context.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:07:34Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-05-2017-0163
  • Transitioning from unemployment to self-employment for over 50s
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the entrepreneurial learning and support needs of older unemployed, highlighting the barriers that need to be addressed, and to explore the impact of a tailored entrepreneurship training programme. Design/methodology/approach An interpretivist philosophical standpoint is adopted with an action research approach to engage key informants to design, implement and evaluate the programme. Focus groups and interviews with 132 older unemployed individuals and 50 stakeholders across six countries were conducted as well as pre- and post-programme evaluations and surveys with 55 programme participants across three countries. Findings This research provides a deeper understanding of the entrepreneurial learning and support needs of older unemployed. Research limitations/implications The small sample size of participants measured using a hybrid measure of ESE is a limitation. Practical implications For entrepreneurship educators, the components of designing and delivering an entrepreneurship programme for older unemployed are identified. For enterprise and unemployment support agencies, it provides evidence of the initial and ongoing support needs for starting and running a business in later life. Originality/value A framework specific to older unemployed individuals turning towards self-employment or entrepreneurship is proposed and tested in this paper. The framework proposes that individual and contextual antecedents influence the decision to become self-employed in later life and that the training, support and entrepreneurial experience helps to overcome barriers and shapes individual and societal outcomes.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T01:46:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-01-2017-0004
  • Resilience as an entrepreneurial capability: integrating insights from a
           cross-disciplinary comparison
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine competing assumptions about the nature of resilience and selects those most appropriate for an entrepreneurial context. Assumptions are integrated into a theoretical framework highlighting how different threats require different resilience responses. Overall organizational resilience results from a portfolio of resilience capabilities. Design/methodology/approach Akin to theoretical sampling, the authors identify various theoretical insights about resilience across three disciplines of psychology, ecology and engineering. The authors use these insights to distill competing assumptions about what resilience is and evaluate those most appropriate for entrepreneurial contexts. Existing resilience literature in organization science is critiqued in terms of underlying assumptions and an alternative theoretical framework proposed based on more robust assumptions. Findings Other disciplines point to resilience being a process that differs for different threats and as either bouncing back, absorbing shocks or bouncing forward. When imported into entrepreneurship these characteristics lead to a conceptualization of resilience as being enacted through a capability portfolio. A routine-based capability response is preferred when threats are familiar, simple, not severe and frequent, following minimal disorganization and where resource slack is available. In contrast, heuristics-based capabilities are preferred when threats are unfamiliar, complex, severe and infrequent, following serious disorganization and where resource slack is unavailable. An absorption threshold point identifies when organizations need to switch from routine-based to heuristics-based resilience capabilities. Practical implications Building resilience across a range of adverse situations requires firms to develop a portfolio of resilience capabilities. Firms must learn to match the capability required for the specific threat profile faced. This includes a mix of routinized responses for returning to stability but also more flexible, heuristics-based responses for strategic reconfiguration. Originality/value The paper undertakes a first of its kind cross-disciplinary conceptual analysis at the level of identifying competing assumptions about the nature of resilience. These assumptions are found to be somewhat unconscious among organization researchers, limiting the conceptual development of resilience in entrepreneurship. The authors contribute a theoretical framework based on explicit and robust assumptions, enabling the field to advance conceptually.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T01:45:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-11-2016-0368
  • Doing well and doing good
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to deepen and expand our understanding on how strategic/market orientation (SO/MO) and a cohesive/shared social vision affect performance in the social enterprise (SE) context. Design/methodology/approach A survey was conducted in Greek SEs. Stepwise and simple regression analyses were applied in order to test the hypothesized relationships among the study variables. Additionally, Baron and Kenny’s (1986) recommendation for exploring mediating effects was followed. Findings The results indicate the crucial role of customer orientation dimension of SO/MO in enhancing commercial effectiveness and subsequently profitability, whilst a cohesive/shared vision was found to have positive direct associations with the social effectiveness and profitability elements of SEs performance. Moreover, the findings provide some indications for the mutually reinforcing relationship between the social and commercial aspects of SEs functioning. Originality/value The current paper contributes to the ongoing quest to understand the strategic management element of SEs and the challenge they face in managing rival logics. Also, it addresses the gap related to the type (mainly qualitative) and geographical concentration of SE research.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T01:41:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-04-2017-0132
  • Entrepreneurs as parents: the antecedents and consequence of parenting
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand parenting stress of entrepreneurs and to attempt to extend the empirical evidence on the predictors and consequences of parenting stress for entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach This study draws on data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. The quantitative research method was used. Drawing on the data of 2,051 entrepreneurs, a model was tested using structural equation modeling. Findings The results reveal that social support is a strong predictor of parenting stress and that there is a direct effect between parenting stress and family to work interference (FWI). In addition, parenting stress partially mediates the relationship between social support and FWI. Adding a direct path from social support to FWI substantially improves the validity in a revised model. No effects of gender stereotypes are found. Originality/value This study attempts to extend previous work on parenting and vocational behavior by investigating the perceptional and stereotypical antecedents of parenting stress and examining the impact of parenting stress on FWI. To the challenges of parenting, many entrepreneurs face constant pressure to achieve a positive return in their business venture and work hard, for long hours. Therefore, a better understanding of entrepreneurs’ parenting roles and stress can shed some light on the challenges faced by self-employed individuals and contributes to the vocational behavior and career development literature and practical experiences.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T01:38:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-04-2017-0136
  • An exploration of the Business Plan Competition as a methodology for
           effective nascent entrepreneurial learning
