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European Journal of Marketing
Number of Followers: 22  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0309-0566
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  • Social representations of marketing work: advertising workers and social
    • Pages: 830 - 847
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 830-847, May 2019.
      Purpose Informed by social representation theory, the study aims to explore how marketing workers represent their activities on social media. Design/methodology/approach A naturalistic data set of 17,553 messages posted on Twitter by advertising workers was collected. A sample of over 1,000 unique messages from this data set, incorporating all external links and images, was analysed inductively using structured thematic analysis. Findings Advertising workers represent marketing work as a series of fun yet constrained activities involving relationships with clients and colleagues. They engage in cognitive polyphasia by evaluating these productive differences in both a positive and negative light. Research limitations/implications The study marks a novel use of social representation theory and innovative social media analysis. Further research should explore these relations in greater depth by considering the networks that marketing workers create on social media and establish how, when and why marketing workers turn to social media in their everyday activities. Practical implications Marketing workers choose to represent aspects of their work to one another, using social media. Marketing managers should support such activities and consider social media as a way to understand the lives and experiences of marketing workers. Originality/value Marketing researchers have embraced digital media as a route to understanding consumers. This study demonstrates the value of analysing digital media to develop an understanding of marketing work. It sheds new light on the ways marketing workers create social relationships and enables marketing managers to understand and observe the social aspects of effective marketing.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-05-31T08:47:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0682
  • Freedom makes you lose control
    • Pages: 848 - 870
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 848-870, May 2019.
      Purpose Past research suggests that heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) perform worse on tasks that require executive control, compared to light media multitaskers (LMMs). This paper aims to investigate whether individual differences between HMMs and LMMs make them respond differently to advertising in a media multitasking context and whether this stems from differences in the ability versus the motivation to regulate one’s attention. This is investigated by manipulating participants’ autonomy over attention allocation. Design/methodology/approach For the first study (n = 85), a between subjects design with three conditions was used: sequential, multitasking under low autonomy over attention allocation and multitasking under high autonomy over attention allocation. This study investigated the inhibitory control of HMMs vs LMMs in a very controlled multitasking setting. The second study (n = 91) replicated the design of study one in a more naturalistic media multitasking setting and investigated the driving role of motivation vs ability for cognitive load differences between HMMs and LMMs and the consequent impact on advertising effectiveness. Findings Study I suggests that HMMs perform worse on a response inhibition task than LMMs after multitasking freely (in which case motivation to regulate attention determines the process), but not after their attention was guided externally by the experimenter (in which case their motivation could no longer determine the process). Study II argues that when motivation to switch attention is at play, cognitive load differences occur between HMMs and LMMs. This study additionally reveals that under these circumstances, HMMs are more persuaded by advertisements (report higher purchase intentions) compared to LMMs, while no differences appear when only ability is at play. Research limitations/implications Executive control exists of different components (Miyake et al., 2000). The current study only focused on the impact of media multitasking frequency on response inhibition, but it would be interesting for future research to investigate whether media multitasking frequency equally affects the other sub-dimensions. Additionally, the impairment of response inhibition has been shown to predict a large number of other behavioral and impulse-control outcomes such as unhealthy food choices and alcohol and drug use (e.g. Friese et al., 2008). Future research should consider investigating other consequences of heavy media multitasking behavior, both advertising related and unrelated. Practical implications From a practical point of view, understanding the mechanisms that are driving the effects of media multitasking on advertising effectiveness for different groups of media-consumers could make it easier for practitioners to efficiently plan their media campaigns. Based on the findings of this study, the authors can derive that HMMs will be more depleted in cognitive resources and inhibitory control when media multitasking compared to LMMs. Consequently, this makes them more prone to advertising messages. This knowledge is of great importance for advertisers who could, based here on, aim to target HMMs more often than LMMs. Originality/value Two experimental studies by the authors confirm and add value to previous academic findings about the negative relation between media multitasking frequency and tasks that demand executive control. This study contributed to the previous by investigating whether individual differences between heavy and light media multitaskers make them respond differently toward advertising and whether the driving mechanism of these differences is a lack of motivation or ability to efficiently shift attention.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-06T12:58:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0588
  • The direction of the response scale matters – accounting for the
           unit of measurement
    • Pages: 871 - 891
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 871-891, May 2019.
      Purpose Psychometric analyses of self-administered questionnaire data tend to focus on items and instruments as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the functioning of the response scale and its impact on measurement precision. In terms of the response scale direction, existing evidence is mixed and inconclusive. Design/methodology/approach Three experiments are conducted to examine the functioning of response scales of different direction, ranging from agree to disagree versus from disagree to agree. The response scale direction effect is exemplified by two different latent constructs by applying the Rasch model for measurement. Findings The agree-to-disagree format generally performs better than the disagree-to-agree variant with spatial proximity between the statement and the agree-pole of the scale appearing to drive the effect. The difference is essentially related to the unit of measurement. Research limitations/implications A careful investigation of the functioning of the response scale should be part of every psychometric assessment. The framework of Rasch measurement theory offers unique opportunities in this regard. Practical implications Besides content, validity and reliability, academics and practitioners utilising published measurement instruments are advised to consider any evidence on the response scale functioning that is available. Originality/value The study exemplifies the application of the Rasch model to assess measurement precision as a function of the design of the response scale. The methodology raises the awareness for the unit of measurement, which typically remains hidden.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-05-13T01:38:17Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-08-2017-0539
  • Actions for relationship value: a mission impossible'
    • Pages: 892 - 915
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 892-915, May 2019.
      Purpose The form and content of relationship value dominates the literature. This paper contributes by studying companies’ actions based on their value perceptions, a field which has attracted less attention. Scholars advocate more studies on how companies’ value perceptions shape actions in relationships and how this leads to outcomes. Design/methodology/approach A longitudinal critical case study of a customer/supplier relationship constitutes the empirical basis of the paper. Interviews and observation studies were conducted over a period of three years, giving access to special insight into the actors’ value perceptions and related actions. Findings Value perceptions shape actions performed individually, jointly or in the wider network. Moreover, misperceptions of the counterparty’s value perceptions may result in a maelstrom of interactions with no specific value outcome. Acting based on value perceptions is a complex matter due to its evolving nature, which leads to development becoming a value driver. Research limitations/implications The interdependencies between different value perceptions and their relational value drivers have special effects on actions and outcomes, also, value in actions needs to be studied. Practical implications Management needs to explore value from different perspectives to understand the counterparty’s value perceptions and communicate own perceptions. It is not sufficient to create value based on one value driver. Instead, it is vital to be able to connect value drivers to balance and prioritise relevant actions. Originality/value This paper stands out as one of the first contributions to relationship value literature that addresses and analyses value from both a customer perspective and a supplier perspective in a dyadic business relationship.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-05-14T12:20:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0857
  • The more I err, the less I pay
    • Pages: 916 - 943
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 916-943, May 2019.
      Purpose This study aims to investigate the effects of firm characteristics and crisis characteristics on remedies offered to consumers by firms in the event of a product recall crisis. Design/methodology/approach Published data on 868 product recalls in the US toy industry from 1988 to 2011 have been used to investigate the effects of firm experience in product recalls, type of firm (company versus intermediary) and product recall severity in predicting remedies offered to consumers in the event of a product recall. Findings The findings show that firm recall experience, firm type and recall severity are negatively associated with recall remedies offered. Specifically, firms offer lower remedies if they have higher recall experience, if they are upstream firms in the supply chain (farther from consumers) and if the recall is more severe. Research limitations/implications This study focuses on the toy industry and does not consider product complexity, firm reputation and the role of external regulatory agencies in the prediction of remedies offered by firms. Future research may extend this study to include the above factors. Practical implications Offering a high remedy to consumers of a recalled product may be a responsible decision by a firm, but it may also attract shareholder wrath. The study has implications for managing multiple goals in product recall crisis management. Originality/value Studies focused on issues of interest to consumers during a recall crisis, such as swift recalls and appropriate remedies, are limited. This study contributes to the understanding of the antecedents of recall remedies.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:33:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2017-0964
  • Recycling cooperation and buying status
    • Pages: 944 - 971
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 944-971, May 2019.
      Purpose This study aims to reconcile previous research that has provided mixed results regarding motivation for sustainable behaviors: pure altruism (cooperation) or competitive altruism (status). Drawing on evolutionary altruism and identity-based motivation, the authors propose that a match between pure (competitive) altruism and individualistic (collectivistic) identity goals enhance consumers’ motivations to engage in recycling (green buying). Design/methodology/approach Three experimental studies show how pure and competitive altruism are associated with specific sustainable consumption (Study 1) and how altruism types should be matched with identity goals to motivate sustainable consumption (Studies 2 and 3). Findings Study 1 shows that pure altruism is associated with recycling but not with green buying. Studies 2 and 3 show that pure (competitive) altruism and individualistic (collectivistic) goals lead to higher recycling (green buying) intentions. Research limitations/implications The present research extends previous findings by showing that pure and competitive are indeed associated with specific sustainable behaviors. The authors suggest that the interaction between motives and identity goals can lead to a greater impact on recycling and green buying intentions. Practical implications Public policymakers and companies will benefit by better understanding how specific combinations of altruism types and identity goals can foster recycling or green buying intentions. Originality/value This research is the first to show how matches between pure and competitive altruism types and individualistic and collectivistic identity goals affect consumers’ motivations to engage in recycling and green buying.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T07:40:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0557
  • Role of navigational ability in website visit duration
    • Pages: 972 - 988
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 972-988, May 2019.
      Purpose Online search effort is routinely measured by the duration of visit at the website as obtained from clicksream data or surveys. Measuring search effort by the time spent at a website assumes that all consumers who search for the same duration obtain the same amount of information. This would be acceptable if all consumers possessed the same navigational ability. In practice, different consumers have different levels of ability to navigate a website. The purpose of this study is to find whether an individual’s navigational ability has an influence on visit duration and purchase likelihood. Design/methodology/approach The authors use visit duration data from a real website which makes it possible to partition the visit duration into the times spent on relevant and irrelevant pages. The data were collected through an experimental study. The authors develop an empirical model, comprising hazard and choice models, to assess the relationship between navigational ability and elements of website usage. Findings A consumer with poor navigational ability spends more time searching on the Web and has lower purchase probability compared to a consumer with superior ability. Research limitations/implications The study is limited to one data. Practical implications This research has managerial implications for website design, such as link-structure, appearance, size and the number of graphics. Originality/value This is the first study to research navigational ability’s influence on online consumer behavior.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T11:13:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0719
  • “We don’t all see it the same way”
    • Pages: 989 - 1014
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 989-1014, May 2019.
