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Publisher: Emerald   (Total: 356 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 356 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Life in the Day     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.178, CiteScore: 1)
Accounting Auditing & Accountability J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.71, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Research J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Accounting, Auditing and Accountability J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.187, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Appreciative Inquiry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Autism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dual Diagnosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.21, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Gender Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.16, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Marketing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
African J. of Economic and Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.216, CiteScore: 1)
Agricultural Finance Review     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.406, CiteScore: 1)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 1)
Arts and the Market     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia Pacific J. of Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific J. of Marketing and Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Association of Open Universities J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Education and Development Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Asian J. on Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Review of Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
Aslib J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.725, CiteScore: 2)
Aslib Proceedings     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.603, CiteScore: 2)
Baltic J. of Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.309, CiteScore: 1)
Benchmarking : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.559, CiteScore: 2)
British Food J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 2)
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Business Process Re-engineering & Management J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Career Development Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.527, CiteScore: 2)
China Agricultural Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
China Finance Review Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese Management Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Circuit World     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.246, CiteScore: 1)
Collection and Curation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 1)
COMPEL: The Intl. J. for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.22, CiteScore: 1)
Competitiveness Review : An Intl. Business J. incorporating J. of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.274, CiteScore: 1)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.731, CiteScore: 2)
Corporate Communications An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.453, CiteScore: 1)
Corporate Governance Intl. J. of Business in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.336, CiteScore: 1)
Critical Perspectives on Intl. Business     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.378, CiteScore: 1)
Cross Cultural & Strategic Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 2)
Data Technologies and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327, SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 1)
Development and Learning in Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Digital Library Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Direct Marketing An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Disaster Prevention and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.47, CiteScore: 1)
Drugs and Alcohol Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 1)
Education + Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Education, Business and Society : Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.707, CiteScore: 3)
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Employee Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.551, CiteScore: 2)
Engineering Computations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.444, CiteScore: 1)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
English Teaching: Practice & Critique     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.417, CiteScore: 1)
Equal Opportunities Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 1)
EuroMed J. of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
European Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.585, CiteScore: 3)
European J. of Innovation Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Management and Business Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 1)
European J. of Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.971, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of Training and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.477, CiteScore: 1)
Evidence-based HRM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.537, CiteScore: 1)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.503, CiteScore: 2)
Foresight     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 1)
Gender in Management : An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 1)
Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 990, SJR: 0.261, CiteScore: 1)
Grey Systems : Theory and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Health Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.421, CiteScore: 1)
Higher Education Evaluation and Development     Open Access  
Higher Education, Skills and Work-based Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.426, CiteScore: 1)
History of Education Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.171, CiteScore: 0)
Human Resource Management Intl. Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
IMP J.     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Growth and Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Industrial and Commercial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.301, CiteScore: 1)
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
Industrial Management & Data Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.904, CiteScore: 3)
Industrial Robot An Intl. J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.318, CiteScore: 1)
Info     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Information and Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 1)
Information Technology & People     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.671, CiteScore: 2)
Innovation & Management Review     Open Access  
Interactive Technology and Smart Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Interlending & Document Supply     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Internet Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.645, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. for Lesson and Learning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.324, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. for Researcher Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Accounting and Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.275, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Bank Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Climate Change Strategies and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Clothing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Commerce and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Conflict Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.362, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Contemporary Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.452, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Culture Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.339, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Development Issues     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.387, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.559, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Emergency Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Emerging Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Energy Sector Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.349, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.629, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Ethics and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Event and Festival Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.388, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Gender and Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.445, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Health Care Quality Assurance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.358, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Health Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.247, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.211, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Human Rights in Healthcare     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Information and Learning Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.226, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.197, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Intelligent Unmanned Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.375, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.217, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Leadership in Public Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Intl. J. of Lean Six Sigma     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.71, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Managerial Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.203, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Managing Projects in Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Manpower     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.365, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Mentoring and Coaching in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.426, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Migration, Health and Social Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Operations & Production Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.052, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Organization Theory and Behavior     Hybrid Journal  
Intl. J. of Organizational Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pervasive Computing and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.821, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Productivity and Performance Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Public Sector Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Quality & Reliability Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.492, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality and Service Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.309, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Retail & Distribution Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.742, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Service Industry Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Social Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Sociology and Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.3, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.269, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Structural Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.228, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Sustainability in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.502, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Tourism Cities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.502, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Web Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Wine Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.562, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Workplace Health Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Marketing Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.895, CiteScore: 3)
Irish J. of Occupational Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ISRA Intl. J. of Islamic Finance     Open Access  
J. for Multicultural Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Accounting & Organizational Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.301, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Accounting in Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
J. of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.314, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Advances in Management Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.222, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Accounting Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Research in Higher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Asia Business Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.245, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Assistive Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
J. of Business & Industrial Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.652, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Business Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Capital Markets Studies     Open Access  
J. of Centrum Cathedra     Open Access  
J. of Children's Services     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.243, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.2, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Chinese Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Chinese Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Communication Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.625, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Consumer Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.664, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Corporate Real Estate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.254, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Defense Analytics and Logistics     Open Access  
J. of Documentation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 0.613, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Economic and Administrative Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.733, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.217, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Educational Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.252, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Enabling Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Engineering, Design and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Enterprise Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.827, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Enterprising Communities People and Places in the Global Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.262, CiteScore: 1)
J. of European Industrial Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
J. of European Real Estate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.268, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.33, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Family Business Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
J. of Fashion Marketing and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.608, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal of Marketing
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.971
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 21  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0309-0566
Published by Emerald Homepage  [356 journals]
  • Guest editorial
    • Pages: 402 - 411
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 3, Page 402-411, April 2019.

      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-09T08:22:27Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-03-2019-965
  • When free gifts hurt the promoted product
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The present study aims to demonstrate that providing a free gift upon purchase may induce consumers to devaluate the main product promoted with the offer. The mediating role of persuasion knowledge and the moderating role of consumer shopping orientation are also examined. Design/methodology/approach Three studies with between-subject designs are conducted to test the influence of product–gift fit on evaluations of the promoted product. Findings When a low-fit gift (vs a high-fit gift) is provided as a promotional offer, consumers’ evaluations of the promoted product are undermined. These negative effects are driven by consumers’ activation of persuasion knowledge on the company’s ulterior motive to entice consumers to make a purchase. Such devaluation effects occur especially for consumers with a task-focused shopping orientation, whereas they are mitigated for consumers with an experiential shopping orientation. Research limitations/implications This research extends the conceptualization of product–gift fit and challenges the common claim that free gift promotions maintain the value of the promoted product. By instigating a mechanism underlying consumers’ objections toward low-fit gifts, this research implies that consumers may think of an implicit cost to a free offer based on their knowledge of companies’ tactics. Practical implications Marketers should be aware of the fact that a certain gift may come at a cost for companies and bring about negative inferences regarding the main product. They need not only to select a gift that drives sales but also to be cautious about the gift’s influence on perceptions of the main product. Marketers should ensure that the gift has a good fit with the product while trying to discover a unique gift for consumers. Marketers should also provide an offer that matches shopping orientation of the target consumers. Originality/value This research reveals counterevidence to prior research claiming that free gift promotion does not hurt the perceived value of the promoted product. It enhances a theoretical understanding of devaluation effects and provides useful implications for designing and targeting free gift promotion.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T12:57:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0904
  • Consumers’ online brand-related activities (COBRAs) on SNS brand