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Business Plan Competitions (BPCs) are readily prescribed and promoted as a valuable entrepreneurial learning activity on university campuses worldwide. There is an acceptance of their value despite the clear lack of empirical attention on the learning experience of nascent entrepreneurs during and post-participation in university-based BPCs. To address this deficit, the purpose of this paper is to explore how participation in a university-based BPC affords entrepreneurial learning outcomes, through the development of competencies, amongst nascent entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach Underpinned by a constructivist paradigm, a longitudinal qualitative methodological approach was adopted. In-depth interviews with nascent entrepreneur participants of a UK university-based BPC were undertaken at the start and end of the competition but also six months after participation. This method enabled access to the participant’s experiences of the competition and appreciation of the meanings they attached to this experience as a source of entrepreneurial learning. Data were analysed according to the wave of data collection and a thematic analytical approach was taken to identify patterns across participant accounts. Findings At the start of the competition, participation was viewed as a valuable experiential learning opportunity in pursuit of the competencies needed, but not yet held, to progress implementation of the nascent venture. At the end of the competition, participants considered their participation experience had afforded the development of pitching, public speaking, networking and business plan production competencies and also self-confidence. Six months post-competition, participants still recognised that competencies had been developed; however, application of these were deemed as being confined to participation in other competitions rather than the routine day-to-day aspects of venture implementation. Developed competencies and learning remained useful given a prevailing view that further competition participation represented an important activity which would enable value to be leveraged in terms of finance, marketing and networking opportunities for new venture creation. Research limitations/implications The findings challenge the common understanding that the BPC represents an effective methodology for highly authentic, relevant and broadly applicable entrepreneurial learning. Moreover the idea that the competencies needed for routine venture implementation and competencies developed through competition are synonymous is challenged. By extension the study suggests competition activities may not be as closely tied to the realities of new venture creation as commonly portrayed or understood and that the learning afforded is situated within a competition context. Competitions could therefore be preventing the opportunities for entrepreneurial learning that they purport they offer. Given the practical importance of competition participation as a resource acquisition activity for nascent entrepreneurs, further critical examination of the competition agenda is necessary as too is additional consideration about the design of such competitions and how such competitions should feature within university policy to support new venture creation. Originality/value This study contributes to the limited literature and studies on BPCs by focussing on its effectiveness as a means of providing entrepreneurial learning for participants. The key contribution taking it from an individual nascent entrepreneur participant perspective is that the competencies afforded through competition participation are more limited in scope and application than traditionally promoted and largely orientated towards future BPC participation. Learning is mainly situated for competition sake only and about participants securing further resources and higher levels of visibility. As the nascent entrepreneurs intended learning outcomes from competition participation are subsequently not realised, the study highlights a gap between the intended and actual outcomes of competition participation.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T02:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-05-2017-0158
  • From mixed embeddedness to transnational mixed embeddedness
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relevance of the mixed embeddedness thesis (Kloosterman, 2010; Rath and Kloosterman, 2002) to businesses with a more transnational mode of operation. Design/methodology/approach Interviews with the owner managers of a sample 24 Vietnamese businesses in London were undertaken to develop an understanding of how micro (individual resources: social, financial and cultural/human capital, and history of migration), meso (local, regional and national markets) and macro (politico-institutional) factors in the UK and overseas influenced business development. Findings The findings illustrate how business development is influenced not just by the interaction of the local (UK) opportunity structure and the entrepreneur’s resources, as suggested by the mixed embeddedness thesis, but also by institutional regimes, economies and markets in key countries of the diaspora, and the interaction of these. The extent to which new transnational opportunities can be exploited, however, depends on access to the necessary local and transnational forms of capital. Practical implications The empirical evidence presented is used to present a re-working of the mixed embeddedness thesis to provide a framework for understanding the drivers of transnational entrepreneurship. Originality/value The paper presents new empirical knowledge of transnational activity amongst the UK Vietnamese business community – a little known refugee community. Conceptually, the paper offers a theoretical development of the mixed embeddedness thesis to enable it to provide an explanation of transnational entrepreneurship amongst new migrant communities.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T10:54:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-01-2017-0035
  • Exploring the evolution of ethnic entrepreneurship: the case of Brazilian
           immigrants in Florida
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze Brazilian entrepreneurial communities in Florida, through the capitals theory approach. Design/methodology/approach By adopting a comparative case study approach, the researchers conducted 80 in-depth interviews with Brazilian entrepreneurs in two different communities – Pompano Beach (Miami area) and Orlando, Florida. Data triangulation was performed through interviews with community stakeholders, secondary sources of data and surveys. Findings
      Authors propose a framework of 27 contexts, based on immigrant entrepreneurs’ capital provisions. Evidence points to different evolutionary paths of the two communities of Brazilian immigrants that were compared. Some of these contexts were found in other ethnicities from extant literature, which shows that it might be generalizable to other cases. Research limitations/implications The limitations relate to the fact that the comparative study was conducted in one ethnic group. Nevertheless, the paper brings insights to support future studies on immigrant and ethnic entrepreneurship as a building block for future comparative studies on other immigrant communities. Practical implications The work presents a guideline for future entrepreneurs in Florida. Social implications Implications of practice will arise after further studies in the contexts of economic, human and social capital. The cases of successful immigrant communities enlightened by the capitals theory might be useful to newly born ethnic enclaves. Originality/value The originality of the paper lies on the comparison of two entrepreneurial communities of the same ethnicity in Florida, showing different behaviors due to the internal and environmental factors. Moreover, the Brazilian entrepreneur’s particularities add up to the general theory of immigrant or ethnic entrepreneurship.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T01:21:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-08-2016-0239
  • Business tools in nonprofit organizations: a performative story
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of introducing business tools into nonprofit organizations (NPOs). Exploring the case of an NPO trying to embrace the social enterprise model, this study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the managerialization process affecting third sector organizations. Design/methodology/approach Relying on an in-depth ethnographic immersion conducted at a Brazilian NPO, this paper adopts a performativity lens to analyze the appropriation process of a traditional business tool, the Individual Development Plan (IDP), at the organization. Findings The story of the IDP’s appropriation reveals how business tools act as market devices to actualize economic behaviors and representations among NPOs’ beneficiaries. Reinforcing the control of managers upon their constituencies, business tools can thus create an unequal balance of power within NPOs. Practical implications Admittedly, this paper relies on one single case study, which imposes strong limitations to generalize empirical findings. Nonetheless, this analysis calls for more caution in the promotion of business tools for the development of social entrepreneurship in third sector organizations. Originality/value Rather than debating the accuracy and efficiency of business tools in NPOs, this paper adopts a performative approach to understand how artifacts change the nature of relationships between managers and beneficiaries within social ventures. Rejecting a normative stance, this paper proposes a micro-level analysis of managerialization, focusing on an organization from an emerging country, Brazil, which is rarely at the core of social entrepreneurship studies.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T07:38:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-09-2016-0312
  • Social enterprise and corporate social responsibility
