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Journal Cover Personnel Review
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0048-3486
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [312 journals]
  • Involuntary career transition and identity within the artist population
    • First page: 1114
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper examines artists’ experiences of involuntary career transitions and its impact on their work-related identities. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews with 40 artists in the Netherlands were conducted. Self-narratives were used to analyze the findings. Findings Artists who can no longer make a living out of their artistic activities are forced to start working outside the creative realm and are gradually pushed away from the creative industries. This loss of their creative identity leads to psychological stress and grief, making the professional transition problematic. Moreover, the artistic community often condemns an artist’s transition to other activities, making the transition psychologically even more straining. Originality/value This study provides in-depth insights into how artists deal with changes in their work-related identities in the light of involuntary career transitions.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:31Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-01-2015-0020
  • Building resilience in health and social care teams
    • First page: 1132
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose : Maintaining user-focused integrated team working in complex care is one of the demands made of United Kingdom (UK) health and social care (H&SC) organisations who need employees that are resilient, resilience being the ability to persevere and thrive in the face of exposure to adverse situations (Rogerson & Ermes, 2008, p.1). Grant and Kinman (2012) write that resilience is a complex and multi-dimensional construct that is underexplored in social care team work. This study captures the views of managers in H&SC to explore the making of resilient teams, identify factors that influence team performance, and inform organisational workforce development strategy. Design/methodology/approach A general inductive approach (Silverman, 2011) was applied. Five focus groups were facilitated (n =40) each with eight participants all of whom were leaders and managers of teams in Health and Social Care, working in the integrated care context in the United Kingdom. Findings Findings indicate that further investment in strategies and resources to sustain and educate employees who work in teams and further research into how organisational systems can facilitate this learning positively may contribute to resilient teams and performance improvement. We note specifically that H&SC organisations make a distinction between the two most prevalent team types and structures of multi-disciplinary and inter-professional and plan more targeted workforce development for individual and team learning for resiliency within these team structures. In doing so organisations may gain further advantages such as improved team performance in problematic care situations. Research limitations/implications Data captured is self-reported perceptions of H&SC managers. Participant responses in the focus group situation may have been those expected rather than those actually modelled in the realities of team work practice (Tanggaard, 2008). Further, in the sample all participants were engaged in a Higher Education programme and it is possible participants may have been more engaged with their practice and thinking more critically about the research questions than those not currently undertaking postgraduate study (Ng et al., 2014). Nor were the researchers able to observe the participants in team work practice over time or during critical care delivery incidents. Practical implications The preliminary link made here between multi-disciplinary and inter-professional team type, and their different stress points and subsequent workforce intervention, contributes to the theory of resilient teams. This provides organisations with a foundation for the focus of workplace learning and training around resilience. H&SC practitioner views presented offer a greater understanding of team work processes, together with a target for planning workforce development strategy to sustain resilience in team working. Originality/value This preliminary research, found that participants in H &SC valued the team as a very important vehicle for building and sustaining resilience when dealing with complex H&SC situations. The capitalisation on the distinction in team type and individual working practices between those of interprofessional and multidisciplinary teams and the model of team learning, may have important consequences for building resilience in Health and Social Care teams. These findings may be significant for workforce educators seeking to develop and build effective practice tools to sustain team working.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:28Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-04-2014-0095
  • The MTMM matrix approach: implications for HRM research
    • First page: 1156
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose This narrative review focuses on the suitability of the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrix approach for examining construct validity in human resource management (HRM) research. We also provide a number of suggestions on how to use MTMM more effectively in HRM research. Design/methodology/approach We start by presenting a basic introduction to MTMM approach. Next we briefly review the limitations of MTMM approach and suggested improvements. We elaborate on these limitations by providing HRM examples. To further illustrate these issues, we review employment interview research. Findings The construct validity analysis in HRM research suffers from three problematic assumptions of the classical MTMM approach: uncorrelated trait-method units, uncorrelated methods, and uncorrelated traits. Our review of interview research shows that classical MTMM approach is by far the most popular approach given its relative simplicity and modest sample size requirements. This popularity stresses the significance of our review in highlighting these issues. Originality/value Several improvements to quantify the interpretations of MTMM analysis are available to researchers. This review closely examines how these limitations and proposed improvements influence HRM research, thereby making the methodological advances concerning the MTMM approach more accessible to HRM researchers and practitioners.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-12-2014-0278
  • Modeling patient care quality: an empirical high-performance work system
    • First page: 1176
