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Publisher: Emerald   (Total: 356 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 356 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administraci√≥n     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 1)
Accounting Auditing & Accountability J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.71, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Accounting, Auditing and Accountability J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.187, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gender Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
African J. of Economic and Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 1)
Agricultural Finance Review     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.406, CiteScore: 1)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 1)
Arts and the Market     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific J. of Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Marketing and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Association of Open Universities J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. on Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Review of Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Aslib J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 2)
Aslib Proceedings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.603, CiteScore: 2)
Baltic J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.309, CiteScore: 1)
Benchmarking : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.559, CiteScore: 2)
British Food J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 2)
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Business Process Re-engineering & Management J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Career Development Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 2)
China Agricultural Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
China Finance Review Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Circuit World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 1)
Collection and Curation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
COMPEL: The Intl. J. for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.22, CiteScore: 1)
Competitiveness Review : An Intl. Business J. incorporating J. of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.274, CiteScore: 1)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Corporate Communications An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.453, CiteScore: 1)
Corporate Governance Intl. J. of Business in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.336, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Perspectives on Intl. Business     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Cross Cultural & Strategic Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 2)
Data Technologies and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 1)
Development and Learning in Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Digital Library Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Direct Marketing An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.47, CiteScore: 1)
Drugs and Alcohol Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 1)
Education + Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.707, CiteScore: 3)
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Employee Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.551, CiteScore: 2)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.444, CiteScore: 1)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
English Teaching: Practice & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.417, CiteScore: 1)
Equal Opportunities Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 1)
EuroMed J. of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
European Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 3)
European J. of Innovation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Management and Business Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.971, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Training and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.477, CiteScore: 1)
Evidence-based HRM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 1)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.503, CiteScore: 2)
Foresight     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 1)
Gender in Management : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 1)
Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 989, SJR: 0.261, CiteScore: 1)
Grey Systems : Theory and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.421, CiteScore: 1)
Higher Education Evaluation and Development     Open Access  
Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.426, CiteScore: 1)
History of Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, CiteScore: 0)
Human Resource Management Intl. Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
IMP J.     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Growth and Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Industrial and Commercial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.301, CiteScore: 1)
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Industrial Management & Data Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.904, CiteScore: 3)
Industrial Robot An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.318, CiteScore: 1)
Info     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Information and Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 1)
Information Technology & People     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.671, CiteScore: 2)
Innovation & Management Review     Open Access  
Interactive Technology and Smart Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Interlending & Document Supply     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Internet Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.645, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. for Lesson and Learning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. for Researcher Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Accounting and Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Bank Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Clothing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Conflict Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.362, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Contemporary Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.452, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Culture Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.339, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Development Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.387, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.559, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Emerging Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Energy Sector Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.629, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Ethics and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Event and Festival Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Gender and Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.445, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.358, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Health Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.247, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Human Rights in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Information and Learning Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.375, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.217, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Leadership in Public Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. J. of Lean Six Sigma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Managerial Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.203, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Managing Projects in Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Manpower     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.365, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Mentoring and Coaching in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.426, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Migration, Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Operations & Production Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.052, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Organization Theory and Behavior     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Organizational Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pervasive Computing and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.821, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Productivity and Performance Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Public Sector Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Quality & Reliability Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.492, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality and Service Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.309, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Retail & Distribution Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.742, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Service Industry Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Social Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.3, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.269, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.228, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Sustainability in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.502, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Tourism Cities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.502, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Web Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Wine Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.562, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Workplace Health Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.895, CiteScore: 3)
Irish J. of Occupational Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ISRA Intl. J. of Islamic Finance     Open Access  
J. for Multicultural Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Accounting & Organizational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.301, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Accounting in Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Advances in Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Accounting Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Research in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Asia Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Assistive Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Business & Industrial Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.652, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Business Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Capital Markets Studies     Open Access  
J. of Centrum Cathedra     Open Access  
J. of Children's Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.243, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Chinese Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Communication Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.625, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Corporate Real Estate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.254, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Defense Analytics and Logistics     Open Access  
J. of Documentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 0.613, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Economic and Administrative Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.217, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Educational Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.252, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Enabling Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Enterprise Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.827, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Enterprising Communities People and Places in the Global Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.262, CiteScore: 1)
J. of European Industrial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of European Real Estate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Family Business Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Fashion Marketing and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.608, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.354
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 217  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0002-2667 - ISSN (Online) 1748-8842
Published by Emerald Homepage  [356 journals]
  • Guest editorial
    • Pages: 405 - 406
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 405-406, March 2019.

      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-13T01:21:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-03-2019-291
       
  • A simulation investigation of helicopter ground resonance phenomenon
    • Pages: 484 - 497
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 484-497, March 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a simulation method applied for investigation of helicopter ground resonance phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach The considered physical model of helicopter standing on ground with rotating rotor consists of fuselage and main transmission gear treated as stiff bodies connected by elastic elements. The fuselage is supported on landing gear modeled by spring-damper units. The main rotor blades are treated as set of elastic axes with lumped masses distributed along blade radius. Due to Galerkin method, parameters of blades motion are assumed as a combination of bending and torsion eigen modes. A Runge–Kutta method is applied to solve equations of motions of rotor blades and helicopter fuselage. Findings The presented simulation method may be applied in preliminary stage of helicopter design to avoid ground resonance by proper selection of landing gear units and blade damper characteristics. Practical implications Ground resonance may occur in form of violently increasing mutual oscillations of helicopter fuselage and lead-lag motion of rotor blades. According to changes of stiffness and damping characteristics, simulations show stable behavior or arising oscillations of helicopter. The effects of different blade balance or defect of blade damper are predicted. Originality/value The simulation method may help to determine the envelope of safe operation of helicopter in phase of take-off or landing. The effects of additional disturbances as results of blades pitch control as swashplate deflection are introduced.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-14T12:06:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2017-0256
       
  • Conceptual design of an aircraft for Mars mission
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a conceptual design of Martian aircraft. This study focuses on the aerodynamic and longitudinal dynamic stability analysis. The main research questions are as follows: Does a tailless aircraft configuration can be used for Martian aircraft' How to the short period characteristic can be improved by side plates modification' Design/methodology/approach Because of a conceptual design stage of this Martian aircraft, aerodynamic characterises were computed by the Panukl package by using the potential flow model. The longitudinal dynamic stability was computed by MATLAB code, and the derivatives computed by the SDSA software were used as the input data. Different aircraft configurations have been studied, including different wing’s aerofoils and configurations of the side plate. Findings This paper presents results of aerodynamic characteristics computations and longitudinal dynamic stability analysis. This paper shows that tailless aircraft configuration has potential to be used as Martian aircraft. Moreover, the study of the impact of side plates’ configurations on the longitudinal dynamic stability is presented. This investigation reveals that the most effective method to improve the short period damping ratio is to change the height of the bottom plate. Practical implications The presented result might be useful in case of further design of the aircrafts for the Mars mission and designing the aircrafts in a tailless configuration. Social implications It is considered by the human expedition that Mars is the most probable planet to explore. This paper presents the conceptual study of aircraft which can be used to take the high-resolution pictures of the surface of Mars, which can be crucial to find the right place to establish a potential Martian base. Originality/value Most of aircrafts proposed for the Mars mission are designed in a configuration with a classic tail; this paper shows a preliminary calculation of the tailless Martian aircraft. Moreover, this paper shows the results of a dynamic stability analysis, where similar papers about aircrafts for the Mars mission do not show such outcomes, especially in the case of the tailless configuration. Moreover, this paper presents the results of the dynamic stability analysis of tailless aircraft with different configurations of the side plates.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-04-05T08:41:24Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2018-0231
       
  • Fast high fidelity CFD/CSM fluid structure interaction using RBF mesh
           morphing and modal superposition method
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present a fast and effective approach to tackle complex fluid structure interaction problems that are relevant for the aeronautical design. Design/methodology/approach High fidelity computer-aided engineering models (computational fluid dynamics [CFD] and computational structural mechanics) are coupled by embedding modal shapes into the CFD solver using RBF mesh morphing. Findings The theoretical framework is first explained and its use is then demonstrated with a review of applications including both steady and unsteady cases. Different flow and structural solvers are considered to showcase the portability of the concept. Practical implications The method is flexible and can be used for the simulation of complex scenarios, including components vibrations induced by external devices, as in the case of flapping wings. Originality/value The computation mesh of the CFD model becomes parametric with respect to the modal shape and, so, capable to self-adapt to the loads exerted by the surrounding fluid both for steady and transient numerical studies.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-04-05T08:37:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2018-0246
       
  • High-precision navigation and positioning of celestial exploration rover
           based on depth camera
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to verify the correctness and feasibility of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm based on red-green-blue depth (RGB-D) camera in high precision navigation and localization of celestial exploration rover. Design/methodology/approach First, a positioning algorithm based on depth camera is proposed. Second, the realization method is described from the five aspects of feature detection method, feature point matching, point cloud mapping, motion estimation and high precision optimization. Feature detection: taking the precision, real-time and motion basics as the comprehensive consideration, the ORB (oriented FAST and rotated BRIEF) features extraction method is adopted; feature point matching: solves the similarity measure of the feature descriptor vector and how to remove the mismatch point; point cloud mapping: the two-dimensional information on RGB and the depth information on D corresponding; motion estimation: the iterative closest point algorithm is used to solve point set registration; and high precision optimization: optimized by using the graph optimization method. Findings The proposed high-precision SLAM algorithm is very effective for solving high precision navigation and positioning of celestial exploration rover. Research limitations/implications In this paper, the simulation validation is based on an open source data set for testing; the physical verification is based on the existing unmanned vehicle platform to simulate the celestial exploration rover. Practical implications This paper presents a RGB-D camera-based navigation algorithm, which can be obtained by simulation experiment and physical verification. The real-time and accuracy of the algorithm are well behaved and have strong applicability, which can support the tests and experiments on hardware platform and have a better environmental adaptability. Originality/value The proposed SLAM algorithm can deal with the high precision navigation and positioning of celestial exploration rover effectively. Taking into account the current wide application prospect of computer vision, the method in this paper can provide a study foundation for the deep space probe.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-04-05T08:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2017-0200
       
  • Comparative analysis of lunar capture braking method based on particle
           swarm optimization
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to verify the feasibility of lunar capture braking through three methods based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and compare the advantages and disadvantages of the three strategies by analyzing the results of the simulation. Design/methodology/approach The paper proposes three methods to verify capture braking based on PSO. The constraints of the method are the final lunar orbit eccentricity and the height of the final orbit around the Moon. At the same time, fuel consumption is used as a performance indicator. Then, the PSO algorithm is used to optimize the track of the capture process and simulate the entire capture braking process. Findings The three proposed braking strategies under the framework of PSO algorithm are very effective for solving the problem of lunar capture braking. The simulation results show that the orbit in the opposite direction of the trajectory has the most serious attenuation at perilune, and it should consume the least amount of fuel in theoretical analysis. The methods based on the fixed thrust direction braking and thrust uniform rotation braking can better ensure the final perilune control accuracy and fuel consumption. As for practice, the fixed thrust direction braking method is better realized among the three strategies. Research limitations/implications The process of lunar capture is a complicated process, involving effective coordination between multiple subsystems. In this article, the main focus is on the correctness of the algorithm, and a simplified dynamic model is adopted. At the same time, because the capture time is short, the lunar curvature can be omitted. Furthermore, to better compare the pros and cons of different braking modes, some influence factors and perturbative forces are not considered, such as the Earth’s flatness, light pressure and system noise and errors. Practical implications This paper presents three braking strategies that can satisfy all the constraints well and optimize the fuel consumption to make the lunar capture more effective. The results of comparative analysis demonstrate that the three strategies have their own superiority, and the fixed thrust direction braking is beneficial to engineering realization and has certain engineering practicability, which can also provide reference for lunar exploration orbit design. Originality/value The proposed capture braking strategies based on PSO enable effective capture of the lunar module. During the lunar exploration, the capture braking phase determines whether the mission will be successful or not, and it is essential to control fuel consumption on the premise of accuracy. The three methods in this paper can be used to provide a study reference for the optimization of lunar capture braking.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-04-05T08:24:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2018-0250
       
  • A review of the analytical methods used for seaplanes’ performance
           prediction
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate the different analytical methods used to predict the performance of seaplanes to define the weaknesses in each method and be able to extend the analytical approach to include the nonlinear terms (unsteadiness). Design/methodology/approach First, the elemental hydrodynamic characteristics of seaplanes are discussed. Second, five different analytical methods are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are stated. After that, the heave and pitch equations of seaplane motion are illustrated. The procedure of obtaining the solution of the heave and pitch equations of seaplane motion is explained. Finally, the results obtained from the most common methods are compared. Findings The results show that the methods are based on different assumptions and considerations. As a result, no method is optimal for all types of seaplanes. Moreover, some of the analytical methods do not study the stability of the seaplane, which is a major issue in the design of seaplanes. In addition, all methods consider the motion as steady and linear. The objective is to extend the work to include the nonlinear effects. Originality/value This paper presents some of the analytical methods used in describing the performance of seaplanes and explains how can they be applied. Moreover, it summarises the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T10:14:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0186
       