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the concepts of social enterprise (SE) and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Both terms are regarded as pivotal but somewhat related when discussed in scholarship. Despite this few attempts have been made to isolate the manner in which they connect. Design/methodology/approach In this paper the authors attempt to unpack these two terms in order to isolate key areas of overlap in their use and operationalization. In doing so, the authors address the call for work to synthesize the highly fragmented literature. Findings The paper demonstrates that, while SE and CSR retain a unique place in the business-society landscape, there is indeed an overlap between the two. The generation of value – social, collaborative, or strategic – appears to be a central theme that connects the two concepts. Originality/value The authors offer a detailed discussion of how SE and CSR have contributed to scholarship, and demonstrate that the two terms are indeed interrelated on many levels.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T02:24:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-05-2016-0131
  • Understanding the drivers of sustainable entrepreneurial practices in
           Pakistan’s leather industry
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the drivers of sustainable entrepreneurial practices in SMEs operating in a developing economy. The secondary objectives are to explore the relationship between these drivers and to draw out the implications for policy and practice. Design/methodology/approach The paper is informed by the literature on sustainable entrepreneurship, and on the drivers of pro-environmental practices in SMEs. It reports on the results of an intensive multi-level empirical study, which investigates the environmental practices of SMEs in Pakistan’s leatherworking industry using a multiple case study design and grounded analysis, which draws on relevant institutional theory. Findings The study identifies that coercive, normative and mimetic isomorphic pressures simultaneously drive sustainable entrepreneurial activity in the majority of sample SMEs. These pressures are exerted by specific micro-, meso- and macro-level factors, ranging from international customers’ requirements to individual-level values of owners and managers. It also reveals the catalytic effect of the educational and awareness-raising activities of intermediary organisations, in tandem with the attraction of competitiveness gains, (international) environmental regulations, industrial dynamism and reputational factors. Practical implications The evidence suggests that, in countries where formal institutional mechanisms have less of an impact, intermediary organisations can perform a proto-institutional role that helps to overcome pre-existing barriers to environmental improvement by sparking sustainable entrepreneurial activity in SME populations. Originality/value The findings imply that the drivers of sustainable entrepreneurial activity do not operate in a “piecemeal” fashion, but that particular factors mediate the emergence and development of other sustainability drivers. This paper provides new insights into sustainable entrepreneurship and motivations for environmental practices in an under-researched developing economy context.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T12:11:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-11-2015-0263
  • Venture creation persistence: overcoming stage-gate issues
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into how nascent entrepreneurs persist despite outward appearances of little progress by using participant observations, and autobiographical and interview data. Design/methodology/approach Utilizing a multi-year case study, the authors use participant observation, autobiographical, and interview data to build the arguments. Findings The authors demonstrate that persistence involves overcoming stage-gate issues, and overcoming stage gates requires a flurry of activity and opportunity variation. Once stage gates are overcome, entrepreneurs experience an emergence-like event with a new flurry of activity that propels them toward the next stage gate. Doing so, the authors extend theories of entrepreneurial persistence and entrepreneurial action by suggesting that nascent entrepreneurs who are slowly making progress toward start-up may be persisting by taking small but important steps toward start-up. Originality/value This study offers detailed observations and analysis about the behaviors and activities that a nascent entrepreneur undertook during an extremely long gestation/persistence period, which ultimately ended with the successful completion of the goal.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T07:33:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-08-2016-0270
  • The fight is the coach: creating expertise during the fight to avoid
           entrepreneurial failure
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explain how the process that occurs before an entrepreneurial failure event provides a coached learning setting that creates entrepreneurial expertise. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper drawing on the literatures of expert information processing theory and deliberate-practice expertise development to suggest a model and propositions that flow from the analysis. Findings Adding to the expert performance literature – specifically the introduction of the notion of emergent practice – this paper proposes that the intensity of the fight to avoid entrepreneurial failure, the duration of the fight, the content required in that fight, and the clarity and rapidity of feedback received, are associated with the creation of entrepreneurial expertise. Research limitations/implications This paper complements research on learning from failure by exploring how significant learning before entrepreneurial failure either occurs or is avoided, can lead to the creation of entrepreneurial expertise. Practical implications This research provides guidance for entrepreneurs engaged in the fight to avoid entrepreneurial failure, and suggests ways for prospective supporters to better assess entrepreneurs with failed ventures in their history. Originality/value The paper applies the deliberate-practice concept, common in sports, games, and the arts, to an “emergent practice” setting; that is, within a real-life (marketplace) setting within which the “fight” to avoid entrepreneurial failure functions as the “coach”; and it describes how the learning necessary for the creation of entrepreneurial expertise likely takes place.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-09-2016-0287
  • One foot in Babylon, the other in a startup
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Little is known regarding joiners (i.e. early-stage non-founder entrepreneurial employees) and their commitment to joining a new venture vs pursuing a more rational and stable career path. The purpose of this paper is to bring an understanding to this phenomenon, while adding to various management theories of organizational commitment and entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach The authors examine how current employment situations and alternative job prospects impact the relationship between joiner perceptions of distributive justice and organizational commitment by utilizing the equity ownership distribution decided upon by the founding team. The hypotheses are tested using data gathered from 117 joiners. Findings The findings confirm for traditional organizational research, a positive relationship exists, even in a new venture context, between perceptions of distributive justice and organizational commitment. However, when joiners report having a second (or primary) job, in addition to the new venture, the direct relationship is weakened. In contrast, higher levels of alternative employment options strengthen the relationship between justice and commitment. Research limitations/implications Although the authors’ measure of employment options only included a single-item measure, there is precedent in the literature for this approach. Yet, the authors realize this remains a limitation due to the lack of additional information surrounding each joiner’s “other job” characteristics, such as tenure, title, and salary. Practical implications Perceptions of fairness and justice appear to provide valuable implications for founders concerned about organizational commitment and employee buy-in when seeking to bring on joiners. Job alternatives and additional employment also provide interesting takeaways for practitioners. The authors suggest that founders take caution when hiring joiners, who have a second (or primary) job, in addition to working for the new venture. Levels of commitment will likely be reduced, to the possible detriment of the new venture. Originality/value Although the baseline hypothesis exists in prior literature with respect to established firms, it has not been tested in a new venture context. Furthermore, prior studies within the entrepreneurship literature have yet to examine these issues from the perspective of the joiner and certainly have not taken into account additional employment and employment prospects among these individuals.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:08:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-08-2016-0273
  • How can social enterprises impact health and well-being'