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose Following a social identity approach focused in the Greek healthcare sector, this study investigates the mediating effects of social identification on the relationship between High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) and psychological empowerment, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment between HPWS and quality of patient care. Design/methodology/approach Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used in a sample of 297 nurses, doctors and allied health professionals across 7 hospitals in Greece. Findings The findings suggest that HPWS has a strong effect on health-care professionals’ social identification, which in turn partially mediates the relationship between HPWS and psychological empowerment. In addition, psychological empowerment indirectly mediates the relationship between HPWS and quality of patient care. Practical implications The findings not only validate previous studies’ conclusions, but also provide evidence for the potential fruitfulness of the HPWS approach from a social identity perspective. In addition, it is also confirmed that without the presence of psychological empowerment, HPWS may have limited impact on the quality of patient care. Originality/value Although HPWS have been generally connected with positive employee attitudes and behaviors, few studies choose to follow a social identity approach in examining these relationships. Finally, this study confirms the argument that HPWS can be a fruitful approach even in a country severely affected by Europe’s debt crisis over the last five years.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:22:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-03-2015-0068
  • Transformational leadership and social identity as predictors of team
           climate, perceived quality of care, burnout and turnover intention among
    • First page: 1200
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the role of transformational leadership in developing social identity and its subsequent impact on team climate, intention to leave, burnout and quality of patient care among nurses. Design/methodology/approach Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from a sample of 201 registered nurses in Australia through questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses. Findings Results illustrate that social identification appears to be the psychological mechanism through which transformational leadership impacts important employee outcomes, including perceived quality of patient care. Practical implications This study provides valuable insights into understanding the critical role of HRM practice and policy in healthcare environments. Findings from this study indicate that human resource managers can assist nurse unit managers to deliver their HRM roles effectively when adequate support and relevant HRM infrastructures are put in place. Originality/value This research considers the role of first-line nurse managers in healthcare organisations. It provides evidence-based knowledge about the type of leadership style required to achieve desirable employee outcomes and the essential HRM opportunities to facilitate this.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-05-2015-0118
  • The occurrence of demotions regarding job level, salary and job authority
    • First page: 1217
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper aims to determine the occurrence of job level, salary and job authority demotions in the workplace through the analysis of Belgian SILC (Statistics on Income and Living Conditions)-data of 2007-2011. Design/methodology/approach Three hypotheses are tested: 1. there is a gender inequality in job authority demotions; 2. the level of education and the probability of being subject to a job level, salary or job authority demotion are negatively correlated. 3. Age is negatively correlated with job level, salary or job authority demotion probabilities. The cross-sectional data of the SILC cover a specific time period with data on inter alia living conditions. The longitudinal data give information on inter alia income and non-monetary variables over a period of four years. We estimate multivariate regression models for binary demotion variables. These analyses allow us to estimate the odds of being demoted. We discuss the demotion rates, the bivariate correlations and the regression analysis. Findings The data analysis result in the fact that base salary demotions are not commonly applied as literature and the Belgian law on salary protection endorses. Fringe benefits demotions, as for instance the abolition of a company car or a bonus are, however, more frequent. There is a gender gap with regard to job authority demotion. Highly educated respondents are less confronted with job authority demotions. Age is negatively correlated with base salary/fringe benefits or job authority demotion probabilities, but not with job level demotions. Hypothesis one is thus confirmed. Hypothesis two and three only partly confirmed. Research limitations/implications Several analyses were restricted because the EU-SILC did not question all dimensions of demotion in detail. Originality/value This study contributes to the scarce literature on demotion and to empirical studies on demotions regarding job level, salary and job authority.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-06-2014-0139
  • The message and the messenger: identifying and communicating a high
           performance ‘HRM philosophy’
    • First page: 1240
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose This article further develops our understanding of the ‘HRM process’ as defined by Bowen and Ostroff (2004). We clarify the construct of ‘HRM philosophy’ and suggest it is communicated to employees through ‘HRM messages’. Interrelationships between these concepts and other elements of the HRM-performance relationship are explored. The study identifies commonalities in the HRM philosophy and messages underscoring high performing HRM systems, and highlights the function of a ‘messenger’ in delivering messages to staff. Design/methodology/approach Case study of eight Australian hospitals with top performing HRM systems. Combines primary interview data with independent healthcare accreditor reports. Findings All cases share an HRM philosophy of achieving high performance outcomes through the HRM system and employees are provided with messages about continuous improvement, best practice and innovation. The philosophy was instilled primarily by executive level managers, whereby distinctiveness, consensus and consistency of communications were important characteristics. Research limitations/implications The research is limited by: omission of low or average performers; a single industry and country design; and exclusion of employee perspectives. Practical implications Our findings reinforce the importance of identifying the HRM philosophy and its key communicators within the organisation, and ensuring it is aligned with strategy, climate and the HRM system, particularly during periods of organisational change. Originality/value We expand Bowen and Ostroff’s seminal work and develop the concepts of HRM philosophy and messages, offering our model to clarify key relationships. The findings underscore problems associated with a best practice approach that disregards HRM process elements essential for optimising performance.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:48Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-02-2015-0049
  • Rewarding employees in turbulent economies for improved organisational
           performance: exploring SMEs in the South-Eastern European region
    • First page: 1259