  • Aircraft flow angles calibration via observed-based wind estimation
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to propose a novel approach, in which the reference data for the flow angles calibration are obtained by using measurements coming from an inertial navigation system and an air data sensor. Design/methodology/approach This is obtained by using the Kalman filter theory for the evaluation of the reference angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip. Findings The designed Kalman filter has been implemented in Matlab/Simulink and validated using flight data coming from two very different aircraft, the Piaggio Aerospace P1HH medium altitude long endurance unmanned aerial system and the Alenia-Aermacchi M346 Master™ transonic trainer. This paper illustrates some results where the filter satisfactory behaviour is verified by comparing the filter outputs with the data coming from high-accuracy nose-boom vanes. Practical implications The methodology aims to lower the calibration costs of the air data systems of an advanced aircraft. Originality/value The calibration of air-data systems for the evaluation of the flow angles is based on the availability of high-accuracy reference measurements of angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip. Typically, these are obtained by auxiliary sensors directly providing the reference angles (e.g. nose-boom vanes). The proposed methodology evaluates the reference angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip by analytically reconstructing them using calibrated airspeed measurements and inertial data.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-22T08:48:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-06-2017-0145
       
  • Study on multi-loop control strategy of three-shaft gas turbine for
           electricity generation
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to develop a dynamic performance model of three-shaft gas turbine for electricity generation and to study a multi-loop control strategy of three-shaft gas turbine for electricity generation. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the dynamic performance model of the three-shaft gas turbine is established and developed. A novel approach, variable partial differential coefficient deviation linearization method is used to simulate the dynamic performance of the three-shaft gas turbine. Single-loop control system, feed-forward feedback control system and cascade system are assessed to control the engine during transient operation. Findings A novel approach, variable partial differential coefficient deviation linearization method is used to simulate the dynamic performance of the three-shaft gas turbine. According to the results shown, the cascade control system is most satisfactory due to its fastest response and the best stability and robustness. Originality/value The method of variable partial linearization is adopted to make the dynamic simulation of the model achieve higher precision, better steady state and less computation time. This paper provides a theoretical study for the multi-loop control system of a marine three-shaft gas turbine.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-22T08:44:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-05-2018-0149
       
  • Piston-electric propulsion system as reliable alternative for classic and
           nonconventional piston engine configurations
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to define reliability requirements to be imposed on electric engines to assure similar or higher value of mean time between failures (MTBF) for mixed piston-electric propulsion configurations when compared to classic and unconventional piston engine configurations. Design/methodology/approach Reliability estimation was done using mathematical model of safety of light aircraft commercial operations. The model was developed on the basis of Federal Aviation Administration and National Transport Safety Board data. The analysis was conducted for numerous piston and electric configurations. It allowed comparison of selected solutions and definition of relation between electric engine MTBF and MTBF calculated for entire mixed piston-electric propulsion system. Findings It was found that, from reliability point of view, mixed piston-electric engine propulsion is attractive alternative for classic single- and twin-piston configuration. It would allow to at least doubling of MTBF for propulsion without increase of operational cost. Practical implications Rationale behind exploiting electric propulsion in aviation is provided. Relation between electric engine reliability and entire propulsion reliability was identified and defined. Minimum requirements concerning MTBF value for electric engine application in aviation was assessed. Conclusions from this study can be used for definition of requirements for new aircraft and by the regulatory authorities. Originality/value Originality consists in use of real accident statistics included in mathematical model of safety for assessment of MTBF for various classic and novel piston and piston-electric engine configurations of light aircraft. Output from the study can be exploited by the industry.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-19T09:41:20Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0037
       
  • Dynamics and control of a flexible rotating clamped-free beam by SDRE
           strategy
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is the dynamic analysis of the coupled rotation and vibration motion of a system containing a central rigid body to which is attached a flexible beam. Design/methodology/approach The methodology includes the Lagrange’s formulation by using the extended Hamilton’s Principle in conjunction with the assumed modes method to describe the system of equations by ordinary differential equations. The first unconstrained mode of vibration was considered as the solution for the transversal displacement. Such mode emerges as the eigenvalue problem solution associated to the dynamics of the system. The control strategy adopted is a nonlinear analogy of the linear quadratic regulator problem as the Riccati equation is solved at every integration step during the numerical solutions. This strategy is known as state-dependent Riccati equation. Findings By means of computational simulations, it was found the relation between controlled motion and inertia ratio. Research limitations/implications This work is limited to planar case and fixed hub. Practical implications Practical implications of this work realize the design of lighter yet dexterous structures. Originality/value The contribution of this paper is the position and vibration control of a flexible beam accounting for nonlinearity effects and the fact that the structure to where it is clamped has a comparable inertia.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-14T08:51:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2017-0240
       
  • Enhancements in conceptual electric aircraft design
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to describe the enhancement of the numerical method for conceptual phase of electric aircraft design. Design/methodology/approach The algorithm provides a balance between lift force and weight of the aircraft, together with drag and thrust force equilibrium, while modifying design variables. Wing geometry adjustment, mass correction and performance estimation are performed in an iterative process. Findings Aircraft numerical model, which is most often very simplified, has a number of new improvements. This enables to make more accurate analyses and to show relationships between design parameters and aircraft performance. Practical implications The presented approach can improve design results. Originality/value The new methodology, which includes enhanced numerical models for conceptual design, has not been presented before.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-14T08:43:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0192
       
  • An automatic system for a helicopter autopilot performance evaluation
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to elaborate and develop an automatic system for automatic flight control system (AFCS) performance evaluation. Consequently, the developed AFCS algorithm is implemented and tested in a virtual environment on one of the mission task elements (MTEs) described in Aeronautical Design Standard 33 (ADS-33) performance specification. Design/methodology/approach Control algorithm is based on the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) which is adopted to work as a controller in this case. Developed controller allows for automatic flight of the helicopter via desired three-dimensional trajectory by calculating iteratively deviations between desired and actual helicopter position and multiplying it by gains obtained from the LQR methodology. For the AFCS algorithm validation, the objective data analysis is done based on specified task accomplishment requirements, reference trajectory and actual flight parameters. Findings In the paper, a description of an automatic flight control algorithm for small helicopter and its evaluation methodology is presented. Necessary information about helicopter dynamic model is included. The test and algorithm analysis are performed on a slalom maneuver, on which the handling qualities are calculated. Practical implications Developed automatic flight control algorithm can be adapted and used in autopilot for a small helicopter. Methodology of evaluation of an AFCS performance can be used in different applications and cases. Originality/value In the paper, an automatic flight control algorithm for small helicopter and solution for the validation of developed AFCS algorithms are presented.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-14T08:32:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0190
       
  • Fatigue stress analysis of the DV-2 engine turbine disk
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to improve life prediction of certain components. Fatigue of the high-stressed structural elements is an essential parameter that affects the lifetime of such components. In particular, aviation engines are devices whose failure due to fatigue failure of one of the important components can lead to fatal consequences. Design/methodology/approach In this study, two analyses in the turbine disk of the jet engine during the simulated operating load were performed: The first one was the analysis of the heat-induced stresses using the finite element method. The goal of the second analysis was to determine the residual fatigue strength of a loaded disk by the software tool using the Palmgren - Miner Linear Damage Theory. Findings The results showed a high degree of similarity with the real tests performed on the aircraft engine and revealed the weak points in the design of the jet engine. Research limitations/implications It should be mentioned that without appropriate experiments, results of this analysis could not be verified. Practical implications These results are helpful in the re-designing of the jet engines to increase their technical feasibility. Originality/value Such analysis has been realized in the DV-2 jet engine research and development program for the first time in the history of jet engine manufacturing process in Slovakia and countries of Eastern Europe region.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-14T08:18:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-03-2018-0096
       
  • The approximation method in the problem on a flow of viscous fluid around
           a thin plate
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The paper aims to obtain an effective solution to the problem on a flow of viscous fluid around a thin plate using a new approximation method based on the exact Navier–Stokes equations. Also, correction factors are proposed to improve the obtained solution at high Reynolds numbers. Design/methodology/approach The paper has opted for a method that is based on an approximation scheme for certain perturbations concerning the velocity of the oncoming unperturbed flow behind a leading edge of the plate as a zero approximation step. The perturbations are assumed to be small, far from the plate when compared to the basic flow to justify the linearization. Numerical methods are used for the integral equations at each approximation step. Findings This paper provides the friction force coefficient compared with the classical Blasius solution and the ANSYS results. Also, some diagrams of the velocity distribution in the flow are presented. The first and second approximation steps provide a sufficiently high degree of accuracy. Research limitations/implications Because of the chosen research approach, the results may lack accuracy for low and average Reynolds numbers. Thus, researchers are encouraged to improve the proposed method further. Practical implications The paper includes implications for the development of an aircraft design or a wind turbine design considering a wing as a thin plate at the first approximation. Originality/value This paper provides a new approximation method based on the exact Navier–Stokes equations, in contrast to the known solutions.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-12T12:26:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0196
       
  • Magna-Lok rivet joint and the stiffness-equivalent FE model
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for the determination of the stiffness when using simplified substitutive model of the joint. The usage of detailed finite element (FE) model of the joint in complex assemblies is not convenient; therefore, the substitutive model of the joint is used in FE models. Design/methodology/approach The detailed and simplified FE model of the joint is created in ABAQUS software and the analysis as well. The results of displacements are used for the determination of the stiffness of connecting element in simplified substitutive FE model. The approach is presented based on the general view on the different regions in the joint. Findings A simple FE modelling approach for the joint including the equivalent stiffness is presented. The particular solution is performed for Magna-Lok type of the rivet. The results show the same displacement for the detailed and simplified FE models. The analytical formula for stiffness determination in the load case with minimal secondary bending is introduced. Practical implications The approach for stiffness determination is straightforward and so no stiffness “tuning” is necessary in the simplified FE model. Originality/value The new approach for definition of simple FE model of the joint is introduced. It is not necessary to model a complex structure with detailed joints. The equivalent stiffness can be determined by presented procedure for every joint without limitation of the type.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-12T10:26:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0188
       
  • Establishment of the Swedish Aeronautical Research Center (SARC)
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present the newly founded Swedish Aeronautical Research Center (SARC), based on the triple helix theory, to foster the seamless Swedish aerospace research interplay between academia, research organizations and industry. Design/methodology/approach The paper is a technical paper, mainly relating and explaining sources and concepts for research planning and organization. Used concepts are the triple helix approach (for socioeconomic effects), the role of academia and industry interplay for education and the technology readiness level (TRL) concept for strategic research planning. Focusing on the establishment of a graduate school, lessons learned from previous national research schools are also presented. Findings The paper gives an overview of and explains the interplay between politics, social welfare and industrial R&D needs, with the academic viewpoint of aeronautical research and education. Shortcomings in both the use of TRL for research program planning and the Swedish competence cluster system are identified and remedies suggested. The main findings are suggestions for future actions to be conducted by SARC in the fields of research and education. Practical implications The paper includes implications for the seamless interplay between academia, research organizations and industry. Originality/value So far, no publication about the newly founded SARC has been made yet. It is unique in the way that it makes substantial use of national technical documents so that this information becomes available for non-Swedish speakers. Additionally, the perhaps-unique system of industrial competence clusters is presented.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-12T10:26:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0201
       
  • FDM 3D printing method utility assessment in small RC aircraft design
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of manufacturing fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printed structures such as wings or fuselages for small remote control (RC) air craft and mini unmaned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Design/methodology/approach Material tests, design assumptions and calculations were verified by designing and manufacturing a small radio-controlled motor-glider using as many printed parts as possible and performing test flights. Findings It is possible to create an aircraft with good flight characteristics using FDM 3D printed parts. Current level of technology allows for reasonably fast manufacturing of 3D printed aircraft with good reliability and high success ratio of prints; however, only some of the materials are suitable for printing thin wall structures such as wings. Practical implications The paper proves that apart from currently popular small RC aircraft structural materials such as composites, wood and foam, there is also printed plastic. Moreover, 3D printing is highly competitive in some aspects such as first unit production time or production cost. Originality/value The presented manufacturing technique can be useful for quick and cost-effective creating scale prototypes of the aircraft for performing test flights.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-12T10:06:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0189
       