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of social enterprise on individual and community health and well-being. It focusses on community food initiatives, their impact on the social determinants of health and the influence of structure on their outcomes. Design/methodology/approach Using an interpretive qualitative approach through case studies focussed on two community food social enterprises, the research team conducted observations, interviews and ad hoc conversations. Findings Researchers found that social enterprises impacted all layers of the social determinants of health model but that there was greater impact on individual lifestyle factors and social and community networks. Impact at the higher socio-economic, cultural and environmental layer was more constrained. There was also evidence of the structural factors both enabling and constraining impact at all levels. Practical implications This study helps to facilitate understanding on the role of social enterprises as a key way for individuals and communities to work together to build their capabilities and resilience when facing health inequalities. Building upon previous work, it provides insight into the practices, limitations and challenges of those engaged in encouraging and supporting behavioural changes. Originality/value The paper contributes to a deeper insight of the use, motivation and understanding of social enterprise as an operating model by community food initiatives. It provides evidence of the impact of such social enterprises on the social determinants of health and uses structuration theory (Giddens, 1984) to explore how structure both influences and constrains the impact of these enterprises.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T08:02:20Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-01-2017-0022
  • Becoming entrepreneurs: how immigrants developed entrepreneurial
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important process of how entrepreneurial identity is formed and constructed, with the perspective that entrepreneurial identity is social and dynamic, constantly shaped by various life episodes and human interactions, rather than static and unchanging. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study comprises 30 in-depth interviews with Chinese immigrants in West Canada. These immigrants had been employed professionals under the “Skilled Workers” immigration category but later became entrepreneurs. None of the entrepreneurs in this study had prior business ownership experience, and many of them said that they had never thought about running businesses until they came to Canada. Findings A process model of entrepreneurial identity construction is presented. This paper advances the literature on entrepreneurship through the identification of three stages in the development of entrepreneurial identity: identity exploration, entrepreneurial mindsets building, and narrative development. Originality/value This study has important implications for the understanding of the exploratory and discovery mode of entrepreneurial identity construction. This study also moves away from the contextual and structural hypotheses as the sole explanations for the high rate of self-employment among immigrant entrepreneurs, and provides a useful starting point for a deeper understanding of the agency of immigrant entrepreneurs.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T11:56:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2016-0214
  • Opportunity recognition in sustainable entrepreneurship: an exploratory
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The recognition of opportunities for sustainable development is considered to be an essential part of sustainable entrepreneurship, but studies that address this phenomenon are scarce. A conceptual model which aims to explain the factors that lead to the recognition of sustainable opportunities was proposed by Patzelt and Shepherd (2011), but published research that tests this model empirically is limited. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the sustainable entrepreneurship literature by empirically exploring Patzelt and Shepherd’s conceptual model in order to shed light on how sustainable entrepreneurs recognize opportunities for sustainable businesses in practice. Design/methodology/approach This paper adopts a qualitative research approach to address the aims of the study. In-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight sustainable entrepreneurs based in Berlin. The data were analyzed by means of thematic analysis. Findings The findings indicate that sustainable entrepreneurs are influenced in their identification of sustainable opportunities by their knowledge of natural and communal environments, by their motivation to develop gains for themselves and others, and by entrepreneurial knowledge. These findings largely support the model proposed by Patzelt and Shepherd (2011). Furthermore, they extend this model by shedding light on some of the factors that comprise its components, as this study found that spending time abroad and socialization enhance entrepreneurs’ knowledge of natural and communal environments; a desire to be self-employed, aspects of one’s personality and one’s personal circumstances are sources of motivation, while prior jobs and prior projects create entrepreneurial knowledge. Originality/value Only two other studies have empirically tested Patzelt and Shepherd’s (2011) model, and these have led to disparate results. The first was conducted by Choongo et al. (2016), who did not find any evidence to support this model. The second was carried out by Muñoz and Dimov (2017), who addressed the model partially. This paper therefore makes four major contributions. First, it is the first to offer preliminary empirical support for each component of Patzelt and Shepherd’s (2011) conceptual model. Second, it extends their model by identifying some of the factors comprising its components. Third, it reflects on possible reasons why extant research has led to disparate findings. Fourth, it proposes avenues of research to resolve the unanswered questions arising from these studies. This paper therefore makes a contribution to the literature on sustainable entrepreneurship and serves as a stepping stone for further theory development and empirical research on sustainable opportunity recognition.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T11:46:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-12-2015-0275
  • A typology of social venture business model configurations
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Social ventures are unique and important for society; yet, we know very little about their business models. The purpose of this paper is to: re-conceptualize extant business model frameworks so that they can analyze social ventures; identify the key characteristics of social ventures; and identify the typology of effective social venture business model configurations. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses resource dependence theory to make sense of extant business models and borrows from public administration literature to identify key characteristics and different configurations of social venture business models. Findings The paper re-conceptualizes business model frameworks as inter-organizational arrangements to cope with external resource dependence; this paper also identifies four key characteristics of social ventures, and develops a social venture business model typology based on these unique key characteristics and extant business model dimensions. Research limitations/implications The typology may guide further social venture research, e.g. research on social venture business model creation, on social venture business model innovation, and on social change. Limitations and boundary conditions are discussed in the paper. Practical implications The research may further help social entrepreneurs to develop effective business models that meet the social and financial objectives. Originality/value The paper offers a novel reconceptualization of traditional business model frameworks, a unique set of key characteristics of social ventures, and a theoretical typology of effective social venture business model configurations.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T10:24:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-09-2016-0316
  • Assessing the value dimensions of social enterprise networks
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Despite the importance gained by social enterprises (SEs) and the increased number of social enterprise networks (SENs) in the UK, there is a paucity of research into the role of these networks in enhancing the sector and creating value. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence assessing this value. Design/methodology/approach The assessment and insights were derived through a concurrent mixed method data collection strategy with 241 responses from members of SEs in the UK. Findings In terms of frequency, the use of SENs is still sporadic, denoting an immature stage of network lifecycle development. Moreover, it was identified that usage was affected primarily by the perceived usefulness of the information available. The ultimate value created was primarily of an informative nature rather than knowledge exchange. Practical implications A framework is developed describing the structure, content and interaction dimensions of value of SENs. The understanding of this value offers opportunities to shape government interventions and current practices of SENs in assisting SEs and providing an active, knowledge sharing community. Originality/value By exploring the value perceived by social entrepreneurs of being part of an SEN, the paper considered an under-researched area of SE literature that can maximised the impact of the sector.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-06T10:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-09-2016-0313