      Purpose Country-of-origin (COO) effects on product evaluations have been widely applied in international marketing, albeit with mixed results. One stream of research values its importance in decision-making, whereas another stream posits that COO has little effect when compared to the greater diagnosticity of other product attributes. This suggests that how and along what other attributes (extrinsic or intrinsic) COO is presented play an important role in its relative impact. The purpose of this paper is to address these mixed results by applying one such framing perspective based on evaluation mode (i.e. separate versus joint evaluation) and preference reversals and their biasing effects to a study of COO and willingness to pay (WTP) for a product. Design/methodology/approach A three between-subject (joint evaluation, separate evaluation-domestic and separate evaluation-foreign) experimental design was used to assess whether evaluation mode moderates COO effects on product evaluations. Findings Similar results are mirrored across three/four countries. When evaluated separately, consumers value an inferior domestic-made product more than a superior foreign-made one. However, when the domestic- and foreign-made products are presented in joint evaluations, the better foreign-made product is favored. Research limitations/implications A number of limitations in terms of countries, consumers within the countries and products studied are addressed along with future research that may address these factors and test the robustness of domestic–foreign preference reversals. Practical implications The results of this study reveal practical insights to marketers. Marketing managers for better-quality foreign brands are encouraged to engage in comparative advertising appeals and sell their products in retail stores that hold both domestic and foreign products, whereas marketers for domestic products should create a selling environment that facilitate only a separate evaluation mode to enhance WTP. Originality/value This paper provides insights on the diagnosticity of COO when presented alongside intrinsic attributes and the role of evaluation mode in shaping consumers’ preferences. This research suggests that COO has different effects in different evaluation modes, thus explaining some of the mixed results in literature regarding its importance. On the one hand, COO has a decisive effect on product evaluations when products are presented separately. On the other hand, COO effect is overridden by intrinsic cues, which become more apparent when products are presented jointly. Overall, these results demonstrate the robustness of the preference reversal effect across countries and products.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:38:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-04-2017-0300
  • Men and their groomed body
    • Pages: 1015 - 1034
      Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Volume 53, Issue 5, Page 1015-1034, May 2019.
      Purpose This study aims to offer insights into the embodied concerns that underpin men’s personal grooming practices through which they experience their body as the “existential ground of culture and self” and manage their everyday bodily presentation. Design/methodology/approach This study analyses 16 interviews with male consumers of age between 20 and 76. The interpretative analysis is informed by both Merleau-Ponty’s concept of the body-subject and the sociology of the body as discursively constituted. Findings This study proposes four bodily identity positions that link individual personal grooming practices to specific embodied concerns. These bodily identity positions underline the different ways the male body is called upon to carve out a meaningful existence. Research limitations/implications The research findings are not intended to generalise or to be exhaustive. Rather, it is hoped that they may stimulate readers to think more deeply about the role of the body in aiding male consumers to seek maximum grip on their life-world. Practical implications The study findings provide marketers with rich narratives for brand positioning and image development beyond the traditional sexual and/or alpha male-themed marketing and advertising. They also offer preliminary insights for mental health practitioners into how the male body shapes men’s identity development and experiences of well-being. Originality/value The study identifies the different ways personal grooming can become assimilated into an individual’s system of beliefs and practices. It also offers empirical support for a definition of the body as active and acted upon, especially with respect to male grooming.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T07:55:12Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-04-2017-0291
  • Do extra ingredients on the package lead to extra calorie estimates'
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to address how adding food ingredients to a packaged base food affects consumers’ calorie estimation of the new augmented product. Design/methodology/approach The four performed experiments and analyses of variance demonstrate an underlying psychological mechanism, explained below. Findings Results show that the healthiness of the added food ingredient (AFI) does not matter if the base food is healthy, and consumers’ calorie estimates of the augmented packaged food product are accurate. When, however, the food base is unhealthy, and the AFI is healthy, consumers underestimate the new product calories. This underestimation effect increases further when the healthy ingredients multiply. This underestimation effect endures when these ingredients are presented in a visual form, but it becomes smaller when these ingredients are presented in a verbal form. A justification mechanism is relevant. Research limitations/implications Further research should test across the broader range of the food product matrix. There is a great diversity of AFI presentations, and further research may deal with the impact of AFIs of these different forms on consumers’ calorie estimation and healthiness perceptions. Research may also test sensory-arousing mechanisms that can help understand how consumers perceive the calories of the augmented food. Practical implications The findings suggest that consumers should be cautious of the judgment bias caused by the presence of an AFI on food packages and raise their awareness regarding nutrition implications and dietary effects. From the perspective of food manufacturers, although adding healthy AFIs to unhealthy base foods may increase consumers’ purchase intention and bring higher profits, it may not be sustainable as a marketing strategy in the long term and has immediate ethical implications. Social implications Policymakers should introduce voluntary schemes to monitor and restrict the improper presentation of AFIs, aiming to rule out the abuse of healthy AFIs on unhealthy packaged food. Originality/value This work offers three major original and valuable contributions. It explains the effects of AFIs on calorie estimation and consumer healthiness perceptions in a context not studied before, namely, packaged food products. Next, it advances the literature on consumer judgment error and heuristics concerning product package attributes. As adding ingredients is integral to product line extension decisions, the results also clarify how marketing can safeguard firm social responsibility in combating obesity.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-28T10:42:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0856
  • Predictive model assessment in PLS-SEM: guidelines for using PLSpredict
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Partial least squares (PLS) has been introduced as a “causal-predictive” approach to structural equation modeling (SEM), designed to overcome the apparent dichotomy between explanation and prediction. However, while researchers using PLS-SEM routinely stress the predictive nature of their analyses, model evaluation assessment relies exclusively on metrics designed to assess the path model’s explanatory power. Recent research has proposed PLSpredict, a holdout sample-based procedure that generates case-level predictions on an item or a construct level. This paper offers guidelines for applying PLSpredict and explains the key choices researchers need to make using the procedure. Design/methodology/approach The authors discuss the need for prediction-oriented model evaluations in PLS-SEM and conceptually explain and further advance the PLSpredict method. In addition, they illustrate the PLSpredict procedure’s use with a tourism marketing model and provide recommendations on how the results should be interpreted. While the focus of the paper is on the PLSpredict procedure, the overarching aim is to encourage the routine prediction-oriented assessment in PLS-SEM analyses. Findings The paper advances PLSpredict and offers guidance on how to use this prediction-oriented model evaluation approach. Researchers should routinely consider the assessment of the predictive power of their PLS path models. PLSpredict is a useful and straightforward approach to evaluate the out-of-sample predictive capabilities of PLS path models that researchers can apply in their studies. Research limitations/implications Future research should seek to extend PLSpredict’s capabilities, for example, by developing more benchmarks for comparing PLS-SEM results and empirically contrasting the earliest antecedent and the direct antecedent approaches to predictive power assessment. Practical implications This paper offers clear guidelines for using PLSpredict, which researchers and practitioners should routinely apply as part of their PLS-SEM analyses. Originality/value This research substantiates the use of PLSpredict. It provides marketing researchers and practitioners with the knowledge they need to properly assess, report and interpret PLS-SEM results. Thereby, this research contributes to safeguarding the rigor of marketing studies using PLS-SEM.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-25T10:35:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-02-2019-0189
  • How brand visual aesthetics foster a transnational imagined community
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how visual aesthetic referents used in branding can help foster a transnational imagined community (TIC). The authors use brands embedded with Middle Eastern visual aesthetics as a research context. As such, the study aims to examine how Middle Eastern non-figurative art is used by non-Middle Eastern brands to foster an imagined Middle Easternness. Design/methodology/approach Through a critical visual analysis, the authors apply a visual social semiotic approach to Middle Eastern art canons to better understand the dimensions of transnational imagined communities. Findings The study finds and discusses six sub-dimensions of Middle Easternness, which compose two overarching dimensions of TIC, namely, temporal and spatial. These sub-dimensions provide brand managers and designers with six different ways to foster transnational imagined communities through the use of visual aesthetic referents in branding. Research limitations/implications This research identifies the specific visual sub-dimensions of brands that enable transnational communities to be imagined. Practical implications Understanding the visual aesthetic sub-dimensions in this study provides brand managers with practical tools that can help develop referents that foster transnational imagined communities in brand building to achieve competitive advantage and reach a transnational segment. Originality/value Prior studies have primarily focussed on how visual aesthetics help in understanding issues related to national identity. In contrast, this paper examines the use of visual aesthetics in branding from a transnational perspective.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-25T10:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0655
  • Consumer engagement in online brand communities: the moderating role of
           personal values
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Despite growing recognition of the importance of consumer engagement with new technologies, a gap remains in terms of understanding the antecedents, consequences and moderators of online consumer engagement (OCE). This paper aims to address this gap by exploring the relationship between personality traits, OCE, perceived value and the moderating role of personal values. Design/methodology/approach A theoretical framework anchored in the extant OCE literature is tested through a study of 559 users of two distinct firm-hosted online brand communities (FHOBCs). Findings Findings suggest that three personality traits – extraversion, openness to experiences and altruism – are positively correlated with OCE. OCE is related to two types of perceived value, namely, social value and aesthetic value. The personal values of conservation and self-enhancement moderate the relationships between the three identified personality traits and OCE. Research limitations/implications Future research into OCE should consider the application of this study’s conceptual framework across different cultures to account for the fast-changing nature of online communities. Practical implications Understanding how personality traits drive OCE and what value consumers receive from engagement in online communities can help managers to better segment and evaluate consumers. Engagement and levels of activity within these online communities can be improved accordingly. Originality/value This study’s contribution to the OCE literature is threefold. First, the study provides new insights regarding personality traits as antecedents of consumer engagement with FHOBCs. Second, the study reveals the first insights into the role of personal values in the relationship between personality traits and OCE. Specifically, conservation and self-enhancement emerged as moderators of the relationship between three personality traits (extraversion, openness to experiences, altruism) and OCE. Third, the study yields support for perceived value types (social value and aesthetic value) that emerge as consequences of consumer engagement in FHOBCs.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T01:17:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0721
  • Identifying counterfeit brand logos: on the importance of the first and
           last letters of a logotype
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Counterfeiting is a menace in the emerging markets and many successful brands are falling prey to it. Counterfeit brands not only deceive consumers but also fuel a demand for lower priced replicas, both of which can devalue the bona-fide brand. But can consumers accurately identify a counterfeit logo' This paper aims to explore this question and examines the accuracy and speed with which a consumer can identify a counterfeit (vs original) logo. Design/methodology/approach Seven popular brand logos were altered by transposing and substituting the first and last letters of the logotypes. Consumers then classified the logos as counterfeit (vs original) across two experiments. Findings Participants were faster and more accurate in identifying a counterfeit logo when the first letter (vs last letter) of a logotype was manipulated, thus revealing last letter manipulations of a brand’s logotype to be more deceptive. Research limitations/implications This paper comments only on the manipulation of logotypes but not of logo symbols. Similarly, findings may not be generalizable across languages which are read from right to left. Practical implications Counterfeit trade is already a multibillion dollar industry. Understanding the key perceptual differentiators between a counterfeit (vs original) logo can be insightful for both consumers and firms alike. Originality/value Research available on objective measures of similarities (vs dissimilarities) between counterfeit (vs original) brand logos is limited. This paper contributes by examining the ability of consumers to discriminate between counterfeit (vs original) logos at different levels of visual similarity.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T01:15:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0586