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate word of mouth as a consequence and information, entertainment, social interaction and remuneration motivations as antecedents of consuming, contribution and creating behaviours as consumers’ online brand-related activities (COBRAs). Design/methodology/approach As an empirical test of the proposed conceptual model, the quantitative research features an online survey of a sample of 359 German Facebook users. Findings Word of mouth benefits from consuming behaviour but not contributing or creating behaviours. Therefore, brand-related outcomes can be realised solely through the consumption of brand-related content. Consuming behaviour is positively affected by social interaction and entertainment motivations. Research limitations/implications Further research could investigate the conceptual model in other social networks, as well as validate the findings in other cultural settings. Potential moderators also should be considered in further research. Practical implications In addition to tracking contributing and creating behaviours, brand managers should measure consuming behaviour. This paper provides new insights into how consumer motivations influence different COBRA types. Originality/value This study is the first to analyse the distinct effects of consuming, contributing and creating behaviours of SNS brand page followers on word of mouth as an offline brand-related consequence. It also represents the first study to investigate the unique effect of creating behaviour on an offline brand-related outcome. Furthermore, this study is the first to analyse the effects of all four types of motivations on any COBRA type quantitatively with an appropriate statistical analysis that allows distinguishing relevant from irrelevant motivations.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T01:05:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0722
  • Examining digital video advertising (DVA) effectiveness
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Marketers are increasing their use of digital strategies and prioritizing digital tactics, although the effectiveness digital video advertising (DVA) has not been examined empirically. The purpose of this research is to suggest that it is useful for advertisers to consider theories of the past to understand the link between product, advertising format and message processing. Design/methodology/approach To examine DVA effectiveness, this study utilized a 2-product type (utilitarian vs hedonic) × 2-product involvement (low vs high) x 2-platform (laptop vs mobile) mixed-design. Participants were recruited from a research company, who invited members of their panel to participate in an online experiment. Findings DVA for hedonic products resulted in stronger attitudes toward the ad and brand, and intentions to purchase. DVA for low involvement products resulted in stronger purchase intentions and likelihood to opt-in for more information. Moreover, there was an interaction between product category and involvement across all five measures of DVA effectiveness. Research limitations/implications Like TV commercials, DVA is more effective when used with low involvement, hedonic products than with high involvement, utilitarian products. Additionally, the device on which the advertisement is viewed impacts the effectiveness of DVA. Practical implications Companies promoting high-involvement utilitarian products may consider alternative advertising strategies (e.g. MDAs, apps, websites and advergames), as DVA may not be the most effective ad format. Originality/value As technology continues to develop and marketers continue to pursue growing numbers of consumers through digital means and on mobile devices, understanding how device type influences advertising effectiveness is important for media strategy, message placement and marketing metrics. This research takes one step in that direction.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-09T02:14:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2016-0619
  • User participation and valuation in digital art platforms: the case of
           Saatchi Art
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of digital platforms on the contemporary visual art market. Drawing on the theoretical insights of the technology acceptance model, the meaning transfer model and arts marketing literature, the authors conceptualise the role of user participation in creating the meaning and value of contemporary artworks in the online art market. Design/methodology/approach The authors conduct a qualitative study of Saatchi Art as an instrumental case for theorising. It is an online platform for trading visual artworks created by young and emerging artists. The data for this study were collected through direct observation and documentary reviews, as well as user comments and buyer reviews from Saatchi Art. The authors reviewed 319 buyer comments Art and 30 user comments. The collected data are supplemented with various secondary sources such as newspapers, magazines, social media texts and videos. Findings The growth of digital art platforms such as Saatchi Art provides efficiency and accessibility of information to users while helping them overcome the impediments of physical galleries such as geographical constraints and intimidating psychological environments, thereby attracting novice collectors. However, users’ involvement in the process of valuing artworks is limited and still guided by curatorial direction. Research limitations/implications The first limitation of this research is that the data in this research cannot capture interactions between users, though users’ intention to use Saatchi Art is affected by the social influence of other users. Second, this research has not examined artists as users of digital art platforms and their interactions with other types of users. Artists’ intention to use the online platform might be underlined by enhancing their status in the peer group or seeking legitimacy in the field by following other artists and getting recommendations from important referents. Practical implications The outcomes of this research suggest that newcomers in the online art market should acknowledge that users’ intention to use the online art platform is determined by not only technological usefulness of the website but also the symbolic capital of the information provider. Originality/value User participation in the online art market is guided by curatorial direction rather than social influence. This confirms re-intermediation of marketing relationships, highlighting the role of new intermediaries such as digital platforms in arts marketing.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-09T02:14:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0788
  • Frontline employee authenticity and its influence upon adaptive selling
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Frontline employee authenticity has been investigated in relation to both potentially positive and negative outcomes, but largely from the employee perspective. The current paper aims to investigate frontline authenticity in a sales/service context from the customer perspective, specifically examining the influence of adaptive selling in relation to a customer’s perception of salesperson authenticity. Effects on customer’s perceptions of final benefits and value are examined. Design/methodology/approach Survey data collected from customers of an insurance firm in South Korea were used to investigate the proposed model. Customer perceptions of salesperson adaptive selling, authenticity, key benefits delivered and organizational value provision were all captured. Findings The results suggest that authenticity does indeed positively influence perceptions of beneficial outcomes related to a transaction with a salesperson. These benefits then fully mediate the linkage from adaptive selling to a customer’s perceived value, gained from the salesperson’s organization. Research limitations/implications The collection of data from only the customer’s perspective is both a strength and a weakness. Although all of the key variables investigated are important to evaluate via the lens of the customer, such a data collection always introduces the potential problem of common method bias. Practical implications Managers should be aware of the importance of a salesperson behaving in an authentic manner. Although many frontline contexts have desired and scripted narratives for interacting with customers, deriving key benefits through the customers’ eyes may come more strongly by allowing the frontline employee to act naturally. Originality/value Authenticity has been investigated in managerial and brand contexts, but an understanding of its importance in a frontline context is in its early stages. Similarly, the importance of understanding conditions that moderate the effectiveness of adaptive selling is consistent with calls in the literature.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T08:53:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-04-2017-0290
  • The role of marketing capability in linking CSR to corporate financial
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The authors use signaling theory in proposing a conceptual framework that simultaneously incorporates both the mediating effects of corporate reputation (CR) and the moderating effects of marketing capability (MC) into the corporate social responsibility (CSR)–corporate financial performance (CFP) link and theorize a single moderated mediation model. The empirical results of the research confirm the theorized moderated mediation model among the four variables, where a firm’s CR plays a mediating role in the relationship between CSR and CFP, and a firm’s MC moderates the effect of CSR on CR exclusively in the first link. Both theoretical and practical implications of the moderated mediation model are discussed. Design/methodology/approach This study uses structural equation model estimations with the relevant secondary datasets collected from publicly available databases. Findings The empirical results confirm the theorized moderated mediation model in the conceptual framework that uses signaling theory. Specifically, the results identify the moderating role of MC in only the CSR- CR link (but not in the CR and CFP link), such that CR plays a moderated mediation role in the CSR–CFP link. Research limitations/implications The current research is not without limitations. These limitations mainly stem from data sets used in the empirical analyses. More details are discussed in the limitations and future research directions section. Practical implications The empirical findings suggest that a firm needs to develop a consolidated CSR-marketing program, simultaneously satisfying stakeholders’ needs for both the firm’s socially desirable business practices and value-creating marketing programs to increase its CR, which will, in turn, lead to better profitability for the firm. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the current research is the first to use signaling theory in building a conceptual framework that theorizes a moderated mediation model regarding the simultaneous effects of CR and MC on the relationship between CSR and CFP and to empirically test this conceptual framework of the single moderated mediation model. By doing so, the current research clarifies an unanswered question in the literature of whether the underlying mechanism in the CSR–CFP link is based on a mediated moderation or moderated mediation of CR and MC.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T08:22:44Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-08-2017-0526
  • Social media engagement behavior
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Organizations are investing heavily in social media yet have little understanding of the effects of social media content on user engagement. This study aims to determine the distinct effects of informational, entertaining, remunerative and relational content on the passive and active engagement behavior of social media users. Design/methodology/approach Facebook Insights and NCapture are used to extract data from the Facebook pages of 12 wine brands over a 12-month period. A multivariate linear regression analysis investigates the effects of content on consuming, contributing and creating engagement behavior. Findings Results reveal distinct effects of rational and emotional appeals on social media engagement behavior. Rational appeals in social media have a superior effect in terms of facilitating active and passive engagement among social media users, whereas emotional appeals facilitate passive rather than highly active engagement behavior, despite the social and interactive nature of the digital media landscape. Research limitations/implications Results contribute directly to understanding engagement and customer experience with social media. Further theoretical and empirical examination in this area will aid in understanding the dynamic nature of the levels of engagement within social media. Practical implications Findings provide managers and practitioners with guidelines and opportunities for strategic development of social media content to enhance engagement among consumers in a social media forum. Originality/value This study is one of the first to empirically examine the construct of social media engagement behavior. It extends the utility of dual processing theory to demonstrate how rational and emotional message appeals result in online engagement.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T08:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-03-2017-0182
  • Men and their groomed body
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to offer insights into the embodied concerns that underpin men’s personal grooming practices through which they experience their body as the “existential ground of culture and self” and manage their everyday bodily presentation. Design/methodology/approach This study analyses 16 interviews with male consumers of age between 20 and 76. The interpretative analysis is informed by both Merleau-Ponty’s concept of the body-subject and the sociology of the body as discursively constituted. Findings This study proposes four bodily identity positions that link individual personal grooming practices to specific embodied concerns. These bodily identity positions underline the different ways the male body is called upon to carve out a meaningful existence. Research limitations/implications The research findings are not intended to generalise or to be exhaustive. Rather, it is hoped that they may stimulate readers to think more deeply about the role of the body in aiding male consumers to seek maximum grip on their life-world. Practical implications The study findings provide marketers with rich narratives for brand positioning and image development beyond the traditional sexual and/or alpha male-themed marketing and advertising. They also offer preliminary insights for mental health practitioners into how the male body shapes men’s identity development and experiences of well-being. Originality/value The study identifies the different ways personal grooming can become assimilated into an individual’s system of beliefs and practices. It also offers empirical support for a definition of the body as active and acted upon, especially with respect to male grooming.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T07:55:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-04-2017-0291
  • Financial services and ethical hazards: antecedents of repeated ethical
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Prior studies have extensively explored individual examples of unethical behavior in sales organizations but focused little on repeated violation (RV) of ethical codes, particularly when managers develop salesforces. Based on social learning theory (SLT), the authors propose a multilevel model of RV antecedents and suggest that organizational influence (social cues and modeling) and individual factors (observer characteristics and behavioral outcomes) affect RV, especially with increasing recruitment of salespeople. Design/methodology/approach Using data from a leading financial company in Taiwan, the authors analyzed 1,231 records of salespeople’s misbehavior through logistic regression and average marginal effects. Findings Modeling in the organization (i.e. peer misconduct), observer characteristics (i.e. experience concerning job tenure and prior violations) and behavioral outcomes (i.e. information concealment violations) were all found to affect the likelihood of RV, and the interactional effect of organizational size was confirmed. Research limitations/implications This study contributes to ethical decision-making theory by explaining aspects of RV through SLT. Its multilevel model, integrated with organizational strategy theories, adds an SLT-focused paradigm into unethical behavior research by considering vicarious learning and self-learning, alongside the reciprocal determinism of cognition, behavior, and environment. Practical implications Managers should consider socially based patterns of violation when initiating a sales business plan. The chances of RV are increased by unethical models in the organization and offenders’ potential for violations, which is reinforced by social environment. Originality/value This study clarified the key drivers of RV decision-making using SLT and identified an effective sales development strategy to maintain an ethically responsible salesforce.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T07:48:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-05-2017-0345
  • Recycling cooperation and buying status
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to reconcile previous research that has provided mixed results regarding motivation for sustainable behaviors: pure altruism (cooperation) or competitive altruism (status). Drawing on evolutionary altruism and identity-based motivation, the authors propose that a match between pure (competitive) altruism and individualistic (collectivistic) identity goals enhance consumers’ motivations to engage in recycling (green buying). Design/methodology/approach Three experimental studies show how pure and competitive altruism are associated with specific sustainable consumption (Study 1) and how altruism types should be matched with identity goals to motivate sustainable consumption (Studies 2 and 3). Findings Study 1 shows that pure altruism is associated with recycling but not with green buying. Studies 2 and 3 show that pure (competitive) altruism and individualistic (collectivistic) goals lead to higher recycling (green buying) intentions. Research limitations/implications The present research extends previous findings by showing that pure and competitive are indeed associated with specific sustainable behaviors. The authors suggest that the interaction between motives and identity goals can lead to a greater impact on recycling and green buying intentions. Practical implications Public policymakers and companies will benefit by better understanding how specific combinations of altruism types and identity goals can foster recycling or green buying intentions. Originality/value This research is the first to show how matches between pure and competitive altruism types and individualistic and collectivistic identity goals affect consumers’ motivations to engage in recycling and green buying.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T07:40:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0557
