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International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1756-6266
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  • Female business owners hiding in plain sight
    • Pages: 2 - 18
      Abstract: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Volume 10, Issue 1, Page 2-18, March 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore what female business owners hide to better understand social norms and discourses that influence the decisions women make about how they structure their home and work lives. Design/methodology/approach The author used qualitative interviews to access the narratives of female business owners in public relations within the USA. This industry segment attracts primarily women and, unlike a retail store, offers women a variety of ways to structure their business hours and locations. Findings Women use hiding as a way to manage others’ impressions and as a way to gain legitimacy for themselves and their organizations. Specifically, the findings fall into three categories: hiding childcare obligations, obscuring their work locations and “fake it until you make it”. Hiding is used a strategy to deal with tensions that arise based on women’s interpretations of social norms and discourses. Research limitations/implications Based on the finite nature of any study, it is difficult to assess the long-term impact of hiding. Further, as with many studies, the geographic location, gender and industry segment provide a context for this research, which means the reader must determine the transferability. Originality/value Few studies explore hiding as a means to gain access to gendered discourses that can undermine identity construction and business growth. By uncovering what female business owners hide, it provides opportunities for self-awareness and agency.
      Citation: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
      PubDate: 2018-01-24T01:53:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJGE-07-2017-0032
       
  • Gender differences in self-employment in Spain
    • Pages: 19 - 38
      Abstract: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Volume 10, Issue 1, Page 19-38, March 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the gender differences of self-employment in Spain. Design/methodology/approach A binary choice model is specified and estimated, using information from the Continuous Working Life Sample drawn from the registers of the Spanish Social Security. Moreover, the differences in self-employment between men and women are also analysed, through the decomposition proposed by Yun (2004). Findings The results indicate that the differences between both groups in the probability of being entrepreneurs stem from unobservable factors. The difference explained by the unobservable component is 84.12 per cent, whereas the rest, 15.88 per cent, is explained by the characteristics component. The explanatory factors of being an entrepreneur affect men and women in the same way, but to a different extent, explained mainly by factors related to gender. Originality/value This paper sets out to identify whether there are gender differences in the probability of becoming self-employed and, if there are, to quantify what part of the difference in entrepreneurship between men and women is explained by the characteristics of each gender group and what part is because of unobservable factors. From the perspective of the public authority, knowing the determinants that explain why the entrepreneurial activity is different depending on gender is fundamental in being able to reduce the entrepreneurial gap between men and women.
      Citation: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
      PubDate: 2018-02-16T09:17:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJGE-09-2017-0059
       
  • Entrepreneurial financing relationships: how does gender matter'
    • Pages: 39 - 60
      Abstract: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Volume 10, Issue 1, Page 39-60, March 2018.
      Purpose Financing is cited as the major obstacle for entrepreneurs. However, data limitations have prevented study of entrepreneurs’ own impact on their financing relationships. Gender-based studies have concerned lender constraints and discriminatory outcomes. Others which are generally examined are borrowers’ fear of denial and non-pursuit of credit. To more fully explain the financing obstacle, the purpose of this study is to uniquely examine entrepreneurial borrowers’ evaluation of and actions in their existing financing relationship. This study also captures those businesses with equal ownership gender concentration, to contribute to a deeper understanding of gender impact. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a cross-sectional sample of several thousand US small enterprises from the NFIB’s proprietary credit survey. The data set offers links between owners’ perceptions and financing behavior. Robust univariate analysis examines differences across gender ownership groups. Multivariate regression analyzes how gender, business environment and other factors determine the entrepreneurs’ financing relationships. Findings This study highlights how entrepreneurs affect their own financing outcomes. Findings suggest that switching lenders, seeking multiple relationships and other actions determine financing satisfaction. Growth intent, business performance and characteristics of the entrepreneur are among significant posited factors influencing perception and behavior of entrepreneurs in their financing relationships that drive business performance. Furthermore, equal ownership concentration firms appear to be similar to those primarily owned by men. This study indicates that researchers need to further delineate among entrepreneurs. The results of this study also have implications for policy-makers in their assessment of gender discrimination and government entrepreneurial financing initiatives. Originality/value Financing is cited as the major obstacle for entrepreneurs. However, data limitations have prevented study of entrepreneurs’ own impact on their financing relationships. Gender-based studies have concerned lender constraints and discriminatory outcomes. Others which are generally examined are borrowers’ fear of denial and non-pursuit of credit. To more fully explain the financing obstacle, this study uniquely examines entrepreneurial borrowers’ evaluation of and actions in their existing financing relationship. This study also captures those businesses with equal ownership gender concentration, to contribute to a deeper understanding of gender impact.
      Citation: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
      PubDate: 2018-02-12T11:07:15Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJGE-08-2017-0047
       