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose This study explores the application of total reward practices in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the South-Eastern European (SEE) region and the reward elements positively affecting organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach The sample consists of 199 SMEs operating in SEE countries which are either under economic crisis or transition: Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). Findings SMEs in the SEE region are implementing a total rewards model which is characterised by a weaker application of individual aspects and by a stronger application of transactional, relational and communal aspects. Within the communal aspects of the model, our study found three elements of the work environment that positively affect organisational performance; work-life balance, employee involvement voice mechanisms, and organisational culture supporting personal and professional development. Practical implications Our study contributes to HR practice; we found that a better work environment is positively related to improved organisational performance in these SMEs. This means that in times of economic crisis or transition when HR budgets are limited such non-financial strategies can be a viable alternative to costly financial rewards to such organisations. Originality/value The study contributes to both theory and HR practice by shedding light on how employee rewards are affected in economies under crisis and transition, how SMEs can motivate their employees when faced with significant financial limitations, as well as explores which reward elements can lead to enhanced organisational performance in such organisations.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-02-2015-0024
  • The link between e-HRM use and HRM effectiveness: an empirical study
    • First page: 1281
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose This paper presents results from an empirical study at the Jordan Telecom Group (JTG) in Jordan on the impact of electronic human resource management (e-HRM) use on HRM effectiveness. Moreover, by applying the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), the study seeks to examine the mediating effect of the intention to use e-HRM on the relationship between e-HRM determinants (i.e. performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence) and e-HRM use. This study adds a major contribution to the e-HRM literature by empirically examining the effect of e-HRM use on HRM effectiveness at both the policy and practice levels. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from employees working in JTG about their perception towards the use of the e-HRM system and HRM effectiveness of policies and practices. Findings The findings provide support for the positive contribution of the use of e-HRM on HRM effectiveness at both the policy and practice levels. It also confirms mediating effects of user intention on the link between e-HRM determinants (both performance expectancy and social influence) and e-HRM use. Research limitations/implications This study emphasizes the relevance of e-HRM in increasing HRM effectiveness. limitations of the study include cross-sectional data and the difficulty to form generalization from the research restricted to a single company. Originality/value This study represent a first attempt to examines the impact of e-HRM use on HRM effectiveness at both levels: policy and practice. It also reveals that relationship between e-HRM determinants and e-HRM use is mediated with e-HRM user intention.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:52Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-04-2015-0111
  • Organizational virtuousness and spontaneity: a social identity view
    • First page: 1302
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose This study aims to examine the direct and indirect effect of Perceived Organizational Virtuousness (POV) on organizational spontaneity. The assumed indirect effect is investigated through the social identity perspective. As such, organizational identification, pride and respect are examined as mediators of the POV-spontaneity relationship. Design/methodology/approach To test our hypotheses we conducted two studies. First, we conducted an experimental study with 136 participants in which we investigated the role of organizational identification as mediator of the examined relationship. Second, we conducted a field study in which 572 employees working in various organizations participated. In this study, pride and respect were incorporated as first-step mediators explaining serially (indirectly) the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable through organizational identification. Findings The findings of our experimental study indicate that organizational identification mediates the positive relationship between POV and organizational spontaneity. The results of our field study indicate that pride and respect serially mediate the examined relationship through organizational identification. Practical implications The study accumulates further evidence that treating employees with care and respect can bring benefits to organizations. Perceiving organizational virtuousness makes employees identify with their organization and view organizational successes as their own. Thus, they become more willing to benefit the organization. Originality/value This study is unique to the literature by being the first to examine the relationship between POV and organizational spontaneity through social identity processes.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-09-2014-0192
  • Testing additive versus interactive effects of person-organization fit and
           organizational trust on engagement and performance
    • First page: 1323
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose To date, most research has assumed an additive relationship between work-related predictors and engagement. The present study contributes to the refinement of engagement theory by exploring the extent to which two predictors – person-organization fit and organizational trust – interact to influence employees’ engagement, which in turn, positively influences their task performance. Design/methodology/approach A test of moderated mediation was conducted using survey data collected from 335 employees and matched performance records from the Human Resource department in a support services organization in the United Kingdom. Findings Engagement was best predicted by the interactive model, rather than the additive model, as employees who felt a close fit with their organization and who trusted their organization were most engaged with their work. Further, engagement mediated the relationship between the interaction and task performance. Originality/value This paper contributes to a refinement of engagement theory by presenting and testing a model that explains the synergistic effect of work-related factors on engagement.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-02-2015-0029
  • Integrating leadership research: a meta-analytical test of Yukl’s
           meta-categories of leadership
    • First page: 1340
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose This study tested the theoretical proposition, put forward by Yukl et al. (2002), that the lead-ership constructs of transformational and transactional leadership, laissez-faire, consideration, and initiating structure can be arranged into three meta-categories of leadership, namely relations, task, and change-oriented leadership Design/methodology/approach After a comprehensive literature search, 1402 correlations from 286 sources were obtained which refered to the above mentioned leadership constructs and outcome criteria of effective leadership. Findings It was found that three meta-categories of leadership (i.e., relations, task, and change-oriented leadership) were sufficient to explain the leadership constructs of transformational and transactional leadership, laissez-faire, consideration, and initiating structure. Moreover, it was also found that change-oriented leadership was most effective in predicting the job satisfaction of followers. In contrast, relations-oriented leadership accounted for most of the variance in both commitment and job performance Research limitations/implications In combination, these results allow for a more comprehensive, integrative description of effective leadership behavior. Practical implications The results have implications for leadership assessment and development as well as leader selection and feedback. Originality/value Applying Occam's razor, and in contrast to the majority of prior leadership studies, the present meta-analytica study provided evidence that three categories of leadership behaviors allow for a precise and comprehensive description of effective leadership behavior.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:22:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-07-2014-0145