  • Definition and representation of stiffened shell structures in the context
           of an integrated development process
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose A novel development process aims at finding solutions for lightweight stiffened shell structures and their efficient production. To respect the strong interdependency of structural design and production planning, particularly observed for composite structures, it is of high interest to start considering production effects in early development phases. This integrated approach requires an integrated representation of structure and production. The purpose of this study is to investigate the scope of relevant data and to find a structure for its representation. Design/methodology/approach The development task is analyzed and a system of so-called solution dimensions is presented, which covers all important aspects of stiffened shell structures and their production. An integrated product data model is developed to cover all of the solution dimensions. Findings The product data model consists of five coherent partial models. It is explained how these models are defined and how they are connected to each other. An academic example of an aircraft fuselage panel is used to demonstrate the definition process. It is shown how even complex structural concepts are defined systematically. Practical implications It is explained how this integrated product data model is used in a software project for the development of aircraft fuselage structures. Originality/value The presented approach for the definition and representation of stiffened shell structures enables the developer, e.g. of aircraft fuselage, to respect the crucial criterion of manufacturability from early development phases on. Further, new design approaches, e.g. as inspired by topology optimization, can be considered.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-03-04T10:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0205
       
  • Visual and microscopic examination of the rocket engine combustion chamber
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to enhance the selection of the best material of the rocket engine combustion chamber. The chamber has been destroyed during dynamometer tests, and the goal of this inspection is to verify the nature of the damage in the context of checking the usefulness of this type of graphite for the combustion chamber construction. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents the results of visual and microscopic inspection of the rocket engine combustion chamber of Ø50 × 165 mm in dimension, which was made of R type graphite. Findings An analysis of the fracture surface shows that in the inspected combustion chamber voids and inclusions are present. EDS analysis of the fracture surface shows that in the inspected combustion chamber inclusions are present which have a relatively high amount of elements like: Ti, C, S, V, Si, O and a relatively small amount of Fe and Ni. Research limitations/implications Research limitations is concerned the failure analysis by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) Zeiss EVO 25 MA with EDS detector: Brüker X Flash Detector 5010 125 eV and Espirit 1.9.0.2176 EDS software. Practical implications Designing of the engine combustion chamber the researches can select the best of the rocket engine combustion chamber, made of R type graphite, with the minimum voids and inclusions to decrease the possibility of bursting of this chamber. Originality/value The most dangerous issues in the inspected combustion chamber during an outflow are hot gases as a result of high fuel combustion temperature, so it causes the nozzle heating and the engine stress increase of visible inclusions in cross-sections.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-28T03:30:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-06-2018-0166
       
  • RBF-based mesh morphing approach to perform icing simulations in the
           aviation sector
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Numerical simulation of icing has become a standard. Once the iced shape is known, however, the analyst needs to update the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grid. This paper aims to propose a method to update the numerical mesh with ice profiles. Design/methodology/approach The present paper concerns a novel and fast radial basis functions (RBF) mesh morphing technique to efficiently and accurately perform ice accretion simulations on industrial models in the aviation sector. This method can be linked to CFD analyses to dynamically reproduce the ice growth. Findings To verify the consistency of the proposed approach, one of the most challenging ice profile selected in the LEWICE manual was replicated and simulated through CFD. To showcase the effectiveness of this technique, predefined ice profiles were automatically applied on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cases using both commercial and open-source CFD solvers. Practical implications If ice accreted shapes are available, the meshless characteristic of the proposed approach enables its coupling with the CFD solvers currently supported by the RBF4AERO platform including OpenFOAM, SU2 and ANSYS Fluent. The advantages provided by the use of RBF are the high performance and reliability, due to the fast application of mesh smoothing and the accuracy in controlling surface mesh nodes. Originality/value As far as authors’ knowledge is concerned, this is the first time in scientific literature that RBF are proposed to handle icing simulations. Due to the meshless characteristic of the RBF mesh morphing, the proposed approach is cross solver and can be used for both 2D and 3D geometries.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-26T10:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0178
       
  • Short range rocket-target: research, development and implementation
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the aerodynamic analysis and external ballistics modeling used in the development of a rocket-target for short range air defence missile systems. Design/methodology/approach A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the airflow around the rocket-target was carried out to estimate the drag, which was needed to develop a mathematical model for external ballistics of the rocket-target. Field-experimental testing was conducted to compare the model results to the data obtained experimentally using various additional measurement techniques such as global positioning system (GPS) coordinates marking of the crash and launch sites, air defence surveillance radar tracking and installing equipment for telemetric data capturing and transmission. Findings Various ballistic parameters such as the velocity and trajectory of the rocket-target were obtained taking into account the CFD analysis results and internal ballistics data. The field-experimental testing showed a good agreement between the model results and the results obtained by the experimental techniques. Practical implications The presented computational models and the experimental techniques could be used in future developments of similar aircraft. Originality/value This paper presents a research approach for developing a rocket-target. The results of the research were used as a basis for developing a rocket-target for short range air defence rocket systems. The developed rocket-target was successfully implemented in practice.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T12:52:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0177
       
  • On-line orbit planning and guidance for advanced upper stage
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate the problem of on-line orbit planning and guidance for an advanced upper stage. Design/methodology/approach The double impulse optimal transfer orbit is planned by the Lambert algorithm and the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) method, which can reduce the total velocity increment of the transfer orbit. More specially, a simplified formula is developed to obtain the working time of the main engine for two phases of flight based on the theorem of impulse. Subsequently, the true anomalies of the start position and the end position for both two phases are planned by the Newton iterative algorithm and the Kepler equation. Finally, the first phase of flight is guided by a novel iterative guidance (NIG) law based on the true anomaly update with respect to the geometrical relationship. Also, a completely analytical powered explicit guidance (APEG) law is presented to realize orbital injection for the second phase of flight. Findings Simulations including Monte Carlo and three typical orbit transfer missions are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme. Originality/value A novel on-line orbit planning algorithm is developed based on the Lambert problem, IPSO optimization method and Newton iterative algorithm. The NIG and APEG are presented to realize the designed transfer orbit for the first and second phases of flight. Both two guidance laws achieve higher orbit injection accuracies than traditional guidance laws.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-21T10:28:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2018-0225
       
  • Prediction of the development cost of general aviation aircraft
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a flexible design-oriented development cost method for general aviation aircraft based on small sample and poor information. Design/methodology/approach To predict the development cost of general aviation aircraft accurately, the methodology is based on the collected cost data and actual technical, and then the cost prediction relationships derived from an exhaustive statistical and filtered from regression analysis are incorporated. A series of regression equations with high regression coefficient are yielded after the cost driving factors of the development cost are fixed. Next, several sets of equations with high regression coefficient are selected for final integration. It is a flexible method that can be used efficiently to predict the cost of general aviation aircraft. Findings The development of general aviation aircraft has relatively a late start and no cost prediction model has been suitable for small sample, the proposed method is expected and is rather desirable. Practical implications By comparing the approach with the ordinary regression model and back propagation (BP) neural network, the scheme in this work is more efficient and convenient. Originality/value The results obtained in this paper show that the proposed method not only has a certain degree of versatility, but also can provide a preliminary prediction of the development cost of general aviation aircraft.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-19T11:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-09-2018-0248
       
  • Thermally induced dynamics of deployable solar panels of nanosatellite
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to predict the types of thermally induced dynamics (TID) that can occur on deployable solar panels of a small form factor satellite, CubeSat which flies in low Earth orbit (LEO). The TID effect on the CubeSat body is examined. Design/methodology/approach A 3U CubeSat with four short-edge deployable solar panels is considered. Time historic temperature of the solar panels throughout the orbit is obtained using a thermal analysis software. The results are used in numerical simulation to find the structural response of the solar panel. Subsequently, the effect of solar panel motion on pointing the direction of the satellite is examined using inertia relief method. Findings The thermal snap motion could occur during eclipse transitions due to rapid temperature changes in solar panels’ cross-sections. In the case of asymmetric solar panel configuration, noticeable displacement in the pointing direction can be observed during the eclipse transitions. Research limitations/implications This work only examines an LEO mission where the solar cells of the solar panels point to the Sun throughout the daylight period and point to the Earth while in shadow. Simplification is made to the CubeSat structure and some parameters in the space environment. Practical implications The results from this work reveal several practical applications worthy of simplifying the study of TID on satellite appendages. Originality/value This work presents a computational method that fully uses finite element software to analyze TID phenomenon that can occur in LEO on a CubeSat which has commonly used deployable solar panels structure.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-13T02:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0185
       
  • Influences of airfoil profile on lateral-directional stability of aircraft
           with flying wing layout
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to analyze influence of airfoil profile on lateral-directional flying quality of flying wing aircraft. The lateral-directional stability is always insufficient for aircraft with the layout due to the absence of vertical stabilizer. A flying wing aircraft with double-swept wing is used as research object in the paper. Design/methodology/approach The 3D model is established for the aircraft with flying wing layout, and parametric modeling is carried out for airfoil mean camber line of the aircraft to analyze lateral-directional stability of the aircraft with different camber line parameters. To increase computational efficiency, vortex lattice method is adopted to calculate aerodynamic coefficients and aerodynamic derivatives of the aircraft. Findings It is found from the research results that roll mode and spiral mode have a little effect on lateral-directional stability of the aircraft but Dutch roll mode is the critical factor affecting flying quality level of such aircraft. Even though changes of airfoil mean line parameters can greatly change assessment parameters of aircraft lateral-directional flying quality, that is kind of change cannot have a fundamental impact on level of flying quality of the aircraft. In case flat shape parameters are determined, the airfoil profile has a limited impact on Dutch roll mode. Originality/value Influences of airfoil profile on lateral-directional flying quality of aircraft with double-swept flying wing layout are revealed in the thesis and some important rules and characteristics are also summarized to lay a theoretical basis for design of airfoil and flight control system of aircraft with the layout.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-12T03:10:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-04-2018-0119
       
  • Spin flight mode identification with OEEMD algorithm
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The paper aims to present an innovative method for identification of flight modes in the spin maneuver, which is highly nonlinear and coupled dynamic. Design/methodology/approach To fix the mode mixing problem which is mostly happen in the EMD algorithm, the authors focused on the proposal of an optimized ensemble empirical mode decomposition (OEEMD) algorithm for processing of the flight complex signals that originate from FDR. There are two improvements with the OEEMD respect to the EEMD. First, this algorithm is able to make a precise reconstruction of the original signal. The second improvement is that the OEEMD performs the task of signal decomposition with fewer iterations and so with less complexity order rather than the competitor approaches. Findings By applying the OEEMD algorithm to the spin flight parameter signals, flight modes extracted, then with using systematic technique, flight modes characteristics are obtained. The results indicate that there are some non-standard modes in the nonlinear region due to couplings between the longitudinal and lateral motions. Practical implications Application of the proposed method to the spin flight test data may result accurate identification of nonlinear dynamics with high coupling in this regime. Originality/value First, to fix the mode mixing problem in EMD, an optimized ensemble empirical mode decomposition algorithm is introduced, which disturbed the original signal with a sort of white Gaussian noise, and by using white noise statistical characteristics the OEEMD fix the mode mixing problem with high precision and fewer calculations. Second, by applying the OEEMD to the flight output signals and with using the systematic method, flight mode characteristics which is very important in the simulation and controller designing are obtained.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-12T03:09:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0280
       
  • Disturbances rejection based on sliding mode control
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper aims to investigate an effective algorithm for different types of disturbances rejection. New dynamics are designed based on disturbance. Observer-based sliding mode control (SMC) technique is used for approximation the disturbances as well as to stabilize the system effectively in presence of uncertainties. Design/methodology/approach This research work investigates the disturbances rejection algorithm for fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle. An algorithm based on SMC is introduced for disturbances rejection. Two types of disturbances are considered, the constant disturbance and the sinusoidal disturbance. The comprehensive lateral and longitudinal models of the system are presented. Two types of dynamics, the dynamics without disturbance and the new dynamics with disturbance, are presented. An observer-based algorithm is presented for the estimation of the dynamics with disturbances. Intensive simulations and experiments have been performed; the results not only guarantee the robustness and stability of the system but the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm as well. Findings In previous research work, new dynamics based on disturbances rejection are not investigated in detail; in this research work both the lateral and longitudinal dynamics with different disturbances are investigated. Practical implications As the stability is always important for flight, so the algorithm proposed in this research guarantees the robustness and rejection of disturbances, which plays a vital role in practical life for avoiding any kind of damage. Originality/value In the previous research work, new dynamics based on disturbances rejection are not investigated in detail; in this research work both the lateral and longitudinal dynamics with different disturbances are investigated. An observer-based SMC not only approximates the different disturbances and also these disturbances are rejected in order to guarantee the effectiveness and robustness.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-11T03:35:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-04-2018-0121
       
  • Oil spill remote monitoring by using remotely piloted aircraft
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to analyze the application of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) for remote oil spill sensing. Design/methodology/approach This paper is an analysis of RPA strong points. Findings To increase the accuracy and eliminate potentially false contamination detection, which can be caused by external factors, an oil thickness measurement algorithm is used with the help of the multispectral imaging that provides high accuracy and is versatile for any areas of water and various meteorological and atmospheric conditions. Research limitations/implications SWOT analysis of implementation of RPA for remote sensing of oil spills. Practical implications The use of RPA will improve the remote sensing of oil spills. Social implications The concept of oil spills monitoring needs to be developed for quality data collection, oil pollution control and emergency response. Originality/value The research covers the development of a method and design of a device intended for taking samples and determining the presence of oil contamination in an aquatorium area; the procedure includes taking a sample from the water surface, preparing it for transportation and delivering the sample to a designated location by using the RPA. The objective is to carry out the analysis of remote oil spill sensing using RPA. The RPA provides a reliable sensing of oil pollution with significant advantages over other existing methods. The objective is to analyze the use of RPA employing all of their strong points. In this paper, technical aspects of sensors are analyzed, as well as their advantages and limitations.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-06T11:52:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0273
       