  • The effect of others’ outcome valence on spontaneous gift-giving
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose In social networking services gift giving, the decision to send a gift is often initiated by spontaneous news about others, who may have recently experienced fortune or misfortune. The purpose of this paper is to show that the valence of the other’s event can affect the empathy experienced by the giver and that the level of empathy affects gift selection behavior. Design/methodology/approach Study 1 investigated the relationship between empathy and valence of other’s event and the underlying mechanism of changes in self-esteem. Study 2 explored how different levels of empathies lead to different gift selection behavior. Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 using a different measurement approach. Findings Across the three studies, findings consistently suggest that the empathy arising from unexpected news of the others’ fortune was lower compared to that of the others’ misfortune because of threats to self-esteem. In addition, greater empathy prompted gift givers to spend more time and effort in gift selection. Practical implications Understanding how valence of event experienced by others might motivate givers to engage in selecting a gift online can help retailers increase predictive insights for recommendations. Originality/value While past research focused on ritual gift giving, this research examined spontaneous gift giving. The study is also unique in that the empathy gap between the giver and the receiver is a result of the changes in the psychological state of the giver.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T07:30:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0602
  • The consequences of the heritage experience in brand museums on the
           consumer–brand relationship
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate the consequences of the heritage experience in brand museums on the consumer–brand relationship. By highlighting its heritage within a museum, the brand proposes a specific experience that deserves attention because it is based on memory and communal identity, thus creating or strengthening a relationship with consumers. Design/methodology/approach Ethnographic case studies were conducted through direct observation and extensive interviews with 72 visitors at two brand museums, the Fallot Mustard Mill and the House of the Laughing Cow. Findings The results highlight the emergence/strengthening of the relationship between consumers and the brand through the development of intimacy with the brand and the emergence of supportive behaviors toward the brand in the form of commercial support, ambassadorship and volunteering. Research limitations/implications By characterizing and articulating the different relational consequences of visiting a brand museum, this research contributes to the literature dedicated to heritage experiences in consumption contexts and to the literature dedicated to consumer–brand relationships in servicescapes. Practical implications The study shows the necessity of grounding “heritage” in the physical setting of the brand museum to create a meaningful experience for visitors and, in turn, a deep relationship. Managers should treat brand museums as a relational tool in the marketing strategy of the brand and approach them from the perspective of long-term profitability. Originality/value While the literature has examined the spectacular and esthetic experiences brand museums offer, this study is the first to characterize the heritage experience and to document its consequences in terms of the consumer–brand relationship.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T11:18:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-03-2017-0233
  • Role of navigational ability in website visit duration
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Online search effort is routinely measured by the duration of visit at the website as obtained from clicksream data or surveys. Measuring search effort by the time spent at a website assumes that all consumers who search for the same duration obtain the same amount of information. This would be acceptable if all consumers possessed the same navigational ability. In practice, different consumers have different levels of ability to navigate a website. The purpose of this study is to find whether an individual’s navigational ability has an influence on visit duration and purchase likelihood. Design/methodology/approach The authors use visit duration data from a real website which makes it possible to partition the visit duration into the times spent on relevant and irrelevant pages. The data were collected through an experimental study. The authors develop an empirical model, comprising hazard and choice models, to assess the relationship between navigational ability and elements of website usage. Findings A consumer with poor navigational ability spends more time searching on the Web and has lower purchase probability compared to a consumer with superior ability. Research limitations/implications The study is limited to one data. Practical implications This research has managerial implications for website design, such as link-structure, appearance, size and the number of graphics. Originality/value This is the first study to research navigational ability’s influence on online consumer behavior.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T11:13:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0719
  • An embodied approach to consumer experiences: the Hollister brandscape
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to use embodied theory to analyze consumer experience in a retail brandscape, Hollister Co. By taking a holistic, embodied approach, this study reveals how individual consumers interact with such retail environments in corporeal, instinctive and sensual ways. Design/methodology/approach The primary source of data was 97 subjective personal introspective accounts undertaken with the target age group for the store. These were supplemented with in-depth interviews with consumers, managers and employees of Hollister. Findings The authors offer a conceptualization of consumers’ embodied experience, which they term The Immersive Somascape Experience. This identifies four key touch points that evoke the Hollister store experience – each of which reveals how the body is affected by particular relational and material specificities. These are sensory activation, brand materialities, corporeal relationality and (dis)orientation. These may lead to consumer emplacement. Research limitations/implications The authors propose that taking an "intelligible embodiment" approach to consumer experiences in retail contexts provides a deeper, more holistic understanding of the embodied processes involved. They also suggest that more anthropological, body-grounded studies are needed for the unique insights they provide. Finally, they note that there is growing consumer demand for experiences, which, they argue, points to the need for more research from an embodied experience perspective in our field. Practical implications The study reveals the perils and pitfalls of adopting a sensory marketing perspective. It also offers insights into how the body leads in retail brandscapes, addressing a lack in such approaches in the current retailing literature and suggesting that embodied, experiential aspects of branding are increasingly pertinent in retailing in light of the continued growth of on-line shopping. Originality/value Overall, the study shows how an embodied approach challenges the dominance of mind and representation over body and materiality, suggesting an “intelligible embodiment” lens offers unique insights into consumers’ embodied experiences in retail environments.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T11:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0558
  • New technological attributes and willingness to pay: the role of social
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Integrating new technological attributes into existing products is a common way to innovate and is supposed to meet consumers’ functional needs. This paper aims to demonstrate how adding such attributes also increases willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for a product by activating consumers’ social need to feel unique. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected through a quantitative survey based on a nationally representative sample (N = 345). A choice-based conjoint analysis was used to estimate the perceived value of the new technological attribute and WTP a premium. Findings The perceived value of the new technological attribute has a positive effect on WTP a premium only for consumers with a high degree of social innovativeness (linked to their need for uniqueness) because they interpret this innovation as an opportunity to differentiate themselves from others. Practical implications When companies innovate by introducing new technological attributes, their communication should emphasize and trigger these attributes’ high performance and uniqueness. Thus, consumers seeking social differentiation through innovation will be much less sensitive to price and will be more prone to pay a premium for these products. Originality/value The main contribution of this article is to show that integrating and emphasizing a new technological attribute can increase consumers’ WTP a premium beyond that of the attribute’s functional value. Thus, new technological attributes will decrease the price sensitivity of consumers high in social innovativeness and increase their WTP a premium for the product, because they consider it as a means to stand out from others.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T12:01:44Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0834
  • The moderating role of customer engagement experiences in customer
           satisfaction–loyalty relationship
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to examine the moderating role of customer engagement experiences in satisfaction–loyalty relationship in the digital business environment. This paper looks at mobile apps for shopping and travel planning to understand these relationships. Design/methodology/approach This paper includes the conceptualization and validation of the proposed relationship through multiple studies. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted to identify the relevant engagement experiences. Subsequently, multiple quantitative studies were conducted to examine the proposed relationships. Findings The effect of satisfaction on continuance intention is stronger among customers with higher levels of engagement. Further, the propensity to provide electronic word of mouth is non-linear in customers with higher levels of engagement and may not vary directly with satisfaction levels. Research limitations/implications The findings of this study contribute to the emerging literature on customer engagement and mobile app-usage domains. Future studies may examine such a relationship in different businesses and on varied digital platforms. Practical implications The findings of this paper may provide actionable insights to marketers, giving them a mechanism to segment customers based on engagement levels and using discretion while focusing on satisfaction levels among different segments. Originality/value This study validates the proposed moderating role of customer engagement in the satisfaction–loyalty relationship. The non-linear relationship between satisfaction and loyalty is also demonstrated.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0895
  • Impairment effects of creative ads on brand recall for other ads
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The creativity-based facilitation effect, well documented by previous research, shows that creative advertisements (ads) are more memorable than regular (or less creative) ads, that is, creativity facilitates memory. This current research aims to extend our understanding by investigating the impact of creativity on regular ads and competitive advertising. It examines whether creative ads impair the memorability of regular ads to determine whether a “creativity-based impairment effect” exists. Design/methodology/approach Three experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 tested creativity-based impairment effects in brand recall. Experiment 2 replicated and validated the impairment effect in recall, using a different presentation order of ads. In Experiment 3, effects of creative ads on competing vs non-competing brands were examined. Findings Results found that creative ads impaired the brand recall of regular ads, creative ads impaired the recall of competing brands more than non-competing brands and creative ads were recalled earlier in top-of-mind recall positions. Research limitations/implications Future research may look at whether different memory measures (e.g. recognition), different proportions of creative ads, and ads of familiar vs unfamiliar brands produce differential impairment effects. Practical implications One suggestion from this research could be to not only copy-test your own brand’s advertising, but also test the advertising of other brands so that the target ad’s relative levels of creativity can be assessed before media buying. As a result of this testing, when the brand identifies any potential impairment effects, the identified creative ads could then be tracked in terms of media placement, providing a guide of where “not to schedule” advertising. Originality/value This research makes an important theoretical contribution as the first to explore impairment effects in the context of creative advertising. In doing so, it offers important managerial insights for regular and competitive advertising.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0674
  • The influence of place on health-care customer creativity
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose When using a service, customers often develop their own solutions by integrating resources to solve problems and co-create value. Drawing on innovation and creativity literature, this paper aims to investigate the influence of place (the service setting and the customer setting) on customer creativity in a health-care context. Design/methodology/approach In a field study using customer diaries, 200 ideas from orthopedic surgery patients were collected and evaluated by an expert panel using the consensual assessment technique (CAT). Findings Results suggest that place influences customer creativity. In the customer setting, customers generate novel ideas that may improve their clinical health. In the service setting, customers generate ideas that may improve the user value of the service and enhance the customer experience. Customer creativity is influenced by the role the customer adopts in a specific place. In the customer setting customers were more likely to develop ideas involving active customer roles. Interestingly, while health-care customers provided ideas in both settings, contrary to expectation, ideas scored higher on user value in the service setting than in the customer setting. Research limitations/implications This study shows that customer creativity differs in terms of originality, user value and clinical value depending on the place (service setting or customer setting), albeit in one country in a standardized care process. Practical implications The present research puts customer creativity in relation to health-care practices building on an active patient role, suggesting that patients can contribute to the further development of health-care services. Originality/value As the first field study to test the influence of place on customer creativity, this research makes a novel contribution to the growing body of work in customer creativity, showing that different places are more/less favorable for different dimensions of creativity. It also relates customer creativity to health-care practices and highlights that patients are an untapped source of creativity with first-hand knowledge and insights, importantly demonstrating how customers can contribute to the further development of health-care services.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:53:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0723
  • Olfactory cues and purchase behavior: consumer characteristics as
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to examine the relationship between consumer characteristics and the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior. Design/methodology/approach The theories of the effects of consumer decision-making, olfaction and sensory marketing on purchase behavior are applied using loyalty card data collected through an experiment. These data are analyzed using quantitative methods. Findings The presence of an olfactory cue has a positive impact on purchase behavior, as measured by product-category sales. Results indicate that in sales promotion, olfactory cues are most efficient in men who have hedonistic or quality-oriented decision-making styles. Research limitations/implications This paper is the first to study the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior when the interactions between the individual characteristics of consumers are considered. The study broadens extant frameworks of sensory marketing by placing the consumer in the central position as the processor of sensory cues. The work pioneers the integration of consumer’s decision-making style (CDMS) as one of the moderating factors in the process. Practical implications The results encourage retailers and practitioners to consider CDMS – and not only gender or age – when using olfactory cues in sales promotions. Hopefully, this paper will inspire retailers to think of the more psychological aspects of consumer behavior and decision-making when planning their loyalty card systems. Originality/value This paper is the first to study the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior when the interactions between the individual characteristics of consumers are considered. Addressing the decision-making style in addition to demographics is a novel approach, contrasting with earlier studies that merely focused on olfactory acuity.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2017-0918