  • Public vs. private sector employment: an exploratory study of career
           choice among graduate management students in Botswana
    • First page: 1367
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose The present study seeks to explore the factors that may be related to a career choice in the public vs. the private sector in a developing African country. Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of working graduate management students, we tested reward preferences and altruism, elements of public service motivation, on their generalizability to developing countries in Africa. We also examine the role of career attitudes, individual personality factors and cultural values on a career choice in public service. Findings We find that not all the factors associated with the choice of sector (public or private) found in previous studies apply in the Botswana context. Research limitations/implications Perry and Wise (1990) developed the concept of public service motivation to explain why individuals may be motivated to serve the public. However, two of the factors associated with public service, intrinsic motivation and altruism, were not predictive of a career choice in the public sector in Botswana, and thus may limit its generalizability outside of Western developed countries. Practical implications In Botswana and other developing economies, government jobs are considered to provide lucrative and stable employment, and attract educated citizens regardless of motivations. However, as the private-for-profit sector is emerging, these countries could soon be facing serious competition for top university students, and will need to develop a strategy for attractive the best talents to choose employment in the public sector over career options in the private sector. Originality/value The present study seeks to further our understanding on how individuals make a career choice between public vs. private sector management in a developing country.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:40Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-10-2014-0241
  • The interaction between supportive and unsupportive manager behaviors on
           employee work attitudes
    • First page: 1386
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose To use Social Exchange Theory (SET) to examine a model where supportive (SMB) and unsupportive (UMB) manager behaviors interact to predict employees’ engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional online survey collected data from 252 UK based employees of a global data management company. Findings Factor analysis confirmed manager behaviors to consist of two constructs: supportive and unsupportive behaviors. Structural equation modelling indicated SMB predicted job satisfaction and turnover intentions, but not engagement. Job satisfaction, but not engagement, mediated the SMB-turnover intention relationship. UMB only predicted job dissatisfaction. Neither job satisfaction nor engagement mediated the UMB-turnover intention relationship. UMB undermined the positive relationship between SMB and turnover intention. Practical implications The behaviors assessed can be integrated into various stages of a manager’s development process to serve as guidelines of good practice. Crucially, findings suggest managers can exhibit both supportive and unsupportive behaviors, and that consistency in behaviors is important. The study also provides evidence that supportive managers can help reduce turnover intention through job satisfaction. Originality/value SET was used as a framework for SMB, UMB and engagement. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the interaction between SMB and UMB.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:21:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-05-2015-0136
  • An exploratory study of jobseekers' decision-making styles, recruitment
           information sources and organisational attractiveness
    • First page: 1403
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 6, September 2016.
      Purpose This exploratory research aims to investigate the consequences of jobseeker decision-making style on information search behaviour, information evaluation and perceptions of organisational attractiveness (OA). In this study, we assess whether, when presented with a realistic job information searching scenario of receiving basic job information from a typical formal short job advertisement, maximisers and satisficers differ on a) need for further information and b) evaluation of further information from informal information sources in relation to valence and tie strength. Design/methodology/approach A scenario-based experiment was conducted on 280 participants from the US, with work experience in retail, using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Findings The results show that, compared to satisficers, significantly more maximisers chose to search for further information about the company/vacancy after receiving a typical short advertisement message. Furthermore, the results highlight the moderating effects of decision-making style (maximiser vs. satisficer), tie strength (strong-tie vs. weak-tie provider) and message valence (positive vs. negative) on jobseekers’ perceived OA. Practical implications Companies seeking to increase their candidate pool should consider accommodating the different decision-making styles of jobseekers by carefully designing the content of recruitment information and utilising recruitment information sources. Although conducted in just one sector, the ubiquity of the maximiser/satisficer decision making-style implies further research to assess the implications for other sectors. Originality/value Research on decision-making style in recruitment is relatively limited. This study demonstrates the differences between maximisers and satisficers in terms of job-related information needs, and the evaluation of the source/content, when searching for a retail trade job.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-21T11:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-11-2014-0250
  • ‘Unwanted’ and ‘bad’, but not ‘sexual’: non-labelling of
           sexual harassment by Sri Lankan working women
    • First page: 806
