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China Agricultural Economic Review
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1756-137X
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  • Off-farm employment over the past four decades in rural China
    • Pages: 190 - 214
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 190-214, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the trend of off-farm employment in rural China over the past four decades since the reform and opening-up. Design/methodology/approach Using two sets of panel survey data, the China National Rural Survey conducted in 2000 and 2008, and the China Rural Development Survey conducted in 2005, 2008, 2012 and 2016, this study offers a re-visit of China’s off-farm employment to give us the latest information about its evolution and whether rural labor markets have developed in a way that will allow them to facilitate the transformation of China’s economy more effectively. The evolution of off-farm employment is further examined through decomposition of types, destinations, industries, and population sub-groups as well as the change in the wage rate. Findings The data show the rapid increase in rural labor activities over the whole study period. Most notably, the authors findnd that a rapid rise in off-farm employment has continued even until after 2008 and into the mid-2010s, which is a time when some feared that macroeconomic conditions might keep rural residents on the farm or drive them back to the farm. In the disaggregation of labor market trends, the authors show that labor markets are acting consistently with an economy that is in transition from being dominated by agriculture to being dominated by other forms of production and with a population that is consistently becoming more urban. Originality/value The authors believe that the results will contribute positively to the exploration of answers to the question whether or not rural labor markets have developed in a way that will allow them to facilitate the transformation of China’s economy more effectively over the last four decades.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:02:54Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-11-2017-0212
       
  • Returns to public agricultural and rural investments in China
    • Pages: 215 - 223
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 215-223, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review China’s past returns in a period over the last 40 years to public agricultural and rural investments to highlight the importance for future strategic investments in China’s agri-food system and in rural areas. Design/methodology/approach The paper synthesizes research findings from previous studies and reviews more recent trends. Based on the main findings, the authors provide forward-looking guidance for China’s investments agriculture and rural areas in the context of emerging global and domestic trends in agriculture, food security, and nutrition. Findings Public investments in the agricultural research and development (R&D), rural education, and rural infrastructure have been shown to have significant positive returns to agricultural growth as well as to reductions in poverty and regional inequality. Returns to overall agricultural GDP were highest for agricultural R&D, followed by education, roads, and telephones. Investment in education had the greatest returns to poverty reduction, as well as to nonfarm GDP and overall rural GDP. Investment in agricultural R&D had the second greatest returns in term of poverty reduction, and was also a close second in returns to nonfarm GDP and overall rural GDP following education. The rural infrastructure spending also saw significant returns to poverty reduction, largely through growth in agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. Investments in agriculture and rural areas will continue to be important, as China and the world face emerging challenges amidst a changing global landscape, particularly regarding climate change, rapid urbanization, nutritional imbalances, and food safety concerns. In addressing these emerging challenges, continued support for agricultural R&D and innovations can play a key role. Originality/value The paper highlights research findings on key investment areas that will be increasingly important for China’s agri-food system, and provides guidance in the context of emerging trends impacting food security and nutrition.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:02:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-11-2017-0211
       
  • Rural energy policy in China
    • Pages: 224 - 240
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 224-240, May 2018.
      Purpose Rural energy policy is a critical measure to fight the long-standing poverty issue in China. Energy poverty, per se, is one important yet too often neglected dimension of poverty, and one of the biggest challenges in rural China during the 40-year rural reform. Reducing energy poverty is one of the poverty alleviation tasks and the goals of energy transition in the rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the status of energy poverty in China, discussing the challenges of energy poverty reduction, and then proposing the potential measures. Design/methodology/approach Using various data (including the authors’ survey data), this paper analyzes the volume and structure of energy use, and affordability of energy for the rural households, then examines the impacts of energy poverty on health, social and productivity, and finally discusses the infrastructure, cognitive ability, culture, income, etc., that shape the challenges to energy poverty reduction. Findings In addition to raising the household income, it is urgently needed to enforce the collaborations among government departments, and to improve the energy infrastructure according to local conditions, helping the residential environment cognition. Originality/value Energy poverty is almost a too often neglected issue in rural China. Few in existing literature comprehensively investigate this critically important social economic problem. This paper contributes to the profound understanding in energy poverty and the possible approaches to alleviate it.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:02:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-10-2017-0190
       
