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International Journal of Emergency Services
Number of Followers: 9  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2047-0894
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  • Editorial
    • Pages: 2 - 3
      Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Volume 8, Issue 1, Page 2-3, May 2019.

      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2019-04-24T11:23:48Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2019-068
  • Motivational implications leading to the continued commitment of volunteer
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between motivation and the continued commitment of volunteer firefighters. Design/methodology/approach This research using a phenomenological approach compares the lived experiences of 17 firefighters from five volunteer fire companies, seeking common themes leading to their longevity with the fire service. Findings There are commonalities in the reasons the participants joined and remained active in the fire service despite the many hours of ongoing training and commitment and disruptions to their personal lives. Research limitations/implications The study focused on firefighters in north central New Jersey and the results might not apply to volunteer firefighters in other regions. The rewards of being a firefighter need to be stressed. The importance of contribution to community early in the firefighter’s career and the evolution to the role of teacher, mentor and protector of other members over time are roles new recruits and existing members identify with that are the core to firefighter commitment. Practical implications The findings identify four themes: commitment and giving back to the community, comradery, altruism, and the relationships with family and friends that initially brought the volunteers to their fire company. The findings suggest the importance of these values and the potential to apply them in retaining firefighters. Social implications Evidence suggests that there are distinct reasons that individuals are attracted to the fire service and specific fire companies. Evidence also suggests that the role played by family members influences the level of activity of the volunteer firefighter. Originality/value This factor provides evidence behind the motivations of firefighters of diverse ages and backgrounds leading to their commitment to the fire service and their role as volunteer firefighters.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T12:34:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2017-0063
  • Emergency calls during the 2013 southern Ontario ice storm: case study of
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Responding to emergency incidents by emergency response organizations such as fire, ambulance and police during large disaster and emergency events is very important. The purpose of this paper is to provide some insights into response patterns during the 2013 ice storm in the city of Vaughan, Ontario, Canada, using temporal and spatial analyses. Design/methodology/approach The City of Vaughan Fire and Rescue Service data set containing all responses to fire and other emergency incidents from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2016 was used. The 2013 Southern Ontario ice storm occurred from December 20, 2013 to January 1, 2014, and, for this study, December 20–31 is considered the “study period.” Temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal analyses of responses during the study period are carried out and are compared with the same period in other years (2009–2012 and 2014–2016). Findings The findings show that temporal patterns of response attributes changed significantly during the 2013 ice storm. Similarly, the spatial pattern of responses during the 2013 ice storm showed some major differences with other years. The spatiotemporal analyses also demonstrate significant variations in responses in the city during different hours of the day in the ice storm days. Originality/value This study is the first study to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of responses made by a fire department during the 2013 ice storm in Canada. It provides some insights into the differences between response volumes, temporal and spatial distributions during large emergency events (e.g. ice storm) and normal situations. The results will help in mitigating the number of responses in the future through public education and technological changes. Moreover, the results will provide fire departments with information that could help them prepare for such events by possible reallocation of resources.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2019-06-18T10:44:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-01-2019-0004
  • Improving the effectiveness of fire prevention using the “premonition”
           agent-based model of domestic fire risk behaviours
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Understanding and predicting the behaviours of households within a community is a key concern for fire services as they plan to deliver effective and efficient public services. In this paper, an agent-based modelling approach is used to deepen understandings of changing patterns of behaviour within a community. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach This “Premonition” model draws on historical data of fire incidents and community interventions (e.g. home safety checks, fire safety campaigns, etc.) collated by South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue, UK, to unpack patterns of changing household behaviours within the region. Findings Findings from simulations carried out using the Premonition model, show that by targeting close-knit groups of connected households, the effectiveness of preventative interventions and utilisation of associated resources is enhanced. Furthermore, by repeating these interventions with the same households over time, risk factors within the wider area are further reduced. Originality/value The study thus shows that annual repeat visits to fewer and more targeted high-risk postcodes increase the overall reduction in risk within an area, when compared with a scattered coverage approach using one-off (i.e. not repeat) household visits within a postcode.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2019-06-18T10:35:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2018-0031
  • Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive (CBRNe) events
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to systematically review published literature for the research question “what issues are considered (and changes made) for vulnerable groups as part of the chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNe) response for casualty collection, decontamination, triage and casualty clearing processes'”. Design/methodology/approach Seven-stage framework from the PRISMA statement for research question, eligibility (definition), search, identification of relevant papers from title and abstract, selection and retrieval of papers, appraisal and synthesis. Data sources: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus (Elsevier), Chemical s, Assia (Proquest), Sociological abstracts (Proquest), Cinahl, HMIC, Health business elite, PsycInfo (ebsco), PILOTS (Proquest) and supplemented by other search strategies (e.g. exploding reference lists). The included references were critically appraised using the mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT). Findings Results: 1,855 papers were returned from the literature search, of which 221 were screened by abstract and 48 by full paper. In total, 11 papers were included for appraisal, of which three achieved a quality score of 50 per cent or over. The papers were categorised into three phases on CBRNe response; evacuation, triage and decontamination. Research limitations/implications The limitations of the search process included the use of emerging exclusion criteria. This may have excluded research that would provide more information in some topic areas but it was felt necessary to set a high publication standard for inclusion to generate trustworthy results and recommendations. The MMAT appraisal tool has been validated for different study types and provided a useful categorisation approach for critical appraisal, albeit resulting in only three included studies. Future reviews could include papers published in a wider range of languages to include research from non-English sources. Practical implications These evidence-based results should be used by practitioners to review current operational policies for vulnerable people and plan future improvements. Evacuation accessibility can be described as characteristics for exit, route and obstacles. This takes a systems approach to consider how building planning and layout can have implications for safety critical but low frequency events. Decontamination recommendations include: at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit and adaptations to the decontamination plan including accessible equipment for non-ambulatory individuals; and additional (specialist) staff in the decontamination team (sign language, interpreters and physical therapists). Originality/value Although very little new medium/high quality research is available, the findings are summarised as considerations for building design (route choice and information), communication (including vision, hearing and language differences) and the composition of the response team. It is suggested that evidence-based practice from other care domains could be considered (patient movement and handling) for fire service and ambulance guidelines.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2019-05-30T10:13:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2018-0030
  • An integrated response model for business disruption
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the planning and use of an all-hazards emergency services approach to business disruption, which resulted from the hosting of the 2018 Commonwealth Games (GC2018) by Australia. It outlines how this emergency response model worked and how it can be transitioned into other operational areas. Design/methodology/approach Although the Commonwealth Games provided a unique opportunity for Australia to showcase its large event capability, it also highlighted the need for innovation due to business disruption for front-line emergency response agencies. The Queensland Fire and Emergency Services (QFES) was faced with the need to review the standard emergency response model and to come up with a way to maintain business as usual operational effectiveness. Findings An all-hazards approach to emergency response was ultimately achieved through expanded air operations (helicopters), the use of a multi-agency approach and the use of volunteers to achieve strategic risk management outcomes. Practical implications The practical solutions that emerged are discussed as the expanded response model and collaborative engagements to achieve risk reduction, readiness and preparation. Originality/value The solution to utilise an integrated emergency response methodology, including rapid and effective aerial support, reflected an all-hazards response to include deployment to road crash rescue, hazardous materials and structural fires. This business model ensured that QFES continued to meet its established “operational excellence” standards while pioneering options to address incident responses within the community wherein circumstances are considered exceptional.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2019-05-30T10:11:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-08-2018-0041