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose As prior research has indicated, women who experience behaviors that fall under the accepted definitions of sexual harassment, do not label, acknowledge, or claim these behaviors as such. This article explores an alternative explanation for this non-labeling by arguing that apprehension in expressing sexuality, stemming from apparent subjugation of sex and sexuality by society, posited in a culturally value laden backdrop, leads to Sri Lankan women not labeling or acknowledging sexual harassment. Design/methodology/approach Employing grounded theory, in-depth, one-on-one interviews were conducted with 40 working women. Findings It was revealed that social construction of gender and sexuality in Sri Lankan society, with its instilled moralistic beliefs and norms such as respectability, sexual innocence, chastity, and purity among women suppress and govern their sexuality in the workplace. The resultant self-surveillance and self-discipline lead to women evading expressing and using vocabulary denoting sexuality- including the term ‘sexual harassment’ - mainly for fear of social censorship, self blame, and victim blame. Practical implications The study shows how policies and procedures of sexual harassment must heed the gendered everyday realities of women in workplaces and questions the capacity and utilization of these laws and policies that employ the label ‘sexual’ in addressing the issue. Originality/value This paper advances knowledge on sexual harassment by providing new insights on how cultural values and norms leading to social construction of gender and sexuality play an important role in non-labeling of sexual harassment. Moving further, this paper illustrates how Foucault’s treatise of ‘sexuality and power’, and ‘social construction of reality’ can be employed to theorize non-labeling
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-09-2014-0195
  • Do all Chinese employees have the same cultural values? An exploratory
           investigation on differences in Chinese cultural values among state-,
           privately-, and US-owned firms
    • First page: 827
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose Using Hofstede’s cultural value model, this study investigates how Chinese employees’ cultural values differ according to firm ownership type such as state-, privately-, and US-owned firms. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 367 Chinese employees working at firms located in Beijing. Findings Results showed that while Chinese employees in state-owned firms scored the highest in collectivism, those working at privately- and US-owned firms scored higher for individualism. The score for long-term orientation was also higher in state-owned firms than in privately- and US-owned firms. However, contrary to our expectation, the scores for Chinese employees for power distance in state-owned firms were lower than in the others, while the scores for masculinity in state-owned firms were higher than for the others. Chinese employees in all three types of firms showed lower scores than reported in previous studies for uncertainty avoidance. Practical implications This study contributes to a deepened understanding of how the cultural values of Chinese employees differ depending on firms’ ownership types, with significant implications for managers, who do business in China as they seek to establish management practices more closely aligned with the cultural values of Chinese employees. Originality/value This study may be the first attempt to examine how Chinese cultural values differ according to various ownership types. It suggests that Chinese employees at privately- and US-owned firms have different cultural values from employees at state-owned firms, even though all three groups of employees are Chinese.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:36Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-10-2014-0246
  • Choosing performance measures for incentive compensation: experimental
    • First page: 850
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explain how two task characteristics and two individual differences influence which heuristics individuals use, and as a results explain their decision performance when choosing Performance Measures (PMs) for incentive compensation. Design/methodology/approach Seventysix MS Accounting students volunteered to participate in an experiment. A between-subjects experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Findings The experimental evidence suggests that individuals, while using high-complexity heuristics, can chose an incorrect PM when PM attribute conflict is present and the difference between PM attribute differences is small. Individuals with high goal commitment are more likely to make the correct choice than individuals with low goal commitment, because they focus more on the PMs’ goal congruence than on the PMs’ noise when making tradeoffs between the conflicting PMs’ attributes. Research limitations/implications The social context can stimulate individuals’ empathic concern and/or goal commitment and thus explain individuals’ performance when PM attribute conflict is present and the difference between PM attribute differences is small. Practical implications The results of this study are important to those responsible for designing incentive systems give greater importance to considering not just congruency attributes in PM but precision attributes as well. Originality/value This paper develops predictions and provides experimental evidence on two task characteristics that influence individuals’ use of heuristics when choosing PMs for incentive compensation. In addition, it provides evidence that individual differences can affect individuals’ PM choice performance when tradeoffs between PMs’ congruity and precision are required.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:35:02Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-12-2014-0287
  • A theoretical classification system of helping behavior and helping
    • First page: 871
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose We develop a classification system of helping behavior using the recipient’s solicitation and the helper’s proactiveness. Additionally, we explore helping motives for each of the forms of helping behavior that we identify. Design/methodology/approach We examined relevant research and performed a theoretical analysis. Findings We classified helping behavior into three distinct forms, including unsolicited proactive helping behavior, unsolicited reactive helping behavior, and solicited reactive helping behavior. Additionally, we claim that unsolicited proactive helping behavior is an outcome of personality and dispositions, that unsolicited reactive helping behavior is a process of social and instrumental exchange, and that solicited reactive helping behavior is a product of functional motives. Practical implications First, from the perspective of organizational justice, we recommend managers to take the form of helping behavior exhibited into consideration when evaluating employees’ helping behavior because certain forms of helping behavior require greater degrees of cooperation and sacrifices from the helper than other forms. Second, because employees who engage in high levels of unsolicited proactive helping behavior are likely to experience interrole conflict, we suggest that managers provide counseling and managerial support that help cope with emotional and psychological strain created by excessive role demands. Finally, findings of this study imply that managers need to create a workplace culture where employees can feel comfortable to solicit help when necessary. Originality/value This is the first study that classifies helping behavior and helping motives using both of the helper and recipient’s perspectives.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:29Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-03-2015-0076
  • Psycho-social work dependency: a dualistic model and profile
    • First page: 889