  • Green start-up finance – where do particular challenges lie'
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to shed some new light on the entrepreneurial finance of green start-ups, for which there has been little quantitative empirical evidence thus far. It explores what challenges green start-ups might experience when it comes to financial access. Design/methodology/approach The paper includes a survey of start-ups in Finland, Germany and Sweden and the separate evaluation of the “greenness” of participating companies’ product/service portfolios based on Eurostat’s Environmental Goods and Service Sector classification. A logistic regression is carried out for different company phases for two measures of challenges (“difficulty accessing finance” and “rejection by investor/funder”). Findings Green start-ups as an overall group cannot be said to have more challenges in access to finance. Particularly, a lack in business education and a high level of innovativeness, however, seem to be lead to more challenges for green start-ups in accessing finance compared to other start-ups. Research limitations/implications Further research might seek to identify which exact characteristics of innovative green start-ups lead to challenges in financial access, i.e. is it individual factors such as high risk levels, high investment sums, long development periods or a low return prospect – or is it rather a combination' It might, furthermore, be rewarding to investigate whether “interventions” of business-related training might reduce challenges. Social implications Suggestions are made for improved policy support to sustainable entrepreneurship in the case of green start-ups. Originality/value This research paper provides quantitative empirical analysis in a new research area, which has previously been predominantly theory based with some anecdotal observations as well as some early qualitative research.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T11:50:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-11-2015-0260
  • Regulatory focus theory and sustainable entrepreneurship
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of regulatory focus in sustainable entrepreneurship processes to answer questions on how sustainable entrepreneurs pursue their goals and what motivates them. Knowledge about an entrepreneur’s motivational attribute is essential when trying to understand new venture creation processes. To determine an entrepreneur’s affiliation with one of the two self-regulatory systems, promotion focus and prevention focus, it is helpful to establish whether he or she is motivated by growth and development goals (promotion) or rather by responsibility and security goals (prevention). Design/methodology/approach In a qualitative study of seven sustainable ventures, two semi-structured interview rounds with 14 founders were conducted. Archival data from internal and external sources were gathered, resulting in more than 80 text documents. Findings Findings reveal that the self-regulatory focus of sustainable entrepreneurs changes during the entrepreneurial process with regard to the temporal dynamics of motivation. While conceiving ideas, sustainable entrepreneurs engage in a prevention-focused self-regulatory process because social or ecological problems induce them to direct their attention toward sustainable development goals. During rollout, in contrast, they increasingly engage in a promotion-focused self-regulatory process and concentrate more on venture growth goals. Practical implications The results highlight the important role of a regulatory fit between key self-regulatory entrepreneurial behaviors and entrepreneurs’ regulatory orientation toward increased motivation and enjoyment when pursuing goals. Originality/value This study’s contributions extend and combine the theories of regulatory focus, entrepreneurial motivation, and entrepreneurial processes in the field of sustainable entrepreneurship. They are valuable for understanding the determinants of sustainable entrepreneurial action.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T08:09:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-12-2015-0269
  • Regional demand and supply factors of social entrepreneurship
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate determinants of social entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a large-scale database covering Sweden’s 290 municipalities over the 1990-2014 period. The theoretical analysis is based on the demand and supply theory of entrepreneurship, while the empirical analysis is based on feasible generalized least-squares regression models. Findings The results indicate that the male proportion of the workforce, education level, the presence of entrepreneurial role models, wealth, unemployment rate, age, and urbanization positively influence the rate of social venture creation in a region. Originality/value This is one of few studies that empirically investigate determinants of social entrepreneurship, and the very first in the Swedish context. The study uses a large-scale database and advanced regression methods.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T02:43:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-09-2016-0292
  • Exploring strategic agency in sustainability-oriented entrepreneur
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to look at the role played by three archetypal constructs pertaining to the individual sustainability-oriented entrepreneur, namely prior knowledge, sustainability orientation and sustainability intention, in legitimation behavior and explores their strategic utility. Design/methodology/approach The author studies legitimacy-seeking behavior in the case of ten sustainability-oriented entrepreneurs. A qualitative case study approach is used, capturing evidence of legitimation behavior in the startup phase through interviews, participant observation and documentation analysis. Findings Prior knowledge and sustainability orientation appear to offer little value beyond their role as necessary factors in maintaining legitimacy. Both appear to have limited strategic value for legitimation in comparison to sustainability intention. Intention as a construct embodies the “paradox” of sustainability-oriented entrepreneurship, and learning to successfully overcome this paradox to strategically utilize intention in legitimation is crucial for these entrepreneurs. Practical implications Knowledge of these factors could assist sustainability-oriented entrepreneurs in strategically utilizing these factors as agency when dealing with diverse stakeholder expectations to achieve their enterprising goals. Strengthening knowledge on factors important for legitimacy is pertinent in supporting this shared value approach to entrepreneurship. Originality/value Little theoretical or empirical attention has been paid to the complexity of strategic legitimation behavior of sustainability-oriented entrepreneurs. This paper provides novel empirical insight into what role these archetypal factors play in legitimation behavior and how they can be strategically utilized.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T02:40:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-03-2016-0100
  • A mission of service: social entrepreneur as a servant leader
    • Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to establish a conceptual link between the research domains of social entrepreneurship and servant leadership by exploring the proposition that social entrepreneurs may have specific leadership attributes that allow classifying them as servant leaders. Design/methodology/approach Five servant leadership attributes were identified based on the literature review: altruism, humility, integrity, trust in others and empathy. In an exploratory study, these attributes were examined in a sample of 78 Russian entrepreneurs. Findings Survey results indicate that social entrepreneurs indeed differ from traditional ones in four of the perceived servant leadership attributes: altruism, integrity, trust in others and empathy. However, no differences in humility between social and traditional entrepreneurs were found. Research limitations/implications The limitations of this study are the sample size and the sampling technique used (targeted and snowball sampling). Another limitation is the nature of the instrument used: servant leadership attributes were measured through a self-assessment questionnaire, making it susceptible to a social desirability bias. The study contributes toward setting a future research agenda for the further studies of both social entrepreneurship and servant leadership. Originality/value This paper introduces a conceptual connection between social entrepreneurship and servant leadership. No such study had been reported prior to this research.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T12:12:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-02-2016-0057
  • Role of experience and knowledge in early internationalisation of Indian
           new ventures
    • First page: 850