  • Role of Facebook as a disaster communication media
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the types of contents shared through Facebook during different phases of disaster management. Design/methodology/approach The primary data of this study were collected using the qualitative method. To acquire the necessary data, researcher selected 50 Sri Lankan Facebook users who can read and understand Sinhala with more than 1,000 friends using the snowball sampling method. Selected Facebook users had to collect Facebook posts related to flood during two weeks time period. Data were collected until it reached data saturation point. The collected Facebook posts were transcribed and translated into English. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the Facebook posts. Findings The most prominent use of Facebook for disaster communication can be observed in, during and post-disaster phases. In the during-disaster phase, people used Facebook to share posts related to disaster warning, request for help or rescue, share information about rescue missions, share contact numbers of rescue teams, request donation items, coordinate aid distribution, ask for volunteer work and to provide feedback about the ongoing funding programs. In the post-disaster phase, people used Facebook to request volunteer help for cleaning, to provide feedback about the progress and to ask about donating cleaning products. Originality/value Findings of this study can be used by the government or authorized bodies to develop official social media channels, which would fulfill information requirements during disaster situations.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2019-05-03T09:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-04-2018-0024
  • Interventions to reduce sickness absence among healthcare workers: a
           systematic review
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Sickness absence is a major concern for healthcare services and their employees with healthcare workers having higher sickness absence rates compared to the general population. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review randomised control trials (RCTs) that aimed to reduce sickness absence among healthcare workers. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review was conducted that aimed to include RCTs with study participants who were employed in any part of the healthcare sector. This review included any type of intervention with the primary outcome measure being sickness absence. Findings Seven studies were included in the review and consisted of one exercise-only intervention, three multicomponent intervention programmes, two influenza vaccination interventions and one process consultation. Three studies (exercise-only, one multicomponent intervention programme and one influenza vaccination intervention) were able to demonstrate a reduction in sickness absence compared to control. Research limitations/implications Due to the lack of high-quality evidence, this review identified that there are currently no interventions that healthcare organisations are able to use to effectively reduce sickness absence among their employees. This review also highlights the importance of a standardised measure of sickness absence for healthcare staff, such as shifts. Originality/value To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first systematic review to synthesise such evidence among healthcare workers.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2019-03-22T10:26:48Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2018-0028
  • Opportunities and challenges for multi-professional units in rural areas
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate opportunities and challenges for multi-professional paramedic-firefighter units in small municipalities in Finland. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected by means of four focus group interviews conducted with managers (N =12) and a questionnaire comprising open-ended questions for the personnel working in the units (n =73). Data from both sources were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Findings The empirical results suggest that the use of multi-professional units (MPUs) may be one means of providing a better standard of service in rural areas. However, the working practices and different professional backgrounds in MPUs are considered challenging by the personnel. Managers had a broader perspective; during the interviews they raised matters such as citizen characteristics, legal issues like varying working hours, and economic aspects. Both the personnel and the managers agreed on the strengths and weaknesses of the MPU model in principle. Practical implications The results of this study may clarify the opportunities and challenges posed by MPUs in rural areas from the perspectives of personnel and managers. Originality/value The study provides novel information on MPUs comprising paramedics and firefighters, who function at the interface of emergency medical services and rescue services and who have new tasks in rural areas, including home healthcare support and accident prevention.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T02:48:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-02-2018-0017
  • First response emergency care – experiences described by