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose Many people feel a connection to their work that could best be described as a dependency, due to its intensity and importance to their overall self-concept. It is likely that psychological and social needs play a profound role in the connection people feel to their work; however, the explanatory power of these factors has been neglected in the literature, particularly with regard to cultural perspectives. Design/methodology/approach To address this deficiency, the authors propose a profile multidimensional construct referred to as psycho-social work dependency, drawing on the Mandala Model of Self (Hwang, 2011) and the Chinese Composite Self (Lu, 2003). We also developed a psychometrically sound 16-item questionnaire, the Psycho-social Work Dependency Scale, to measure this construct. A total of 1,314 valid questionnaires were obtained from employees in Taiwan to verify the reliability and validity of the instrument. Cross-validation was conducted using an independent sample of 278 valid questionnaires. Findings The results indicate good reliability and validity. What follows is a discussion of four types of psycho-social work dependency: strong, loose, direct, and indirect. Implications and suggestions for future research are also presented. Originality/value A cultural-inclusive construct─psycho-social work dependency was developed to best delineate the connections between Chinese employees and their work. This study expounded the definition, structure, measurement scale, and profile of psycho-social work dependency. These results could help OB researchers and practitioners to know more about the connections between employees and their work, especially for Chinese workers. This new construct may also stir up more studies to investigate the role of psycho-social work dependency in the workplace.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:35:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-10-2013-0173
  • Networking behavior: from goal orientation to promotability
    • First page: 907
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose Networking behaviors assist individuals in doing their jobs better and advancing their careers. However, most research emphasizes the effects of job characteristics on networking behaviors, neglecting the effects of individual differences in goal orientations. Moreover, few studies investigate the prospective evaluation of promotability and the mediating effect of networking behavior on the relationship between goal orientation and promotability. Thus, this study’s aim is to clarify the nomological network and to expand the domain of networking behavior by identifying networking as career- and community-based networking behaviors and by examining the differential relationships among goal orientation, networking behaviors, and promotability. Design/methodology/approach This study surveyed and collected data from 160 financial employees and 103 supervisors working at branches of a large bank in Taiwan. Questionnaires addressing both networking behavior and goal orientation were distributed to employees, and one week later their supervisors were sent another survey about employees’ promotability evaluations. Findings Learning goal orientation was positively related to both career- and community-based networking behaviors. Performance goal orientation was also positively related to career-based networking behaviors, but negatively related to community-based networking behaviors. Career-based networking behaviors, particularly maintaining contacts and engaging in professional activities, were found to be positively related to promotability. Results also show that career-based networking behaviors, particularly maintaining contacts and engaging in professional activities, mediated the relationship between goal orientation and promotability. Research limitations/implications This study addresses the importance of distinguishing between networking behaviors as career-based and networking behaviors as community-based and shows that these two sets of networking behaviors arise from different goal orientations and have differential effects on supervisory evaluation of promotability. Practical implications By linking networking behavior with promotability, this study helps managers understand how employees’ enactment of specific networking behaviors can facilitate both the employees’ career development and the employees’ placement in important organizational positions. Originality/value This study fulfills an identified need to understand the nomological network of networking behavior.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-03-2014-0062
  • Strategic intent, organizational environment, and organizational learning
           mechanisms: a multiple-case study in the construction industry in Taiwan
    • First page: 928
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of the current study is to develop different kinds of organizational learning mechanisms based on various types of strategic intents (proactive- and reactive- orientation) and organizational environments (stable and unstable). Design/methodology/approach We utilized a grounded theory approach, and corroborated our results using multiple interviews and documents related to various cases. We determined the inter-judge agreement and performed a composite reliability analysis to ensure the robustness of our research. Findings Successful organization learning is contingent upon managerial strategic intent and the organizational environment in which the organization operates. Proactive strategic intent will cultivate a group-oriented learning system, whereas reactive strategic intent emphasizes the effectiveness of personal learning. Firms in an environment marked by radical change utilize experiential learning mechanisms (Participation- and Experience-orientation), whereas firms in a stable environment use a specialist-knowledge-oriented approach to learning (Benchmarking- and Specializing -orientation). Originality/value We offer a theoretical framework two-by-two matrix that has practical implications in providing managers with guidance in selecting the appropriate organizational learning mechanism to implement in their firms.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-11-2014-0266
  • Staying and performing: how human resource management practices increase
           job embeddedness and performance
    • First page: 947
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose This paper empirically examined the effect of human resource management (HRM) practices on employees’ organizational job embeddedness and job performance. Following the ability-motivation-opportunity (AMO) model of HRM, we predicted that ability-, motivation-, and opportunity-enhancing HRM practices would relate to fit, links and sacrifice components of job embeddedness, with these components mediating the relationship between HRM and employee job performance. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from a matched sample of 197 Chinese state-own firm employees and their supervisors. Multiple mediation test was used to test direct and mediating effects. Findings Results indicated that HRM practices contribute to the creation and development of embeddedness, and the improvement of job performance. The job embeddedness components of fit, links and sacrifice were found to mediate the HRM-job performance relationship. The results suggest that organizations can proactively enhance both embeddedness and employee performance through implementing appropriate HRM practices. Research limitations/implications While this study makes a contribution to our understanding of the relationship between HRM practices, employees’ organisational job embeddedness, we collected most of our data during one time period. Originality/value Directly addressing these theoretical and methodological issues, our study makes two key contributions to the HRM and job embeddedness literatures. First, we found that the HR practices will directly influence employees’ job embeddedness. Second, we extend the scope of the AMO framework of HR by proposing that job embeddedness dimensions as important mediators in the HRM–job performance relationship.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-09-2014-0194