  • A goal-directed interactionist perspective of counterfeit consumption
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose To provide a keener understanding of consumers’ decision-making processes and motivations regarding deliberate counterfeit consumption, this paper aims to integrate insights from several theoretical perspectives and the relevant literature. It proposes an overlooked yet important goal-directed interactionist perspective and identifies and tests a novel construct called consumers’ perceived counterfeit detection (PCD) in a proposed model. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a comprehensive review of the literature to justify its proposed perspective, PCD construct and model, followed by in-depth interviews and survey data to test its proposed model and hypotheses. Findings Besides the theoretical insights derived from the proposed goal-directed interactionist perspective, empirical results demonstrate the important role that PCD plays in counterfeit consumption. In fact, PCD not only negatively and directly affects consumers’ intentions to deliberately purchase counterfeits but also weakens the positive effect consumers’ attitudes have on their purchase intentions. Research limitations/implications This research makes several theoretical contributions. First and foremost, differing from other approaches (e.g. personal, economic and ethical), this research justifies an overlooked yet important goal-directed interactionist perspective and develops a refined and substantive framework including its proposed PCD construct. This framework provides opportunities to investigate behavior as an interpretative and dynamic process, vitalizing the domain of counterfeit-consumption behavior studies in particular and ethical behavior research in general. Second, at the construct level, the proposed hypothetical construct of PCD comprises the building blocks for knowledge advancement. Finally, rather than testing theories incrementally (such as the theory of planned behavior and the theory of reasoned action), this research fosters the development of new ideas regarding our proposed goal-directed interactionist perspective and PCD construct, which can be applied to other contexts and constructs that share the same or similar mechanisms and features. Practical implications According to the proposed goal-directed interactionist perspective, this research offers insights regarding why understanding consumers’ different goals (e.g. social-adjustive vs value-expressive; attainment vs maintenance) is important for marketers; how consumers’ goals interplay with their choices through their actions and consumption (e.g. compete vs substitute); and why, how and when their goals interact with their actions, choices and situations during their goal-setting, goal-striving and goal-realization stages that may lead to unethical behavior. At the construct level, the better marketers understand PCD, the more effectively they can use it. At the level of relationships and procedures, this research can offer important insights for businesses that look for “best practices” in the fight against deliberate counterfeit consumption. Originality/value First, by integrating insights from goal-directed behavior, self-regulatory theories and interactionist theory, this paper proposes its own goal-directed interactionist perspective. It then develops and tests a refined and substantive model of counterfeit decision-making in which PCD stands as a novel construct. The paper’s proposed perspective and model provide opportunities to investigate behavior as an interpretative and dynamic process, taking the domain of ethical behavior research (e.g. counterfeit-consumption behavior) from descriptive frameworks to testable theories.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:49:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-07-2017-0455
  • Value-in-acquisition: an institutional view
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose By combining consumer culture theory and service dominant logic, this study proposes that value might be understood as value-in-acquisition, such that value outcomes result from the acquisition process in which broader social forces shape the exchange process. Design/methodology/approach This study addresses low-income consumers, for whom societal arrangements strongly determine service interactions. Qualitative interviews reveal service value processes and outcomes for low-income consumers during acquisition processes. Findings For low-income consumers, inclusion, status, resource access and emotional relief represent key value outcomes. Important value processes shape those value outcomes, reflecting broader societal arrangements at macro, meso and micro levels. Marketing constitutes an institutional arrangement that establishes an empowered “consumer” role. Value processes are hindered if consumers sense that their agency in this role is diminished, because marketing interactions give precedence to other social roles. Research limitations/implications Marketing should be studied as an institutional arrangement that shapes value creation processes during acquisition. Micro-level value processes have important implications for service quality and service value. Value outcomes thus might be designed in the acquisition process, not just for the offering. Practical implications The acquisition process for any good or service should be designed with its own value proposition, separate to the core product or service. Careful design of value processes during acquisition could mitigate conflict between social roles and those of consumption. Originality/value There is value in the acquisition process, independent of the value embedded in the goods and services.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:48:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0910
  • Drivers and inhibitors of national stakeholder engagement with place brand
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to explore the factors that drive and inhibit national stakeholder organisations’ engagement with an established an umbrella place brand identity (PBI) in the context of country branding, during the PBI implementation stage. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a case study approach to examine Australia’s current country brand identity initiative: Australia Unlimited, as an example of PBI. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with senior executives (n = 39) representing 30 Australian national organisation stakeholders across a range of sectors (i.e. government agencies, public and private organisations and industry associations). Findings The tension between the PBI and the brand identity of the stakeholders’ own organisation was an emergent finding at the heart of potential disengagement. Moreover, stakeholders’ perception of the leadership of the organisation managing the place brand plays a key role in influencing their engagement with PBI. Research limitations/implications The findings contribute to place marketing theory by identifying drivers and inhibitors of stakeholders’ engagement that originated from the PBI itself (PBI-centred factors) and from the stakeholder organisations (stakeholder-centred factors). Practical implications The findings provide a practical framework for place brand managing organisations to foster stakeholders’ engagement during the implementation stage of a PBI initiative. Originality/value Place branding research to date has focussed primarily on resident stakeholders’ engagement in the development of PBI initiatives. This paper contributes to knowledge by proposing a framework that encompasses the drivers and inhibitors of national stakeholder organisations’ engagement with PBI during its implementation phase.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-04-2017-0275
  • Consumption-oriented engagement in social network sites
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Mounting empirical evidence shows that engagement in social network sites (SNSs) could have a negative impact on users’ personal well-being. However, studies of the undesirable effects of SNS use have not examined SNSs as a channel for users to share consumption information and experiences. To extend prior research, this study aims to examine the impact of consumption-oriented engagement (COE) in SNSs on young adult consumers’ personal well-being in terms of anxiety and self-esteem, as well as excessive spending. Design/methodology/approach Surveys were the primary means of data collection from a sample of young college students (N = 900). Moderated hierarchical regression was used to test the hypotheses. Findings COE is positively associated with anxiety and excessive spending and negatively associated with self-esteem. Social comparison mediates these relationships, and individuals’ materialistic values moderate the mediation. Research limitations/implications This study demonstrates the psychological and behavioral outcomes of consumer socialization via digital media among young adult consumers. It introduces and empirically validates social comparison as a theoretical explanation for the effects of COE. In addition, it validates materialistic values as a personal trait that moderates the effects of COE. Practical implications The study validates COE as a key precursor to the well-being of young adult users of SNSs and social comparison as the mediator. With this understanding, public policies can be designed to mitigate the root cause of the negative impact of SNS use. Originality/value Findings shed light on the negative repercussions of engagement in SNSs in the consumption domain and provide an impetus for educators, researchers and policymakers to make further efforts to gain a thorough understanding of the pitfalls of social media use.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:47:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0809
  • In “likes” we trust: likes, disclosures and firm-serving
           motives on social media
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine when and how the number of “likes” can exert significant influence on consumer evaluations of social media advertising. It sheds a novel perspective on how social media “likes”, advertising disclosures and the presence of firm-serving motives influence advertising effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach Study 1 examines how the number of “likes” influences consumer attitudes towards the sponsoring brand by strengthening advertising credibility, when social media ads are effectively (vs non-effectively) disclosed. Study 2 further establishes how the influence of the number of “likes” for effectively disclosed ads varies depending on whether the company states (vs does not state) its firm-serving motives. Findings The authors found that a social media ad displayed with a higher number of “likes” is perceived to be more credible, which can then yield more positive attitudes towards the brand. However, the use of effective disclosures moderates this relationship. To offset this effect, companies can restore the value of “likes” by stating their firm-serving motives openly when they develop social media advertising messages. Research limitations/implications The study offers a novel perspective on how consumers evaluate the number of displayed “likes” in the context of other social media features. Practical implications The study shows how social media marketers can become more effective in taking advantage of the number of “likes” that they accumulate on social networking site platforms. Originality/value The study illustrates a novel mechanism behind how and when the number of “likes” can influence the effectiveness of social media advertising.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:43:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0883
  • “We don’t all see it the same way”
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Country-of-origin (COO) effects on product evaluations have been widely applied in international marketing, albeit with mixed results. One stream of research values its importance in decision-making, whereas another stream posits that COO has little effect when compared to the greater diagnosticity of other product attributes. This suggests that how and along what other attributes (extrinsic or intrinsic) COO is presented play an important role in its relative impact. The purpose of this paper is to address these mixed results by applying one such framing perspective based on evaluation mode (i.e. separate versus joint evaluation) and preference reversals and their biasing effects to a study of COO and willingness to pay (WTP) for a product. Design/methodology/approach A three between-subject (joint evaluation, separate evaluation-domestic and separate evaluation-foreign) experimental design was used to assess whether evaluation mode moderates COO effects on product evaluations. Findings Similar results are mirrored across three/four countries. When evaluated separately, consumers value an inferior domestic-made product more than a superior foreign-made one. However, when the domestic- and foreign-made products are presented in joint evaluations, the better foreign-made product is favored. Research limitations/implications A number of limitations in terms of countries, consumers within the countries and products studied are addressed along with future research that may address these factors and test the robustness of domestic–foreign preference reversals. Practical implications The results of this study reveal practical insights to marketers. Marketing managers for better-quality foreign brands are encouraged to engage in comparative advertising appeals and sell their products in retail stores that hold both domestic and foreign products, whereas marketers for domestic products should create a selling environment that facilitate only a separate evaluation mode to enhance WTP. Originality/value This paper provides insights on the diagnosticity of COO when presented alongside intrinsic attributes and the role of evaluation mode in shaping consumers’ preferences. This research suggests that COO has different effects in different evaluation modes, thus explaining some of the mixed results in literature regarding its importance. On the one hand, COO has a decisive effect on product evaluations when products are presented separately. On the other hand, COO effect is overridden by intrinsic cues, which become more apparent when products are presented jointly. Overall, these results demonstrate the robustness of the preference reversal effect across countries and products.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:38:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-04-2017-0300
  • The more I err, the less I pay
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to investigate the effects of firm characteristics and crisis characteristics on remedies offered to consumers by firms in the event of a product recall crisis. Design/methodology/approach Published data on 868 product recalls in the US toy industry from 1988 to 2011 have been used to investigate the effects of firm experience in product recalls, type of firm (company versus intermediary) and product recall severity in predicting remedies offered to consumers in the event of a product recall. Findings The findings show that firm recall experience, firm type and recall severity are negatively associated with recall remedies offered. Specifically, firms offer lower remedies if they have higher recall experience, if they are upstream firms in the supply chain (farther from consumers) and if the recall is more severe. Research limitations/implications This study focuses on the toy industry and does not consider product complexity, firm reputation and the role of external regulatory agencies in the prediction of remedies offered by firms. Future research may extend this study to include the above factors. Practical implications Offering a high remedy to consumers of a recalled product may be a responsible decision by a firm, but it may also attract shareholder wrath. The study has implications for managing multiple goals in product recall crisis management. Originality/value Studies focused on issues of interest to consumers during a recall crisis, such as swift recalls and appropriate remedies, are limited. This study contributes to the understanding of the antecedents of recall remedies.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2017-0964
  • Who’s pulling the strings'
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Firms increasingly rely on content marketing to trigger user engagement in social media brand communities. The purpose of this paper is to examine how three generic types of marketer-generated content (affiliative, injunctive and utilitarian content) drive user engagement by considering distinct motivational paths and the role of users’ preference for intimate (vs broad) social networks. Design/methodology/approach The authors conduct a field survey and a scenario experiment among social media users across different brands from three different product categories. They examine the impact of marketer-generated content on user engagement while considering the moderating role of network intimacy (i.e. the mutual confiding within a user’s social network in terms of small social circles) and the mediating role of user motivations (i.e. autonomous vs controlled motivation for community membership). Findings The findings show that affiliative content (i.e. content that highlights shared values) drives user engagement through autonomous motivation, and utilitarian content (i.e. content that highlights tangible benefits) drives user engagement through controlled motivation. Notably, injunctive content (i.e. content that demands specific user behavior) is not a promising instrument to increase user engagement in social media brand communities when not targeted correctly. Research implications The authors link three generic content types derived from literature on communal systems to user engagement, demonstrate the motivational underpinnings of their translation into engagement behavior and show that network intimacy can explain why the same content type can impact user engagement through two motivational paths. Practical implications The authors present three types of content that marketers can craft to trigger users to engage with a brand’s social media community and show when this content is most effective and why. By examining the moderating role of network intimacy, this research aims at providing targeting implications to social media marketers. Originality/value This research provides new insights on the effectiveness of marketer-generated content. The authors reveal two motivational paths that compete in explaining the overall effectiveness of different types of marketer-generated content to fuel user engagement. The authors further demonstrate that these relationships depend on the intimacy of a user’s circle of online friends.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:27:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0777