  • Deflection analysis of the airship structure based on the tapered
           inflatable beam
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the deflection of the flexible airship structure in a new way which can decrease the calculation amount and improve the calculation speed. Design/methodology/approach Infinitesimal method and tapered inflatable beam theory are combined to study the mechanics characteristics of the airship. Firstly, infinitesimal method is introduced into the airship structure analysis. The airship structure can be divided into several tapered inflatable beam elements. Then, tapered inflatable beam theory is improved and a developed model of the tapered inflatable beam under bending moment is presented. Besides, it is proved that deflection caused by pure load and pure moment can be linearly superimposed. Finally, the deflection of the airship structure is studied by means of tapered inflatable beam theory. Findings This paper improved the tapered inflatable beam theory. Besides, the proposed method for deflection analysis of the flexible airship in this paper can reach the same accuracy with traditional finite element method (FEM). However, the number of beam elements is much less than the one of FEM shell elements, which will decrease the calculation amount much and improve the calculation speed. Practical implications The flexible airship is a new and developing research area in engineering practice. The proposed method in this paper provides one precise and high-speed way to analyse the deformation of the airship. Originality/value The paper draws its value from the contributions to development of inflatable structure and the flexible airship mechanics research.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-01T12:49:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-04-2018-0138
       
  • Flow characteristics of two-dimensional synthetic jets under diaphragm
           resonance excitation
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to experimentally study the external flow characteristic of an isolated two-dimensional synthetic jet actuator undergoing diaphragm resonance. Design/methodology/approach The resonance frequency of the diaphragm (40 Hz) depends on the excitation mechanism in the actuator, whereas it is independent of cavity geometry, excitation waveform and excitation voltage. The velocity response of the synthetic jet is influenced by excitation voltage rather than excitation waveform. Thus, this investigation selected four different voltages (5, 10, 15 and 20 V) under the same sine waveform as experiment parameters. Findings The velocity field along the downstream direction is classified into five regions, which can be obtained by hot-wire measurement. The first region refers to an area in which flow moves from within the cavity to the exit of orifice through the oscillation of the diaphragm, but prior to the formation of the vortex of a synthetic jet. In this region, two characteristic frequencies exist at 20 and 40 Hz in the flow field. The second region refers to the area in which the vortices of a synthetic jet fully develop following their initial formation. In this region, the characteristic frequencies at 20 and 40 Hz still occur in the flow field. The third region refers to the area in which both fully developed vortices continue traveling downstream. It is difficult to obtain the characteristic frequency in this flow field, because the mean center velocities (ū) decay downstream and are proportional to (x/w)−1/2 for the four excitation voltages. The fourth region reveals variations in both vortices as they merge into a single vortex. The mean center velocities (ū) are approximately proportional to (x/w)0 in this region for the four excitation voltages. A fifth region deals with variations in the vortex of a synthetic jet after both vortices merge into one, in which the mean center velocities (ū) are approximately proportional to (x/w)−1 in this region for the four excitation voltages (x/w is the dimensionless streamwise distance). Originality/value Although the flow characteristics of synthetic jets had reported for flow control in some literatures, variations of flow structure for synthetic jets are still not studied under the excitation of diaphragm resonance. This paper showed some novel results that our velocity response results obtained by hot-wire measurement along the downstream direction compared with flow visualization resulted in the classification of five regions under the excitation of diaphragm resonance. In the future, it makes valuable contributions for experimental findings to provide researchers with further development of flow control.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-01T12:49:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0277
       
  • Reliability analysis for a hypersonic aircraft’s wing spar
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present a novel structural reliability analysis scheme with considering the structural strength degradation for the wing spar of a generic hypersonic aircraft to guarantee flight safety and structural reliability. Design/methodology/approach A logarithmic model with strength degradation for the wing spar is constructed, and a reliability model of the wing spar is established based on stress-strength interference theory and total probability theorem. Findings It is demonstrated that the proposed reliability analysis scheme can obtain more accurate structural reliability and failure results for the wing spar, and the strength degradation cannot be neglected. Furthermore, the obtained results will provide an important reference for the structural safety of hypersonic aircraft. Research limitations/implications The proposed reliability analysis scheme has not implemented in actual flight, as all the simulations are conducted according to the actual experiment data. Practical implications The proposed reliability analysis scheme can solve the structural life problem of the wing spar for hypersonic aircraft and meet engineering practice requirements, and it also provides an important reference to guarantee the flight safety and structural reliability for hypersonic aircraft. Originality/value To describe the damage evolution more accurately, with consideration of strength degradation, flight dynamics and material characteristics of the hypersonic aircraft, the stress-strength interference method is first applied to analyze the structural reliability of the wing spar for the hypersonic aircraft. The proposed analysis scheme is implemented on the dynamic model of the hypersonic aircraft, and the simulation demonstrates that a more reasonable reliability result can be achieved.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-02-01T12:41:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2017-0242
       
  • Stress, strain and displacement analysis of geodetic and conventional
           fuselage structure for future passenger aircraft
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present the results of calculations that checked how the longerons and frames arrangement affects the stiffness of a conventional structure. The paper focuses only on first stage of research – analysis of small displacement. Main goal was to compare different structures under static loads. These results are also compared with the results obtained for a geodetic structure fuselage model of the same dimensions subjected to the same internal and external loads. Design/methodology/approach The finite element method analysis was carried out for a section of the fuselage with a diameter of 6.3 m and a length equal to 10 m. A conventional and lattice structure – known as geodetic – was used. Findings Finite element analyses of the fuselage model with conventional and geodetic structures showed that with comparable stiffness, the weight of the geodetic fuselage is almost 20 per cent lower than that of the conventional one. Research limitations/implications This analysis is limited to small displacements, as the linear version of finite element method was used. Research and articles planned for the future will focus on nonlinear finite element method (FEM) analysis such as buckling, structure stability and limit cycles. Practical implications The increasing maturity of composite structures manufacturing technology offers great opportunities for aircraft designers. The use of carbon fibers with advanced resin systems and application of the geodetic fuselage concept gives the opportunity to obtain advanced structures with excellent mechanical properties and low weight. Originality/value This paper presents very efficient method of assessing and comparison of the stiffness and weight of geodetic and conventional fuselage structure. Geodetic fuselage design in combination with advanced composite materials yields an additional fuselage weight reduction of approximately 10 per cent. The additional weight reduction is achieved by reducing the number of rivets needed for joining the elements. A fuselage with a geodetic structure compared to the classic fuselage with the same outer diameter has a larger inner diameter, which gives a larger usable space in the cabin. The approach applied in this paper consisting in analyzing of main parameters of geodetic structure (hoop ribs, helical ribs and angle between the helical ribs) on fuselage stiffness and weight is original.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-25T09:34:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0216
       
  • Jet engine degradation prognostic using artificial neural networks
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose and develop artificially intelligent methodologies to discover degradation trends through the detection of engine’s status. The objective is to predict these trends by studying their effects on the engine measurable parameters. Design/methodology/approach The method is based on the implementation of an artificial neural network (ANN) trained with well-known cases referred to real conditions, able to recognize degradation because of two main gas turbine engine deterioration effects: erosion and fouling. Three different scenarios are considered: compressor fouling, turbine erosion and presence of both degraded conditions. The work consists of three parts: the first one contains the mathematical model of real jet engine in healthy and degraded conditions, the second step is the optimization of ANN for engine performance prediction and the last part deals with the application of ANN for prediction of engine fault. Findings This study shows that the proposed diagnostic approach has good potential to provide valuable estimation of engine status. Practical implications Knowledge of the true state of the engine is important to assess its performance capability to meet the operational and maintenance requirements and costs. Originality/value The main advantage is that the engine performance data for model validation were obtained from real flight conditions of the engine VIPER 632-43.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-16T12:10:48Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0054
       
  • Remarks about factors shaping the heliosphere
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of the paper is to give a brief description of the new topic introduced for the first time at the EASN Conferences. Design/methodology/approach The topic concerns the heliosphere, the nearest surrounding of the Sun and thus the nearest vicinity of the Earth. The heliosphere is created due to the interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium. Findings This paper does not include any new information about the heliosphere and only introduces a new topic to this journal. It is briefly shown how heliospheric structures are formed, what factors affect a shape of the heliosphere, what measurements are made by Ulysses, Voyager and IBEX space missions (important for the heliosphere modeling) and how obtained data are used to validate theoretical results. Practical implications To categorize the paper under one of these classifications, research paper, viewpoint, technical paper, conceptual paper, case study, literature review or general review, the authors chose a paper type, general review, as the closest category to this paper. However, it is not a purpose of this paper to provide an extensive review of the community efforts to investigate the physical processes in the vicinity of the heliosphere interface. This is mostly a status report. Originality/value As the new topic in this journal, the article introduces in detail only a small number of aspects connected with heliosphere models. Interplanetary and interstellar magnetic field structures are primarily described. Other factors are only mentioned.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-16T12:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0044
       
  • Preliminary design of 3D printed fittings for UAV
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Additive manufacturing technology, also commonly called as 3D printing technology, is entering rapidly into the aerospace world and seems to be its future. Many manufacturing processes are replaced by this technology because the ease of use, low costs and new possibilities to make complicated parts. However, there are only few solutions which present manufacturing of structurally critical parts. Design/methodology/approach Complete process of deriving loads, design of fitting geometry, numerical validation, manufacturing and strength testing was presented. The emphasis was made to show specific features of 3D technology in printed fittings for UAV. Findings The research confirms that the technology can be used for the application of fittings manufacturing. Attention needs to be paid, during the design process, to account for specific features of the 3D printing technology, which is described in details. Practical implications Without a doubt, additive manufacturing is useful for manufacturing complicated parts within limited time and with reduction cost. It was also shown that the manufactured parts can be used for highly loaded structures. Originality/value The paper shows how additive manufacturing technology can be used to produce significantly loaded parts of airplanes’ structure. Only few such examples were presented till now.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-14T06:07:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0182
       
  • Identification of a degradation of aerodynamic characteristics of a
           paraglider due to its flexibility from flight test
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Aerodynamics of paragliders is very complicated aeroelastic phenomena. The purpose of this work is to quantify the amount of aerodynamic drag related to the flexible nature of a paraglider wing. Design/methodology/approach The laboratory testing on scaled models can be very difficult because of problems in the elastic similitude of such a structure. Testing of full-scale models in a large facility with a large full-scale test section is very expensive. The degradation of aerodynamic characteristics is evaluated from flight tests of the paraglider speed polar. All aspects of the identification such as pilot and suspension lines drag and aerodynamics of spanwise chambered wings are discussed. The drag of a pilot in a harness was estimated by means of wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver was used to estimating smooth wing lift and drag characteristics. Findings The drag related to the flexible nature of the modern paraglider wing is within the range of 4-30 per cent of the total aerodynamic drag depending on the flight speed. From the results, it is evident that considering only the cell opening effect is sufficient at a low-speed flight. The stagnation point moves forwards towards the nose during the high speed flight. This causes more pronounced deformation of the leading edge and thus increased drag. Practical implications This paper deals with a detailed analysis of specific paraglider wing. Although the results are limited to the specific geometry, the findings help in the better understanding of the paraglider aerodynamics generally. Originality/value The data obtained in this paper are not affected by any scaling problems. There are only few experimental results in the field of paragliders on scaled models. Those results were made on simplified models at very low Reynolds number. The aerodynamic drag characteristics of the pilot in the harness with variable angles of incidence and Reynolds numbers have not yet been published.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-09T01:37:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-06-2018-0162
       
  • LCA of the maintenance of a piston-prop engine
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to introduce an approach to evaluate environmental impact of a piston-prop engine from the view point of life cycle assessment (LCA). Design/methodology/approach In the aviation industry, safety is an important issue. For reliable and safe flights, the maintenance of aerial vehicles and engines is mandatory. Additionally, regular and correct maintenance plays a key role in keeping efficiency at a high level. With this in mind, a LCA of a regular 50 hourly maintenance process of Cessna type training aircraft is conducted. During the assessment, the starting of the engine before maintenance, replacement of the oil filter, test procedure of the spark plugs, a compressor test, engine cleaning and engine starting following maintenance are taken into account. Findings At the end of the study, normalization and characterization values for the maintenance, electricity consumption during maintenance and used fuel are obtained. Practical implications Regarding the number of this type aircraft worldwide, the current study offers a valuable contribution to the literature. The authors also intend to introduce an approach which may be useful for the assessment of large body aircraft still in service. Originality/value The present paper is a pioneer for future applications of LCA methodology to piston-prop engines and training aircraft.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-07T01:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-05-2017-0116
       