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe firefighters’ experiences of first response emergency care. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses an explorative descriptive design with a qualitative approach. Data were collected through group interviews of 35 firefighters and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Findings The results showed that the professional role and the firemen’s uniform serve as a protection against psychologically strenuous situations. To protect the dignity of the injured or dead is important as well as protecting and safeguarding each other from the experience of the tragedy of an accident. Having a solid, sterling medical education provides a sense of security in the emergency care, as well as when caring for the relatives. Debriefing brings thoughts and feelings to the surface for processing and closure. The feeling of sadness lingers for the people not being saveable, that had been dead on arrival or the ones forgotten. Originality/value A firefighter’s work situation is exposed and stressful. The firemen’s uniform as a mental barrier, colleagues, time to mentally prepare and to be allowed to show feelings are all needed to cope. It is, therefore, important to encourage, promote and strengthen the protective role of camaraderie for the firefighter, which probably can be emphasized in other uniform-wearing professions such as police, military and ambulance. Being acknowledged for their contribution to other peoples’ lives and well-being can acknowledge the firefighters’ importance.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-12-12T03:40:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-05-2018-0026
  • Organisational factors: impacting on health for ambulance personnel
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to establish if organisational factors are leading to a negative effect on ambulance personnel’s health. In recent years, frontline ambulance personnel have displayed a consistent high rate of sickness amongst healthcare workers within the National Health Service in the UK. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has previously been cited, but organisational factors may be stressors to health. Design/methodology/approach A search of electronic databases MEDLINE EBSCO, MEDLINE OVID, MEDLINE PUBMED, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, Zetoc within the time period of 2000–2017 resulted in six mixed methods studies. Hand searching elicited one further study. The literature provided data on organisational and occupational stressors (excluding PTSD) relating to the health of 2,840 frontline ambulance workers in the UK, Australia, Norway, the Netherlands and Canada. The robust quantitative data were obtained from validated questionnaires using statistical analysis, whilst the mixed quality qualitative data elicited similar themes. Narrative synthesis was used to draw theories from the data. Findings Organisational factors such as low job autonomy, a lack of supervisor support and poor leadership are impacting on the health and well-being of frontline ambulance workers. This is intertwined with the occupational factors of daily operational demands, fatigue and enforced overtime, so organisational changes may have a wider impact on daily occupational issues. Originality/value The findings have possible implications for re-structuring organisational policies within the ambulance service to reduce staff sickness.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-12-04T02:26:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-02-2018-0013
  • Old dogs, new tricks' A Norwegian study on whether previous
           collaboration exercise experience impacted participant’s perceived
           exercise effect
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceived effects of a maritime cross-sector collaboration exercise. More specifically, this study aims to examine whether past exercise experience had an impact on the operative exercise participant’s perceived levels of collaboration, learning and usefulness. Design/methodology/approach This was a non-experimental quantitative survey-based study. A quantitative methodology was chosen over qualitative or mixed-methods methodologies as it was considered more suitable for data extraction from larger population groups, and allowed for the measurement and testing of variables using statistical methods and procedures (McCusker and Gunaydin, 2015). Data were collected from a two-day 2017 Norwegian full-scale maritime chemical oil-spill pollution exercise with partners from Norway, Germany, Iceland, Denmark and Sweden. The exercise included international public emergency response organizations and Norwegian non-governmental organizations. The study was approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data (ref. 44815) and the exercise planning organization. Data were collected using the collaboration, learning and utility (CLU) scale, which is a validated instrument designed to measure exercise participant’s perceived levels of collaboration, learning and usefulness (Berlin and Carlström, 2015). Findings The perceived focus on collaboration, learning and usefulness changed with the number of previous exercises attended. All CLU dimensions experienced decreases and increases, but while perceived levels of collaboration and utility reached their somewhat modest peaks among those with the most exercise experience, perceived learning was at its highest among those with none or little exercise experience, and at its lowest among those with most. These findings indicated that collaboration exercises in their current form have too little focus on collaborative learning. Research limitations/implications Several limitations of the current study deserve to be mentioned. First, this study was limited in scope as data were collected from a limited number of participants belonging to only one organization and during one exercise. Second, demographical variables such as age and gender were not taken into consideration. Third, limitation in performing a face-to-face data collection may have resulted in missing capturing of cues, verbal and non-verbal signs, which could have resulted in a more accurate screening. Moreover, the measurements were based on the predefined