  • Rethinking some of the rethinking of partial least squares
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is an important statistical technique in the toolbox of methods that researchers in marketing and other social sciences disciplines frequently use in their empirical analyses. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on several misconceptions that have emerged as a result of the proposed “new guidelines” for PLS-SEM. The authors discuss various aspects related to current debates on when or when not to use PLS-SEM, and which model evaluation metrics to apply. In addition, this paper summarizes several important methodological extensions of PLS-SEM researchers can use to improve the quality of their analyses, results and findings. Design/methodology/approach The paper merges literature from various disciplines, including marketing, strategic management, information systems, accounting and statistics, to present a state-of-the-art review of PLS-SEM. Based on these findings, the paper offers a point of orientation on how to consider and apply these latest developments when executing or assessing PLS-SEM-based research. Findings This paper offers guidance regarding situations that favor the use of PLS-SEM and discusses the need to consider certain model evaluation metrics. It also summarizes how to deal with endogeneity in PLS-SEM, and critically comments on the recent proposal to adjust PLS-SEM estimates to mimic common factor models that are the foundation of covariance-based SEM. Finally, this paper opposes characterizing common concepts and practices of PLS-SEM as “out-of-date” without providing well-substantiated alternatives and solutions. Research limitations/implications The paper paves the way for future discussions and suggests a way forward to reach consensus regarding situations that favor PLS-SEM use and its application. Practical implications This paper offers guidance on how to consider the latest methodological developments when executing or assessing PLS-SEM-based research. Originality/value This paper complements recently proposed “new guidelines” with the aim of offering a counter perspective on some strong claims made in the latest literature on PLS-SEM. It also clarifies some misconceptions regarding the application of PLS-SEM.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:22:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2018-0665
  • Consumers and technology in a changing world: the perspective from
           subsistence marketplaces
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective on consumers and technology in a changing world using insights gained from subsistence marketplaces. Consumers in a changing world are on different parts of the economic spectrum and are also reflected in contexts of poverty that is termed subsistence marketplaces. “Data” comes from pioneering the subsistence marketplaces stream of research, education and social enterprise. Design/methodology/approach The authors study the intersection of poverty and marketplaces, beginning at the micro-level, and take a bottom-up approach to deriving implications. Findings The authors cover both aspects – what micro-level insights about thinking, feeling and coping mean for technology perceptions and usage in general and what specific insights are derived for designing and implementing solutions that have bearing on the use of technology. In the course of all endeavors in research, education and social enterprise, technology, particularly information and communications technology, has been central. Research limitations/implications The authors discuss implications for research at the confluence of a variety of uncertainties inherent in the context of subsistence marketplaces, in environmental issues and climate change and in the nature and speed of technological change and progress. Practical implications In this paper, the authors discuss what subsistence marketplaces mean for consumers and technology in a changing world, lessons learned for the design and development of technological solutions, technological innovation from subsistence marketplaces and a broader discussion of the importance of bottom-up approaches to the intersection of subsistence marketplaces and technological solutions. Originality/value The authors use insights developed from pioneering the arena of subsistence marketplaces and creating synergies between research, education and social enterprise.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:18:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0826
  • Markets, consumers and society in the age of heteromation
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is not to present a crystal ball, but to outline the conceptual strands – some already evident, others only dimly perceivable in emergent forms – that might drive the coming transformations and to weave the strands into a preliminary framework. The stance (and the political perspective) of the paper is informed by critical marketing studies (Tadajewski, 2010), the subfield of marketing that is vibrant in Europe but not yet well developed in other regions of the world. Design/methodology/approach This is a theoretical contribution, relying on discursive analysis. Findings Before an era of full and all-pervasive automation arrives, there will be a decades-long transitional stage of heteromation. In the heteromation, machines and humans will have to coexist adaptively. The spheres of production and consumption will be affected radically by the patterns of people-machine interactions, including coexistence, cooperation, adaptation, adjustments and conflicts. As the connective tissue between the spheres of production and consumption, marketing would also undergo major transformations in the age of heteromation. Research limitations/implications The paper lays out the grounding concepts useful for how heteromation and the subsequent era of full automation could impact organizations and markets. It provides the stepping-stone for further work on how marketing could, would or should transform in relation to the challenges of heteromation and automation. Practical implications The paper offers some guideposts for public policymakers, public intellectuals and thought leaders and social activists. It also points to action options for visionary corporate leaders and for researchers wishing to explore the heteromation–automation futures from critical-social perspectives. Originality/value Using the concept of heteromation, this paper presents hitherto unexplored and critical implications of potentially epochal transformations for marketing.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T10:03:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0916
  • Making the world a better place by making better products
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine whether consumers respond differently to different types of eco-innovations and to explore how and under what conditions eco-friendly consumer innovativeness (ECI) impacts consumers’ perception and adoption intentions. Design/methodology/approach Two online experiments with real consumers in the USA were conducted to test the hypothesized relationships. Two eco-innovation products were examined: a connected vacuum cleaner (Study 1) and an innovative smartphone (Study 2). Findings First, consumers tend to express more positive product beliefs, higher preferences and stronger adoption intentions toward resource use elimination innovations compared with the other types of eco-innovations across two product categories. Although consumers are not willing to pay more, they would adjust their payment equity by increasing consumption levels for resource use elimination innovations. Second, this research demonstrates ECI affects adoption intentions via formulating consumer perceptions of product eco-friendliness. Perceived trade-offs between eco-friendly benefits and product effectiveness strengthens the positive effect of ECI while weakening the impact of perceived product eco-friendliness on adoption intentions. Research limitations/implications Future studies may validate and extend the results for marketing communication to different types of eco-friendly innovative consumers to determine which marketing messages best match the perceptions and preferences of certain eco-friendly innovative consumers. Practical implications This study offers useful insights for strategic research-and-development investment and decision-making processes in selecting the best-suited approaches to developing eco-innovations and maximizing their success in the commercialization phase. Specifically, firms should place greater emphasis on resource use elimination innovation, which could evoke more positive consumer responses than resource use efficiency innovations and resource use substitution innovations. Moreover, it is important to improve the segmentation of the early adopters in the eco-innovation market with respect to specific types of eco-innovations so that marketers can distinctively address eco-friendly innovative consumers that best fit the potential user profile of their products. Originality/value The current research is novel as neither an empirically nor a theoretically founded framework has been suggested to examine how and why consumers respond differently to different types of eco-innovations. The findings shine new lights on eco-innovation research by providing useful insights into the underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which ECI affects consumers’ responses.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T10:02:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0888
  • Hallowed be thy brand: measuring perceived brand sacredness
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to capture the strength of consumer’s perceived brand sacredness. The authors developed and validated a measurement scale composed of three related dimensions: supremacy, mesmerization and communitas. Design/methodology/approach Six empirical studies were conducted to identify the brand sacredness construct domains, develop and validate the measurement and test the nomological network between brand sacredness and it antecedent and outcome variables. Findings Results from a series of studies provided robust supports for the scale structure and demarcated the construct domains from other consumer–brand relationship measures. Testing of nomological validity of the scale further showed that brand sacredness is influenced by brand love, emotional brand attachment and brand loyalty and, meanwhile, provides explanatory power to predict theoretically related outcome variables, including transcendent consumer experience, defense of brand, incorporation brand in extended-self, brand ritualism and brand evangelism. Research limitations/implications This study is based on cross-sectional survey data obtained from respondents belonging to well-established brand communities. A longitudinal study involving recent and emerging brand communities could provide an enhanced understanding of the evolution of brand sacredness with time, including brand sacralizaton process as well as possible de-sacralization process. Practical implications The study provides significant insights for brand managers to create an enduring brand and ascertain that consumers find their affiliations with the brand and make it the sacred core of their lives by fandom management through brand evangelism. Originality/value This study adds to the theory on consumer–brand relationship realm by delineating the domains of brand sacredness with its defining feature of extraordinary experience transcending an ordinary brand. It contributes to the existing body of branding and customer-based brand equity literature by incorporating the spiritual aspects of faith, passion and devotion into measuring the value of a brand.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T10:01:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-08-2017-0551
  • Technology push without a patient pull
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Policymakers push online health services delivery, relying on consumers to independently engage with online services. Yet, a growing cluster of vulnerable patients do not engage with or disengage from these innovative services. There is a need to understand how to resolve the tension between the push of online health service provision and unengagement by a contingent of health-care consumers. Thus, this study aims to explore the issue of digital unengagement (DU) (i.e. the active or passive choice to engage or disengage) with online health services to better inform service design aligned to actual consumer need. Design/methodology/approach Adopting a survey methodology, a group of 486 health services consumers with a self-declared (acute or chronic) condition were identified. Of this group, 110 consumers were classified as digitally unengaged and invited to write open-ended narratives about their unengagement with online health services. As a robustness check, these drivers were contrasted with the drivers identified by a group of digitally engaged consumers with a self-declared condition (n = 376). Findings DU is conceptualized, and four levels of DU drivers are identified. These levels represent families of interrelated drivers that in combination shape DU: subjective incompatibility (misalignment of online services with need, lifestyle and alternative services); enactment vulnerability (personal vulnerabilities around control, comprehension and emotional management of online services); sharing essentiality (centrality of face-to-face co-creation opportunities plus conflicting social dependencies); and strategic scepticism (scepticism of the strategic value of online services). Identified challenges at each level are the mechanisms through which drivers impact on DU. These DU drivers are distinct from those of the digitally engaged group. Research limitations/implications Adding to a nascent but growing literature on consumer unengagement, and complementing the engagement literature, the authors conceptualize DU, positioning it as distinct from, not simply a lack of, consumer engagement. The authors explore the drivers of DU to provide insight into how DU occurs. Encapsulating the dynamic nature of DU, these drivers map the building blocks that could help to address the issue of aligning the push of online service provision with the pull from consumers. Practical implications This paper offers insights on how to encourage consumers to engage with online health services by uncovering the drivers of DU that, typically, are hidden from service designers and providers impacting provision and uptake. Social implications There is a concern that there will be an unintentional disenfranchisement of vulnerable segments of society with a generic policy emphasis on pushing online services. The paper sheds light on the unforeseen personal and social issues that lead to disenfranchisement by giving voice to digitally unengaged consumers with online health services. Originality/value Offering a novel view from a hard-to-reach digitally unengaged group, the conceptualization of DU, identified drivers and challenges inform policymakers and practitioners on how to facilitate online health service (re)engagement and prevent marginalization of segments of society.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:59:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0692
  • Contrasting perspectives – practitioner’s viewpoint on personalised
           marketing communication
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into personalisation from a practitioner’s perspective to bridge the practitioner-academia gap and steer the research agenda. A wide scope of research has investigated personalisation from a consumer perspective. The current study aims at bridging the consumer and practitioner perspective by entering into a dialogue about the practical application of personalisation. It takes the personalisation process model by Vesanen and Raulas (2006) as the starting point. Design/methodology/approach Lead by the exploratory character of the study, semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with marketers, market researchers and online privacy specialists. Findings The results showcase how practitioners view the issues present in consumer research. First, they are overly positive about personalisation. Second, they are aware of constraining factors; findings showcase best practices to mitigate them. Finally, practitioners are aware of controversies surrounding personalisation and thus engage in ethical discussions on personalisation. Research limitations/implications This study shows that practitioners have somewhat different believes about the utility and appreciation of personalised marketing practices than consumers. It also shows awareness of some of the key concerns of consumers, and that such awareness translates into organisational and technological solutions that can even go beyond what is currently mandated by law. Six insights into personalised marketing as well as expectations for the future of the phenomenon are discussed to steer the research agenda. Practical implications Insights into the practice of personalisation contribute to a shared understanding of this phenomenon between involved actors, such as marketers, advertisers, and consumer representatives. In addition, implications for lawmakers are discussed, suggesting that the implementation of privacy laws needs more clarity and that actions aiming at improving consumer knowledge are needed. Originality/value The paper contributes to the literature first, by drafting a descriptive map of personalisation from a practitioners’ perspective and contrasting it with the perspective stemming from consumer research and, second, by offering insights into the current developments and direct implications for practice and future research.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:58:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0896
  • Rules of (household) engagement: technology as manager, assistant and