  • How real are virtual experiences'
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to explore the virtual experience to understand its components and its effects on consumers’ real world. Design/methodology/approach Our approach relies on a rarely used projective method: “Album-on-Line” (AOL). This technique allows identifying consumers’ representations of their experience. It uses images to immerse participants in a virtual experience and to lead an individual reflection, then a group reflection. Findings Virtual experiences have utilitarian, hedonic, psychological and social dimensions. When immersing in virtual experiences, consumers’ perception and consumption of products and services change. A projection occurs leading to an identification to virtual characters. This projection also leads to a consumption aiming at finding back the excitement and challenge lived during virtual experiences. Research limitations/implications The main limitation of this research relates with the fuzzy distinction between the virtual and the electronic in consumers’ minds and even in the literature. Future work should propose a multidisciplinary definition of the virtual experience, considering its specificities and components. Practical implications This research offers companies a better understanding of consumers’ motivations to live virtual experiences. It may bring insights on how to provide a more customized offering and a more adapted communication. Originality/value Compared to previous work, the present research offers a better understanding of the components of online and offline virtual experiences by considering the virtual in its broadest meaning. The use of the AOL technique enabled a closer look at the specificities of the virtual experience as perceived by consumers. It was also possible to explore the “post-experience” stage by understanding the effect of virtual experiences on consumers’ perceptions and consumptions.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T01:14:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0776
  • The role in encroachment of the sustainability aspects of value
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to elucidate what concepts of encroachment in business-to-consumer markets explain the market share increase of companies with sustainability value propositions. It documents the encroachment field, analyses the practice of ten companies and proposes and defines the additional concept of transparency encroachment. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of companies with an increase in customers and market share due to their sustainability value proposition. These were supplemented with secondary data, like documented interviews, sustainability reports and reports on market development. The interview transcripts and secondary data notes were coded using template analysis. Findings As the literature on encroachment assumes that new value propositions take away market share from incumbents due to advantages for customers, it is questionable whether it can explain how value propositions with advantages for society as a whole can encroach markets. The results of this study show that the dominant forms of encroachment in the current literature – high-end encroachment, low-end encroachment and business model encroachment – can only partly explain encroachment through sustainability value propositions. An additional encroachment form is identified: transparency encroachment. Research limitations/implications This research adds greater clarity to what companies do when they encroach markets with sustainability value propositions. Furthermore, the pattern of transparency encroachment is discussed to define the common aspects of this concept and to argue why these aspects are needed for encroachment. It implies that marketing activities should start from the perception that customers are allies – and not kings – in the development toward higher levels of sustainability. Practical implications The paper offers practical implications insofar as it deconstructs three aspects of transparency encroachment that are enacted by companies. Customer awareness, unique experience and customer contribution are all needed to enact transparency encroachment. It is argued that other companies introducing sustainability value propositions to encroach markets should find their own application of these three aspects to create the potential for successful encroachment. Social implications Because of the focus on sustainability aspects of value propositions, this study generates knowledge about the marketing and encroachment of products with a relatively positive impact on society. Adoption of the identified concept of transparency encroachment contributes to sustainable development. Originality/value To date, there has been very little marketing research that explores the role of sustainability value propositions in the encroachment of markets. Nonetheless, nowadays customers seem to look beyond their own benefits and are increasingly demanding a new approach that builds upon the sustainability aspects of products. This research adds greater clarity to encroachment through sustainability value propositions.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-11T01:25:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0879
  • Signaling effects and the role of culture: movies in international
           auxiliary channels
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Given the high uncertainty in the quality perception of experiential products, manufacturers use signals to influence consumers’ decisions. In the movie industry, literature shows that performance of the main channel (e.g. cinema) strongly influences the performance of auxiliary channels (e.g. DVDs). The success of a movie in the home country is also to be resonated by its good performance in host countries. However, the cultural contingency of these success-breeds-success (SBS) effects has not been examined. This paper aims to test the influence of cultural values on the SBS effects across channels and countries. Design/methodology/approach Borrowing concepts from the signaling literature and analyzing DVD sales data from six international markets using a multilevel mixed-effects model, the study finds that culture plays a significant role to influence both SBS effects. Findings In countries with low power distance, short-term orientation and high indulgence, consumers who purchase from auxiliary channels are more likely to be influenced by the box office performance of movies. Meanwhile, cultural distance between the home and host nations significantly decreases the cross-national SBS effect. Research limitations/implications The findings are likely to be generalized to online auxiliary channels of movies, but empirical testing is required to ensure that no major adaptation is required in the process. Future research can also extend the framework of this paper to include more countries into the analysis and investigate cultural variables beyond Hofstede’s dimensions. Practical implications This paper suggests that the SBS effects may vary across nations. When managers plan for the sequential distributions of experiential products, the cultural values of target markets should be considered to decrease the uncertainty in sales prediction. Originality/value This paper contributes to the existing literature by investigating the international auxiliary channels of movies and incorporating cultural values into the framework of sequential distributions. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to test the links between the main and auxiliary channels from an international marketing perspective.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T09:18:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0587
  • The interplay between market intelligence activities and sales strategy as
           drivers of performance in foreign markets
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Exporting is a popular foreign market entry mode, especially among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The success of SME exporters depends on their ability to establish and maintain profitable long-term relationships with foreign customers. This study aims to propose that the development of an effective export sales strategy can contribute greatly toward this aim. The study also demonstrates that export market intelligence generation and export market intelligence dissemination activities are important drivers of export sales strategy. Export sales strategy comprises three dimensions, which are expected to have a positive influence on export performance. Design/methodology/approach The study uses survey data obtained from 168 exporting firms based in Greece, to test a set of research hypotheses. Structural equation modeling procedures are used. Findings Findings indicate that export market intelligence generation and dissemination activities support and facilitate the development of effective export sales strategies, tailored to serve individual foreign accounts. Furthermore, all strategic dimensions of export sales strategy demonstrate significant positive effects on export performance. Research limitations/implications The research underlines the importance of incorporating export sales strategy in studies that aim to investigate the drivers of export performance. Practical implications The findings also indicate that exporting firms must actively engage in market intelligence activities to reinforce their strategic decision-making process. Originality/value The study emphasizes the crucial importance of export sales strategy in achieving superior export performance. The study provides a theory-driven conceptualization and operationalization of export sales strategy and offers an empirical assessment of a comprehensive model that includes the key antecedents and performance outcomes of export sales strategy.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T09:11:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-06-2017-0402
  • The allure of celebrities: unpacking their polysemic consumer appeal
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to explain a celebrity’s deep resonance with consumers by unpacking the individual constituents of a celebrity’s polysemic appeal. While celebrities are traditionally theorised as unidimensional semiotic receptacles of cultural meaning, the authors conceptualise them here instead as human beings/performers with a multi-constitutional, polysemic consumer appeal. Design/methodology/approach Supporting evidence is drawn from autoethnographic data collected over a total period of 25 months and structured through a hermeneutic analysis. Findings In rehumanising the celebrity, the study finds that each celebrity offers the individual consumer a unique and very personal parasocial appeal as the performer, the private person behind the public performer, the tangible manifestation of either through products and the social link to other consumers. The stronger these constituents, individually or symbiotically, appeal to the consumer’s personal desires, the more s/he feels emotionally attached to this particular celebrity. Research limitations/implications Although using autoethnography means that the breadth of collected data is limited, the depth of insight this approach garners sufficiently unpacks the polysemic appeal of celebrities to consumers. Practical implications The findings encourage talent agents, publicists and marketing managers to reconsider underlying assumptions in their talent management and/or celebrity endorsement practices. Originality/value While prior research on celebrity appeal has tended to enshrine celebrities in a “dehumanised” structuralist semiosis, which erases the very idea of individualised consumer meanings, this paper reveals the multi-constitutional polysemy of any particular celebrity’s personal appeal as a performer and human being to any particular consumer.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T09:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-01-2017-0052
  • Developing a holistic understanding of consumers’ experiences
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate how the physical and sensory environmental triggers interact with subjective consumer evaluations in the production of shopping experiences, an under-investigated theme, despite its relevance. Design/methodology/approach An interpretative multi-method approach was used by combining video observation with camera eyeglasses and in-depth interviews with 30 customers of a department store. Findings Results offer a holistic framework with four-dimensional axial combination involving physical comfort, psychological comfort, physical product evaluation and sensorial product evaluation. Based on this framework, results highlight the role of comfort and products in producing shopping experience in ordinary store visits. Research limitations/implications The findings contribute both to consumer experience studies and to the retail marketing literature in shading a light on experience production in ordinary store visits. Specifically, we detail these visits not as a static response to a given environment stimulus, but as a simultaneous objective and subjective combination able to produce experience. Practical implications The results encourage managers to understand the experience production not just as an outcome of managerially influenced elements, like décor or odor. It involves considering subjective elements in the design of consumers’ physical and sensorial retail experiences. Originality/value Adopting an innovative method of empirical data collection, results generated a framework that integrates the objective shopping environment and subjective consumer responses. This research considers the role of comfort and product features and quality both physically and sensorially to develop experiences in a holistic manner in ordinary shopping visits.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T08:53:16Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2016-0586
  • Can a replacing sponsor benefit'