  • Managerial tactics for communicating negative performance feedback
    • First page: 969
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose Delivering negative feedback to employees is highly problematic for managers. Negative feedback is important in generating improvements in employee performance, but likely to generate adverse employee reactions. However, if managers do not address poor performance, good performers may become demoralized or exit the organization. We investigate how managers communicate negative feedback and the factors that drive their choice of tactic. Design/methodology/approach We use interview data from practicing line managers with experience in delivering negative feedback to learn whether their tactic choices are consistent with Implicit (“best practice”) or Contingency (“best fit”) theory. Findings We identify five negative feedback tactics: evidence, emotive and communication tactics are foundation tactics while evidence+communication and evidence+emotive tactics are bundles of the foundation tactics. Managers apply a “best fit” approach from a set of “best practice” negative feedback options. The choice of negative feedback tactic is driven by the manager’s assessment of the “best fit” with the employee’s personality. Research limitations/implications Most of our managers believed that their negative feedback tactic had been effective. Future researchers should investigate which negative feedback tactics employees regard as most effective. Practical implications A best fit approach to the delivery of negative feedback requires organisations to give managers discretion in the delivery of negative feedback. Managers may mis-assess fit which can undermine the effectiveness of the appraisal process. Originality/value We focus on how negative feedback is communicated by managers. Existing research focuses on reactions to negative feedback without taking into account how it is delivered.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-10-2014-0242
  • Influences of cultural orientations on Emirati women’s careers
    • First page: 988
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how cultural orientations influence Emirati women’s career development. Drawing on the cultural theories of Hofstede (1980, 2001) and House et al., (2004), we investigated the cultural orientations of a sample of 19 women in the United Arab Emirates. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted to collect life history data about women’s early lives, education and employment. Findings The findings identify three themes that influenced the participant’s careers: family influence on careers; individual level attitudes towards education for careers; workplace career development. Research limitations/implications Limited by the small sample of 19 female national participants that implies further international study is required to extend this research. Practical implications The business application is that social values, beliefs and norms can be leveraged for women’s career success. Originality/value Our study makes a unique theoretical contribution in a model that shows; cultural dimensions are interrelated; cultural values and practices are interdependent; cultural orientations vary between women and men.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:33Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-08-2014-0187
  • Emotional intelligence as a buffer of occupational stress
    • First page: 1010
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of emotional intelligence (EI) as a buffer to job stressors on employee adjustment. Design/methodology/approach Based on the Job Demands Resources Model, this study examined 306 nurses in the healthcare sector to test a model of job stressors, EI, and their interactions nursing adjustment outcomes (i.e., job satisfaction and psychological health). The hypothesized model predicted that higher trait emotional intelligence would act as a buffer to the potential negative effects of stressors on employee adjustment. Two-way moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses was used to test the model in addition to interaction effects. Findings The results of this study revealed mixed results in terms of the expected main effects of EI and the five significant moderating effects. While some interactions support a buffering hypothesis; contrary to expectations, a buffering effect was also found for those with low EI. Research limitations/implications The findings enable a better understanding how EI moderates the effects of stressors on important work outcomes in healthcare. Additionally, the implications from this study allows healthcare administrators and managers to improve staffing and work outcomes through identifying and selecting staff who are characterised by higher trait EI or alternatively, train staff in self-awareness and dealing with emotional behaviours. Practical implications HR managers could focus on selecting staff, who possessed higher trait EI for roles where overload and ambiguity are endemic to the job performed. Training could also be used to enhance EI among managers to focus on self-awareness and dealing with emotional behaviors. Originality/value This study makes several contributions to understanding how EI moderates the relationships between work stressors and workplace adjustment and wellbeing.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-11-2014-0271
  • Recruitment process outsourcing: a case study in Malaysia
    • First page: 1029
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide insights into the conduct of Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO), based on a real-life case study of one company in Malaysia. The paper analyses the company’s process of recruitment outsourcing from beginning to end, in three sections: RPO decision, RPO implementation and RPO outcome. Design/methodology/approach The case study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with relevant respondents, including the Country HR Manager, the HR staff and Operation Managers in the organisation, plus with the RPO provider. Findings The key findings, from a theoretical and academic viewpoint, are that RPO decisions and implementation cannot be fully or properly explained by one theory, but are better explained by integrating Transaction Cost Economics, the Resource-Based View and the Agency Theory. The study also highlights the importance of involving end-users in the RPO process. Research limitations/implications While this single case study gives a clear, in-depth insight into the issues in this particular instance, future research extending to a wider range of organisations would serve to expand the findings and provide more generalizable results. Practical implications Practitioners and service providers should be able to draw valuable lessons from the experience of Tech-solution, particularly from the different perceptions and levels of satisfaction about the service provider’s performance between internal HR and the internal end-users (Operation Managers). Originality/value This paper provides a specific and detailed analysis of RPO implementation in practice. It also addresses the call for more RPO outsourcing-specific research in the extant literature.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-10-2012-0172
  • Labor supply and productivity responses to non-salary benefits: do they
           work? If so, at what level do they work best?