  • Poverty alleviation in rural China: policy changes, future challenges and
           policy implications
    • Pages: 241 - 259
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 241-259, May 2018.
      Purpose Poverty alleviation is a global challenge. Human society has never ceased to fight against poverty. China was once the developing country with the largest rural poor population in the world. Remarkable achievements have been made in China’s antipoverty program over the past decades, shaping a unique poverty reduction strategy with Chinese characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to first review the history of China’s rural reform and antipoverty, and then analyze the related policy systems, mechanism innovations and future challenges in poverty alleviation and development. At last, some specific policy implications were provided. Design/methodology/approach Literature on China’s antipoverty history was reviewed and mechanism innovations on targeted poverty alleviation strategy were investigated. Findings Along with the deepening of the rural reform, the poverty alleviation and development in new China have undergone six stages, and experienced a transformation from relief-oriented to development-oriented poverty alleviation. The object of poverty alleviation has gradually targeted with a transformation from poor counties/areas to villages/households, and the effectiveness of poverty alleviation is also gradually improved. However, the increase in the difficulty of antipoverty, fragile ecological environment, rapid population aging and rural decline poses challenges to the construction of a well-off society in an all-round way in China. Specific antipoverty measures were put forward based on the investigation. Finally, the authors emphasize the importance of strengthening the study of poverty geography. Originality/value This study investigates the history of China’s antipoverty policy and analyzes the future challenges for implementing targeted poverty alleviation policy. These findings will lay a foundation for the formulation of China’s antipoverty policies after 2020, and provide experience for poverty alleviation in other developing countries around the world.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:02:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-10-2017-0192
       
  • China’s urban-rural relationship: evolution and prospects
    • Pages: 260 - 276
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 260-276, May 2018.
      Purpose In the 69 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, especially the 40 years since the reform and opening-up, the relationship between urban and rural areas has undergone profound change. When the deepening reform of the urban-rural relationship is entering a critical period, it is necessary to reassess the evolution of the urban-rural relationship in China and draw a picture for that relationship in the future. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper combs the policies on the urban and rural development since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and analyzes macro data on the industries, population, personal income, and other aspects. Findings The study found that this urbanism affects individuals’ lives and the choices of society through the will of the state, and then provides feedback at the whole level of social values. Originality/value This paper divides the evolution of China’s urban-rural relationship into two major stages – nurturing cities with rural areas and leading rural areas with cities, which are then subdivided into five periods. The features of the relationship between the urban and rural areas in different periods are analyzed, and the future development of urban-rural relations is also considered.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:02:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-02-2018-0038
       
  • Will farmland transfer reduce grain acreage' Evidence from Gansu
           province, China
    • Pages: 277 - 292
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 277-292, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of farmland renting-in on planted grain acreage. Design/methodology/approach A survey data of five counties were analyzed with the two-stage ordinary least squares model. Findings Households renting-in land trended to plant more maize, and the more land was rented by a household the more maize was planted, while wheat acreage showed non-response to farmland renting-in. Practical implications Overall, the analysis suggests that policy makers should be prepared for different changing trends of grain crop acreage across the nation as farmland transfer continues. Future research should pay attention to the effect of farmland transfer on agricultural productivity and rural household income growth. Originality/value As the Chinese Government is promoting larger-scale and more mechanized farms as a way of protecting grain security, it is important to understand whether farmland renting-in will reduce planted grain acreage. This study provides empirical evidence showing the answer to that question may differ across different regions and depend on the particular grain crop in question.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:02:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-04-2017-0072
       