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine the common situation where the sponsor of an event is replaced and the impact of this situation on consumers’ behavioral intentions toward the new sponsor. Design/methodology/approach An original conceptual framework was developed to account for consumers’ reactions toward a new sponsor in the context of a sponsorship change, depending on whether the former and new sponsors are competitors, the duration of the relationship between the former sponsor and the event (tenure length), and the level of congruence between the new and the former sponsor and the event. This framework, based on consumer motive attributions, was tested by means of three completely randomized experiments. Findings The results of the first experiment show that if the former and new sponsors are competitors, consumers’ behavioral intentions toward the new sponsor are more positive if the former sponsor’s tenure duration was short. When the former and the new sponsors are not competitors, the former sponsor’s tenure duration does not impact behavioral intentions. The second experiment demonstrates that consumers’ altruistic motive attributions are the underlying mechanism that explains these effects. Finally, the third experiment identifies a boundary condition, that is, these effects occur only if the new and the former sponsor are congruent with the sponsored property. Research limitations/implications This research has not considered the situation where the former and new sponsors have different levels of congruence with the event (e.g. when the former sponsor is congruent but the new sponsor is incongruent with the event) and has examined only sponsorship tenure durations of one versus 15 years. Practical implications Sponsorship managers learn that replacing a sponsor that was supporting the event for a short rather than a long period of time is more beneficial, but only if replacing a competitor that is congruent with the sponsored property. The reason is that such a replacement triggers more altruistic motive attributions compared with contexts where the former sponsor is not a competitor or incongruent with the sponsored property. Suggestions of sponsorship activation strategies known to increase perceptions of altruism are provided to enhance sponsorship effectiveness for new sponsors. Originality/value This study is the first to look at how consumer responses to a new sponsor vary depending on the former sponsor’s tenure length, competitor status and event congruency.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-05-31T08:42:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-04-2016-0248
  • Multi-brand loyalty in consumer markets: a qualitatively-driven mixed
           methods approach
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Although multi-brand loyalty (MBL) in consumer markets has been identified in previous brand loyalty research, empirical studies have not yet explored the facets of its different types. This paper aims to have a deeper understanding of MBL by investigating its different types and facets. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a sequential, qualitatively driven mixed-method design consisting of in-depth interviews and supplementary survey research. Findings The findings of this study suggest that mood congruence, identity enhancement, unavailability risk reduction and market competition are the most important facets that explains the two types of MBL (complementary-based and product substitutes). Furthermore, the findings show that the family factor can motivate consumers to be multi-brand loyal by adding brands to an initially family-endorsed brand. Research limitations/implications This study advances the conceptual foundations of MBL and extends previous research on brand loyalty. Some of the findings may be limited to the economic and cultural context of relatively affluent countries with an abundance of market offers. Practical implications Marketing managers gain insights into how to manage brand loyalty and how to transition from MBL to single-brand loyalty. Originality/value The study generates novel insights into the facets of different types of MBL.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-05-31T08:39:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-07-2017-0474
  • The impact of representation media on customer engagement in tourism
           marketing among millennials
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose As online travel marketing is evermore gaining importance, in particular regarding the pre-purchase presentation of travel destinations, it is imperative to examine how various media can engage consumers. The purpose of this paper is to identify how three prominent virtual representation media in tourism marketing differ regarding their potential in engaging customers. In particular, the authors examine whether they differ in the levels of interactivity, vividness and telepresence they elicit; and the impact of these dimensions on flow, enjoyment and online purchase intentions. The authors hereby focus specifically on millennials, who represent an important target market for the travel industry and are hard to reach via traditional media. Design/methodology/approach This study presents a between-subjects experimental design comparing three virtual representation media portraying New York City, namely, photographs, 360° video and virtual reality (VR). The findings are analysed with ANCOVA analysis and PLS path modelling. Findings The findings reveal that various media indeed generate different levels of customer engagement. In particular, VR scores the highest on all dimensions, with interactivity having the largest effect on consumers’ perception of telepresence. Such higher levels of telepresence in turn positively affect purchase intentions via mediation through flow and enjoyment. Research limitations/implications Future research should examine whether these findings are impacted by moderators, like consumer characteristics (e.g. socio-demographics, personality traits) and destination types. Practical implications This study provides guidelines for tourism providers seeking to promote their sites in innovative and effective ways, in the anticipatory stage of the customer journey. Originality/value This study identifies interactivity as the most important driver for consumers’ perception of telepresence in the context of pre-travel tourism information. Moreover, the findings also reveal the mechanisms behind enhanced customer engagement via various media.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-05-31T08:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0793
  • Prioritizing marketing research in virtual reality: development of an
           immersion/fantasy typology
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Virtual reality (VR) is of increasing interest to marketers because it can be used to explore and proactively shape long-term futures, co-create value with consumers, and foster consumer-brand engagement. Yet, to date, the field lacks a cohesive framework for approaching VR research; thus, the objective of this systematic literature review is to provide such a framework and highlight research opportunities. Design/methodology/approach First, after conducting a systematic literature review, we highlight VR themes instrumental to flow and propose a typology for VR research using realism-fantasy and immersion as dimensions. Next, we review the current state of empirical research for each quadrant. Finally, we synthesize research within each quadrant, specifying criteria and considerations for conducting research. In doing so, we propose an agenda for marketing research, centered on methodological, future studies, and consumer-related contributions. Findings VR themes instrumental to flow include the avatar, application quality, and interactivity. We find, contrary to some conceptualizations of VR, that all applications are capable of producing flow. Conflicting research and gaps are highlighted in the findings section and summarized in Table III. Additionally, while prior research seems to draw from findings of other VR applications in advancing knowledge in general, the results of the literature review suggest that VR applications should be treated uniquely. Finally, we propose highly immersive VR applications as more conducive to future studies research. Research limitations/implications Scholars can utilize the findings to prioritize future research studies in marketing. By following the typology and research opportunities, scholars can advance marketing theory and enhance the external validity of research studies through VR applications. Practical implications Managers can utilize the findings to ascertain consumers and societies‘ responses to various marketing stimuli, with implications for product development, branding, retail/service experiences, adoption of new technologies, tourism, and many other domains. VR applications offer managers more ways of testing concepts and processes in realistic fashion without the costs and risks associated with more traditional methods. Originality/value The objective of this paper is to examine varying opportunities for VR research given flow and fantasy potential and to prioritize VR research.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-05-31T08:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0733
  • Unveiling heterogeneous engagement-based loyalty in brand communities
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Although recent research appreciates that consumers increasingly interact with brands in brand communities and that brand engagement is an important and complex phenomenon in brand communities, little is known about the nature of individuals’ brand engagement in brand communities. This study aims to identify brand community members’ segments in terms of their brand engagement within the community; help us understand if these segments use a different approach in the development of brand loyalty; and develop mechanisms that can be used to identify members of these segments. Design/methodology/approach The paper adopts a quantitative approach and uses a total of 970 responses from members of Facebook brand pages in three popular languages on Facebook (English, French and Spanish). Data are analysed with structural equation modelling, integrating FIMIX-PLS and POS-PLS. Findings The results reveal that cognitive, affective and behavioural engagement dimensions play a different role in driving brand loyalty. Three different segments of engaged consumers exist (emotional engagers, thinkers and active engagers). Variables related to the perceived value of the brand community provide initial explanations as to the differences of the consumer groups. Research limitations/implications The data were collected from a specific type of brand communities (Facebook-based, company-managed brand communities) and are self-reported. Practical implications This work demonstrates the heterogeneity of brand community members in terms of their brand engagement profile and the effect of this profile on the formation of behavioural brand loyalty. Suggestions on identifying members of these segments based on the value that they get from the community are offered. Originality/value This work extends the brand engagement and brand community literature. It is the first work that provides this nature of actionable suggestions to the teams supporting brands with brand communities.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-05-31T08:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0818
  • Customer engagement with websites: a transactional retail perspective
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to focus on customer engagement (CE) in the underexplored context of transactional retailing websites, providing insight into the drivers, manifestations and dimensionality of the construct. The website is viewed as a collection of environmental stimuli, and focus is placed on identifying the website environmental cues that promote CE. Design/methodology/approach This focussed study follows an exploratory research design. A total of 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with one segment group: over-55-year-old female online shoppers in the most commonly purchased product category online, clothing. The stimulus–organism–response model forms the theoretical framework. Findings The unique findings identify that product-related environmental cues drive CE on a website, suggesting that CE occurs at the level of the product, as opposed to the website. Research limitations/implications CE with websites exists beyond the customer–brand dyad, with the website forming the third node in a triadic relationship between customer, brand (at level of the product) and website (at level of the product-related cues). Practical implications This study reveals the relationship between website environmental cues and the manifestation of CE, providing managers with insight on how best to drive CE. Confirmation is provided that the website represents a vital touchpoint in the engagement journey of a retail customer. Originality/value Websites as a focal object for CE are markedly under-researched. This study empirically supports the relevance of considering CE in this context and reveals the influence online environments have on CE.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-05-31T08:17:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0649
  • When free gifts hurt the promoted product
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The present study aims to demonstrate that providing a free gift upon purchase may induce consumers to devaluate the main product promoted with the offer. The mediating role of persuasion knowledge and the moderating role of consumer shopping orientation are also examined. Design/methodology/approach Three studies with between-subject designs are conducted to test the influence of product–gift fit on evaluations of the promoted product. Findings When a low-fit gift (vs a high-fit gift) is provided as a promotional offer, consumers’ evaluations of the promoted product are undermined. These negative effects are driven by consumers’ activation of persuasion knowledge on the company’s ulterior motive to entice consumers to make a purchase. Such devaluation effects occur especially for consumers with a task-focused shopping orientation, whereas they are mitigated for consumers with an experiential shopping orientation. Research limitations/implications This research extends the conceptualization of product–gift fit and challenges the common claim that free gift promotions maintain the value of the promoted product. By instigating a mechanism underlying consumers’ objections toward low-fit gifts, this research implies that consumers may think of an implicit cost to a free offer based on their knowledge of companies’ tactics. Practical implications Marketers should be aware of the fact that a certain gift may come at a cost for companies and bring about negative inferences regarding the main product. They need not only to select a gift that drives sales but also to be cautious about the gift’s influence on perceptions of the main product. Marketers should ensure that the gift has a good fit with the product while trying to discover a unique gift for consumers. Marketers should also provide an offer that matches shopping orientation of the target consumers. Originality/value This research reveals counterevidence to prior research claiming that free gift promotion does not hurt the perceived value of the promoted product. It enhances a theoretical understanding of devaluation effects and provides useful implications for designing and targeting free gift promotion.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T12:57:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0904
  • Consumers’ online brand-related activities (COBRAs) on SNS brand
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate word of mouth as a consequence and information, entertainment, social interaction and remuneration motivations as antecedents of consuming, contribution and creating behaviours as consumers’ online brand-related activities (COBRAs). Design/methodology/approach As an empirical test of the proposed conceptual model, the quantitative research features an online survey of a sample of 359 German Facebook users. Findings Word of mouth benefits from consuming behaviour but not contributing or creating behaviours. Therefore, brand-related outcomes can be realised solely through the consumption of brand-related content. Consuming behaviour is positively affected by social interaction and entertainment motivations. Research limitations/implications Further research could investigate the conceptual model in other social networks, as well as validate the findings in other cultural settings. Potential moderators also should be considered in further research. Practical implications In addition to tracking contributing and creating behaviours, brand managers should measure consuming behaviour. This paper provides new insights into how consumer motivations influence different COBRA types. Originality/value This study is the first to analyse the distinct effects of consuming, contributing and creating behaviours of SNS brand page followers on word of mouth as an offline brand-related consequence. It also represents the first study to investigate the unique effect of creating behaviour on an offline brand-related outcome. Furthermore, this study is the first to analyse the effects of all four types of motivations on any COBRA type quantitatively with an appropriate statistical analysis that allows distinguishing relevant from irrelevant motivations.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-16T01:05:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0722