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role played by knowledge and experience of the entrepreneurs in early internationalisation of small- and medium-sized Indian new ventures. Using the theory of international new ventures (INV) and knowledge-based view (KBV); the conceptual framework of this study develops three propositions. First, it has been suggested that experience of the entrepreneurs motivates them to internationalise. Second, experience of the entrepreneurs increases their market and technological knowledge. Finally, it has been suggested that without market and technological knowledge, new ventures find it difficult to expand beyond national borders. Design/methodology/approach This study employs a comparative case analysis research design to investigate the propositions. The key constructs are drawn from prior empirical research and the relationships are tested using qualitative analysis. Findings Key findings of this study suggest that along with experience and knowledge, entrepreneurs’ education background is positively associated with new venture internationalisation. It was found that importance of knowledge resources varies across nature of business and industry in which INVs operate. Research limitations/implications Findings of this study contribute to advancing the literature on INV and KBV. The findings provide a framework to entrepreneurs to help them improve their decision-making logic and increase the speed of international growth. Originality/value Very few studies have investigated the internationalisation of new ventures from India. The knowledge is limited on the ways in which entrepreneurs acquire experience and assimilate knowledge in internationalising their operations.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T01:11:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2017-0210
  • Chilean tourism sector “B Corporations”: evidence of social
           entrepreneurship and innovation
    • First page: 866
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address the question of how social entrepreneurs achieve the desired impact-based model of business. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative research design included semi-structured in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs of three Chilean Tourism B Corporations (B Corps), participant observation of the Latin American B Movement, and print, digital and social media clippings. Findings This research unearths the practices by which entrepreneurs implement their aspirations of balancing profit and social impact obligations within their business models. Research limitations/implications Though an intentional sample is not representative in quantitative terms, the employed research design allowed the authors to deepen the understanding of the processes which are taking place in Chile, Latin America, and on the Global scale. The authors concluded that social benefit commitment guides innovation in business models of Chilean entrepreneurs seeking to have a broader positive impact on vulnerable communities and the society at large. Practical implications This research shows that traditional businesses have the possibility of hybridizing management, combining the necessary organization that defines its mission with social or environmental purposes. The latter is likely to open up new markets for traditional businesses. Social implications Social entrepreneurship is the principal means for new generations of entrepreneurs to make changes in businesses and in vulnerable local communities through global aspirations. But the need for more open political discussion within the B Movement is clear, especially regarding the nexus between the “negative externalities” of the traditional economy and social or environmental problems which the B Corps intend to solve. Such debate would allow companies and the movement to more easily identify new courses of action. Originality/value This study gives account of regional nuances of social entrepreneurship and social innovation phenomena. In particular, there has been a surge of impact-oriented rather than profit-oriented innovation initiatives in neoliberal-oriented Latin American states, such as Chile. These initiatives offer us a wealth of empirical information about the development of alternative business models.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T10:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2017-0218
  • Entrepreneurial intentions of young women in the Arab world
    • First page: 880
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Female entrepreneurship is a growing segment in the context of developing countries and has the potential to become a driving force for economic development. However, research suggests that females are less inclined toward entrepreneurship when compared to their male counterparts. This fact is related to a complex mix of causes such as the belief that entrepreneurship is a male domain, certain conditions within the economic and social environment and a general lack of confidence with regards to succeeding in such activities. Barriers to female entrepreneurship are prevalent in the patriarchal Arab world. The purpose of this paper is to measure the perceptions of female Jordanian business students with regards to the socio-cultural barriers to entrepreneurship. It also looks at the conduciveness of the education they are receiving in terms of new venture creation. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 254 female business students from two universities in Jordan was asked to evaluate various factors within the entrepreneurial ecosystem, including the business education they are currently receiving. A factor analysis has been performed to show which relevant elements may prevent young women from engaging with entrepreneurial activities. A comparison of perceptions about the educational system has also been presented to understand how a supportive educational environment may affect the previous analysis. Findings The results indicated that a strong supportive education system to some extent may reduce the perception of potential barriers for entrepreneurship but the overall impact can be limited. Conversely, an educational system lacking a supportive environment and concrete initiatives can deeply affect and worsen the fears of engaging in entrepreneurship amongst female students. Originality/value The role of women in the Arab world is quite marked and the reluctance of women to take a more decisive engagement in entrepreneurship may be reinforced by conservative, societal traditions. A supportive education system has the potential to act as a catalyst to encourage active female participation in the entrepreneurial domain, thus helping to spur economic development in the region.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T01:02:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2017-0214
  • Building entrepreneurial capacity in rural areas
    • First page: 903
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to verify the development of economic activities in rural areas in terms of their public infrastructural equipment. Design/methodology/approach As a case study, the Polish rural areas were selected. A two-stage survey was conducted in 2015. The first stage involved entrepreneurs from rural areas. The second stage of survey was data collection for rural areas regarding economic activity and infrastructural equipment. In total, 121 objects (communes) were selected. The multicriteria analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used for the analysis. Findings The results demonstrate that for each kind of business, communication accessibility is the most important criterion. By contrast, environmental awareness and concern for the environment is the least important element for pursuit of the economic activity in rural areas. Research limitations/implications Limitations are connected mainly with the applied AHP method. The number of the comparable elements at the same hierarchy level is limited due to practical purposes. In addition, an assumption of full comparability of elements (criteria and alternatives) in the hierarchy model can be discussed. Furthermore, data quality and availability limit the scope of the empirical work. This study is a major simplification of reality modeling, but it gives practical benefits by simplifying the decision support procedure. Practical implications The findings of this paper contribute to the advancing theory of local development, with public infrastructure being one of its basic elements (factor of production). This paper explores the importance of physical infrastructure for different economic activities, and thus offers theoretical insights in two areas. First, this paper indicates the uneven weight of each infrastructure element for the various business sectors. Second, based on the collected data, this study also contributes to the literature, by using the AHP method to explore the relationships between infrastructural equipment and economic activity in rural areas. As the practical implication for local and regional development policies, this study indicates, that the most important criterion for each kind of economic activity is communication accessibility. This kind of public investment should be undertaken primarily to support entrepreneurship, especially in rural areas. Originality/value The uniqueness of the method lies in assumption about the uneven weights of infrastructure elements and therefore their impact on the process of ranking the objects (rural areas). The weight of individual infrastructure elements will vary depending on the kind of economic activity; therefore, the way of ordering will also be different for each economic activity.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T10:51:27Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2017-0223