  • Hybrid energy systems in unmanned aerial vehicles
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The presented research is carried out in reaction to the soaring costs of fuel and tight control over environmental issues such as carbon dioxide emissions and noise. The purpose of this paper is to study the feasibility of applying the environmental-friendly energy source in an unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) propulsion system. Design/methodology/approach Currently, the majority of UAVs are still powered by conventional combustion engines. An electric propulsion system is most commonly found in civilian micro and mini UAVs. The UAV classification is reviewed in this study. This paper focuses mainly on application of electric propulsion systems in UAVs. Investigated hybrid energy systems consist of fuel cells, Li-ion batteries, super-capacitors and photovoltaic (PV) modules. Current applications of fuel cell systems in UAVs are also presented. Findings The conducted research shows that hybridization allows for better energy management and operation of every energy source onboard the UAV within its limits. The hybrid energy system design should be created to maximize system efficiency without compromising the performance of the aircraft. Practical implications The presented study highlights the reduction of the energy consumption, necessary to perform the mission and maximizing of the endurance with simultaneous decrease in emissions and noise level. Originality/value The conducted research studies the feasibility of implementing the environmental-friendly hybrid electric propulsion systems in UAVs that offers high efficiency, reliability, controllability, lack of thermal and noise signature, thus, providing quiet and clean drive with low vibration levels. This paper highlights the main challenges and current research on fuel cell in aviation and draws attention to fuel cell – electric system modeling, hybridization and energy management.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T03:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2018-0218
       
  • Fibre Bragg grating sensor applications for structural health monitoring
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Structural health monitoring (SHM) has become an attractive subject in aerospace engineering field considering the opportunity to avoid catastrophic failures by detecting damage in advance and to reduce maintenance costs. Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are denoted as one of the most promising sensors for SHM applications as they are lightweight, immune to electromagnetic effects and able to be embedded between the layers of composite structures. The purpose of this paper is to research on and demonstrate the feasibility of FBG sensors for SHM of composite structures. Design/methodology/approach Applications on thin composite beams intended for SHM studies are presented. The sensor system, which includes FBG sensors and related interrogator system, and manufacturing of the beams with embedded sensors, are detailed. Static tension and torsion tests are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the system. Strain analysis results obtained from the tests are compared with the ones obtained from the finite element analyses conducted using ABAQUS® software. In addition, the comparison between the data obtained from the FBG sensors and from the strain gauges is made by also considering the noise content. Finally, fatigue test under torsion load is conducted to observe the durability of FBG sensors. Findings The results demonstrated that FBG sensors are feasible for SHM of composite structures as the strain data are accurate and less noisy compared to that obtained from the strain gauges. Furthermore, the convenience of obtaining reliable data between the layers of a composite structure using embedded FBG sensors is observed. Practical implications Observing the advantages of the FBG sensors for strain measurement will promote using FBG sensors for damage detection related to the SHM applications. Originality/value This paper presents applications of FBG sensors on thin composite beams, which reveal the suitability of FBG sensors for SHM of lightweight composite structures.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T02:58:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-11-2017-0255
       
  • Stability analysis of the experimental airplane powered by a pulsejet
           engine
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present stability analysis of a small pulsejet-powered airplane. This analysis is a part of a student project dedicated to designing an airplane to test valved pulsejet engine in flight conditions. Design/methodology/approach The panel method was chosen to compute the airplane’s aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives for various geometry configurations, as it provides accurate results in a short computational time. Also, the program (PANUKL) that was used allows frequent and easy changes of the geometry. The evaluation of dynamic stability was done using another program (SDSA) equipped with means to formulate and solve eigenvalue problem for various flight speeds. Findings As a result of calculations, some geometry corrections were established, such as an increase of the vertical stabilizer’s size and a new wing position. Resulting geometry provides satisfactory dynamic and static stability characteristics for all flight speeds. This conclusion was based on criteria given by MIL-F-8785C specifications. This paper presents the results of the first and the final configuration. Practical implications The results shown in this paper are necessary for the continuation of the project. The aircraft’s structure was being designed in the same time as the calculations described in this paper proceeded. With a few modifications to make up for the changes of external geometry, the structure will be ready to be built. Originality/value The idea to design an airplane specifically to test a pulsejet in flight is a unique one. Most RC pulsejet-powered constructions that can be heard of are modified versions of already existing models. What adds more to the value of the project is that it is being developed only by students. This allows them to learn various aspects of aircraft design and construction on a soon-to-be real object.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-04T02:53:44Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0184
       
  • Influence of Gurney flaps on aerodynamic characteristics of a
           canard-configuration aircraft
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to mount Gurney flaps at the trailing edges of the canards and investigate their influence on aerodynamic characteristics of a simplified canard-configuration aircraft model. Design/methodology/approach A force measurement experiment was conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Hence, the height and shape effects of the Gurney flaps on the canards were investigated. Findings Gurney flaps can increase the lift and pitching-up moment for the aircraft model tested, thereby increasing the lift when trimming the aircraft. The dominant parameter to influence aerodynamic characteristics is the height of Gurney flaps. When the flap heights are the same, the aerodynamic efficiency of the triangular Gurney flaps is higher than that of the rectangular ones. Moreover, the canard deflection efficiency will be reduced with Gurney flaps equipped, but the total aerodynamic increment is considerable. Practical implications This paper helps to solve the key technical problem of increasing take-off and landing lift coefficients, thus improving the aerodynamic performance of the canard-configuration aircraft. Originality/value This paper recommends to adopt triangular Gurney flaps with the height of 3 per cent chord length of the canard root (c) for engineering application.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T09:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2017-0181
       
  • Strategic approach to managing human factors risk in aircraft maintenance
           organization: risk mapping
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Aviation has multi-cultural business environment in all aspects as operational and management. Managing aviation requires high awareness on human factor risk which includes organizational behavior-related topics. The greatest risk to an enterprise’s ability to achieve its strategic goals and objectives is the human factor. Both organizational behavior and corporate culture behavior with social psychology are the most vital aspects of management and strategy in terms of human resources. Related risks, including organizational behavior and culture, have the potential to directly impact on both business performance and corporate sustainability. Therefore, in this paper, the most prominent risks were determined in accordance with social psychology, and after identification of human factor-based risks, these have prioritized and prepared risk mapping with fresh approach. For this reason, this study aims to develop risk mapping model for human factors that takes into account interrelations among risk factors three dimensional based new approach. This approach includes both identification of human factor based risks, prioritization them and setting risk mapping according to corporate based qualifications via tailoring risk list. Developed risk map in this paper will help to manage corporate risks to achieve improved performance and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach This new organizational behavior- and culture-focused risk mapping model developed in this study has the potential to make significant contribution to the management of the human factor for modern management and strategy. In enterprise risk management system, risk mapping is both strong and effective strategic methodology to manage ergonomics issue with strategic approach. Human factor is both determinative and also strategic element to both continuity and performance of business operations with safely and sound. In view of management and strategy, vitally, the human factor determines the outcome in both every business and every decision-making. Findings It is assumed that, if managers manage human risk you may get advantages to achieving corporate strategies in timely manner. Aviation is sensitive sector for its ingredients: airports, airlines, air traffic management, aircraft maintenance, pilotage and ground handling. Aim of this paper is to present risk management approach to optimize human performance while minimizing both failures and errors by aircraft maintenance technician (AMT). This model may apply all human factors in other departments of aviation such as pilots and traffic controllers. AMT is key component of aircraft maintenance. Thus, errors made by AMTs will cause aircraft accidents or incidents or near miss incidents. In this study, new taxonomy model for human risk factors in aircraft maintenance organizations has been designed, and also new qualitative risk assessment as three dimensions is carried out by considering the factors affecting the AMT’s error obtained from extensive literature review and expert opinions in the field of aviation. Human error risks are first categorized into two main groups and sub three groups and then prioritized using the risk matrix via triple dimension as probability, severity and interrelations ratio between risks. Practical implications Risk mapping is established to decide which risk management option they will apply for managers when they will look at this map. Managers may use risk map to both identify their managerial priorities and share sources to managing risks, and make decisions on risk handling options. This new model may be a useful new tool to manage ergonomic human factor-based risks in developing strategy in aviation business management. In addition, this paper will contribute to department of management and strategy and related literature. Originality/value This study has originality via new modeling of risk matrix. In this study, dimension of risk analysis has been improved as three dimensions. This study has new approach and new assessment of risk with likelihood (probability), impact (severity) and interrelations ratio. This new model may be a useful new tool to both assess and prioritize mapping of ergonomic-based risks in business management. In addition, this research will contribute to aviation management and strategy literature and also enterprise risk management literature.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T09:53:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-06-2018-0160
       
  • Reachable domain of spacecraft with a single normal impulse
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to obtain the reachable domain (RD) for spacecraft with a single normal impulse while considering both time and impulse constraints. Design/methodology/approach The problem of RD is addressed in an analytical approach by analyzing for either the initial maneuver point or the impulse magnitude being arbitrary. The trajectories are considered lying in the intersection of a plane and an ellipsoid of revolution, whose family can be determined analytically. Moreover, the impulse and time constraints are considered while formulating the problem. The upper bound of impulse magnitude, “high consumption areas” and the change of semi-major axis and eccentricity are discussed. Findings The equations of RD with a single normal impulse are analytically obtained. The equations of three scenarios are obtained. If normal impulse is too large, the RD cannot be obtained. The change of the semi-major axis and eccentricity with large normal impulse is more obvious. For long-term missions, the change of semi-major axis and eccentricity leaded by multiple normal impulses should be considered. Practical implications The RD gives the pre-defined region (all positions accessible) for a spacecraft under a given initial orbit and a normal impulse with certain magnitude. Originality/value The RD for spacecraft with normal impulse can be used for non-coplanar orbital transfers, emergency evacuation after failure of rendezvous and docking and collision avoidance.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T09:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-03-2017-0079
       
  • Experimental investigation of plasma vortex generator in flow control
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of two different configurations of plasma streamwise vortex generators (PSVG), including comb-type and mesh-type in controlling flow. This is demonstrated on the NACA 0012 airfoil. Design/methodology/approach The investigations have been done experimentally at the various electric and aerodynamic conditions. The surface oil flow visualization method has been used to the better understanding of the flow physics and the interaction of the oncoming flow passing over the airfoil and the vortex generated by comb-type PSVG. Findings This paper demonstrates the potential capabilities of the mesh-type and comb-type PSVGs in controlling flow in unsteady operation. It was found that the vortex generated by the mesh-type PSVG in unsteady operation was an order of magnitude stronger than comb-type PSVG. The flow visualisation technic proved that only a part of the plasma actuator is effective in the condition that the actuator is installed only on a portion of the upper surface of the airfoil. Originality/value This paper experimentally confirms the capabilities of the mesh-type PSVG unsteady operation in compare with comb-type PSVG in controlling flow, whereby recommends using mesh-type PSVG in the leading edge in front of comb-type PSVG on the entire wingspan to prevent the stall.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-03T09:37:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0194
       
  • Performance improvement of helicopter rotors through blade redesigning
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine dependencies between a rotor-blade shape and a rotor performance as well as to search for optimal shapes of blades dedicated for helicopter main and tail rotors. Design/methodology/approach The research is conducted based on computational methodology, using the parametric-design approach. The developed parametric model takes into account several typical blade-shape parameters. The rotor aerodynamic characteristics are evaluated using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solver. Flow effects caused by rotating blades are modelled based on both simplified approach and truly 3D simulations. Findings The computational studies have shown that the helicopter-rotor performance may be significantly improved even through relatively simple aerodynamic redesigning of its blades. The research results confirm high potential of the developed methodology of rotor-blade optimisation. Developed families of helicopter-rotor-blade airfoils are competitive compared to the best airfoils cited in literature. The finally designed rotors, compared to the baselines, for the same driving power, are characterised by 5 and 32% higher thrust, in case of main and tail rotor, respectively. Practical implications The developed and implemented methodology of parametric design and optimisation of helicopter-rotor blades may be used in future studies on performance improvement of rotorcraft rotors. Some of presented results concern the redesigning of main and tail rotors of existing helicopters. These results may be used directly in modernisation processes of these helicopters. Originality/value The presented study is original in relation to the developed methodology of optimisation of helicopter-rotor blades, families of modern helicopter airfoils and innovative solutions in rotor-blade-design area.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2019-01-02T01:37:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0009
       