  • Dynamic and static analysis of agricultural productivity in China
    • Pages: 293 - 312
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 293-312, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) and input redundancies in different regions of China, and to bring out the policy implications for improving efficiency in agricultural production as well as environment protection. Design/methodology/approach Based on the provincial panel data during 1995-2014, the agricultural productivity of China and its regional disparity are analyzed. First, the agricultural TFP and its decomposition are dynamically evaluated by means of data envelopment analysis-Malmquist productivity index. Second, the agricultural radial production efficiency in year 2014 and the input redundancy changes from 1995 to 2014 are measured based on the BCC-slacks-based measure model. Findings The results showed that the overall agricultural TFP of China grew 4.3 percent annually during 1995-2014, mainly as a result of technical progress. However, the declines of technical efficiency and scale efficiency slowed down the agricultural TFP growth. The TFP growth in the Western region and Central region far exceeded the Eastern region in last few years. In 2014, most effective decision-making units were in the Western region. The input redundancies in the agricultural production increased substantially after 2006, especially for the pesticide use amount, reservoir capacity and agricultural machinery power. Originality/value Combining the dynamic and static analyses, the paper fulfilled the study of China’s agricultural productivity and the input redundancies in recent years, and also presented the regional disparities.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:03:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-08-2015-0095
       
  • Market power, scale economy and productivity: the case of China’s
           food and tobacco industry
    • Pages: 313 - 322
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 313-322, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to measure and examine the relationships between market power, scale economy and productivity for several important food and tobacco industries in China. Design/methodology/approach The model applied in this paper is based on Hall’s framework (Hall, 1988, 1990) and Klette (1999). The paper relaxes the assumption of constant returns to scale, and estimates market power and rate of returns to scale simultaneously, and then employs a covariance approach to examine the relationship between market power, scale economy and productivity via an unbalanced panel data at firm level. Findings Empirical results indicate that all the selected seven food industries are characterized with significant market power, especially for China’s cigarette industry whose markup is as almost five times as the smallest one. In addition, China’s soybean and cigarette sectors are manifested to have scale economy, with return to scale being larger than 1, while the other five sectors are proved to have decreasing returns to scale. Empirical results also provide evidence to support significant negative correlations between market power and scale economy in all sectors, and negative correlations between market power and productivity in most of the selected sectors. While more heterogeneous relationship between scale economy and productivity are found across the selected sectors. Originality/value This paper contributes to examine the relationship between market power, scale economy and productivity empirically for Chinese food manufacturers using a firm-level unbalanced panel data. Results which coincide well with the reality provide policy implication on understanding the situation of market structure for China’s food and tobacco industry.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:02:23Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-03-2017-0040
       
  • Do agricultural services contribute to cost saving' Evidence from
           Chinese rice farmers
    • Pages: 323 - 337
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 323-337, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to clarify agricultural services into five categories, including agricultural materials supply service, financial service, technical service, machinery service and processing and sales service, and to examine the effect of agricultural services on cost saving of rice production in China. Design/methodology/approach Based on a three-year panel data set covering 3,421 rice farmers in 12 Chinese provinces collected from the state rice industry experiment stations’ fixed watch points of China Agriculture Research System, a stochastic frontier model which takes the price vectors of input variables into cost function is developed by stochastic frontier analysis method in the study. Findings There is a deviation between the actual cost and the minimum cost on rice production in China due to the loss of cost efficiency, whose score is 0.7983 at the mean. Agricultural services can help improve cost efficiency, thus contributing to cost saving. Specifically, the effect of technical service on cost saving is the highest, followed by processing and sales service, machinery service, financial service and agricultural materials supply service. Originality/value The results of this paper are of great significance to the effectiveness and efficiency of the targeted agricultural services and indicate implications for policy improvement under the context of clear upward trend of agricultural production costs.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:02:38Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-06-2016-0082
       
  • Off-farm employment, land renting and concentration of farmland in the
           process of urbanization
    • Pages: 338 - 350
      Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 338-350, May 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of off-farm employment on the concentration of farmland via households’ land rental activities in rural China. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses Probit and Tobit models to estimate the effect of off-farm employment on land rental activities. Furthermore, the paper compares the degree of land concentration between pre-renting and post-renting in terms of Gini coefficients of farmland ownership at village level. Findings The authors find that off-farm employment has a positive effect on the renting out farmland, and insignificant effect on renting in farmland. Moreover, off-farm employment intensifies the concentration of farmland from small farms toward big farms by renting activities. Originality/value The authors believe that the results will contribute positively to the assessment of the effect of off-farm employment on land concentration in the context of the urbanization process in China.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T10:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-10-2016-0169
       
