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Journal for Multicultural Education
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  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2053-535X
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  • Becoming a more culturally responsive teacher by identifying and reducing
           microaggressions in classrooms and school communities
    • Pages: 2 - 9
      Abstract: Journal for Multicultural Education, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 2-9, April 2018.
      Purpose There is more to culturally responsive teaching than selecting multicultural texts and designing inclusive lesson. This paper aims to support teachers in becoming more culturally responsive by guiding them in how to recognize and respond to microaggressions in their daily interactions with students, colleagues, and parents. Design/methodology/approach Microaggressions have been defined as “brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color”. Findings When classroom interactions contain microaggressions, students are damaged in both seen and unseen ways. Interactions between teachers, students and parents afford powerful occasions to analyze classroom communication and provide windows into the nature of student–student, student–teacher and teacher–parent relationships. Practical implications Regardless of where, when, why or how they occur, these interactions provide brief opportunities for culturally responsive teachers to demonstrate that they respect their students’ home and community cultures, accept who their students are and honor the education that they receive both inside and outside of school. Social implications Becoming more adept at recognizing and addressing microaggressions is one way that teachers can become more culturally responsive. For students, being able to identify and respond more effectively to microaggressions creates greater opportunities for all students to think critically and engage in social action. Originality/value This paper presents an original viewpoint on identifying and reducing microaggressions in classrooms and school communities.
      Citation: Journal for Multicultural Education
      PubDate: 2018-03-21T09:33:06Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JME-03-2017-0020
       
  • The dispositions for culturally responsive pedagogy scale
    • Pages: 10 - 24
      Abstract: Journal for Multicultural Education, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 10-24, April 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the dispositions for culturally responsive pedagogy scale (DCRPS). Design/methodology/approach Scale development consisted of a six-step process including item development, expert review, exploratory factor analysis, factor interpretation, confirmatory factor analysis and convergent and discriminant validity analyses. Findings The final scale contains 19 Likert items across three dispositional domains: Disposition for Praxis, Disposition for Community and Disposition for Social Justice. The alpha reliability value for the overall scale was 0.92. Practical implications The DCRPS can be used in teacher preparation programs for programmatic evaluation, for teacher candidate growth assessment or for career counseling. Originality/value Other scales related to multicultural education reflect teachers’ general beliefs about diversity and/or inclusive education. The DCRPS is the first scale that assesses teachers’ beliefs and attitudes underlying culturally responsive teaching practices.
      Citation: Journal for Multicultural Education
      PubDate: 2018-03-21T09:32:55Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JME-11-2016-0060
       
  • Deconstructing teacher quality in urban early childhood education
    • Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: Journal for Multicultural Education, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 25-34, April 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the extant scholarship on quality in early childhood education and to emphasize the importance of extending the literature to explore the potential influence that a teachers’ educational background may have on kindergarten readiness for African American children in urban early learning settings. Design/methodology/approach Research has identified high-quality early education as a significant contributor to the academic success and development of young children. This paper examines current conceptualizations and trends in early childhood education related to the needs of African American children. Findings Our assessment indicates that the early learning of African American children in urban settings warrants further consideration by educational stakeholders. Specifically, the process and structural quality of urban early learning environments requires more culturally responsive approaches to policy and practice. Originality/value Improving the early learning opportunities of African American students in urban settings has practical and social implications that substantiate the value of the process and structural quality assessments. Recommendations for policy and practice are centered on a growth-based model of opportunities. Policy recommendations include creating urban teacher credentials and sustaining urban education, while practical recommendations include creating opportunities for vicarious experiences, affirming interactions and engaging in multicultural discourse.
      Citation: Journal for Multicultural Education
      PubDate: 2018-03-21T09:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JME-08-2016-0046
       