  • Human capital in the eco-innovative firms: a case study of eco-innovation
    • First page: 919
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explain the influence of human capital (HC) on the organizations in terms of eco-innovative entrepreneurship, and the existing relations of these resources with economic and financial resources as well as other capabilities of the firms. A secondary challenge in the research is to define and measure the availability of HC in firms for those eco-innovative processes. Design/methodology/approach The targeted population for the study was eight eco-innovative companies in Spain. Within each company, a detailed CEO questionnaire was collected to measure HR information, certification or the existence of internal initiatives to promote eco/innovation, and secondary source records to measure economic and financial performance. This data collection strategy eliminated the possibility of percept-percept bias, since the data for each stage of the model were collected from different sources. The database has been analyzed through a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Findings The main conclusion from the QCA analysis indicates that the role of the specialized HC involved in the R&D and innovation activities, the environmental management of firms and the resources (energy) management are relevant factors in the eco-innovative process and they have to be specifically managed for the development of eco-innovations. The qualitative analysis shows that firms that devoted specialized HC to the eco-innovation activities are companies at least ten years old, which have R&D and innovation departments as well as a specific department for the environmental management. They have been certified through some environmental certification standards, have human resources devoted to the product design, promote entrepreneurship for innovation among their own employees and also have higher than the sector average rates of leverage. Research limitations/implications The main limitation of this paper is linked to the number of analyzed study cases, although all of them are sufficiently representative. Nevertheless, given that the empirical research addressing the interrelated factors of eco-innovation and HC is still not abundant, this study provides an interesting starting point for discussion and the improvement of the qualitative method applied in this paper. Moreover, further research is still needed to fully elucidate how the corporate entrepreneurship is promoted to respond to the eco-innovation strategy of firms, as well as to deeply explore the characteristics of the intellectual capital concerned to the eco-innovation processes. Originality/value As a novel application, the influence of HC in organizations in terms of eco-innovative entrepreneurship has been analyzed through the measurement of the level of HC specifically devoted to eco-innovation in eight eco-innovative companies. One of the contributions of this study is to define the variables to measure the HC that is available for eco-innovation in an eco-innovative firm. The main conclusions are of interest to practitioners concerning the eco-innovation development in firms.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T12:54:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2017-0219
  • The trinity of entrepreneurial team dynamics: cognition, conflicts and
    • First page: 934
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Cognition, conflict and cohesion constitute an inseparable body of group dynamics in entrepreneurial teams. There have been few studies of how entrepreneurial team members interact with each other to enhance venture performance. The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a model that explains the trinity of cognition, conflict and cohesion in terms of social interaction between entrepreneurial team members. Design/methodology/approach Drawing upon the existing literature concerning entrepreneurial teams, the hypothesized model posits that shared cognition influences team cohesion through the mediating effects of intra-team conflicts. The model also postulates that team cohesion is positively associated with new venture performance and entrepreneurial satisfaction. Structural equation modeling is used to test the hypothesized model, using data that were collected from 203 entrepreneurial teams from technology-based companies in Taiwan. Findings The results show that shared cognition in entrepreneurial team members maintains team cohesion by restraining conflict and that team cohesion has a positive influence on entrepreneurial members’ satisfaction and new venture profitability. Practical implications The leader of a new venture team must endeavor to improve shared cognition between entrepreneurial members. To strengthen shared cognition, the leader can hold formal workshops to build consensus, informal meetings to share views, or use social media to enhance common understanding. Originality/value This paper verifies the connections between shared cognition, conflicts and cohesion in entrepreneurial teams in predicting new venture success and highlights the importance of cultivating a shared cognition in an entrepreneurial team to manage conflicts.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T01:56:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2016-0213
  • Is gender an impediment to firm performance' Evidence from small firms
           in Mauritius
    • First page: 952
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the female entrepreneurship underperformance hypothesis using a sample of small firms. The paper also attempts to explain why gender matters in entrepreneurship. The paper specifically investigates the differences in turnover of female and male entrepreneurs and also examines the reasons behind this differential performance by accounting for the gender factor. Design/methodology/approach This study uses survey data on 256 male and female entrepreneurs from the Island of Mauritius. The survey allows for the examination of the performance differential across male- and female-owned small businesses. The paper uses ordinary least squares and logistic estimation techniques to investigate the underperformance of female entrepreneurs. Sensitivity analyses are also undertaken to ensure robustness of the results. Findings The study finds evidence that gender matters when comparing the performance of male- and female-owned businesses. The results reveal that access to finance is an important hindrance to the performance of these small firms. Furthermore, the study also reveals that ethnicity plays a major role in influencing firm performance. Originality/value This paper is among the few studies, which investigates the female entrepreneurship underperformance hypothesis in a small developing state context and also attempts to explain the reasons why gender matters. The paper is an important empirical contribution to the literature in an African context.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T01:52:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-11-2016-0385
  • Social entrepreneurship orientation: development of a measurement scale
    • First page: 977
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Despite growing scholarly interest in social entrepreneurs and the social enterprises (SE) they create, few studies have examined the hybridity of SE including, surprisingly, whether they adopt an entrepreneurial orientation (EO). One explanation for this may be the continuing lack of an appropriate scale measuring social entrepreneurship orientation (SEO). The purpose of this paper is to address this research gap by proposing an initial SEO scale based on input from scholars in the fields of entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach This study employed mixed methods and a two stage design. In stage 1, a Delphi study with 18 researchers with expertise of investigating entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship was used to generate constructs combining aspects of both social and EOs. In stage 2, the authors assessed the face validity of the derived items from the Delphi study by conducting a survey with 82 such experts. Findings This paper provides fresh empirical insights into how SEO can be measured by proposing, for the first time, a 12 item scale with four dimensions for the first time. Research limitations/implications The authors recommend that future studies employ quantitative methods, particularly with firms exhibiting differing levels of the “socialness” dimension which the authors propose and that such studies involve a variety of research informants. Statistical analysis of data collected across large sample sizes will help evaluate the reliability and validity of the scale which the authors propose. Practical implications This paper includes implications for future research based on the proposed SEO measurement scale. Originality/value This paper develops the first SEO scale based on empirical data collected from experts in the fields of entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T10:36:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-07-2016-0206