  • Heterogeneous effects of rural-urban migration on agricultural
           productivity
    • Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of rural–urban migration on agricultural (labor) productivity in China. Design/methodology/approach This paper closely follows the framework of Rozelle et al. (1999), Taylor et al. (2003) and Atamanov and Van den Berg (2012)—new economics of labor migration—to demonstrate the heterogeneous effects of migration on agricultural productivity, using simultaneous equations extended by an interaction term of off-farm income and household wealth. Findings The results empirically verify two key theoretical predictions: the loss of labor available for agricultural activities decreases rice yield per worker per day, and the off-farm income that may relax liquidity constraints has a positive offsetting effect, which becomes weaker with increasing household wealth. The final calculation based on these two contradictory influences indicates that the lost-labor effect dominates across all levels of household wealth, resulting in a negative net impact of rural–urban migration on agricultural productivity. The key results are shown to hold for land productivity as well. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, it is the first paper to examine the impacts of rural–urban migration on labor productivity and the heterogeneity across households with different levels of wealth. A major policy issue facing national leaders is whether the massive and ongoing outflow of labor will be a threat to China’s rural development and its food security in the future. This paper provides insightful ideas in a different way.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-07-11T12:58:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-10-2017-0193
       
  • The impact of trade liberalization on poverty reduction in rural China
    • Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how trade liberalization influences rural poverty reduction in China. Design/methodology/approach The authors make use of China Family Panel Studies survey data, take annual income of farmers of RMB2,300 and RMB3,450 as the poverty lines (poverty line 1 and poverty line 2, respectively). Residents below poverty line 1 and poverty line 2 are 2,580 and 2,661, respectively. Probit model is used to estimate the impact of trade liberalization on the poverty probability. Income-deciding equation is used to estimate the impact of trade liberalization on the income level of poor residents in rural areas. Income-deciding equation is also used to examine the transmission mechanism of trade liberalization affecting rural poverty. Findings This study finds that trade liberalization can reduce the poverty probability of rural residents and promote the income growth of poor residents in rural areas. Trade liberalization increases the income of poor residents and reduces poverty through transmission mechanisms such as promoting economic growth and financial expenditure. Originality/value To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study to quantitatively model the impact of trade liberalization on rural poverty reduction in China using residents’ survey data.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-07-11T12:03:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-01-2018-0019
       
  • Spatial analysis of dairy yields response to intensive farming in New
           Zealand
    • Abstract: China Agricultural Economic Review, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The New Zealand (NZ) dairy industry faces the challenge of increasing productivity and dealing with public concerns over nutrient pollution. The effective policy needs to address regional differences in productivity and fertilizer use. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how spatial effects influence the relationship between dairy yields and intensive farming practices across regions in NZ. Design/methodology/approach This paper employs spatial panel data models to establish whether unobserved spatial effects exist in the relationship between dairy yields and nutrient inputs regionally and nationally using 2002, 2007 and 2012 data from Statistics NZ and DairyNZ. Findings The results show positive spatial spillovers for most intensive inputs. The high level of effluent use and estimated negative yield response to nitrogen suggests that an opportunity exists for greater use of effluent as a substitute for nitrogenous fertilizer. Substitution has the potential to reduce dependence on fertilizer and contribute to a reduction in the nutrient pollution. Originality/value This paper is the first empirical application of spatial econometric methods to examine the spatial relevance of dairy yields and intensive farming in NZ. In particular, the spatial panel data model accounts for cross-sectional dependence and controls for heterogeneity. The results contribute to an understanding of how farmers can improve their management of intensive inputs and contribute to the formation of regional environmental policy that recognizes regional heterogeneity.
      Citation: China Agricultural Economic Review
      PubDate: 2018-07-11T12:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/CAER-03-2016-0044
       
 
 
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