CLU-items, which left room for individual interpretation and, in turn, may cause somewhat lower term validity. As the number of international and national studies on exercise effects is scarce, it is important to increase further knowledge and to learn more about the causes as to why the perceived effects of collaboration exercises are considered somewhat limited. Practical implications Exercise designers may be stimulated to have a stronger emphasis on collaborative learning during exercise planning, hence continuously work to develop scripts and scenarios in a way that leads to continuous participant perceived learning and utility. Social implications Collaboration is established as a Norwegian national emergency preparedness principle. These findings may stimulate politicians and top crisis managers to develop national collaboration exercise script guidelines that emphasize collaborative learning and development. Originality/value This study shows how exercise experience impacted participant’s perceived levels of collaboration, learning and usefulness. Findings indicated that collaboration exercises in their current form have too little focus on collaborative learning.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-11-28T11:45:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-04-2018-0025
  • Rescue responses during a full moon and Friday 13th
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose It is a well held belief that the full moon period and the date Friday 13th has an impact on the number of emergency call outs for emergency services. The purpose of this paper is to critically explore that belief. It also examines the versatility and richness of response records, and demonstrates the effectiveness of combining data sets. Design/methodology/approach The work takes four varied data sets, from four rescue agencies along with the International Search and Rescue Database and compared the average number of calls on a full moon night, non-full moon and full moon period (the full moon night, the day before and day after). The average number of incidents on Friday 13th was also investigated. It uses a statistical approach to test the difference between “normal” dates and those dates traditionally believed to be busier. Findings Although there were differences between Friday 13th, full moon nights, full moon periods and “normal” days, the differences were in general extremely small, not significantly significant and in most cases actually dropped during the supposedly unlucky period. The exception to this is a very small increase in the average number of responses during full moons for most data sets, although this was not statistically significant. This paper concludes that there is no evidence in the data for any impact of the full moon upon rescue teams’ activities. Research limitations/implications This research deals with a small set of responses, from the UK only, and addresses an issue that is clearly not the most pressing. However, it does demonstrate evidenced-based management in practice, in that resources have incorrectly been assigned in the past to these dates. Practical implications This work shows that preconceptions exist within the emergency services and that, without evidence-led management, resources can be allocated on hearsay. This shows that widely available software and techniques can be applied to organisational data and used to make management decisions more appropriate. Social implications Rescue organisations are almost exclusively charity or public sector organisations, meaning that their budgets are sourced from donations or the tax-payer. Putting to bed misconceptions over resources for certain dates will ultimately benefit society in those terms. Originality/value There has been very little work on this phenomenon, although some works on A&E department admissions have taken place. This is the only work to date to combine data in this way for this purpose.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-10-12T03:02:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-12-2017-0066
  • Semi-professionals: emergency response as an additional task in current
    • Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to identify occupational groups who can act as semi-professional first responders, in order to shorten the response times to frequent emergencies, and second, to identify related opportunities, challenges and needs of training, emergency supplies and information technology (IT) support. Design/methodology/approach A case study approach was taken, combining future workshops, focus groups and an exercise. Network governance was used as an analytical lens. Findings The identified potential groups are security guards, home care personnel, fire services day personnel and facility service personnel. The results show that semi-professionals have a large potential to complement professional resources by carrying out first response or supportive actions vital to the emergency, partly by using already existing cars and equipment. The identified needs include additional basic equipment such as fire extinguishers and first-aid kits, training in basic firefighting, first aid and risk assessment, as well as mobile phone application-based IT support to manage alarms. The major challenges are organisational, economic and juridical, including ambiguities in responsibilities and related insurances. The analysis recognises the new collaboration as a hybrid form of hierarchical government and network governance. Social implications The study suggests that using semi-professional resources can be one of many innovative solutions to recent public sector challenges that have put a huge strain on professional emergency response organisations. Originality/value The study provides a novel view of using semi-professional resources in emergency response, based on the joint perspectives of various occupational groups, and the fire services.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-06-20T07:40:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-11-2017-0059