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Practitioners need to understand how households will engage with connected-home technologies or risk the failure of these innovations. Current theory does not offer sufficient explanation for how households will engage; hence, this paper aims to address an important gap by examining how households set “rules of engagement” for connected-home technologies in the context of electricity use and monitoring. Design/methodology/approach A review of the extant psychology, technology and engagement literature is conducted and yields two research questions for exploration. The research questions are addressed via 43 in-depth household interviews. Analysis includes thematic analysis and computerized text analysis. Findings The results include a typology of technology engagement (the “PIP typology”) and discuss three main roles for technology in assisting households: intern, assistant and manager. Key contributions are as follows: consumers in household settings may experience “compromised engagement” where the perceived middle option is selected even if no-one selected that option originally; households open to using connected-home technologies are often taking advantage of their ability to “delegate” engagement to technology, and because consumers humanize technology, they also expect technology to follow social roles and boundaries. Research limitations/implications Future research may examine the PIP typology quantitatively and/or in different contexts and would benefit from a longitudinal study to examine how household technology engagement evolves. Four research propositions are provided, which may form the basis for future research. Practical implications Recommendations for practitioners are presented regarding the benefits of keeping consumers at the heart of connected-home technology goods and services. Specific design principles are provided. Originality/value This paper fulfills the need to understand how households will engage with connected-home technologies and the roles this technology may fulfill in the complex household service system.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0759
  • Consumer engagement on Twitter: perceptions of the brand matter
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to develop and empirically test a theoretical framework of consumer engagement with brands on Twitter. Design/methodology/approach Depth interviews were conducted to gain initial insights into consumer engagement on Twitter. Using a blend of the extant literature and interview findings, a theoretical framework, including antecedents, outcomes and moderators, was developed and empirically tested using cross-sectional survey data. Findings Brand customer service and brand intimacy positively influence consumer engagement on Twitter, and consumer engagement mediates the relationship between these antecedents and consumer co-promotion intentions. Consumer perceptions of a brand account’s popularity on Twitter and their likelihood of adding value to a brand are found to be moderators within the conceptual framework. Research limitations/implications Caution needs to be exercised in generalising these findings beyond the Twitter context, and the use of a cross-sectional survey means causality cannot be inferred. Practical implications Brands need to be perceived as providing excellent customer service and intimate brand knowledge on Twitter to drive consumer engagement and co-promotion. Brands are recommended to develop strategies to increase their Twitter following, including rewarding consumers for their contributions on the brand’s Twitter account to signal that they are valued. Originality/value The authors add to the emerging literature on consumer engagement on social media in two key ways, by developing and testing a theoretical framework of consumer engagement in the Twitter context and by identifying moderators in the consumer engagement process on Twitter.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:54:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0772
  • Fostering brand engagement and value-laden trusted B2B relationships
           through digital content marketing
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how digital content marketing (DCM) users can be engaged with business-to-business (B2B) brands and determine how such engagement leads to value-laden trusted brand relationships. Methodology Through an online survey, data were collected from the email marketing list of a large B2B brand, and the hypothesised research model was analysed using covariance-based structural equation modelling. Findings This paper identifies a bundle of helpful brand actions – providing relevant topics and ideas; approaching content with a problem solving orientation; as well as investing in efforts to interpret, analyse and explain topics through DCM – to foster relationship value perceptions and brand trust. Critically however, cognitive-emotional brand engagement is shown to be a necessary requirement for converting these actions into relationship value perceptions. Research limitations/implications This paper furthers the understanding of the dual role of helpful brand actions in functionally oriented DCM. Additionally, this paper offers evidence of the central role of cognitive-emotional brand engagement in influencing value-laden customer–brand relationships. Practical implications This paper introduces a bundle of helpful brand actions that forms the basis for the dual roles of a brand in enhancing customer value and in fostering brand engagement and building relationships. This approach helps practitioners to steer brand-related perceptions arising from DCM interactions towards building trusted brand relationships. Originality/value This paper contributes to the marketing literature by revealing a potential approach to DCM in managing customer relationships. Instead of focusing solely on the content benefit-usage link to support engagement, this paper reveals the potential of helpfulness as a brand-initiated DCM engagement trigger in engaging customers with the brand, vis-à-vis the content.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:31:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0794
  • Customer engagement with brands in social media platforms
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Social media brand platforms have become a popular means for engaged customers to share information and experiences with brands and other customers. However, empirical research on how customer engagement (CE) relates to customers’ sharing intentions with the brand is limited. This study aims to investigate causal patterns of four CE dimensions – focused attention, absorption, enthusiasm and interaction – together with two cognitive structure properties in stimulating sharing intentions with the brand. Design/methodology/approach Using data from 782 Chinese customers of brand pages on the social media platform Weibo, this paper is the first to use both finite mixture partial least squares (FIMIX-PLS) analysis and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to empirically assess the impact of CE configurations on sharing intentions. Findings The findings imply that not all of the CE dimensions co-occur necessarily and that different configurations of them can produce superior sharing intentions, conditional on the cognitive structure of customers, including their level of brand knowledge and avant-gardism. Research limitations/implications Although restricted to customers on Weibo, the results inform practice about how social media technology can facilitate different CE configurations and customer sharing intentions. Practical implications The results inform brand managers’ segmentation efforts and CE content marketing initiatives that can induce different CE configurations and customer sharing intentions with customers that possess high avant-gard and brand knowledge characteristics. Originality/value This study is the first to substantiate how different CE configurations (as gestalts) affect sharing intentions in social media and to challenge conventional net-effects thinking about CE dimensions. Understanding how such conditional configurations foster sharing via a social media platform is advantageous because it can improve segmentation efforts to strengthen brand relationships.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:11:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0741
  • Trade fairs as engagement platforms: the interplay between physical and
           virtual touch points
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the association between physical and virtual trade fairs under the conceptual lens of engagement platforms. The authors build on the idea of business trade fairs (i.e. physical and/or virtual customer touch points) as learning and engagement platforms in service ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach The empirical study combines qualitative interviews (n = 16) with trade fair organizers, exhibitors and visitors and a survey (n = 263) comprising open-ended questions administrated to visitors of an international trade fair. Findings Findings highlighted the general role that trade fairs have in facilitating companies’ interactions with existing and potential customers. The trade fair develops in physical and virtual platforms, where companies advance business relationships and generate learning experiences and customer engagement. Participants look for solutions to problems and frequently innovation is a consequence of the engagement and learning processes. Yet, while the physical trade fair is instrumental for human personal interaction, namely, to establish informal networks of contacts and face-to-face interactions, virtual trade fairs are highlighted as a catalyst to foster interactivity and connectivity before and after the physical trade fair. Research limitations/implications The study endures limitations that may be addressed by future research. For example, studies in similar contexts and in other settings (e.g. different industries) are warranted. Practical implications The study offers wide-ranging implications for the principal agents from the trade fair industry: trade fair organizers, exhibitors and visitors. Originality/value This research constitutes a preliminary attempt to understand the association between physical and virtual trade fairs and contributes to the discourses on customer engagement and the underlying notion of service ecosystems in the trade fair environment. In particular, the study looks at the role and connections that each platform plays for organizers and participants providing important insights into improving physical and virtual trade fair participation strategies.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:34:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0791
  • What we know and need to know about the gamification of advertising
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Advergames, or integrated brand messages within digital games, have received considerable attention from researchers and practitioners. Despite increased use of advergames as a brand promotion strategy by a range of well-known brands, limited understanding exists about a number of issues related to the effective use of such games. This paper aims to critically review the literature on advergames by performing a detailed analysis of existing research in this area and propose an organizing framework. Based on this framework, the authors discuss key issues with current understanding and propose important questions for future research. Design/methodology/approach This literature review follows Webster and Watson’s (2002) concept-driven systematic review methodology elaborating on the key antecedents and consequences identified in advergame studies (what we know: current knowledge), followed by the discussion of key factors that should be investigated as antecedents and consequences (literature gaps). Findings This paper presents a review and synthesis of advergame studies based on Terlutter and Capella’s (2013) integrated marketing communication framework. It identifies game, individual and social factors and suggests how these factors could affect a consumer’s brand-related cognitive, attitudinal and behavioral responses. The authors further propose an advergame framework that identifies two different “unit of analysis” (antecedents and consequences of game factors and antecedents and consequences of individual and social factors), which can be used by scholars to center their research efforts in a more detailed fashion. Research limitations/implications Research questions posed in this literature review indicate that future research in the area of advergames should focus on investigating the effects of various game, individual and social factors on consumers’ cognitive, affective and behavioral responses. Practical implications The advergame framework provided here provides firms with a guide to the factors that may affect their consumers’ cognitive, affective and behavioral responses and helps them in developing effective advergames. Originality/value The paper provides a comprehensive review of the advergame literature that has not been done before and develops a general advergame framework that can be applied in all contexts and will guide future studies in the area. Overall, the study helps the researchers to identify critical issues and concepts related to advergames and shapes future research in the field.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-01-2017-0070
  • Investigating the role of customers’ perceptions of employee effort and
           justice in service recovery
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is, first, to identify the relationship, if any, between customers’ perceptions of justice (functional element) and employee effort (symbolic element) and their effects on satisfaction and loyalty in the context of service recovery and, second, to determine the impact of cross-cultural differences on these relationships. Design/methodology/approach Survey data from actual customers were gathered in three countries (n = 414) and analyzed using structural equation modeling to test the proposed hypotheses. Findings The results demonstrate the role of the constructs of perceived employee effort and perceived justice in influencing post-recovery satisfaction and loyalty across cultures. While perceived justice is valued across cultures, customers from feminine (masculine) cultures require more (less) employee effort to influence post-recovery satisfaction positively. Customers from low (high) uncertainty cultures are more (less) willing to give the provider another chance after a service recovery. Research limitations/implications The study shows that both functional and symbolic elements of service recovery are important determinants of customer satisfaction and loyalty and that their influence can be significant in a cross-cultural context. Practical implications International service managers must consider the nature of cultural differences in their markets to develop and implement tailored recovery strategies that can result in satisfied customers. Originality/value This study is the first to integrate the functional and symbolic elements of service recovery, their impact on customers’ behavioral responses and the influence of cultural variations.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:18:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0570
  • Prosocial process fit: normatively expected purchasing increases the
           prosocial premium
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigates the effect of normative expectations in the purchase process on consumers’ value perceptions for prosocial products (e.g. environmentally friendly products) relative to conventional non-prosocial products. It extends the literature on both prosocial products and regulatory fit. Design/methodology/approach Five factorial experiments are employed, testing diverse samples, including Dutch university students and American online panel participants from the general population. Findings Findings show that regulatory fit between the prosocial product orientation and an emphasis on normative expectations in the purchase process (termed prosocial process fit) increases perceptions of prosocial product value (relative to conventional products). This effect is mediated by engagement. Research limitations/implications The current research is limited to investigating how value perceptions of prosocial products can be increased (i.e. through prosocial process fit). Future research is warranted that analogously considers conditions that would increase value for non-prosocial products as well (e.g. by creating a fit with a non-prosocial process). Practical implications The research shows how prosocial manufacturers and retailers can redesign the purchase process to increase customers’ engagement, perceptions of prosocial product value and prosocial product purchase. Social implications This work serves to explain differences in consumers’ value perceptions for prosocial products. Hence, it shows how socially responsible consumption can be better supported in society. Originality/value This work demonstrates a new kind of regulatory fit based on fit between prosocial products and normative expectations in the purchase process (i.e. moving beyond the types of regulatory fit previously examined in this context, such as with fit between regulatory focus orientation and goal pursuit). The authors use this to provide a much needed explanation for the heterogeneity in the literature regarding the value that consumers experience for prosocial products relative to conventional ones.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:18:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-03-2017-0231
  • Active bidders versus smart bidders
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to contrast two lay theories of how consumers draw affective inferences about their online bidding experiences. The active-bidder theory (smart-bidder theory) predicts that after winning a bid, highly (minimally) participative bidders would be more satisfied than minimally (highly) participative bidders. Design/methodology/approach Four experiments test two competing hypotheses, the active-bidder hypothesis and the smart-bidder hypothesis (Study 1), identify a condition that mitigates the observed effects (Study 2), identify when the mitigation is effective or ineffective (Study 3) and replicate the findings in a scenario-based study where participants are allowed to make actual bidding decisions (Studies 4A and 4B). Findings The findings support the smart-bidder hypothesis across three different product categories; however, this heuristic-driven effect is absent when bidders have concrete shopping goals. The effect was sufficiently robust to be observed even when the bids are made at will. Research limitations/implications The present research does not incorporate the widely adopted procedure of second-price auction (also known as proxy bidding in the eBay setting), a system that allows the highest bidder to win the auction but pay the amount of the second-highest bid. Practical implications Online consumers should be mindful that entering the minimum number of bids not only helps consumers avoid overbidding but also elevates their joy in winning after the auction ends. Originality/value Prior research on bidding behavior on online auction sites has yet to examine how different bidding dynamics affect consumers’ post-auction satisfaction. This research sheds light on the psychological process underlying the robust phenomenon: online auction consumers rely heavily on proxy signals. Bidders appear to use the efficiency heuristic in constructing their affective judgments of their buying experiences.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:06:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2016-0492