  • Social entrepreneur and gender: what’s personality got to do with
           it'
    • Pages: 61 - 82
      Abstract: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Volume 10, Issue 1, Page 61-82, March 2018.
      Purpose Research on economic entrepreneurship identifies a gender gap that is favorable to men. In the social entrepreneurship arena, the existing evidence is slightly fuzzy, as this gender gap is less preeminent. This paper aims to identify how gender differences in social entrepreneurial ventures creation are explained by different personality traits, by analyzing the extent to which female and male social entrepreneurs exhibit the same personality traits and whether potential differences are able to explain the differences in predisposition for the creation of new social entrepreneurial ventures. Design/methodology/approach A review of the literature on gender differences and personality traits in social entrepreneurship details the main theoretical developments and builds the hypotheses. Based on the Big Five model, the investigation uses a hypothesis testing quantitative approach. Primary data were collected through a questionnaire that was e-mailed and applied to the social entrepreneurs engaged in the creation of social ventures in Portugal. Findings The data gathered suggest that both female and male social entrepreneurs have personalities characterized by high levels of openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) between the two groups and logistic regression, the investigation reveals that women and men who launch a new social venture only differ in one personality dimension – agreeableness – wherein women scored more highly. No significant differences are found in the other personality traits. Research limitations/implications The research assumes that most aspects of human personality structure are represented in the Big Five model. Practical implications The knowledge about whether gender differences are explained by different personality traits is critical to public entities that might design appropriate public policies to stimulate social entrepreneurship. Also, social entrepreneurs’ capacity building programs should be delineated in accordance with a deeper understanding about gender and personality traits differences. Social implications The knowledge of the factors that affects the creation of new social ventures has an important potential contribution on social value creation and the promotion of gender equality. Originality/value This paper links two important topics – gender and entrepreneurs’ personality traits – scarcely explored in the social entrepreneurship literature. Thus, the paper adds new empirical evidence to support (or not) the belief that personality and gender matter in the decision to launch a new social venture.
      Citation: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
      PubDate: 2018-02-07T03:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJGE-07-2017-0040
       
  • The relationship between women’s presence in corporate positions and
           firm performance
    • Pages: 83 - 100
      Abstract: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Volume 10, Issue 1, Page 83-100, March 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze, in the Colombian developing context, the relationship between the presence of women in corporate positions and the financial performance of the company and to know if there are differences between family and non-family firms. Design/methodology/approach Building on the contingency theory of leadership, which emphasizes that leader’s personality and the situation in which that leader operates influences corporate decision-making, the authors use panel data models on a sample of 54 Colombian public businesses for the period 2008-2015 to test the proposed hypotheses on the relationship between women´s presence in corporate governance positions and financial performance, as well as the difference between family and non-family firms. Findings The results support that women´s presence in corporate governance positions is positively associated with firm performance. More concretely, the authors find a relationship between women at the top corporate governance structure (as part of the board of directors, top management team and chief executive officer) and firm profitability. Results also indicate that family business, as a type of organization, (negatively) moderates the positive relationship between female participation in top executive positions (board and top executive team) and firm performance. Research limitations/implications First, this study is limited to women in corporate positions in large companies listed on the Colombia Stock Exchange, and thus, generalizability for smaller entities may be limited. Second, data limitations do not allow us to investigate ways in which women’s presence in corporate governance structures contributes to improve firm goals. Practical implications The authors provide support to the hypothesis that positively relates women’s presence in corporate governance positions and firm performance for the case of Colombia. This serves as a guidance to Colombian regulators, corporate decision-makers and policy-makers to promote the inclusion of women in top hierarchical structures through either mandatory laws or recommendation. Originality/value Few studies have addressed the women´s presence in corporate governance positions and contribution to firm performance in developing economies. This study contributes to better understand how women impact performance in contexts where women are underrepresented in corporate governance structure and where there are no laws that pressure firms to appoint women in corporate governance positions.
      Citation: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
      PubDate: 2018-02-21T03:33:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJGE-10-2017-0071
       