  • Examining digital video advertising (DVA) effectiveness
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Marketers are increasing their use of digital strategies and prioritizing digital tactics, although the effectiveness digital video advertising (DVA) has not been examined empirically. The purpose of this research is to suggest that it is useful for advertisers to consider theories of the past to understand the link between product, advertising format and message processing. Design/methodology/approach To examine DVA effectiveness, this study utilized a 2-product type (utilitarian vs hedonic) × 2-product involvement (low vs high) x 2-platform (laptop vs mobile) mixed-design. Participants were recruited from a research company, who invited members of their panel to participate in an online experiment. Findings DVA for hedonic products resulted in stronger attitudes toward the ad and brand, and intentions to purchase. DVA for low involvement products resulted in stronger purchase intentions and likelihood to opt-in for more information. Moreover, there was an interaction between product category and involvement across all five measures of DVA effectiveness. Research limitations/implications Like TV commercials, DVA is more effective when used with low involvement, hedonic products than with high involvement, utilitarian products. Additionally, the device on which the advertisement is viewed impacts the effectiveness of DVA. Practical implications Companies promoting high-involvement utilitarian products may consider alternative advertising strategies (e.g. MDAs, apps, websites and advergames), as DVA may not be the most effective ad format. Originality/value As technology continues to develop and marketers continue to pursue growing numbers of consumers through digital means and on mobile devices, understanding how device type influences advertising effectiveness is important for media strategy, message placement and marketing metrics. This research takes one step in that direction.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-09T02:14:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2016-0619
  • User participation and valuation in digital art platforms: the case of
           Saatchi Art
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of digital platforms on the contemporary visual art market. Drawing on the theoretical insights of the technology acceptance model, the meaning transfer model and arts marketing literature, the authors conceptualise the role of user participation in creating the meaning and value of contemporary artworks in the online art market. Design/methodology/approach The authors conduct a qualitative study of Saatchi Art as an instrumental case for theorising. It is an online platform for trading visual artworks created by young and emerging artists. The data for this study were collected through direct observation and documentary reviews, as well as user comments and buyer reviews from Saatchi Art. The authors reviewed 319 buyer comments Art and 30 user comments. The collected data are supplemented with various secondary sources such as newspapers, magazines, social media texts and videos. Findings The growth of digital art platforms such as Saatchi Art provides efficiency and accessibility of information to users while helping them overcome the impediments of physical galleries such as geographical constraints and intimidating psychological environments, thereby attracting novice collectors. However, users’ involvement in the process of valuing artworks is limited and still guided by curatorial direction. Research limitations/implications The first limitation of this research is that the data in this research cannot capture interactions between users, though users’ intention to use Saatchi Art is affected by the social influence of other users. Second, this research has not examined artists as users of digital art platforms and their interactions with other types of users. Artists’ intention to use the online platform might be underlined by enhancing their status in the peer group or seeking legitimacy in the field by following other artists and getting recommendations from important referents. Practical implications The outcomes of this research suggest that newcomers in the online art market should acknowledge that users’ intention to use the online art platform is determined by not only technological usefulness of the website but also the symbolic capital of the information provider. Originality/value User participation in the online art market is guided by curatorial direction rather than social influence. This confirms re-intermediation of marketing relationships, highlighting the role of new intermediaries such as digital platforms in arts marketing.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-09T02:14:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0788
  • Frontline employee authenticity and its influence upon adaptive selling
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Frontline employee authenticity has been investigated in relation to both potentially positive and negative outcomes, but largely from the employee perspective. The current paper aims to investigate frontline authenticity in a sales/service context from the customer perspective, specifically examining the influence of adaptive selling in relation to a customer’s perception of salesperson authenticity. Effects on customer’s perceptions of final benefits and value are examined. Design/methodology/approach Survey data collected from customers of an insurance firm in South Korea were used to investigate the proposed model. Customer perceptions of salesperson adaptive selling, authenticity, key benefits delivered and organizational value provision were all captured. Findings The results suggest that authenticity does indeed positively influence perceptions of beneficial outcomes related to a transaction with a salesperson. These benefits then fully mediate the linkage from adaptive selling to a customer’s perceived value, gained from the salesperson’s organization. Research limitations/implications The collection of data from only the customer’s perspective is both a strength and a weakness. Although all of the key variables investigated are important to evaluate via the lens of the customer, such a data collection always introduces the potential problem of common method bias. Practical implications Managers should be aware of the importance of a salesperson behaving in an authentic manner. Although many frontline contexts have desired and scripted narratives for interacting with customers, deriving key benefits through the customers’ eyes may come more strongly by allowing the frontline employee to act naturally. Originality/value Authenticity has been investigated in managerial and brand contexts, but an understanding of its importance in a frontline context is in its early stages. Similarly, the importance of understanding conditions that moderate the effectiveness of adaptive selling is consistent with calls in the literature.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T08:53:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-04-2017-0290
  • The role of marketing capability in linking CSR to corporate financial
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The authors use signaling theory in proposing a conceptual framework that simultaneously incorporates both the mediating effects of corporate reputation (CR) and the moderating effects of marketing capability (MC) into the corporate social responsibility (CSR)–corporate financial performance (CFP) link and theorize a single moderated mediation model. The empirical results of the research confirm the theorized moderated mediation model among the four variables, where a firm’s CR plays a mediating role in the relationship between CSR and CFP, and a firm’s MC moderates the effect of CSR on CR exclusively in the first link. Both theoretical and practical implications of the moderated mediation model are discussed. Design/methodology/approach This study uses structural equation model estimations with the relevant secondary datasets collected from publicly available databases. Findings The empirical results confirm the theorized moderated mediation model in the conceptual framework that uses signaling theory. Specifically, the results identify the moderating role of MC in only the CSR- CR link (but not in the CR and CFP link), such that CR plays a moderated mediation role in the CSR–CFP link. Research limitations/implications The current research is not without limitations. These limitations mainly stem from data sets used in the empirical analyses. More details are discussed in the limitations and future research directions section. Practical implications The empirical findings suggest that a firm needs to develop a consolidated CSR-marketing program, simultaneously satisfying stakeholders’ needs for both the firm’s socially desirable business practices and value-creating marketing programs to increase its CR, which will, in turn, lead to better profitability for the firm. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the current research is the first to use signaling theory in building a conceptual framework that theorizes a moderated mediation model regarding the simultaneous effects of CR and MC on the relationship between CSR and CFP and to empirically test this conceptual framework of the single moderated mediation model. By doing so, the current research clarifies an unanswered question in the literature of whether the underlying mechanism in the CSR–CFP link is based on a mediated moderation or moderated mediation of CR and MC.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T08:22:44Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-08-2017-0526
  • Social media engagement behavior
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Organizations are investing heavily in social media yet have little understanding of the effects of social media content on user engagement. This study aims to determine the distinct effects of informational, entertaining, remunerative and relational content on the passive and active engagement behavior of social media users. Design/methodology/approach Facebook Insights and NCapture are used to extract data from the Facebook pages of 12 wine brands over a 12-month period. A multivariate linear regression analysis investigates the effects of content on consuming, contributing and creating engagement behavior. Findings Results reveal distinct effects of rational and emotional appeals on social media engagement behavior. Rational appeals in social media have a superior effect in terms of facilitating active and passive engagement among social media users, whereas emotional appeals facilitate passive rather than highly active engagement behavior, despite the social and interactive nature of the digital media landscape. Research limitations/implications Results contribute directly to understanding engagement and customer experience with social media. Further theoretical and empirical examination in this area will aid in understanding the dynamic nature of the levels of engagement within social media. Practical implications Findings provide managers and practitioners with guidelines and opportunities for strategic development of social media content to enhance engagement among consumers in a social media forum. Originality/value This study is one of the first to empirically examine the construct of social media engagement behavior. It extends the utility of dual processing theory to demonstrate how rational and emotional message appeals result in online engagement.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T08:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-03-2017-0182
  • The consequences of the heritage experience in brand museums on the
           consumer–brand relationship
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to investigate the consequences of the heritage experience in brand museums on the consumer–brand relationship. By highlighting its heritage within a museum, the brand proposes a specific experience that deserves attention because it is based on memory and communal identity, thus creating or strengthening a relationship with consumers. Design/methodology/approach Ethnographic case studies were conducted through direct observation and extensive interviews with 72 visitors at two brand museums, the Fallot Mustard Mill and the House of the Laughing Cow. Findings The results highlight the emergence/strengthening of the relationship between consumers and the brand through the development of intimacy with the brand and the emergence of supportive behaviors toward the brand in the form of commercial support, ambassadorship and volunteering. Research limitations/implications By characterizing and articulating the different relational consequences of visiting a brand museum, this research contributes to the literature dedicated to heritage experiences in consumption contexts and to the literature dedicated to consumer–brand relationships in servicescapes. Practical implications The study shows the necessity of grounding “heritage” in the physical setting of the brand museum to create a meaningful experience for visitors and, in turn, a deep relationship. Managers should treat brand museums as a relational tool in the marketing strategy of the brand and approach them from the perspective of long-term profitability. Originality/value While the literature has examined the spectacular and esthetic experiences brand museums offer, this study is the first to characterize the heritage experience and to document its consequences in terms of the consumer–brand relationship.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T11:18:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-03-2017-0233
  • New technological attributes and willingness to pay: the role of social
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Integrating new technological attributes into existing products is a common way to innovate and is supposed to meet consumers’ functional needs. This paper aims to demonstrate how adding such attributes also increases willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for a product by activating consumers’ social need to feel unique. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected through a quantitative survey based on a nationally representative sample (N = 345). A choice-based conjoint analysis was used to estimate the perceived value of the new technological attribute and WTP a premium. Findings The perceived value of the new technological attribute has a positive effect on WTP a premium only for consumers with a high degree of social innovativeness (linked to their need for uniqueness) because they interpret this innovation as an opportunity to differentiate themselves from others. Practical implications When companies innovate by introducing new technological attributes, their communication should emphasize and trigger these attributes’ high performance and uniqueness. Thus, consumers seeking social differentiation through innovation will be much less sensitive to price and will be more prone to pay a premium for these products. Originality/value The main contribution of this article is to show that integrating and emphasizing a new technological attribute can increase consumers’ WTP a premium beyond that of the attribute’s functional value. Thus, new technological attributes will decrease the price sensitivity of consumers high in social innovativeness and increase their WTP a premium for the product, because they consider it as a means to stand out from others.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T12:01:44Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2016-0834