  • Barriers to rural women entrepreneurs in Oman
    • First page: 998
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the barriers confronted by rural women entrepreneurs in Oman. The study focusses on women living in rural and mountain areas who aspire to move beyond their traditional family roles. It identifies several problems including accessing funding for new ventures and innovative activities, a lack of skills-based training and limited family support. Design/methodology/approach Based on 57 responses to a semi-structured questionnaire, and face to face qualitative interviews with ten women entrepreneurs. Quantitative responses are evaluated and ranked in terms of their mean score, standard deviation and the intensity of each factor shaping rural women entrepreneurship. Five qualitative cases are presented. Findings Although Oman is arguably one of the more progressive Arab countries regarding gender equality and women empowerment, the findings exhibit socio-cultural concerns which hamper women entrepreneurial venture creations and their subsequent success. The findings of the research are discussed using the three dimensions of entrepreneurship identified by Wenneker and Thurik (1999). The three dimensions are: conditions leading to entrepreneurship, characteristics of entrepreneurship and outcomes of entrepreneurship. Practical implications Suggests that Omani policymakers should consider how women entrepreneurs can be better supported so that they can diversify household income by starting new ventures while simultaneously contributing to the socio-economic development of the region. A number of suggestions on how this can be achieved are presented. Originality/value Research on rural women entrepreneurship in the context of an Arab country is scarce and the study can provide an overview of the obstacles and the support required for the development of the rural women entrepreneurship in this region.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T07:35:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-02-2017-0070
  • Entrepreneurial intentions of Colombian business students
    • First page: 1017
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to reconceptualize the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in the light of social cognitive theory to investigate the role of social capital, specifically the leadership skill as a social capital generating influence in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach A new conceptualization of TPB is proposed to allow the impact of bonding and bridging cognitive social capital to be mediated by TPB constructs of perceived desirability and feasibility of entrepreneurship. Hypotheses are developed related to leadership skills, family background and social norms as external and internal indicators of social capital, and tested on primary data from 322 student respondents in a Colombian business school. Findings Leadership skills, indicative of bridging cognitive social capital, are found to be strongly and significantly associated with entrepreneurial intentions through the mediating role of the core TPB constructs. Evidence for the role of bonding social capital through measures of the social acceptability of entrepreneurship and family background is mixed, and in the case of family background no indirect association with intentions is found. Research limitations/implications Although the Latin American context would suggest significant population variation in personal and background resource, there is relatively little variation across this sample, particularly in terms of family background. Thus, rates of graduate entrepreneurship may relate more closely to constraints acting on entry into higher education than on other background characteristics, and therefore future work in similar contexts ought to be conducted across a wider socio-economic sample. Practical implications Opportunities to develop and enhance student perception of leadership ability through either education or experience might improve levels of graduate entrepreneurship, alongside traditional activities to raise self-efficacy and perceived salience of entrepreneurship. Originality/value Student leadership skills have rarely been addressed in the context of entrepreneurship development. This paper highlights the relevance of this in a developing economy context.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T12:42:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-01-2017-0031
  • Do bank credit rejection and financial education affect financial
    • First page: 1033
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the determinants of owner manager financial self-confidence. In particular, it estimates the effect of bank credit rejection and financial education (FE) on the financial self-confidence of business owners. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses data from 2004 and 2008 surveys of 2,500 UK small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). An ordered probit estimation is used to measure and assess the effect of bank credit rejection and FE variables on financial self-confidence for the two periods. The authors also explore potential differences in self-confidence between males and females. Findings The results show that outright bank credit rejection reduces financial self-confidence among owner managers whereas partial bank credit rejection is found to help boost confidence prior to the financial crisis. There is strong evidence that FE increases financial self-confidence. Finally, the authors find no association between gender and reported self-confidence in finance. Research limitations/implications Entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs are encouraged to explore financial literacy and knowledge with a view to increasing their financial self-confidence. This will help SMEs to deal with the banks or other finance providers more efficiently. In addition, better application procedures and information on lending criteria may help SMEs to minimize the probability of bank credit rejection. So the current study has implications for professional bodies as well. The study, however, is restricted to sole proprietor and partnership SMEs and in the UK context only. Practical implications Financial self-confidence has a progressive effect on entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial venture growth. The financial self-confidence of owner managers can support their entrepreneurial capability in starting and operating one or more businesses. As entrepreneurs successfully start and operate their own businesses, they are contributing to economic development through job creation, employment and tax contribution. Originality/value This paper makes an original contribution in highlighting the usefulness of FE in boosting financial self-confidence among entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs. It is also found that the experience of bank credit rejection reduces entrepreneurs’ financial self-confidence.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T07:46:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-05-2016-0168
  • Modeling complex entrepreneurial processes
    • First page: 1052
      Abstract: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to suggest a bibliometric method for designing agent-based models (ABMs) in entrepreneurship research. The application of this method is illustrated with an exemplary agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) regarding the early venture growth process. This bibliometric approach invigorates the utilization of ABMS as a viable research methodology in process-oriented entrepreneurship research. Design/methodology/approach In the bibliometric method, a domain corpus composed of scholarly articles is established and systematically analyzed through co-word analysis to discern essential concepts (i.e. agents, objects, and contexts) and their interrelations. The usefulness of the bibliometric method is elucidated by constructing an illustrative ABMS. Findings The bibliometric method for designing ABMs identifies essential concepts in the entrepreneurship literature and provides contexts in which the concepts are interrelated. The illustrative ABMS based on these concepts and interrelations accurately and consistently reproduces the emergence of power-law distributions in venture outcomes consistent with empirical evidence, implying further merit to bibliometric procedures. Practical implications The proposed method can be used not only to build simple models with essential concepts, but also to build more complex models that take a large number of concepts and their interrelations into consideration. Originality/value This study proposes a bibliometric method for designing ABMs. The proposed method extends similar procedures that are limited to thematic or cluster analysis by examining the semantic contexts in which the concepts co-occur. This research suggests that ABMS from bibliographic sources can be built and validated with empirical evidence. Several considerations are provided for the combined utilization of the bibliometric method and ABMS in entrepreneurship.
      Citation: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T07:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJEBR-11-2016-0374
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Heriot-Watt University
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