  • Engaging customers through online and offline referral reward programs
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine the psychological consequences of a customer engagement initiative through referral reward programs (RRPs) in online versus offline environments. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a qualitative study followed by a scenario-based experimental study. Findings The authors show that recommenders’ concern about how they are viewed by recommendation recipients (i.e. their metaperception) mediates the effects of incentives on referral likelihood in both offline and online environments. However, metaperception has a stronger effect offline where recommenders show higher impression management concerns compared to online. Furthermore, tie-strength and communication environment moderate the effect of incentives on metaperception. When referrals are made to weak-ties, incentives decrease metaperception favorability offline more than online. For strong-ties, this effect is lower, and it is similar in offline and online environments. Research limitations/implications The study focused on an online versus offline dyadic communication and did not consider the differences among social media. Furthermore, the authors did not consider how other forms of positive metaperception, like being seen as helpful or knowledgeable, could be increased in an online incentivized referral context. It is possible that a recommender thinks others see him as more helpful or knowledgeable online because a lot more useful information and other resources could be offered here compared to offline communications. Practical implications The authors recommend managers to design both online and offline RRPs that minimize metaperception concerns; target strong ties in any communication environment as metaperception concerns are low; and target weak ties online where metaperception concerns are muted. Originality/value This work is the first to examine how recommenders’ psychological responses differ offline and online.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-06T11:38:41Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0756
  • Marketing madness or financial folly'
    • First page: 412
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of equity crowdfunding (ECF) within the record industry in terms of challenges and opportunities, in addition to the marketing and financial implications for independent music artists and major record labels. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a qualitative methodology consisting of two-stage interview-based research methods. A total of 44 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the CEOs of ECF platforms in the record industry, other related record industry informants, independent artist managers and senior executives from major record labels. Findings The loyalty aspect of ECF may have significant marketing potential in terms of inconspicuously using the equity platform as a “prosumer” identification mechanism. As this early career stage of artists is delicate in terms of establishing trust and patronage from their fans, these early marketing and ECF ventures should be implemented directly from the artist without external third-party involvement. Research limitations/implications The implications of this paper’s findings and theoretical model are not limited to the two studied stakeholder groups of the record industry. The insights in relation to the obstinate lack of understanding and clarity (particularly for independent artists) which surround ECF are likely to influence short-term strategic approaches by other players throughout the wider music industry. Practical implications The insights regarding negative approaches towards ECF by the labels may influence future “coopetition strategies” for independent labels, as they seek to navigate the changing industry dynamics. Originality/value This paper is the first study to empirically explore the predominantly under-researched area of ECF implementation in the record industry in terms of marketing and financial consequences for artists and labels.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-18T04:13:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0830
  • Why “majors” surge in the post-disruptive recording industry
    • First page: 442
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The recording industry has gone through a far-reaching disruption, but the major record companies from the past continue to surge. The following question is addressed: Why has disruption in the recording industry not followed the patterns of generic examples from other sectors' The purpose of this paper is to describe and explain why the digital disruption does not lead to the disruption of all types of companies. Design/methodology/approach This longitudinal study is based on a large set of secondary sources combined with in-depth interviews in Sweden’s recording industry. Findings Findings indicate that when customers turn to streaming, the major record companies’ direct control of which music the consumer is exposed to increases. This main finding contrasts statements that streaming services would facilitate peer-to-peer sharing activities between music customers and make record companies redundant. The major record companies have remained at a prosperous position due to the control of valuable content and marketing assets, as well as asymmetric interdependency among parties in the supply chain. Research limitations/implications The recording industry is different to many other sectors based on the latent value of catalogues, and the conclusions drawn from this paper should thereby not be taken for granted for other industries. Practical/implications Findings suggest that by “reading” the development of the industry and understanding what key resources create dependencies and revenue flows, managers would be better at tackling disruption. Originality/value The paper contributes to previous literature by describing how incumbent companies survive and even prosper post-disruption. It adds to the understanding of the digitalization of the recording industry and points at how dependencies help to understand disruption.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:07:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0841
  • Co-constructing loyalty in an era of digital music fandom
    • First page: 463
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to answer the following question: How can a discursive approach to how music fans construct loyalty in a digital context contribute to a theoretical understanding of brand loyalty' Design/methodology/approach Drawing on insights from theories of brand loyalty and fandom, this interpretive inquiry makes use of data from an online forum dedicated to the rock music band, U2, and interviews with forum members. A combination of online ethnography and discourse analysis are used. Findings The analysis shows that music fans mobilise particular discursive resources in constructing loyalty in the digital context, specifically length of time spent as a fan, obsession and the opposition of obligation and choice. These discursive resources reflect a grounded account of an experientially rooted brand loyalty that extends beyond attitudinal and behavioural loyalty and which is particularly salient in music consumption. Research limitations/implications This is a single case study, but as a rich and vibrant online community, it provides fruitful insights into the discursive construction of loyalty. The processes of negotiation, accommodation and conflict, engaged in through online discourse, are important in laying bare the preferences, value systems and meanings that frame the experiences of loyal consumers. Practical implications This socially constructed view of loyalty facilitates a more sensitive and nuanced application of brand loyalty, with implications for segmentation and targeting activities. It provides a possible basis through which precise insights can be gained into the meanings and practices of loyal fans and consumers. Originality/value Examining loyalty through the lens of online music fandom enables a discursive understanding of consumers’ experience of brand loyalty. It shows how online engagement with other consumers of a brand facilitates a deep engagement with the notion of loyalty.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:18:34Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0754
  • Soundtracking: music listening practices in the digital age
    • First page: 483
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to further develop the conceptualization of music consumption in the digital age by examining how contemporary music listening is interweaved with other practices, how it shapes those practices and how it is in turn shaped by them. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on extensive, qualitative interviews with 15 Swedish music consumers. During the course of these interviews, specific situations of everyday music listening were discussed in detail. Findings Drawing on practice theory and more specifically the concepts of dispersed and integrative practices, the authors identify and explore a mode of music listening that they term soundtracking, which involves choosing and listening to music mainly to accompany other everyday practices. Research limitations/implications As soundtracking grows in importance, music is increasingly consumed as an affective-practical resource. Its significance is then not derived from its ability to demarcate difference and construct consumer identities but from its capacity to evoke emotions and moods than enable and enrich a set of everyday practices. Practical implications When music is consumed as part of soundtracking, issues such as the audio quality of music or ownership of material music media become less important, while aspects such as mobility, accessibility and the adaptability of music increase in importance. This has important implications for how and what music should be produced and marketed. Originality/value This paper offers an alternative view of contemporary music consumption compared to previous research, which has considered music listening primarily as an integrative practice on which the practitioner is fully focussed. The paper also contributes to practice theory by offering an empirically based understanding of a dispersed practice, showing that such practices are neither without shape nor necessarily very simple in their structure.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0753
  • The effect of music tempo on consumer impatience in intertemporal
    • First page: 504
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine the effect of music tempo on impatience in intertemporal tradeoff decisions. It finds that fast (vs slow) tempo music increases impatience. This occurs because fast (vs slow) tempo music makes temporal distance, and hence the waiting time until the receipt of delayed benefits, feel subjectively longer. Design/methodology/approach The study tests the hypotheses through four laboratory experiments. Findings In Studies 1a (N = 88) and 1b (N = 98), the results demonstrate that when participants listen to fast (vs slow) tempo music, they judge temporal distance to be longer. In Study 2 (N = 94), the results demonstrate that when participants listen to fast (vs slow) tempo music, they become more impatient when considering a smartphone purchase. In Study 3 (N = 218), the results demonstrate that when participants listen to fast (vs slow) tempo music, they become more impatient when considering a gift certificate, and that this delay discounting effect is attributable to the change in their temporal distance judgment. Research limitations/implications The current research reports a novel factor that influences impatience in intertemporal decisions and temporal distance judgment. Practical implications This research provides useful guidelines for retail managers and marketers regarding the effect of background music in stores. Originality/value This is the first study demonstrating a music tempo effect on temporal distance judgment and impatience in intertemporal tradeoff decisions.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0696
  • Experiencing nostalgia through the lens of life satisfaction
    • First page: 524
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine the role of life satisfaction in consumers’ reaction to nostalgic music in an advertisement in terms of attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. It suggests that life satisfaction forms the lens through which individuals interpret and reconstruct past emotional experiences evoked by nostalgia. It further investigates the role of product category involvement in the interplay between life satisfaction and nostalgic music. Design/methodology/approach Two experiments were conducted. The first study featured a 2 (nostalgic vs non-nostalgic music) × 2 (high vs low involvement) between-subjects design and tested the research hypotheses with 208 consumers. The second study featured two involvement conditions (high vs low) and explored the underlying process behind the hypotheses. Linear regression was used to analyze the data in both studies. Findings For the low involvement product category, nostalgic music was more effective than non-nostalgic music for consumers with high life satisfaction, whereas non-nostalgic music was more effective for consumers with low life satisfaction levels. For the high involvement product category, life satisfaction did not moderate consumers’ reaction to nostalgic music. Research limitations/implications This research suggests that past experiences evoked through nostalgic music are not static but are subject to bias and interpretation depending on an individual’s current mindset. Hence, the eventual effect of nostalgia is determined by how past events are reconstrued based on the individual’s current state. Practical implications This paper warns against the blind use of nostalgic appeals in advertising, points to the need to consider the audience’s state of mind, and suggests an opportunity to leverage life satisfaction influencers in designing effective advertising campaigns. Social implications The findings have strong implications for public policymakers. The results are crucial as policymakers often use public service announcement (PSA) to change the attitude of the public toward some phenomena. Knowing the current state of life satisfaction in society, they can increase the efficiency of public service announcements by including a nostalgic song in them. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is the first one in the marketing literature that looks at the efficiency of nostalgic songs in advertisements. The authors tested the conceptual framework by using two studies and offered novel implications to both marketers and scholars.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:08:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0806
  • Consuming material authenticity in the age of digital reproduction
    • First page: 545
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine how and why an “old” technology and mode of consumption – vinyl records, which should have become obsolete – has managed not only to survive but also revive in the face of supposedly cheaper and superior digital formats. Design/methodology/approach The authors used constructivist grounded theory (CGT), a methodology rooted in pragmatism. The authors acknowledge the primacy of relational, conversational and social practices as the source of individual and social life, and that all knowledge is local and the product of negotiation between people within a given context and time frame. In terms of data, the authors draw on the extensive use of memos and participatory observation at the oldest vinyl record store in the UK. The authors also draw on interviews with the store owner and workers and in-depth interviews with vinyl enthusiasts. Findings The authors argue that authenticity is not a fixed and static concept but has fluid and porous boundaries that can be experienced by individuals in different situations. The findings center around three experiences of authenticity – staged authenticity, interpersonal authenticity and intrapersonal/existential authenticity. Research limitations/implications This research is limited to a specific market, typical of old or second-hand vinyl consumption. Future research would benefit from broadening the sample to include new consumers and female enthusiasts of both old and new vinyl. Practical implications The paper has implications for consumer service and personal selling relationships. Originality/value Originality lies in theoretically positioning the phenomenon within a conceptual framework of authenticity. In particular, the authors shed light on the role that authenticity plays in the experiences of vinyl music consumption amongst buyers and sellers in a store that has a long established heritage. The authors find that vinyl in the age of digital reproduction retains and maintains a number of qualities that are missing from allegedly superior forms of musical reproduction. The authors further maintain that as it has aged, original vinyl has taken on greater power and meaning, and now that it is out of the realm of mass production/consumption, it has opened up a deeper more authentic interaction between human beings and technology. This deeper interaction goes beyond the immediate experience with the object itself and extends to the sensorial, the social and the personal.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T10:22:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0717
  • Exploring the dynamics of food routines: a practice-based study to
           understand households’ daily life