  • The moderating role of customer engagement experiences in customer
           satisfaction–loyalty relationship
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to examine the moderating role of customer engagement experiences in satisfaction–loyalty relationship in the digital business environment. This paper looks at mobile apps for shopping and travel planning to understand these relationships. Design/methodology/approach This paper includes the conceptualization and validation of the proposed relationship through multiple studies. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted to identify the relevant engagement experiences. Subsequently, multiple quantitative studies were conducted to examine the proposed relationships. Findings The effect of satisfaction on continuance intention is stronger among customers with higher levels of engagement. Further, the propensity to provide electronic word of mouth is non-linear in customers with higher levels of engagement and may not vary directly with satisfaction levels. Research limitations/implications The findings of this study contribute to the emerging literature on customer engagement and mobile app-usage domains. Future studies may examine such a relationship in different businesses and on varied digital platforms. Practical implications The findings of this paper may provide actionable insights to marketers, giving them a mechanism to segment customers based on engagement levels and using discretion while focusing on satisfaction levels among different segments. Originality/value This study validates the proposed moderating role of customer engagement in the satisfaction–loyalty relationship. The non-linear relationship between satisfaction and loyalty is also demonstrated.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0895
  • Impairment effects of creative ads on brand recall for other ads
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The creativity-based facilitation effect, well documented by previous research, shows that creative advertisements (ads) are more memorable than regular (or less creative) ads, that is, creativity facilitates memory. This current research aims to extend our understanding by investigating the impact of creativity on regular ads and competitive advertising. It examines whether creative ads impair the memorability of regular ads to determine whether a “creativity-based impairment effect” exists. Design/methodology/approach Three experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 tested creativity-based impairment effects in brand recall. Experiment 2 replicated and validated the impairment effect in recall, using a different presentation order of ads. In Experiment 3, effects of creative ads on competing vs non-competing brands were examined. Findings Results found that creative ads impaired the brand recall of regular ads, creative ads impaired the recall of competing brands more than non-competing brands and creative ads were recalled earlier in top-of-mind recall positions. Research limitations/implications Future research may look at whether different memory measures (e.g. recognition), different proportions of creative ads, and ads of familiar vs unfamiliar brands produce differential impairment effects. Practical implications One suggestion from this research could be to not only copy-test your own brand’s advertising, but also test the advertising of other brands so that the target ad’s relative levels of creativity can be assessed before media buying. As a result of this testing, when the brand identifies any potential impairment effects, the identified creative ads could then be tracked in terms of media placement, providing a guide of where “not to schedule” advertising. Originality/value This research makes an important theoretical contribution as the first to explore impairment effects in the context of creative advertising. In doing so, it offers important managerial insights for regular and competitive advertising.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0674
  • The influence of place on health-care customer creativity
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose When using a service, customers often develop their own solutions by integrating resources to solve problems and co-create value. Drawing on innovation and creativity literature, this paper aims to investigate the influence of place (the service setting and the customer setting) on customer creativity in a health-care context. Design/methodology/approach In a field study using customer diaries, 200 ideas from orthopedic surgery patients were collected and evaluated by an expert panel using the consensual assessment technique (CAT). Findings Results suggest that place influences customer creativity. In the customer setting, customers generate novel ideas that may improve their clinical health. In the service setting, customers generate ideas that may improve the user value of the service and enhance the customer experience. Customer creativity is influenced by the role the customer adopts in a specific place. In the customer setting customers were more likely to develop ideas involving active customer roles. Interestingly, while health-care customers provided ideas in both settings, contrary to expectation, ideas scored higher on user value in the service setting than in the customer setting. Research limitations/implications This study shows that customer creativity differs in terms of originality, user value and clinical value depending on the place (service setting or customer setting), albeit in one country in a standardized care process. Practical implications The present research puts customer creativity in relation to health-care practices building on an active patient role, suggesting that patients can contribute to the further development of health-care services. Originality/value As the first field study to test the influence of place on customer creativity, this research makes a novel contribution to the growing body of work in customer creativity, showing that different places are more/less favorable for different dimensions of creativity. It also relates customer creativity to health-care practices and highlights that patients are an untapped source of creativity with first-hand knowledge and insights, importantly demonstrating how customers can contribute to the further development of health-care services.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:53:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0723
  • Olfactory cues and purchase behavior: consumer characteristics as
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This study aims to examine the relationship between consumer characteristics and the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior. Design/methodology/approach The theories of the effects of consumer decision-making, olfaction and sensory marketing on purchase behavior are applied using loyalty card data collected through an experiment. These data are analyzed using quantitative methods. Findings The presence of an olfactory cue has a positive impact on purchase behavior, as measured by product-category sales. Results indicate that in sales promotion, olfactory cues are most efficient in men who have hedonistic or quality-oriented decision-making styles. Research limitations/implications This paper is the first to study the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior when the interactions between the individual characteristics of consumers are considered. The study broadens extant frameworks of sensory marketing by placing the consumer in the central position as the processor of sensory cues. The work pioneers the integration of consumer’s decision-making style (CDMS) as one of the moderating factors in the process. Practical implications The results encourage retailers and practitioners to consider CDMS – and not only gender or age – when using olfactory cues in sales promotions. Hopefully, this paper will inspire retailers to think of the more psychological aspects of consumer behavior and decision-making when planning their loyalty card systems. Originality/value This paper is the first to study the effectiveness of olfactory cues on purchase behavior when the interactions between the individual characteristics of consumers are considered. Addressing the decision-making style in addition to demographics is a novel approach, contrasting with earlier studies that merely focused on olfactory acuity.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-12-2017-0918
  • A goal-directed interactionist perspective of counterfeit consumption
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose To provide a keener understanding of consumers’ decision-making processes and motivations regarding deliberate counterfeit consumption, this paper aims to integrate insights from several theoretical perspectives and the relevant literature. It proposes an overlooked yet important goal-directed interactionist perspective and identifies and tests a novel construct called consumers’ perceived counterfeit detection (PCD) in a proposed model. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a comprehensive review of the literature to justify its proposed perspective, PCD construct and model, followed by in-depth interviews and survey data to test its proposed model and hypotheses. Findings Besides the theoretical insights derived from the proposed goal-directed interactionist perspective, empirical results demonstrate the important role that PCD plays in counterfeit consumption. In fact, PCD not only negatively and directly affects consumers’ intentions to deliberately purchase counterfeits but also weakens the positive effect consumers’ attitudes have on their purchase intentions. Research limitations/implications This research makes several theoretical contributions. First and foremost, differing from other approaches (e.g. personal, economic and ethical), this research justifies an overlooked yet important goal-directed interactionist perspective and develops a refined and substantive framework including its proposed PCD construct. This framework provides opportunities to investigate behavior as an interpretative and dynamic process, vitalizing the domain of counterfeit-consumption behavior studies in particular and ethical behavior research in general. Second, at the construct level, the proposed hypothetical construct of PCD comprises the building blocks for knowledge advancement. Finally, rather than testing theories incrementally (such as the theory of planned behavior and the theory of reasoned action), this research fosters the development of new ideas regarding our proposed goal-directed interactionist perspective and PCD construct, which can be applied to other contexts and constructs that share the same or similar mechanisms and features. Practical implications According to the proposed goal-directed interactionist perspective, this research offers insights regarding why understanding consumers’ different goals (e.g. social-adjustive vs value-expressive; attainment vs maintenance) is important for marketers; how consumers’ goals interplay with their choices through their actions and consumption (e.g. compete vs substitute); and why, how and when their goals interact with their actions, choices and situations during their goal-setting, goal-striving and goal-realization stages that may lead to unethical behavior. At the construct level, the better marketers understand PCD, the more effectively they can use it. At the level of relationships and procedures, this research can offer important insights for businesses that look for “best practices” in the fight against deliberate counterfeit consumption. Originality/value First, by integrating insights from goal-directed behavior, self-regulatory theories and interactionist theory, this paper proposes its own goal-directed interactionist perspective. It then develops and tests a refined and substantive model of counterfeit decision-making in which PCD stands as a novel construct. The paper’s proposed perspective and model provide opportunities to investigate behavior as an interpretative and dynamic process, taking the domain of ethical behavior research (e.g. counterfeit-consumption behavior) from descriptive frameworks to testable theories.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:49:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-07-2017-0455
  • Value-in-acquisition: an institutional view
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose By combining consumer culture theory and service dominant logic, this study proposes that value might be understood as value-in-acquisition, such that value outcomes result from the acquisition process in which broader social forces shape the exchange process. Design/methodology/approach This study addresses low-income consumers, for whom societal arrangements strongly determine service interactions. Qualitative interviews reveal service value processes and outcomes for low-income consumers during acquisition processes. Findings For low-income consumers, inclusion, status, resource access and emotional relief represent key value outcomes. Important value processes shape those value outcomes, reflecting broader societal arrangements at macro, meso and micro levels. Marketing constitutes an institutional arrangement that establishes an empowered “consumer” role. Value processes are hindered if consumers sense that their agency in this role is diminished, because marketing interactions give precedence to other social roles. Research limitations/implications Marketing should be studied as an institutional arrangement that shapes value creation processes during acquisition. Micro-level value processes have important implications for service quality and service value. Value outcomes thus might be designed in the acquisition process, not just for the offering. Practical implications The acquisition process for any good or service should be designed with its own value proposition, separate to the core product or service. Careful design of value processes during acquisition could mitigate conflict between social roles and those of consumption. Originality/value There is value in the acquisition process, independent of the value embedded in the goods and services.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:48:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0910
  • Drivers and inhibitors of national stakeholder engagement with place brand