  • Exploring the normative context for women’s entrepreneurship in
           Pakistan: a critical analysis
    • Abstract: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The role of women in Pakistani society – largely embedded in its patriarchal socio–cultural environment – has important implications for women’s entrepreneurial activity in the country. This study aims to investigate and analyse the influence of informal institutional factors on women’s entry into entrepreneurship in Pakistan, and determine how women exercise agency to cope with the constraints posed by such factors. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach is used to explore the normative context and lived experiences of women entrepreneurs in relation to the influence of socio–cultural beliefs and attitudes on their entrepreneurial career choices. Findings The findings suggest that women’s entrepreneurial career choices both revolve around and are shaped by a complex interplay of socio–cultural influences. Pakistani women entrepreneurs exercise their agency as a means of negotiating gender roles within both household and society, using religious descriptions as a means to justify their entrepreneurial activity. Research limitations/implications While every effort has been made to ensure that the data were objectively interpreted, and the derived findings were robustly analysed, the research team acknowledges the many difficulties associated with adopting a social constructionist approach. As articulated by Fletcher (2011), the key issues of contextual objectivity (i.e. where the researcher judges what is important), reflexive turn (the need for the researcher to constantly reconnect with the subject) and potential multiplicity of contexts (the various contextual and potentially conflicting influences on the researcher) presents ongoing challenges for researchers in this field. Originality/value This study offers valuable insights into the impact of the informal (socio–cultural) institutional factors on women’s entrepreneurial activity, opening up new avenues for further research. The study also contributes to the women’s entrepreneurship literature from the perspective of an Islamic developing country.
      Citation: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
      PubDate: 2018-05-30T12:29:53Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJGE-03-2018-0019
       
  • What influences the networking behaviours of female entrepreneurs'
    • Abstract: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Research investigating female entrepreneurs and their networking relationships has developed considerably over the past two decades. There are, however, few Sri Lankan studies that have specifically focussed on female entrepreneurs in terms of their social networks. This paper aims to examine the important influences on these female entrepreneurs’ networking behaviour within small businesses in the tourism sector. Design/methodology/approach Having established that the social constructionist approach is most suitable for this study, in-depth narrative interviews and observations were deemed a particularly suitable research tool. In total, 14 female entrepreneurs were purposively approached and interviewed. Narrative analysis was used to analyze and interpret qualitative data, which were organized with the assistance of QSR NVivo 10, a software programme. Findings Competing family responsibilities and business matters (being a good mum and dutiful wife), culture and societal expectations, running home-based business and building trust were found as main influences on female entrepreneurial networking behaviours. The majority revealed stressful times trying to combine the business with multiple roles and societal expectations. Practical implications Applications of the model in female entrepreneurial networking behaviour are suggested, within and beyond the context of the small business tourism industry in Sri Lanka. Originality/value This study enriches the understanding of social networks and social capital based on the experience of Sri Lankan female entrepreneurs, which is influenced by contextual factors of identity, gender and culture.
      Citation: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
      PubDate: 2018-04-23T09:24:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJGE-08-2017-0049
       
  • The impact of bank financing and internal financing sources on women’s
           motivation for e-entrepreneurship
    • Abstract: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of bank financing and internal financing sources on women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach Female owners of e-businesses in India were surveyed regarding their perceptions of bank financing, internal financing sources and their motivations for e-entrepreneurship. Findings The findings of this study show that bank financing and internal financing sources positively impact women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship in India. The results show that family status, education, easy access to new business information and location positively impact women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship in India. The findings also show that bank financing has a higher impact on women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship compared with internal financing sources. Research limitations/implications This is a co-relational study that investigated the relationship between bank financing and women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship and the relationship between internal financing sources and women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship. There is not necessarily a causal relationship between the two. The findings of this study may only be generalized to individuals similar to those that were included in this research. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature on the impact of bank financing and internal financing sources on women’s motivation for e-entrepreneurship. The findings may be useful for investment advisors, the Indian Government and entrepreneurship consultants.
      Citation: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship
      PubDate: 2018-04-12T09:28:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/IJGE-07-2017-0041
       
 
 
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