  • The role of psychological screening for emergency service responders
    • First page: 4
      Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that psychological screening and surveillance can take in improving the delivery of psychological support to emergency service responders (ESRs) at a time of increasing demands and complexity. Design/methodology/approach The study aims to present and discuss the use of psychological screening and surveillance of trauma exposed emergency service workers. Findings The evidence supports the use of psychological screening and surveillance using appropriate validated questionnaires and surveys. Research limitations/implications The findings suggest that emergency services should be using psychological screening and surveillance of ESRs in roles where there is high exposure to traumatic stress. Originality/value These findings will help emergency service organisations to recognise how psychological screening and surveillance can be used as part of a wider programme of well-being support. This approach can also help them meet their legal health and safety obligations to protect the psychological health and well-being of their ESRs.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-10-10T12:43:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-04-2018-0021
  • Stating the obvious
    • First page: 20
      Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the form, content and reporting arrangements of “statements of assurance” required from Fire and Rescue Authorities in England since their introduction in 2012 and identify potential improvements for future implementation. Design/methodology/approach A multi-method approach was adopted which commenced with an analysis of the current official guidance, an exploration of the accessibility and structure of the current statements produced; followed by a review of those statements through a desk based analysis complemented by a series of elite interviews. Findings The current guidance was found to be too broad and open to interpretation to be fit for purpose. This has led to some significant variations in reporting, limiting the statements’ usefulness to key users and stakeholders. Most authorities provided some form of report on their website but inconsistencies in respect of length, structure, name and content, limit their value. The research found that 30 per cent of authorities did not have an up to date statement available online. These findings were supported by the series of interviews. The result has led to confusion amongst authorities as to the statement’s role and the risk of it being perceived as a “box ticking” exercise rather than a real contribution to public assurance. Practical implications This paper provides potential lessons which could be adopted to inform future guidance in respect of the preparation and publication of the statement of assurance and its role within the wider public assurance regime for fire and rescue authorities. If adopted, these would improve the accountability, transparency and public assurance of Fire and Rescue Authorities which is a key objective of their governance arrangements. Originality/value The statement of assurance has only been a requirement of authorities since the current National Framework for Fire and Rescue was published in July 2012 and has not been subject to independent research since its inception. The government have recently issued a consultation on a new national framework, but this proposes changes to the statements of assurance. The findings will therefore be of value to the government, the fire and rescue sector and the recently appointed regulators for the service Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire and Rescue Services.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-06-15T08:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-10-2017-0053
  • Evaluation of firefighter leadership trainings
    • First page: 34
      Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The training of highly skilled officers in rescue forces is essential for success and performance of fire brigades in their daily work. The purpose of this paper is to develop a validated instrument assessing the quality of leadership trainings in firefighter education. Design/methodology/approach In Study 1, relevant factors of teaching quality in this specific context are established using semi-structured interviews (n=5 trainer, n=59 trainees), and a pool of corresponding survey items is tested in a pilot sample (n=7 trainer, n=26 trainees). In Study 2 (n=263 trainees), we select best-fitting items and explore the structure of latent variables via exploratory factor analyses. Study 3 (n=45 trainer, n=380 trainees) tests this structure by means of confirmatory analyses and validates the questionnaire using scales from other evaluation instruments for higher education. Findings Analyses resulted in a six-dimensional questionnaire reflecting relevant training processes and outcomes. Results suggest that the newly created Feedback Instrument for Rescue forces Education (FIRE) meets all relevant psychometric quality criteria. Originality/value By examining critical factors of training quality, the authors enhance the understanding of critical processes in programs for rescue forces education. The developed questionnaire provides trainers and educational institutions with a validated tool to measure these relevant processes and the desired training outcomes. Therefore, the FIRE scales can contribute to an ongoing improvement of rescue forces trainings.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-10-02T01:56:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-03-2018-0020