    • First page: 1047
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose This study explores the impact of a particular low marginal-cost employee benefit on employees’ intended retention and performance. By utilizing a unique data set constructed by surveying full-time faculty and staff members at a public university in the United States, we study the impact of this employee benefit on faculty and staff performance and retention. Design/methodology/approach We focus on the impact of reduction in dependent college tuition at various levels on employees’ intentions to work harder and stay at their current job by using both OLS and Ordered Probit models. We also simulate the direct opportunity cost (reduction in revenue) in dollars and as a percent of total budgeted revenue to facilitate administrative decision making. Findings The results provide evidence that for institutions where employee retention and productivity are a priority, maximizing or offering dependent college tuition waiver may be a relatively low-cost benefit to increase retention and productivity. In addition, the amount of the tuition waiver, number of dependents and annual salary are statistically significant predictors of intended increased productivity and intent to stay employed at the current institution. Originality/value Employee retention and productivity is a challenge for all organizations. Although pay, benefits, and organizational culture tend to be key indicators of job satisfaction, little attention is given to specific types of benefits. This study is the first comprehensive attempt to explore the relationship between the impact of this low-cost employee benefit and employee performance and retention in a higher education institution in the United States.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:27Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-02-2015-0050
  • Structural determinants of psychological well-being for knowledge workers
           in South Korea
    • First page: 1069
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose Employee well-being has been an under-researched area in the field of human resources and organizational behavior. This study investigates personal (learning goal orientation: LGO), contextual (empowering leadership), and job-related (psychological empowerment) antecedents of psychological well-being (PWB). Design/methodology/approach Individual perceptions of knowledge workers in nine Korean consulting firms in South Korea were obtained using a cross-sectional survey. Human resource managers distributed paper versions of a survey questionnaire to 400 employees, and 334 usable questionnaires were collected, giving us a final response rate of 83.5%. Findings As a result of structural equation modeling analysis, the level of employees’ psychological empowerment turned out to partially mediate the relationship between LGO and PWB, while fully mediating the relationship between empowering leadership and PWB. LGO and perceived empowering leadership accounted for 54% of the variance in psychological empowerment and the three antecedents explained 47% of the variance in PWB. Research limitations/implications This study relied on a cross-sectional survey method with potential common method bias. As a result of the single-factor test, however, it is unlikely to confound the interpretations of the results. Another limitation of this study is that the sample of this study was restricted to knowledge workers with relatively high cognitive ability since they were mostly junior male managers with four-year college or graduate degrees. Practical implications To enhance perceived empowerment and PWB, HR and OD practitioners can support employees and their managers by providing relevant HR practices and services including developing supportive empowering leaders with effective coaching skills, hiring and developing employees with higher LGO, and redesigning jobs for employees so they feel more empowered. Originality/value This study linked four emerging subjects in management and positive psychology: goal orientation, empowering leadership, psychological empowerment, and well-being research. The theoretical contribution of this study lies in that it is one of the first attempts to investigate the relationships among LGO, psychological empowerment, and PWB specifically for knowledge workers in South Korea.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:35:00Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-01-2015-0011
  • The role of people and social context in promoting the IT organizational
           performance: evidence from Portugal
    • First page: 1087
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, August 2016.
      Purpose Motivated by the increasing role of information technology (IT) in today’s organizations, this study examines the relationships between business and IT executives in order to improve the organizational performance of the different aspects of IT technology and related systems. In the process, special attention is given to drivers which facilitate the cooperation between the parties involved. Design/methodology/approach This survey-based research utilizes structural equation modeling methodology to uncover the relevant variables pertaining to the promotion of a positive social and strategic context needed to increase the effectiveness of organizational IT facets. Findings The effectiveness of IT in modern organizations is contingent on a social alignment, business – IT alignment, strategic consistency, and common vision among the people who manage the IT function and those who need the organization. Research limitations/implications This study is based on a sample of Portuguese manufacturing organizations. Therefore, findings and conclusions should be interpreted accordingly. In this context, future research in other organizational cultural settings is called for in order to refine and validate the results of this study. Practical implications The role of establishing an organizational culture which stresses the common goal and mutual trust and cooperation in creating effective IT organizational utilization is underscored. As such, business executives are encouraged to exercise their leadership skills in order to create an organizational strategy which aligns IT capabilities and investments with the competitive strategy of the organization. In this context, creating an organizational culture which promotes business – IT alignment in a healthy social context is necessary. Originality/value The issues and concerns addressed in this study should bridge the gap between business and IT executives. In the process, this study facilitates and encourages the effective utilization of the different facets of IT technology as they better serve the people of the organization. This advances the cost and practice of the strategic organizational role of IT investments.
      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-06-17T11:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-02-2015-0034
  • Workplace Well-Being: How to Build Psychologically Healthy Workplaces
    • Pages: 1108 - 1110
      Abstract: Personnel Review, Volume 45, Issue 5, Page 1108-1110, August 2016.

      Citation: Personnel Review
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T08:13:46Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PR-01-2016-0001
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