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to explore the factors that drive and inhibit national stakeholder organisations’ engagement with an established an umbrella place brand identity (PBI) in the context of country branding, during the PBI implementation stage. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a case study approach to examine Australia’s current country brand identity initiative: Australia Unlimited, as an example of PBI. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with senior executives (n = 39) representing 30 Australian national organisation stakeholders across a range of sectors (i.e. government agencies, public and private organisations and industry associations). Findings The tension between the PBI and the brand identity of the stakeholders’ own organisation was an emergent finding at the heart of potential disengagement. Moreover, stakeholders’ perception of the leadership of the organisation managing the place brand plays a key role in influencing their engagement with PBI. Research limitations/implications The findings contribute to place marketing theory by identifying drivers and inhibitors of stakeholders’ engagement that originated from the PBI itself (PBI-centred factors) and from the stakeholder organisations (stakeholder-centred factors). Practical implications The findings provide a practical framework for place brand managing organisations to foster stakeholders’ engagement during the implementation stage of a PBI initiative. Originality/value Place branding research to date has focussed primarily on resident stakeholders’ engagement in the development of PBI initiatives. This paper contributes to knowledge by proposing a framework that encompasses the drivers and inhibitors of national stakeholder organisations’ engagement with PBI during its implementation phase.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-04-03T11:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-04-2017-0275
  • Consumption-oriented engagement in social network sites
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Mounting empirical evidence shows that engagement in social network sites (SNSs) could have a negative impact on users’ personal well-being. However, studies of the undesirable effects of SNS use have not examined SNSs as a channel for users to share consumption information and experiences. To extend prior research, this study aims to examine the impact of consumption-oriented engagement (COE) in SNSs on young adult consumers’ personal well-being in terms of anxiety and self-esteem, as well as excessive spending. Design/methodology/approach Surveys were the primary means of data collection from a sample of young college students (N = 900). Moderated hierarchical regression was used to test the hypotheses. Findings COE is positively associated with anxiety and excessive spending and negatively associated with self-esteem. Social comparison mediates these relationships, and individuals’ materialistic values moderate the mediation. Research limitations/implications This study demonstrates the psychological and behavioral outcomes of consumer socialization via digital media among young adult consumers. It introduces and empirically validates social comparison as a theoretical explanation for the effects of COE. In addition, it validates materialistic values as a personal trait that moderates the effects of COE. Practical implications The study validates COE as a key precursor to the well-being of young adult users of SNSs and social comparison as the mediator. With this understanding, public policies can be designed to mitigate the root cause of the negative impact of SNS use. Originality/value Findings shed light on the negative repercussions of engagement in SNSs in the consumption domain and provide an impetus for educators, researchers and policymakers to make further efforts to gain a thorough understanding of the pitfalls of social media use.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:47:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0809
  • In “likes” we trust: likes, disclosures and firm-serving
           motives on social media
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine when and how the number of “likes” can exert significant influence on consumer evaluations of social media advertising. It sheds a novel perspective on how social media “likes”, advertising disclosures and the presence of firm-serving motives influence advertising effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach Study 1 examines how the number of “likes” influences consumer attitudes towards the sponsoring brand by strengthening advertising credibility, when social media ads are effectively (vs non-effectively) disclosed. Study 2 further establishes how the influence of the number of “likes” for effectively disclosed ads varies depending on whether the company states (vs does not state) its firm-serving motives. Findings The authors found that a social media ad displayed with a higher number of “likes” is perceived to be more credible, which can then yield more positive attitudes towards the brand. However, the use of effective disclosures moderates this relationship. To offset this effect, companies can restore the value of “likes” by stating their firm-serving motives openly when they develop social media advertising messages. Research limitations/implications The study offers a novel perspective on how consumers evaluate the number of displayed “likes” in the context of other social media features. Practical implications The study shows how social media marketers can become more effective in taking advantage of the number of “likes” that they accumulate on social networking site platforms. Originality/value The study illustrates a novel mechanism behind how and when the number of “likes” can influence the effectiveness of social media advertising.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:43:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0883
  • Who’s pulling the strings'
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Firms increasingly rely on content marketing to trigger user engagement in social media brand communities. The purpose of this paper is to examine how three generic types of marketer-generated content (affiliative, injunctive and utilitarian content) drive user engagement by considering distinct motivational paths and the role of users’ preference for intimate (vs broad) social networks. Design/methodology/approach The authors conduct a field survey and a scenario experiment among social media users across different brands from three different product categories. They examine the impact of marketer-generated content on user engagement while considering the moderating role of network intimacy (i.e. the mutual confiding within a user’s social network in terms of small social circles) and the mediating role of user motivations (i.e. autonomous vs controlled motivation for community membership). Findings The findings show that affiliative content (i.e. content that highlights shared values) drives user engagement through autonomous motivation, and utilitarian content (i.e. content that highlights tangible benefits) drives user engagement through controlled motivation. Notably, injunctive content (i.e. content that demands specific user behavior) is not a promising instrument to increase user engagement in social media brand communities when not targeted correctly. Research implications The authors link three generic content types derived from literature on communal systems to user engagement, demonstrate the motivational underpinnings of their translation into engagement behavior and show that network intimacy can explain why the same content type can impact user engagement through two motivational paths. Practical implications The authors present three types of content that marketers can craft to trigger users to engage with a brand’s social media community and show when this content is most effective and why. By examining the moderating role of network intimacy, this research aims at providing targeting implications to social media marketers. Originality/value This research provides new insights on the effectiveness of marketer-generated content. The authors reveal two motivational paths that compete in explaining the overall effectiveness of different types of marketer-generated content to fuel user engagement. The authors further demonstrate that these relationships depend on the intimacy of a user’s circle of online friends.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:27:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0777
  • Consumers and technology in a changing world: the perspective from
           subsistence marketplaces
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective on consumers and technology in a changing world using insights gained from subsistence marketplaces. Consumers in a changing world are on different parts of the economic spectrum and are also reflected in contexts of poverty that is termed subsistence marketplaces. “Data” comes from pioneering the subsistence marketplaces stream of research, education and social enterprise. Design/methodology/approach The authors study the intersection of poverty and marketplaces, beginning at the micro-level, and take a bottom-up approach to deriving implications. Findings The authors cover both aspects – what micro-level insights about thinking, feeling and coping mean for technology perceptions and usage in general and what specific insights are derived for designing and implementing solutions that have bearing on the use of technology. In the course of all endeavors in research, education and social enterprise, technology, particularly information and communications technology, has been central. Research limitations/implications The authors discuss implications for research at the confluence of a variety of uncertainties inherent in the context of subsistence marketplaces, in environmental issues and climate change and in the nature and speed of technological change and progress. Practical implications In this paper, the authors discuss what subsistence marketplaces mean for consumers and technology in a changing world, lessons learned for the design and development of technological solutions, technological innovation from subsistence marketplaces and a broader discussion of the importance of bottom-up approaches to the intersection of subsistence marketplaces and technological solutions. Originality/value The authors use insights developed from pioneering the arena of subsistence marketplaces and creating synergies between research, education and social enterprise.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-03-27T11:18:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0826
  • Markets, consumers and society in the age of heteromation
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is not to present a crystal ball, but to outline the conceptual strands – some already evident, others only dimly perceivable in emergent forms – that might drive the coming transformations and to weave the strands into a preliminary framework. The stance (and the political perspective) of the paper is informed by critical marketing studies (Tadajewski, 2010), the subfield of marketing that is vibrant in Europe but not yet well developed in other regions of the world. Design/methodology/approach This is a theoretical contribution, relying on discursive analysis. Findings Before an era of full and all-pervasive automation arrives, there will be a decades-long transitional stage of heteromation. In the heteromation, machines and humans will have to coexist adaptively. The spheres of production and consumption will be affected radically by the patterns of people-machine interactions, including coexistence, cooperation, adaptation, adjustments and conflicts. As the connective tissue between the spheres of production and consumption, marketing would also undergo major transformations in the age of heteromation. Research limitations/implications The paper lays out the grounding concepts useful for how heteromation and the subsequent era of full automation could impact organizations and markets. It provides the stepping-stone for further work on how marketing could, would or should transform in relation to the challenges of heteromation and automation. Practical implications The paper offers some guideposts for public policymakers, public intellectuals and thought leaders and social activists. It also points to action options for visionary corporate leaders and for researchers wishing to explore the heteromation–automation futures from critical-social perspectives. Originality/value Using the concept of heteromation, this paper presents hitherto unexplored and critical implications of potentially epochal transformations for marketing.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T10:03:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0916
  • Making the world a better place by making better products
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine whether consumers respond differently to different types of eco-innovations and to explore how and under what conditions eco-friendly consumer innovativeness (ECI) impacts consumers’ perception and adoption intentions. Design/methodology/approach Two online experiments with real consumers in the USA were conducted to test the hypothesized relationships. Two eco-innovation products were examined: a connected vacuum cleaner (Study 1) and an innovative smartphone (Study 2). Findings First, consumers tend to express more positive product beliefs, higher preferences and stronger adoption intentions toward resource use elimination innovations compared with the other types of eco-innovations across two product categories. Although consumers are not willing to pay more, they would adjust their payment equity by increasing consumption levels for resource use elimination innovations. Second, this research demonstrates ECI affects adoption intentions via formulating consumer perceptions of product eco-friendliness. Perceived trade-offs between eco-friendly benefits and product effectiveness strengthens the positive effect of ECI while weakening the impact of perceived product eco-friendliness on adoption intentions. Research limitations/implications Future studies may validate and extend the results for marketing communication to different types of eco-friendly innovative consumers to determine which marketing messages best match the perceptions and preferences of certain eco-friendly innovative consumers. Practical implications This study offers useful insights for strategic research-and-development investment and decision-making processes in selecting the best-suited approaches to developing eco-innovations and maximizing their success in the commercialization phase. Specifically, firms should place greater emphasis on resource use elimination innovation, which could evoke more positive consumer responses than resource use efficiency innovations and resource use substitution innovations. Moreover, it is important to improve the segmentation of the early adopters in the eco-innovation market with respect to specific types of eco-innovations so that marketers can distinctively address eco-friendly innovative consumers that best fit the potential user profile of their products. Originality/value The current research is novel as neither an empirically nor a theoretically founded framework has been suggested to examine how and why consumers respond differently to different types of eco-innovations. The findings shine new lights on eco-innovation research by providing useful insights into the underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which ECI affects consumers’ responses.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T10:02:18Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-11-2017-0888
  • Technology push without a patient pull