  • Sensitivity of automatic control of emergency manoeuvre to parametric
           uncertainty of the airplane model
    • Pages: 407 - 419
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 407-419, March 2019.
      Purpose The main purpose of this work was elaboration and verification of a method of assessing the sensitivity of automatic control laws to parametric uncertainty of an airplane’s mathematical model. The linear quadratic regulator (LQR) methodology was used as an example design procedure for the automatic control of an emergency manoeuvre. Such a manoeuvre is assumed to be pre-designed for the selected airplane. Design/methodology/approach The presented method of investigating the control systems’ sensitivity comprises two main phases. The first one consists in computation of the largest variations of gain factors, defined as differences between their nominal values (defined for the assumed model) and the values obtained for the assumed range of parametric uncertainty. The second phase focuses on investigating the impact of the variations of these factors on the behaviour of automatic control in the manoeuvre considered. Findings The results obtained allow for a robustness assessment of automatic control based on an LQR design. Similar procedures can be used to assess in automatic control arrived at through varying design methods (including methods other than LQR) used to control various manoeuvres in a wide range of flight conditions. Practical implications It is expected that the presented methodology will contribute to improvement of automatic flight control quality. Moreover, such methods should reduce the costs of the mathematical nonlinear model of an airplane through determining the necessary accuracy of the model identification process, needed for assuring the assumed control quality. Originality/value The presented method allows for the investigation of the impact of the parametric uncertainty of the airplane’s model on the variations of the gain-factors of an automatic flight control system. This also allows for the observation of the effects of such variations on the course of the selected manoeuvre or phase of flight. This might be a useful tool for the design of crucial elements of an automatic flight control system.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-11-19T12:25:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0017
       
  • Suppression of nonlinear aeroelastic vibrations by learned neural network
           controller
    • Pages: 420 - 427
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 420-427, March 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of the paper is to analyze the active suppression of the aeroelastic vibrations of ailerons with strongly nonlinear characteristics by neural network/reinforcement learning (NN/RL) control method and comparing it with the classic robust methods of suppression. Design/methodology/approach The flexible wing and aileron with hysteresis nonlinearity is treated as a plant-controller system and NN/RL and robust controller are used to suppress the nonlinear aeroelastic vibrations of aileron. The simulation approach is used for analyzing the efficiency of both types of methods in suppressing of such vibrations. Findings The analysis shows that the NN/RL controller is able to suppress the nonlinear vibrations of aileron much better than linear robust method, although its efficiency depends essentially on the NN topology as well as on the RL strategy. Research limitations/implications Only numerical analysis was carried out; thus, the proposed solution is of theoretical value, and its application to the real suppression of aeroelastic vibrations requires further research. Practical implications The work shows the NN/RL method has a great potential in improving suppression of highly nonlinear aeroelastic vibrations, opposed to the classical robust methods that probably reach their limits in this area. Originality/value The work raises the questions of controllability of the highly nonlinear aeroelastic systems by means of classical robust and NN/RL methods of control.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-08T11:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0019
       
  • A numerical study into the longitudinal dynamic stability of the tailless
           aircraft
    • Pages: 428 - 436
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 428-436, March 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this research is a study into a mathematical approach of a tailless aircraft dynamic stability analysis. This research is focused on investigation of influence of elevons (elevator) on stability derivatives and consequently on the aircraft longitudinal dynamic stability. The main research question is to determine whether this impact should be taken into account on the conceptual and preliminary stage of the analysis of the longitudinal dynamic stability. Design/methodology/approach Aerodynamic coefficients and longitudinal stability derivatives were computed by Panukl (panel methods). The analysis of the dynamic stability of the tailless aircraft was made by the Matlab code and SDSA package. Findings The main result of the research is a comparison of the dynamic stability of the tailless aircraft for different approaches, with and without the impact of elevator deflection on the trim drag and stability derivatives. Research limitations/implications This paper presents research that mostly should be considered on the preliminary stage of aircraft design and dynamic stability analysis. The impact of elevons deflection on the aircraft moment of inertia has been omitted. Practical implications The results of this research will be useful for the further design of small tailless unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Originality/value This research reveals that in case of the analysis of small tailless UAVs, the impact of elevons deflection on stability derivatives is bigger than the impact of a Mach number. This impact should be taken into consideration, especially for a phugoid mode.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-02T01:26:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0032
       
  • Aerodynamic and flight dynamic interaction in spin
    • Pages: 437 - 447
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 437-447, March 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe an integrated approach to spin analysis based on 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) fully nonlinear equations of motion and a three-dimensional multigrid Euler method used to specify a flow model. Another purpose of this study is to investigate military trainer performance during a developed phase of a deliberately executed spin, and to predict an aircraft tendency while entering a spin and its response to control surface deflections needed for recovery. Design/methodology/approach To assess spin properties, the calculations of aerodynamic characteristics were performed through an angle-of-attack range of −30 degrees to +50 degrees and a sideslip-angle range of −30 degrees to +30 degrees. Then, dynamic equations of motion of a rigid aircraft together with aerodynamic loads being premised on stability derivatives concept were numerically integrated. Finally, the examination of light turboprop dynamic behaviour in post-stalling conditions was carried out. Findings The computational method used to evaluate spin was positively verified by comparing it with the experimental outcome. Moreover, the Euler code-based approach to lay down aerodynamics could be considered as reliable to provide high angles-of-attack characteristics. Conclusions incorporate the results of a comparative analysis focusing especially on comprehensive assessment of output data quality in relation to flight tests. Originality/value The conducted calculations take into account aerodynamic and flight dynamic interaction of an aerobatic-category turboprop in spin conditions. A number of manoeuvres considering different aircraft configurations were simulated. The computational outcomes were subsequently compared to the results of in-flight tests and the collected data were thoroughly analysed to draw final conclusions.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-02T01:09:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0042
       
  • Partially feasible solution space for integrated SATS operations
    • Pages: 448 - 456
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 448-456, March 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of solving an integrated flight scheduling, fleet assignment and crew pairing problem for an on-demand service using a small, up to 19-seater, aircraft. Design/methodology/approach Evolutionary algorithm is developed to solve the problem. Algorithm design assumes indirect solution representation that allows to evaluate partially feasible solutions only and speed up calculations. Tested algorithm implementation takes advantage of the graphic processing unit. Findings Performed tests confirm that the algorithm can successfully solve the defined integrated scheduling problem. Practical implications The presented algorithm allows to optimise on-demand transport service operation within minutes. Social implications Optimisation of operation cost contributes to better accessibility of transport. Originality/value The presented integrated formulation allows to avoid sub optimal solutions that are results of solving sequential sub problems. Indirect representation and evaluation strategy can be applied to speed up calculations in other problems as well.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-11T09:46:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0045
       
  • New hail impact simulation models on composite laminated wing leading edge
    • Pages: 457 - 465
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 457-465, March 2019.
      Purpose The risk of hail-impact occurrence that can decrease local strength property must be taken into account in the design of primary airframe structures in aviation, energy and space industries. Because of the high-speed of hail impact in operation, it can affect the load carrying capacity. Testing all impact scenarios onto real structure is expensive and impractical. The purpose of this paper is to present a cost-effective hybrid testing regime including experimental tests and FEM-based simulations for airframe parts that are locally exposed to the impacting hail in flight. Design/methodology/approach Tested samples (specimens) are flat panels of laminated and sandwich carbon/epoxy composites that are used in designing lightweight new airframes. The presented numerical simulations provide a cost effective and convenient tool for investigating the hail impact scenarios in the design process. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique was selected for the simulation of projectiles. The most commonly used shape of projectiles in hail impact tests is the ice ball with a defined diameter. The proposed simulation technique was verified and validated in tests on flat composite panels (specimens). Findings Integration of the numerical analyses with high-speed impact tests of hail onto flat laminated and sandwich composite shells has been presented, and a developed simulation model for impact results assessment was obtained. Originality/value The tested coupons (specimens) are flat panels as representative of structural design deployed in real aircraft structures. These numerical simulations provide a cost effective and convenient tool for hail impact scenarios in the design process.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-11-06T11:34:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-02-2018-0089
       
  • Comparison of flutter calculation methods based on ground vibration test
           result
    • Pages: 466 - 476
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 466-476, March 2019.
      PurposeA low-cost but credible method of low-subsonic flutter analysis based on ground vibration test (GVT) results is presented. The purpose of this paper is a comparison of two methods of immediate flutter problem solution: JG2 – low cost software based on the strip theory in aerodynamics (STA) and V-g method of the flutter problem solution and ZAERO I commercial software with doublet lattice method (DLM) aerodynamic model and G method of the flutter problem solution. In both cases, the same sets of measured normal modes are used. Design/methodology/approachBefore flutter computation, resonant modes are supplied by some non-measurable but existing modes and processed using the author’s own procedure. For flutter computation, the modes are normalized using the aircraft mass model. The measured mode orthogonalization is possible. The flutter calculation made by means of both methods are performed for the MP-02 Czajka UL aircraft and the Virus SW 121 aircraft of LSA category. FindingsIn most cases, both compared flutter computation results are similar, especially in the case of high aspect wing flutter. The Czajka T-tail flutter analysis using JG2 software is more conservative than the one made by ZAERO, especially in the case of rudder flutter. The differences can be reduced if the proposed rudder effectiveness coefficients are introduced. Practical implicationsThe low-cost methods are attractive for flutter analysis of UL and light aircraft. The paper presents the scope of the low-cost JG2 method and its limitations. Originality/valueIn comparison with other works, the measured generalized masses are not used. Additionally, the rudder effectiveness reduction was implemented into the STA. However, Niedbal (1997) introduced corrections of control surface hinge moments, but the present work contains results in comparison with the outcome obtained by means of the more credible software.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-09T09:53:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-03-2018-0102
       
  • Aircraft model for automatic taxi directional control system design
    • Pages: 477 - 483
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 477-483, March 2019.
      Purpose This paper aims to present a concept of an automatic directional control system of remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS) during the taxiing phase. In particular, it shows the initial stages of the control laws synthesis – mathematical model and simulation of taxiing aircraft. Several reasons have emerged in recent years that make the automation of taxiing an important design challenge including decreased safety, performance and pilot workload. Design/methodology/approach The adapted methodology follows the model-based design approach in which the control system and the aircraft are mathematically modelled to allow control laws synthesis. The computer simulations are carried out to analyse the model behaviour. Findings Chosen methodology and modelling technique, especially tire-ground contact model, resulted in a taxing aircraft model that can be used for directional control law synthesis. Aerodynamic forces and moments were identified in the wind tunnel tests for the full range of the slip angle. Simulations allowed to compute the critical speeds for different taxiway conditions in a 90° turn. Practical implications The results can be used for the taxi directional control law synthesis and simulation of the control system. The computed critical speeds can be treated as safety limits. Originality/value The taxi directional control system has not been introduced to the RPAS yet. Therefore, the model of taxiing aircraft including aerodynamic characteristics for the full range of the slip angle has a big value in the process of design and implementation of the future auto taxi systems. Moreover, computed speed safety limits can be used by designers and standard creators.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-11T02:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-06-2018-0161
       
  • Flow-separation-control system operating in feedback closed loop
    • Pages: 498 - 508
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 498-508, March 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop the concept of self-adapting system which would be able to control a flow on the wing-high-lift system and protect the flow against strong separation. Design/methodology/approach The self-adapting system has been developed based on computational approach. The computational studies have been conducted using the URANS solver. The experimental investigations have been conducted to verify the computational results. Findings The developed solution is controlled by closed-loop-control (CLC) system. As flow actuators, the main-wing trailing-edge nozzles are proposed. Based on signals received from the pressure sensors located at the flap trailing edge, the CLC algorithm changes the amount of air blown from the nozzles. The results of computational simulations confirmed good effectiveness and reliability of the developed system. These results have been partially confirmed by experimental investigations. Research limitations/implications The presented research on an improvement of the effectiveness of high-lift systems of modern aircraft was conducted on the relatively lower level of the technology readiness. However, despite this limitation, the results of presented studies can provide a basis for developing innovative self-adaptive aerodynamic systems that potentially may be implemented in future aircrafts. Practical implications The studies on autonomous flow-separation control systems, operating in a closed feedback loop, are a great hope for significant advances in modern aeronautical engineering, also in the UAV area. The results of the presented studies can provide a basis for developing innovative self-adaptive aerodynamic systems at a higher level of technological readiness. Originality/value The presented approach is especially original and valuable in relation to the innovative concept of high-lift system supported by air-jets blown form the main-wing-trailing-edge nozzles; the effective and reliable flow sensors are the pressure sensors located at the flap trailing edge, and the effective and robust algorithm controlling the self-adapting aerodynamic system – original especially in respect to a strategy of deactivation of flow actuators.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-11T02:17:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0270
       