  • The development and critique of validated assessment tools for
           pre-hospital resuscitation skills
    • First page: 50
      Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of clinically credible skill practice and assessment guides for intraosseous (IO) needle insertion and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion as two essential components of advanced life support (ALS) training. Design/methodology/approach A modified Delphi approach was used to determine expert consensus in the application of IO and LMA devices for the pre-hospital and emergency setting. Nine pre-hospital clinical specialists were recruited to participate in this Delphi study to determine consensus of clinical expert practice. Findings Two rounds were required to obtain a performance and assessment checklist for each skill. Both lists were then further modified to maximise their useability. However, the development of a “validated” checklist using a pre-determined process such as a Delphi approach is challenged. Rather, the implementation of these tools in a stated context, and analysis of the data they generate, is an essential aspect of validation which the Delphi approach does not address. Research limitations/implications Participant feedback regarding the rationale for their scores was limited in this study in order to minimise participant input and maximise completion of all rounds of the study. Further, devices used in the study may no longer be first-line choices with the advent of more modern devices including semi-automatic IO devices and LMAs which do not have inflatable cuffs. The refined checklists are able to be adapted to these newer devices. Practical implications Pre-hospital education contexts which may not have access to expert assessors who are skilled in providing global judgements now have access to clinically relevant skill-specific assessment tools for IO and LMA insertion. Originality/value Worldwide, ALS accreditation and competence is demanded of countless health professionals, and to date, validated practice and assessment guides specifically developed for the emergency setting for which they are used, are not available in the published literature. This paper proposes to fill that gap, in addition to guiding clinical education researchers in strategies to develop valid assessment tools through rigorous critique.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-08-24T02:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-03-2018-0018
  • Low-dose, high-frequency CPR training with feedback for firefighters
    • First page: 64
      Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for firefighters for one month. Design/methodology/approach The study had a quantitative approach. Data were collected through an intervention by means of simulation. The data collection consisted of a pre- and post-assessment of 38 firefighter’s CPR performance. Findings There was a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-assessment regarding participants’ compression rates. Compression depth increased statistically significantly to average 2 mm too deep in the group. Recoil decreased in the group with an average of 1 mm for the better. There was a statistically significant improvement in participants’ ventilation volume from pre- to post-assessment. Originality/value Prehospital staff such as firefighters, police, and ambulance perform CPR under less than optimal circumstances. It is therefore of the utmost importance that these professionals are trained in the best possible way. The result of this study shows that low-dose, high-frequency CPR training with an average of six training sessions per month improves ventilation volume, compression depth, rate, and recoil. This study concludes that objective feedback during training enhances the firefighters’ CPR skills which in turn also could be applied to police and ambulance CPR training.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-05-29T11:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-01-2018-0001
  • Lean and Six Sigma in policing: austerity, driver or distraction'
    • First page: 73
      Abstract: International Journal of Emergency Services, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to widen some of the recent discussion which focusses on austerity being the driver for introducing continuous improvement (CI) methodologies, such as Lean and Six Sigma, into policing. Design/methodology/approach The authors apply over 80 years combined experience in policing and CI to analyse academic and practitioner literature to summarise the drivers for change and the progress of Lean and Six Sigma in policing and the UK Public Sector. Findings The paper concludes that there are significant gaps in the literature and while there are undoubted challenges, there are overlaps between the strategic direction of policing and the approaches of Lean and Six Sigma. Research limitations/implications There are a small but growing number of papers which evidence the applicability of Lean and Six Sigma in policing. Practical implications The paper emphasises the risks to service delivery if factors such as budget constraints are considered in isolation. The paper provides examples of opportunities which may exist in policing as well as introducing ongoing work in policing. Originality/value This paper is among the first to explore the issues of how CI methodologies fit into the strategic direction and challenges of policing services.
      Citation: International Journal of Emergency Services
      PubDate: 2018-09-24T10:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJES-02-2018-0010
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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