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Policymakers push online health services delivery, relying on consumers to independently engage with online services. Yet, a growing cluster of vulnerable patients do not engage with or disengage from these innovative services. There is a need to understand how to resolve the tension between the push of online health service provision and unengagement by a contingent of health-care consumers. Thus, this study aims to explore the issue of digital unengagement (DU) (i.e. the active or passive choice to engage or disengage) with online health services to better inform service design aligned to actual consumer need. Design/methodology/approach Adopting a survey methodology, a group of 486 health services consumers with a self-declared (acute or chronic) condition were identified. Of this group, 110 consumers were classified as digitally unengaged and invited to write open-ended narratives about their unengagement with online health services. As a robustness check, these drivers were contrasted with the drivers identified by a group of digitally engaged consumers with a self-declared condition (n = 376). Findings DU is conceptualized, and four levels of DU drivers are identified. These levels represent families of interrelated drivers that in combination shape DU: subjective incompatibility (misalignment of online services with need, lifestyle and alternative services); enactment vulnerability (personal vulnerabilities around control, comprehension and emotional management of online services); sharing essentiality (centrality of face-to-face co-creation opportunities plus conflicting social dependencies); and strategic scepticism (scepticism of the strategic value of online services). Identified challenges at each level are the mechanisms through which drivers impact on DU. These DU drivers are distinct from those of the digitally engaged group. Research limitations/implications Adding to a nascent but growing literature on consumer unengagement, and complementing the engagement literature, the authors conceptualize DU, positioning it as distinct from, not simply a lack of, consumer engagement. The authors explore the drivers of DU to provide insight into how DU occurs. Encapsulating the dynamic nature of DU, these drivers map the building blocks that could help to address the issue of aligning the push of online service provision with the pull from consumers. Practical implications This paper offers insights on how to encourage consumers to engage with online health services by uncovering the drivers of DU that, typically, are hidden from service designers and providers impacting provision and uptake. Social implications There is a concern that there will be an unintentional disenfranchisement of vulnerable segments of society with a generic policy emphasis on pushing online services. The paper sheds light on the unforeseen personal and social issues that lead to disenfranchisement by giving voice to digitally unengaged consumers with online health services. Originality/value Offering a novel view from a hard-to-reach digitally unengaged group, the conceptualization of DU, identified drivers and challenges inform policymakers and practitioners on how to facilitate online health service (re)engagement and prevent marginalization of segments of society.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:59:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0692
  • Rules of (household) engagement: technology as manager, assistant and
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Practitioners need to understand how households will engage with connected-home technologies or risk the failure of these innovations. Current theory does not offer sufficient explanation for how households will engage; hence, this paper aims to address an important gap by examining how households set “rules of engagement” for connected-home technologies in the context of electricity use and monitoring. Design/methodology/approach A review of the extant psychology, technology and engagement literature is conducted and yields two research questions for exploration. The research questions are addressed via 43 in-depth household interviews. Analysis includes thematic analysis and computerized text analysis. Findings The results include a typology of technology engagement (the “PIP typology”) and discuss three main roles for technology in assisting households: intern, assistant and manager. Key contributions are as follows: consumers in household settings may experience “compromised engagement” where the perceived middle option is selected even if no-one selected that option originally; households open to using connected-home technologies are often taking advantage of their ability to “delegate” engagement to technology, and because consumers humanize technology, they also expect technology to follow social roles and boundaries. Research limitations/implications Future research may examine the PIP typology quantitatively and/or in different contexts and would benefit from a longitudinal study to examine how household technology engagement evolves. Four research propositions are provided, which may form the basis for future research. Practical implications Recommendations for practitioners are presented regarding the benefits of keeping consumers at the heart of connected-home technology goods and services. Specific design principles are provided. Originality/value This paper fulfills the need to understand how households will engage with connected-home technologies and the roles this technology may fulfill in the complex household service system.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0759
  • Consumer engagement on Twitter: perceptions of the brand matter
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to develop and empirically test a theoretical framework of consumer engagement with brands on Twitter. Design/methodology/approach Depth interviews were conducted to gain initial insights into consumer engagement on Twitter. Using a blend of the extant literature and interview findings, a theoretical framework, including antecedents, outcomes and moderators, was developed and empirically tested using cross-sectional survey data. Findings Brand customer service and brand intimacy positively influence consumer engagement on Twitter, and consumer engagement mediates the relationship between these antecedents and consumer co-promotion intentions. Consumer perceptions of a brand account’s popularity on Twitter and their likelihood of adding value to a brand are found to be moderators within the conceptual framework. Research limitations/implications Caution needs to be exercised in generalising these findings beyond the Twitter context, and the use of a cross-sectional survey means causality cannot be inferred. Practical implications Brands need to be perceived as providing excellent customer service and intimate brand knowledge on Twitter to drive consumer engagement and co-promotion. Brands are recommended to develop strategies to increase their Twitter following, including rewarding consumers for their contributions on the brand’s Twitter account to signal that they are valued. Originality/value The authors add to the emerging literature on consumer engagement on social media in two key ways, by developing and testing a theoretical framework of consumer engagement in the Twitter context and by identifying moderators in the consumer engagement process on Twitter.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:54:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0772
  • Fostering brand engagement and value-laden trusted B2B relationships
           through digital content marketing
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how digital content marketing (DCM) users can be engaged with business-to-business (B2B) brands and determine how such engagement leads to value-laden trusted brand relationships. Methodology Through an online survey, data were collected from the email marketing list of a large B2B brand, and the hypothesised research model was analysed using covariance-based structural equation modelling. Findings This paper identifies a bundle of helpful brand actions – providing relevant topics and ideas; approaching content with a problem solving orientation; as well as investing in efforts to interpret, analyse and explain topics through DCM – to foster relationship value perceptions and brand trust. Critically however, cognitive-emotional brand engagement is shown to be a necessary requirement for converting these actions into relationship value perceptions. Research limitations/implications This paper furthers the understanding of the dual role of helpful brand actions in functionally oriented DCM. Additionally, this paper offers evidence of the central role of cognitive-emotional brand engagement in influencing value-laden customer–brand relationships. Practical implications This paper introduces a bundle of helpful brand actions that forms the basis for the dual roles of a brand in enhancing customer value and in fostering brand engagement and building relationships. This approach helps practitioners to steer brand-related perceptions arising from DCM interactions towards building trusted brand relationships. Originality/value This paper contributes to the marketing literature by revealing a potential approach to DCM in managing customer relationships. Instead of focusing solely on the content benefit-usage link to support engagement, this paper reveals the potential of helpfulness as a brand-initiated DCM engagement trigger in engaging customers with the brand, vis-à-vis the content.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:31:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0794
  • Customer engagement with brands in social media platforms
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Social media brand platforms have become a popular means for engaged customers to share information and experiences with brands and other customers. However, empirical research on how customer engagement (CE) relates to customers’ sharing intentions with the brand is limited. This study aims to investigate causal patterns of four CE dimensions – focused attention, absorption, enthusiasm and interaction – together with two cognitive structure properties in stimulating sharing intentions with the brand. Design/methodology/approach Using data from 782 Chinese customers of brand pages on the social media platform Weibo, this paper is the first to use both finite mixture partial least squares (FIMIX-PLS) analysis and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to empirically assess the impact of CE configurations on sharing intentions. Findings The findings imply that not all of the CE dimensions co-occur necessarily and that different configurations of them can produce superior sharing intentions, conditional on the cognitive structure of customers, including their level of brand knowledge and avant-gardism. Research limitations/implications Although restricted to customers on Weibo, the results inform practice about how social media technology can facilitate different CE configurations and customer sharing intentions. Practical implications The results inform brand managers’ segmentation efforts and CE content marketing initiatives that can induce different CE configurations and customer sharing intentions with customers that possess high avant-gard and brand knowledge characteristics. Originality/value This study is the first to substantiate how different CE configurations (as gestalts) affect sharing intentions in social media and to challenge conventional net-effects thinking about CE dimensions. Understanding how such conditional configurations foster sharing via a social media platform is advantageous because it can improve segmentation efforts to strengthen brand relationships.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-25T09:11:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0741
  • Trade fairs as engagement platforms: the interplay between physical and
           virtual touch points
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the association between physical and virtual trade fairs under the conceptual lens of engagement platforms. The authors build on the idea of business trade fairs (i.e. physical and/or virtual customer touch points) as learning and engagement platforms in service ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach The empirical study combines qualitative interviews (n = 16) with trade fair organizers, exhibitors and visitors and a survey (n = 263) comprising open-ended questions administrated to visitors of an international trade fair. Findings Findings highlighted the general role that trade fairs have in facilitating companies’ interactions with existing and potential customers. The trade fair develops in physical and virtual platforms, where companies advance business relationships and generate learning experiences and customer engagement. Participants look for solutions to problems and frequently innovation is a consequence of the engagement and learning processes. Yet, while the physical trade fair is instrumental for human personal interaction, namely, to establish informal networks of contacts and face-to-face interactions, virtual trade fairs are highlighted as a catalyst to foster interactivity and connectivity before and after the physical trade fair. Research limitations/implications The study endures limitations that may be addressed by future research. For example, studies in similar contexts and in other settings (e.g. different industries) are warranted. Practical implications The study offers wide-ranging implications for the principal agents from the trade fair industry: trade fair organizers, exhibitors and visitors. Originality/value This research constitutes a preliminary attempt to understand the association between physical and virtual trade fairs and contributes to the discourses on customer engagement and the underlying notion of service ecosystems in the trade fair environment. In particular, the study looks at the role and connections that each platform plays for organizers and participants providing important insights into improving physical and virtual trade fair participation strategies.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-20T03:34:14Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0791
  • Engaging customers through online and offline referral reward programs
    • Abstract: European Journal of Marketing, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose This paper aims to examine the psychological consequences of a customer engagement initiative through referral reward programs (RRPs) in online versus offline environments. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a qualitative study followed by a scenario-based experimental study. Findings The authors show that recommenders’ concern about how they are viewed by recommendation recipients (i.e. their metaperception) mediates the effects of incentives on referral likelihood in both offline and online environments. However, metaperception has a stronger effect offline where recommenders show higher impression management concerns compared to online. Furthermore, tie-strength and communication environment moderate the effect of incentives on metaperception. When referrals are made to weak-ties, incentives decrease metaperception favorability offline more than online. For strong-ties, this effect is lower, and it is similar in offline and online environments. Research limitations/implications The study focused on an online versus offline dyadic communication and did not consider the differences among social media. Furthermore, the authors did not consider how other forms of positive metaperception, like being seen as helpful or knowledgeable, could be increased in an online incentivized referral context. It is possible that a recommender thinks others see him as more helpful or knowledgeable online because a lot more useful information and other resources could be offered here compared to offline communications. Practical implications The authors recommend managers to design both online and offline RRPs that minimize metaperception concerns; target strong ties in any communication environment as metaperception concerns are low; and target weak ties online where metaperception concerns are muted. Originality/value This work is the first to examine how recommenders’ psychological responses differ offline and online.
      Citation: European Journal of Marketing
      PubDate: 2019-02-06T11:38:41Z
      DOI: 10.1108/EJM-10-2017-0756
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