  • The effect of wing-tip propulsors on Icaré 2 aeroelasticity
    • Pages: 509 - 524
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 509-524, March 2019.
      Purpose The separation of energy conversion and propulsor is a promising aspect of hybrid-electric propulsion systems, allowing for increased installation efficiencies and setting the basis for distributed propulsion concepts. University of Stuttgart’s Institute of Aircraft Design has a long experience with electrically powered aircraft, starting with Icaré 2, a solar-powered glider flying, since 1996. Icaré 2 recently has been converted to a three-engine motor glider with two battery-powered wing-tip propellers, in addition to the solar-powered main electric motor. This adds propulsion redundancy and will allow analyzing yaw control concepts with differential thrust and the propeller-vortex interaction at the wing-tip. To ensure airworthiness for this design modification, new ground vibration tests (GVTs) and flutter calculations are required. The purpose of this paper is to lay out the atypical approach to test execution due to peculiarities of the Icaré 2 design such as an asymmetrical aileron control system, the long wing span with low frequencies of the first mode and elevated wing tips bending under gravity and thus affecting the accuracy of the wing torsion frequency measurements. Design/methodology/approach A flutter analysis based on GVT results is performed for the aircraft in basic configuration and with wing tip propulsors in pusher or tractor configuration. Apart from the measured resonant modes, the aircraft rigid body modes and the control surface mechanism modes are taken into consideration. The flutter calculations are made by a high-speed, low-cost software named JG2 based on the strip theory in aerodynamics and the V-g method of flutter problem solution. Findings With the chosen atypical approach to GVT the impact of the suspension on the test results was shown to be minimal. Flutter analysis has proven that the critical flutter speed of Icaré 2 is sufficiently high in all configurations. Practical implications The atypical approach to GVT and subsequent flutter analysis have shown that the effects of wing-tip propulsors on aeroelasticity of the high aspect ratio configuration do not negatively affect flutter characteristics. This analysis can serve as a basis for an application for a permit to fly. Originality/value The presented methodology is valuable for the flutter assessment of aircraft configurations with atypical aeroelastic characteristics.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-31T01:03:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0279
       
  • Preliminary stability analysis methods for PrandtlPlane aircraft in
           subsonic conditions
    • Pages: 525 - 537
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 525-537, March 2019.
      Purpose The present paper aims to assess the reliability and the limitations of analysing flight stability of a box-wing aircraft configuration known as PrandtlPlane by means of methods conceived for conventional aircraft and well known in the literature. Design/methodology/approach Results obtained by applying vortex lattice methods to PrandtlPlane configuration, validated previously with wind tunnel tests, are compared to the output of a “Roskam-like” method, here defined to model the PrandtlPlane features. Findings The comparisons have shown that the “Roskam-like” model gives accurate predictions for both the longitudinal stability margin and dihedral effect, whereas the directional stability is always overestimated. Research limitations/implications The method here proposed and related achievements are valid only for subsonic conditions. The poor reliability related to lateral-directional derivatives estimations may be improved implementing different models known from the literature. Practical implications The possibility of applying a faster method as the “Roskam-like” one here presented has two main implications: it allows to implement faster analyses in the conceptual and preliminary design of PrandtlPlane, providing also a tool for the definition of the design space in case of optimization approaches and it allows to implement a scaling procedure, to study families of PrandtlPlanes or different aircraft categories. Social implications This paper is part of the activities carried out during the PARSIFAL project, which aims to demonstrate that the introduction of PrandtlPlane as air transport mean can fuel consumption and noise impact, providing a sustainable answer to the growing air passenger demand envisaged for the next decades. Originality/value The originality of this paper lies in the attempt of adopting analysis method conceived for conventional airplanes for the analysis of a novel configuration. The value of the work is represented by the knowledge concerning experimental results and design methods on the PrandtlPlane configuration, here made available to define a new analysis tool.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-11-16T09:22:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0284
       
  • Analysis and optimization of morphing wing aerodynamics
    • Pages: 538 - 546
      Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 91, Issue 3, Page 538-546, March 2019.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a method for analysis and optimization of morphing wing. Moreover, a numerical advantage of morphing airfoil wing, typically assessed in simplified two-dimensional analysis is found using higher fidelity methods. Design/methodology/approach Because of multi-point nature of morphing wing optimization, an approach for optimization by analysis is presented. Starting from naïve parametrization, multi-fidelity aerodynamic data are used to construct response surface model. From the model, many significant information are extracted related to parameters effect on objective; hence, design sensitivity and, ultimately, optimal solution can be found. Findings The method was tested on benchmark problem, with some easy-to-predict results. All of them were confirmed, along with additional information on morphing trailing edge wings. It was found that wing with morphing trailing edge has around 10 per cent lower drag for the same lift requirement when compared to conventional design. Practical implications It is demonstrated that providing a smooth surface on wing gives substantial improvement in multi-purpose aircrafts. Details on how this is achieved are described. The metodology and results presented in current paper can be used in further development of morphing wing. Originality/value Most of literature describing morphing airfoil design, optimization or calculations, performs only 2D analysis. Furthermore, the comparison is often based on low-fidelity aerodynamic models. This paper uses 3D, multi-fidelity aerodynamic models. The results confirm that this approach reveals information unavailable with simplified models.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-08T11:20:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0289
       
  • A novel improvement of Kriging surrogate model
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to introduce a method based on the optimizer of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to improve the efficiency of a Kriging surrogate model. Design/methodology/approach PSO was first used to identify the best group of trend functions and to optimize the correlation parameter thereafter. Findings The Kriging surrogate model was used to resolve the fuselage optimization of an unmanned helicopter. Practical implications The optimization results indicated that an appropriate PSO scheme can improve the efficiency of the Kriging surrogate model. Originality/value Both the STANDARD PSO and the original PSO algorithms were chosen to show the effect of PSO on a Kriging surrogate model.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-12-19T09:10:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-06-2018-0157
       
  • 4D-trajectory time windows: definition and uncertainty management
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The use of the 4D trajectory operational concept in the future air traffic management (ATM) system will require the aircraft to meet very accurately an arrival time over a designated checkpoint. To do this, time intervals known as time windows (TW) are defined. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to characterise these TWs and to manage the uncertainty associated with the evolution of 4D trajectories. Design/methodology/approach 4D trajectories are modelled using a point mass model and EUROCONTROL’s BADA methodology. The authors stochastically evaluate the variability of the parameters that influence 4D trajectories using Monte Carlo simulation. This enables the authors to delimit TWs for several checkpoints. Finally, the authors set out a causal model, based on a Bayesian network approach, to evaluate the impact of variations in fundamental parameters at the chosen checkpoints. Findings The initial results show that the proposed TW model limits the deviation in time to less than 27 s at the checkpoints of an en-route segment (300 NM). Practical implications The objective of new trajectory-based operations is to efficiently and strategically manage the expected increase in air traffic volumes and to apply tactical interventions as a last resort only. We need new tools to support 4D trajectory management functions such as strategic and collaborative planning. The authors propose a novel approach for to ensure aircraft punctuality. Originality/value The main contribution of the paper is the development of a model to deal with uncertainty and to increase predictability in 4D trajectories, which are key elements of the future airspace operational environment.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-12-19T08:56:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0031
       
  • Interstellar medium magnetic field in bow shock modelling
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to demonstrate the impact of interstellar (IS) magnetic field on stellar shocks existence, shape and size in the stellar wind (SW) vs interstellar medium (ISM) numerical models. Design/methodology/approach Comparison of hydrodynamics (HD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models results with or without ISM magnetic field, its intensity and ISM parameters. Findings ISM magnetic field facilitates formation and stabilises bow shocks around all astrophysical objects. ISM magnetic field may also be one of the reasons for a bow shock existence around the Sun. Practical implications ISM magnetic field should be implemented in MHD and future kinetic numerical models of the SW interaction with ISM plasma. Originality/value This paper presents the results of HD and MHD models of bow shocks and the importance of ISM magnetic field implementation, according to astronomical bow shock observations. The study also presents a review of the most important papers showing the numerical results of bow shock formation.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-12-18T01:38:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0004
       
  • Assessment of a small UAV speed polar graph by conducting flight tests
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to a polar graph measurement by a flight testing technique and to propose a baseline research method for future tests of UAV polar graphs. The method presented can be used to demonstrate a conceptual and preliminary design process using a scaled, unmanned configuration. This shows how results of experimental flight tests using a scaled flying airframe may be described and analysed before manufacturing the full scale aircraft. Design/methodology/approach During the research, the flight tests were conducted for two aerodynamic configurations of a small UAV. This allowed the investigation of the influence of winglets and classic vertical stabilizers on the platform stability, performance and therefore polar graphs of a small unmanned aircraft. Findings A methodology of flight tests for the assessment of a small UAV’s polar graph has been proposed, performed and assessed. Two aerodynamic configurations were tested, and it was found that directional stability had a large influence on the UAV’s performance. A correlation between the speed and inclination of the altitude graph was found – i.e. the higher the flight speed, the steeper the altitude graph (higher descent speed, steeper flight path angle). This could be considered as a basic verification that the recorded data have a physical sense. Practical implications The polar graph and therefore glide ratio of the aircraft is a major factor for determining its performance and power required for flight. Using the right flight test procedure can speed-up the process of measuring glide ratio, making it easier, faster, robust, more effective and accurate in future research of novel, especially unorthodox configurations. This paper also can be useful for the proper selection of requirements and preliminary design parameters for making the design process more economically effective. Originality/value This paper presents a very efficient method of assessing the design parameters of UAVs, especially the polar graph, in an early stage of the design process. Aircraft designers and producers have been widely performing flight testing for years. However, these procedures and practical customs are usually not wide spread and very often are treated as the company’s “know how”. Results presented in this paper are original, relatively easily be repeated and checked. They may be used either by professionals, highly motivated individuals and representatives of small companies or also by ambitious amateurs.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-12-18T01:38:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-03-2018-0099
       
  • Innovative time-based separation procedures for civil RPAS integration
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to suggest feasible solutions to overcome the problem of unmanned aerial vehicles integration within the existing airspace. Design/methodology/approach It envisages innovative time-based separation procedures that will enhance the integration in the future air traffic management (ATM) system of next generation of large remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS). 4D navigation and dynamic mobile area concepts, both proposed in the framework of Single European Sky ATM Research program, are brought together to hypothesize innovative time-based separation procedures aiming at promoting integration of RPAS in the future ATM system. Findings Benefits of proposed procedures, mainly evaluated in terms of volume reduction of segregated airspace, are quantitatively analyzed on the basis of realistic operational scenarios focusing on monitoring activities in both nominal and emergency conditions. Eventually, the major limits of time-based separation for RPAS are investigated. Practical implications The implementation of the envisaged procedures will be a key enabler in RPAS integration in future ATM integration. Originality/value In the current ATM scenario, separation of RPAS from air traffic is ensured by segregating a large amount of airspace areas with fixed dimensions, dramatically limiting the activities of these vehicles.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-12-18T01:38:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-08-2018-0235
       
  • Leakage flow analysis in the gas turbine shroud gap
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of the study is to measure the mass flow in the flow through the labyrinth seal of the gas turbine and compare it to the results of numerical simulation. Moreover the capability of two turbulence models to reflect the phenomenon will be assessed. The studied case will later be used as a reference case for the new, original design of flow control method to limit the leakage flow through the labyrinth seal. Design/methodology/approach Experimental measurements were conducted, measuring the mass flow and the pressure in the model of the labyrinth seal. It was compared to the results of numerical simulation performed in ANSYS/Fluent commercial code for the same geometry. Findings The precise machining of parts was identified as crucial for obtaining correct results in the experiment. The model characteristics were documented, allowing for its future use as the reference case for testing the new labyrinth seal geometry. Experimentally validated numerical model of the flow in the labyrinth seal was developed. Research limitations/implications The research studies the basic case, future research on the case with a new labyrinth seal geometry is planned. Research is conducted on simplified case without rotation and the impact of the turbine main channel. Practical implications Importance of machining accuracy up to 0.01 mm was found to be important for measuring leakage in small gaps and decision making on the optimal configuration selection. Originality/value The research is an important step in the development of original modification of the labyrinth seal, resulting in leakage reduction, by serving as a reference case.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-11-16T09:45:41Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0038
       
  • Wall distance effect on heat transfer at high flow velocity
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present the results of experimental and numerical research on heat transfer distribution under the impinging jets at various distances from the wall and high jet velocity. This work is a part of the INNOLOT Program financed by National Centre for Research and Development. Design/methodology/approach The air jets flow out from the common pipe and impinge on a surface which is cooled by them, and in this way, all together create a model of external cooling system of low-pressure gas turbine casing. Measurements were carried out for the arrangement of 26 in-line jets with orifice diameter of 0.9 mm. Heat transfer distribution was investigated for various Reynolds and Mach numbers. The cooled wall, made of transparent PMMA, was covered with a heater foil on which a layer of self-adhesive liquid crystal foil was placed. The jet-to-wall distance was set to h = from 4.5 to 6 d. Findings The influence of various Reynolds and Mach numbers on cooled flat plate and jet-to-wall distance in terms of heat transfer effectiveness is presented. Experimental results used for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model development, validation and comparison with numerical results are presented. Practical implications Impinging air jets is a commonly used technique to cool advanced turbines elements, as it produces large convection enhancing the local heat transfer, which is a critical issue in the development of aircraft engines. Originality/value The achieved results present experimental investigations carried out to study the heat transfer distribution between the orthogonally impinging jets from long round pipe and flat plate. Reynolds number based on the jet orifice exit conditions was varied between 2,500 and 4,000; meanwhile, for such Re, the flow velocity in jets was particularly very high, changing from M = 0.56 to M = 0.77. Such flow conditions combination, i.e. the low Reynolds number and very high flow velocity cannot be found in the existing literature.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-11-02T12:48:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0022
       