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to explore consumers’ experienced life and studies how practices interconnect and are organized on a daily basis. The objective is to contribute to a better understanding of how (or whether) it is possible to interfere with daily practices, as public policies pretend to do, to address several societal challenges (food waste, healthy eating, greenhouse gas reduction, social equity, etc.). Design/methodology/approach Using the concepts of routine, ritual and practice to understand the dynamics of daily life from a practice theories perspective, this study is based on a qualitative methodology combining a projective method of collage coupled with semi-structured interviews with 23 participants and, participant observation of shopping, cooking and mealtimes at home with 11 of the 23 participants. Findings Results show that the degree of systematization of practices defines different types of routine according to various systematization factors (time, commitment, social relations, material), suggesting a distinction between systematized, hybrid and partially systematized routines. Beyond the question of the degree of systematization of practices composing routines, results show that some practices are embedded in daily routines due to their ritualization. Research limitations/implications This work takes part of the debates on how to study households’ daily life, and challenges the understanding of daily life activity more globally than just by the prism of isolated actions. For that, this study uses the concepts of routines and rituals. They are relevant to describe and to capture the tangle of practices composing food activities. The study shows that the material dimensions, the pressure of time, the commitments and the social relations condition the global arrangement of the food practices in a variable way. Practical implications Such results offer new perspectives for intervening on households’ daily consumption by understanding the global dynamics of food routines. Originality/value This work contributes to a better understanding of consumers’ food practices and routines and to a practice-change perspective considering constrained and routinely constructed lives.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2018-10-29T12:44:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0775
  • As the record spins: materialising connections
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to examine how the material nature of legacy technology makes its users passionately prefer it over its digital alternatives. Design/methodology/approachThis ethnographic study uses data from 26 in-depth interviews with vinyl collectors, augmented with longitudinal participant–observation of vinyl collecting and music store events. FindingsThe findings reveal how the physicality of vinyl facilitates the passionate relationships (with music, the vinyl as performative object and other people) that make vinyl so significant in vinyl users’ lives. Research limitations/implicationsAs this study examines a single research context (vinyl) from the perspective of participants from three developed, Anglophone nations, its key theoretical contributions should be examined in other technological contexts and other cultures. Practical implicationsThe findings imply that miniturisation and automation have lower limits for some products, material attributes should be added to digitised products and that legacy technology products could be usually be reframed as tools of authentic self-expression. Originality/valueThis study explains what can happen beyond the top of the “S” curve in the Technology Acceptance Model, furthering our understanding of consumers’ reactions to the proliferation of digital technology in their lives.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2018-10-09T09:34:19Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0828
  • Social networking from a social capital perspective: a cross-cultural
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Using social capital theory (SCT), the purpose of this research is to determine the success of social networking in societies that may be lower in social capital, for example in Poland, versus those which are higher in social capital, such as the USA. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a partial least squares approach with a cross-cultural sample. The complete sample consists of 556 participants for this study across the USA (n = 258) and Poland (n = 298). Findings Results indicate that social media success is lower in Poland and that this result is related to lower social networking capital in Polish society. However, the proposed model shows that social media functionality can overcome some of the barriers. Research limitations/implications Limitations include a very specific set of countries rather than a larger set of countries and sample, survey methodology which could be augmented with a mixed methods approach and convenience sampling which ensured homogeneity and matching. Practical implications Based on this research, media designers should attempt to keep information quality high but even more importantly, they should increase interactivity. For Poland in particular, well-designed interactivity can mitigate societal barriers to success of social media, as it can enhance trust in such platforms. Social implications Because of Poland’s history of more than 40 years of communism, the newer generations may eventually become more adaptive to social networking tools and such acceptance could lead to greater social capital, which is important for Polish society from a business perspective as well. Originality/value The most important contribution of this research is that it theoretically and empirically establishes the importance of SCT in relation to social networking across two different countries.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2018-10-01T12:30:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0892
  • Future thinking: the role of marketing in healthcare
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss how, using a futures studies perspective, marketing is uniquely positioned to address future challenges facing health-care service systems. Design/Methodology/Approach The futures studies perspective involves predicting probable, preferable and possible futures. Using digital and face-to-face data collection methods, health-care professionals, academics and patients were asked about their perspectives and expectations of health care’s future. Using grounded theory, responses were analyzed to a point of thematic saturation to expose the immediate probable future and a preferred future of health care. Findings Patients expressed a desire to participate in health-care delivery, impacting caregivers’ roles. Thus, co-creation of value in this context is contingent on the relationship among stakeholders: patients, patients’ families, caregivers and health-care organizations. Concordance, a type of value co-creation, is an effective way for physicians and patients to ameliorate health outcomes. Research Limitations/Implications Although a more diverse sample would be ideal, insight from health-care professionals, academics and patients across global regions was obtained. Practical Implications To achieve a preferred future in health care, practitioners should implement a three-pronged approach, which includes health promotion and prevention, appropriate use of technology in health care and concordance. Originality/Value Using patients, health-care professionals and academics, this research broadens the concept of value co-creation in health care. Additionally, paths (i.e. promotion and prevention, technology use and concordance) to a preferred health-care future are uncovered.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2018-10-01T02:16:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0779
  • The influence of acceptance and adoption drivers on smart home usage
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to develop a comprehensive adoption model that combines constructs from various theories and tests these theories against each other. The study combines a technology acceptance model, innovation diffusion theory and risk theory. It develops this model in a smart home applications context. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on an online survey consisting of 409 participants, and the data are analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings Each theory provides unique insights into technology acceptance and numerous constructs are interrelated. Predictors from innovation diffusion and risk theory often display indirect effects through technology acceptance variables. The study identifies risk perception as a major inhibitor of use intention, mediated through perceived usefulness. Results reveal that the most important determinants of use intention are compatibility and usefulness of the application. Research limitations/implications Studies which do not examine different theories together may not be able to detect the indirect effects of some predictors and could falsely conclude that these predictors do no matter. The findings emphasize the crucial role of compatibility, perceived usefulness and various risk facets associated with smart homes. Originality/value This study broadens the understanding about the necessity of combining acceptance and adoption drivers from several theories to better understand the usage of complex technological systems such as smart home applications.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2018-09-21T01:26:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0794
  • Co-creating value in online innovation communities
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Online innovation communities are central for many organizations seeking to advance their innovation portfolio. While these communities rely on consumers to collaborate in the innovation process, it remains unclear what drives these consumers to perform value co-creation activities and what value dimensions they derive as a result. This paper aims to advance the understanding of value co-creation in the online collaborative innovation context. Specifically, it aims to examine social and individual factors driving such activities, and the value derived from the perspective of the member. Design/methodology/approach A self-administered online questionnaire was used to collect data from collaborative innovation community members yielding 309 complete responses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data, using variance-based structural equation modelling with partial least squares path modelling in SmartPLS. Findings Results confirm that distinct social and individual factors facilitate individual value co-creation activities, including the provision of feedback, helping, rapport building and information sharing. Furthermore, the research confirms the mediating role of learning on these relationships. Research limitations/implications This study contributes to the micro-foundation movement in marketing by undertaking an independent examination of value co-creation activities and their nomological network. Practical implications A shift in the mindset of managing for collaborative innovation is required, from a focus on collaborative product development to the management of an online community where members derive value from their co-creation activities. Originality/value This research is the first to offer insight into important individual and social pre-conditions and subsequent value outcomes of four common value co-creation activities. It informs practice about how to facilitate value co-creation activities and contribute to the co-creation of value for online innovation community members.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2018-08-15T10:44:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0780
  • LARPnography: an embodied embedded cognition method to probe the future
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to propose LARPnography as a more holistic method to probe the emergence of plausible futures, drawing on embodied embedded cognition literature and the emerging consumer practice of live-action role-playing (LARP). Current research methods for probing the future of markets and society rely mainly on expert judgment (i.e. Delphi), imagery or simulation of possible futures (i.e. scenario and simulation) and perspective taking (i.e. role-playing). The predominant focus on cognitive abstraction limits the insights researchers can extract from more embodied, sensorial and experiential approaches. Design/methodology/approach LARPnography is a qualitative method seeking to immerse participants within a plausible future to better understand the social and market dynamics that may unfold therein. Through careful planning, design, casting and fieldwork, researchers create the preconditions to let participants experience what the future may be and gather critical insights from naturalistic observations and post-event interviews. Practical implications Owing to its interactive nature and processual focus, LARPnography is best suited to investigate the adoption and diffusion of innovation, market emergence phenomena and radical societal changes, including the rise of alternative societies. Originality/value Different from previous foresight methods, LARPnography creates immersive and perceptually stimulating replicas of plausible futures that research participants can inhabit. The creation of a fictional yet socio-material world ensures that socially constructed meaning is enriched by phenomenological and visceral insights.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2018-08-08T02:57:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0656
  • Immediacy pandemic: consumer problem-solving styles and adaptation
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to delve into the complexity and multiplicity of consumer experiences in relation to mobile and virtual technology, and provides a lived-experience account of the Consumer Immediacy Pandemic (CIP) and related consumer experiences and responses. Design/methodology/approach Using open-ended, in-depth interviews, as well as personal essays, the research questions are addressed through the interpretive hermeneutic approach. Findings The CIP is an important, multifaceted consumer shift, whose ramifications are traceable in consumer behavior. It encompasses three consumer problem-solving styles (i.e. real-time, mobile and virtual problem-solving). Consumers adapt to the CIP through such strategies as unbundling of presence, temporal gain and synchronization, task continuity, work-fun integration and multi-tasking. Research limitations/implications With conventional theories ineffectively explaining consumer experiences with such products as smart phone, social media and selfie stick, this paper provides fruitful directions for studying consumer-technology relationships. Practical implications The findings point to untapped and novel needs rooted in consumer experience with mobile and virtual technology such as the needs for personal information management and/or professional counseling. Social implications The paper provides evidence as to a deep-seated shift in the role of technology in consumer life. Underestimating the ongoing and future success and power of mobile and virtual technology can be too costly for society at large. Originality/value This study exposes the dialogical interplay between consumer agency and structural influences that compels consumers to internalize immediacy as a taken-for-granted expectation. Such pandemic alters the ways consumers go about satisfying their needs and wants. The findings can help understand the twenty-first century consumer, theorize product agency and chart marketing and policy directions.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2018-08-08T01:19:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0847
  • Consumer emotional brand attachment with social media brands and social
           media brand equity
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The ever-growing popularity of social media platforms is evidence of consumers engaging emotionally with these brands. Given the prominence of social media in society, the purpose of this paper is to understand social media platforms from a “brand” perspective through examining the effect of consumers’ emotional attachment on social media consumer-based brand equity (CBBE). Design/methodology/approach This paper develops a model that outlines how emotional brand attachment with social media explains social media CBBE via shaping consumer perceptions of brand credibility and consumer satisfaction. An online survey of 340 Australian social media consumers provided data for empirical testing. The inclusion of multiple context-relevant covariates and use of a method-variance-adjusted data matrix, as well as an examination of an alternative model, adds robustness to the results. Findings The findings of this paper support the conceptual model, and the authors identify strong relationships between the focal variables. A phantom model analysis explicates specific indirect effects of emotional brand attachment on CBBE. The authors also find support for a fully mediated effect of emotional brand attachment on social media brand equity. Further, they broaden the nomological network of emotional brand attachment, outlining key outcomes. Research limitations/implications This paper offers a conceptual mechanism (a chain-of-effects) of how consumer emotional brand attachment with social media brands translates into social media CBBE. It also finds that a brand’s credibility as well as its ability to perform against consumer expectations (i.e. satisfaction) are equally effective in translating emotional brand attachment into social media CBBE. Practical implications Social media brands are constantly challenged by rapid change and ongoing criticism over such issues as data privacy. The implications from this paper suggest that managers should make investments in creating (reinforcing) emotional connections with social media consumers, as this will favorably impact CBBE by way of a relational mechanism, that is, via enhancing credibility and consumer satisfaction. Social implications Lately, social media in general has suffered from a crisis of trust in society. The enhanced credibility of social media brands resulting from consumers’ emotional attachments will potentially serve to enhance its acceptance as a credible form of media in society. Originality/value Social media platforms are often examined as brand-building platforms. This paper adopts a different perspective, examining social media platforms as brands per se and the effects of emotional attachments that consumers develop towards these. This paper offers valuable insights into how consumers’ emotional attachments drive vital brand judgments such as credibility and satisfaction, ultimately culminating into social media CBBE.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2018-07-11T12:10:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2016-0511
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