  • Composite technology development based on helicopter rotor blades
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to document the approach, effort and cost of advance composite technology implementation suited for small and medium enterprises on the example of composite main rotor blade development for ILX-27 helicopter. Design/methodology/approach This work was carried out as part of a development project for main rotor blades used on the ILX 27 helicopter. The paper presents all stages of the design of the blade structure in parallel with composite technology development. The data were gathered and documented during project execution. The stages of R&D work in terms of labor intensity and important processes influencing quality and efficiency were assessed. Findings The paper provides key aspects for successful composite capability introduction. The incurred cost of equipment and staff training is evaluated. The paper also summarized the cost of composite parts manufactured with developed technology. Practical implications The paper provides detail example of composite capability development including basic technologies, processes, equipment and cost of the project. Presented details can be great guidelines for small and medium enterprises with the goal of composite technology introduction for aerostructures design and manufacturing. Originality/value This paper present clear, complete and verified process of composite capability development for aerostructures design and build suited for small and medium enterprises. It presents detail cost, calculated in Polish economy environment, of each phase and final cost of the product.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-31T12:58:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0260
       
  • Less-skilled pilot decision support
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to overview the systems and their elements developing for supporting the less-skilled pi-lots. Design/methodology/approach Several European (like EPATS, SAT-Rdmp, Pplane, Esposa, Clean Sky2) and national projects (NASA SATS, Hungarian SafeFly) develop the personal/small aircraft and personal/small aircraft transportation systems. The projects had analysed the safety aspects, too, and they underlined the aircraft will be controlled by so-called less-skilled pilots (owners, renters), having less experiences. The paper defines the cross-connected controls, introduces the methods of subjective analysis in pilot decision processes, improves the pilot workload model, defines the possible workload management and describes the developing pilot decision support system. Findings Analysing the personal/small aircraft safety aspects, a unique and important safety problem induced by less-skilled pilots has been identified. The considerable simplification of the air-craft control system, supporting the pilot subjective decisions and introducing the pilot work-load management, may eliminate this problem. Research limitations/implications Only the system elements have been used in concept validation tests. Practical implications The developing pilot supporting system in its general form has on - board and ground sub-systems, too, except a series of elements integrated into the pilot cockpit environment and control system. Several system elements (sensors, integrated controls, etc.) might be implement now, but the total system need further studies. The subjective decision process needs further development of the methodology and concept validation. Social implications The system may catalyse the society acceptance of the personal aircraft and their safer piloting, applicability. Originality/value The paper introduces an original supporting system for less-skilled pilots.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-31T12:56:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0269
       
  • Control and monitoring assistant for pilot
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Cooperation of a pilot with an automated aircraft control and monitoring systems is a problem which should be solved designing the whole system. The method of design, which creates an assistant of a pilot, is the purpose of this study. Design/methodology/approach An analysis of human factors shows demands for working environment. An integration method for various technological systems and algorithms is searched. Findings It is possible to make the whole system to become a pilot assistant, which has ability to exchange information with pilot by a dialogue. Structural flexibility is obtained in multi-agent system structure. Practical implications Proposed approach is a solution of how to integrate increasing amount of aircraft systems. It is expected that new form of cooperation fits to human features. Proposed methodology solves problem of simultaneous control by two controllers and cooperative making decisions. Social implications Dialogue between human and the system proposed in this solution will change perception of machines. Originality/value New abilities of machines and proposition of their realisation are presented. Presented solution of simultaneous control and decision-making during aircraft control is a novel approach to human–machine cooperation.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-22T07:40:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0012
       
  • Aerodynamics analysis of rotor’s impact on the aircraft in the
           tandem wing configuration
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to present the results of aerodynamic calculation of the aircraft in tandem wing configuration called VTOL. A presented vehicle combines the capabilities of the classic aircraft and helicopters. The aircraft is equipped with two pairs of tilt-rotors mounted on the tips of the front and the rear wing. The main goal of the presented research was to find the aerodynamic impact of both pairs of tilt-rotors on aerodynamic coefficients of the aircraft. Moreover, the rotors impact on the static stability of the aircraft was investigated too. Design/methodology/approach The CFD analysis was made for the complete aircraft in the tandem wing configuration. The computation was performed for the model of aircraft which was equipped with the four sub-models of the front and rear rotors. They were modeled as the actuator discs. This method allows for computing the aerodynamic impact of rotating components on the aircraft body. All aerodynamic analysis was made by the MGAERO software. The numerical code of the software was based on the Euler flow model. The used numerical method allows for the quick computation of very complex model of aircraft with a satisfied accuracy. Findings The result obtained by computation includes the aerodynamic coefficients which described the impact of the tilt rotors on the aircraft aerodynamic. The influence of the angle of attack, sideslip angle and the change of rotor tilt angle was investigated. Evaluation of the influence was made by the stability margin analysis and the selected stability derivatives computation. Practical implications Presented results could be very useful in the computation of dynamic stability of unconventional aircraft. Moreover, results could be helpful during designing the aircraft in the tandem wing configuration. Originality/value This paper presents the aerodynamic analysis of the unconventional configuration of the aircraft which combines the tandem wing feature with the tilt-rotor advantages. The impact of disturbance generated by the front and rear rotors on the flow around the aircraft was investigated. Moreover, the impact of rotors configuration on the aircraft static stability was found too.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-19T07:56:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0065
       
  • Structural model with controls of a very light airplane for numerical
           flutter calculations
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The finite element model developed for a new-designed aircraft was used to solve some problems of structural dynamics. The key purpose of the task was to estimate the critical flutter velocities of the light airplane by performing numerical analysis with application of MSC Software. Design/methodology/approach Flutter analyses processed by Nastran require application of some complex aeroelastic model integrating two separate components – structural model and aerodynamic model. These sub-models are necessary for determining stiffness, mass and aerodynamic matrices, which are involved in the flutter equation. The aircraft structural model with its non-structural masses was developed in Patran. To determine the aerodynamic coefficient matrix, some simplified aerodynamic body-panel geometries were developed. The flutter equation was solved with the PK method. Findings The verified aircraft model was used to determine its normal modes in the range of 0-30 Hz. Then, some critical velocities of flutter were calculated within the range of operational velocities. As there is no certainty that the computed modes are in accordance with the natural ones, some parametric calculations are recommended. Modal frequencies depend on structural parameters that are quite difficult to identify. Adopting their values from the reasonable range, it is possible to assign the range of possible frequencies. The frequencies of rudder or elevator modes are dependent on their mass moments of inertia and rigidity of controls. The critical speeds of tail flutter were calculated for various combinations of stiffness or mass values. Practical implications The task described here is a preliminary calculational study of normal modes and flutter vibrations. It is necessary to prove the new airplane is free from flutter to fulfil the requirement considered in the type certification process. Originality/value The described approach takes into account the uncertainty of results caused by the indeterminacy of selected constructional parameters.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-17T12:59:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0059
       
  • Source term model for rod vortex generator
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The simulations of grid-resolved rod vortex generators (RVGs) require high computational cost and time. Additionally, the computational mesh topology must be adjusted to rods geometries. The purpose of this study is to propose the new source term model for RVG. Design/methodology/approach The model was proposed by modification of Bender, Anderson, Yagle (BAY) model used to predict flows around different type of vortex generators (VGs) – vanes. Original BAY model was built on lifting line theory. The proposed model was implemented in ANSYS Fluent by means of the user-defined function technique. Additional momentum and energy sources are imposed to transport equations. Findings The computational results of source term model were validated against experimental data and numerical simulation results for grid-resolved rod. It was shown that modified BAY model can be successfully used for RVG in complex cases. An example of BAY model application for RVG on transonic V2C airfoil with strongly oscillating shock waves is presented. Aerodynamic performance predicted numerically by means of both approaches (grid resolved RVG and modeled) is in good agreement, what indicates application opportunity of the proposed model to complex cases. Practical implications Modified BAY model can be used to simulate the influence of RVGs in complex real cases. It allows for time/cost reduction if the location or distribution of RVG has to be optimized on a profile, wing or in the channel. Originality/value In the paper, the new modification of BAY model was proposed to simulate RVGs. The presented results are innovative because of original approach to model RVGs.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-17T12:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0072
       
  • Design and analysis of a feedback loop to regulate the basic parameters of
           the unmanned aircraft
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The motivation to perform research on feedback control system for unmanned aerial vehicles, a fact that each quadrocopter is unstable. Design/methodology/approach For this reason, it is necessary to design a control system which is capable of making unmanned aerial vehicle vertical take-off and landing (UAV VTOL) stable and controllable. For this purpose, it was decided to use a feedback control system with cascaded PID controller. The main reason for using it was that PID controllers are simple to implement and do not use much hardware resources. Moreover, cascaded control systems allow to control object response using more parameters than in a standard PID control. STM32 microcontrollers were used to make a real control system. The rapid prototyping using Embedded Coder Toolbox, FreeRTOS and STM32 CubeMX was conducted to design the algorithm of the feedback control system with cascaded PID controller for unmanned aerial vehicle vertical take-off and landings (UAV VTOLs). Findings During research, an algorithm of UAV VTOL control using the feedback control system with cascaded PID controller was designed. Tests were performed for the designed algorithm in the model simulation in Matlab/Simulink and in the real conditions. Originality/value It has been proved that an additional control loop must have a full PID controller. Moreover, a new library is presented for STM32 microcontrollers made using the Embedded Coder Toolbox just for the research. This library enabled to use rapid prototyping while developing the control algorithms.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-17T01:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0039
       
  • Operations reliability study of small aircraft powered by piston engines
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Europe has adopted Flight Path 2050 (FP 2050) challenge with an objective of 90 per cent of the travelers being able to reach door-to-door European destinations within 4 hours by 2050. The aim can be achieved by reliable, well-organized small aircraft transport (SAT). Analysis of the currently operating small aircraft operational reliability data will support the development of future aircraft designs as well as reliability and safety requirements necessary for commercial operations. Design/methodology/approach The paper provides results of a statistical analysis of small aircraft current operations based on the reported events contained in the Database named European Coordination Centre for Aviation Incident Reporting Systems database. It presents identified safety indicators and focuses particularly on those related to the aviation technology. Findings It has been found that certain airframe and powerplant systems have the biggest influence on flight safety. Practical implications Multidisciplinary analysis of the operational and aircraft components reliability data will help in a proper preparation of the SAT supporting facilities, a design process of new aircraft and improvements of the existing airframe and powerplant systems. Originality/value Presented results are valuable for further developments of the statistical tools facilitating new product introduction.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-10-15T01:57:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-01-2018-0005
       
  • Novel coupled model for power loss prediction in a record-breaking
           electric aircraft motor
    • Abstract: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to devise an analytical approach to calculate conductor winding losses, considering multiple contributing aspects simultaneously. These include the geometric configuration of coil windings, frequency of the electric current and the dependency on the coil temperature, derived studying a coupled fluid–solid model considering the cooling system characteristics. The obtained results allow identifying power loss trends according to such system variables as coolant inlet temperature or overall flow rate of the motor. Design/methodology/approach An easy-to-use coupled analytical approach is applied, which is suitable for rapid estimations of the impact of parameter variation on the resulting conductor winding power losses that facilitates decision-making in the design process of electric aircraft engines. Findings In the considered cooling parameters, the overall conductor winding power losses vary approximately between 6 kW and 7.2 kW. More than 95 per cent of this loss is because of direct current losses. These losses cause the variation in maximal coil temperature ranging between 115°C and 170°C. Practical implications The SP260D motor is set and was currently tested in Extra 330. It recently broke two world records. Social implications One of the current trends in aircraft engineering is electric aircraft. Advantages of electric aircraft include improved manoeuvrability because of greater torque from electric motors, increased safety because of decreased chance of mechanical failure, less risk of explosion or fire in the event of a collision and less noise. There will be environmental and cost benefits associated with the elimination of dependency on fossil fuels and resultant emissions. Originality/value The use of a novel fluid–solid interaction model for predicting conductor winding power loss of the SP260D electric aircraft motor has not been done earlier. A novel alternative derivation of the widely applied Dowell’s formula (Dowell, 1966) is presented for the estimation of proximity losses in square winding conductors.
      Citation: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
      PubDate: 2018-09-27T02:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/AEAT-12-2017-0278
       
 
 
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