  • Selective intercultural sensitivity to different sources of cultural
           identity
    • Pages: 35 - 49
      Abstract: Journal for Multicultural Education, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 35-49, April 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the intercultural sensitivity of students in teacher educational programs at higher education institutes (HEIs) in Georgia. Design/methodology/approach This research explored the intercultural sensitivity among 355 randomly selected students in teacher education programs at higher education institutions in Georgia. A questionnaire based on the Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) and Cushner et al. (2006) model of sources of cultural identity was developed as a research instrument and adjusted to the Georgian context to measure the students’ intercultural sensitivity. Findings The results showed that a majority of the students were in the ethnocentric phase of intercultural sensitivity, as defined by Bennett (1993); students in teachers’ educational programs were selectively sensitive to different sources of cultural identity; students were selectively tolerant to different groups in the population with the same source of cultural identity and the level of educational attainment, as well as the location of the higher education institution affected students’ level of intercultural sensitivity. Practical implications The findings of this study carry valuable practical importance as they can be used to improve teacher education programs at higher education institutions in Georgia. Originality/value The study has scientific value in that the instrument used to assess intercultural sensitivity was developed for the Georgian context, and students’ intercultural sensitivity to 12 different sources of cultural identity was investigated.
      Citation: Journal for Multicultural Education
      PubDate: 2018-03-21T09:32:57Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JME-11-2016-0059
       
  • Evidence-based literacy interventions for East/Southeast Asian English
           language learners
    • Pages: 50 - 66
      Abstract: Journal for Multicultural Education, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 50-66, April 2018.
      Purpose There is a notable dearth of interventions that have been specifically designed for Asian English Language Learner (ELL) students, and the existing research on ELL students often lacks population validity and sample diversity. In response to this need, this paper aims to review current research on literacy interventions for East/Southeast Asian ELLs and provide practical recommendations for educators teaching literacy skills to this population. Design/methodology/approach To identify studies for inclusion in this review, a systematic literature search was conducted of peer-reviewed studies and dissertations were published between 2001 and 2016. Articles were included in the authors’ review, if those described a literacy intervention where the sample was entirely East and/or Southeast Asian ELLs, or, if the sample included other groups, the study provided an analysis of the intervention’s effectiveness specifically for the East or Southeast Asian ELLs in the study. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Findings The authors’ search yielded seven studies. The authors found three main contributors to effective literacy instruction for this population: culturally relevant instruction, family involvement and encouraging first language (L1) development to facilitate language and literacy in English. Results indicated that interventions that consider a student’s cultural style (i.e. preference toward a teacher-centered classroom) or included cultural familiar themes/texts were found to be more effective. In addition, strategies that encouraged the development of L1, such as the use of dual-language books, explicitly teaching contrastive analysis and providing the same book to be read at home and a school were all correlated with greater literacy gains. Finally, facilitating home-school communication seemed to contribute to the efficacy of several of the interventions. Research limitations/implications This paper reveals the need to expand the current knowledge base on effective literacy instruction and intervention for East/Southeast Asian ELL students, especially research on population validity, given the specific needs of this growing population. This review is limited by the small number of relevant studies and the fact that not all East/Southeast Asian languages or ethnic groups were represented. There is still a great need for future research to determine what methods or combination of factors are effective with East/Southeast Asian ELLs of various ages and needs. Practical implications The findings from this paper have generated practical recommendations for educators teaching literacy skills to East/Southeast Asian ELL students, such as: tailor literacy instruction to be culturally relevant, design interventions around student’s preferred learning style, encourage parent/family involvement, provide bilingual instruction and bilingual reading materials and provide parents with books and information about the literacy curriculum. Social implications This paper also reveals the need to expand the current knowledge base on effective literacy instruction and intervention for East/Southeast Asian ELL students, especially research on population validity, given the specific needs of this growing population. Originality/value Based on an extensive literature search, this is the first paper to review and summarize the research on literacy interventions for East/Southeast Asian ELLs over the past 15 years. This paper provides valuable recommendations to educators and calls for more research on English literacy acquisition specific to this population.
      Citation: Journal for Multicultural Education
      PubDate: 2018-03-21T09:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JME-12-2016-0061
       
  • Error patterns in Portuguese students’ addition and subtraction
           calculation tasks
    • Pages: 67 - 82
      Abstract: Journal for Multicultural Education, Volume 12, Issue 1, Page 67-82, April 2018.
      Purpose The purpose of this descriptive study is to investigate why some elementary children have difficulties mastering addition and subtraction calculation tasks. Design/methodology/approach The researchers have examined error types in addition and subtraction calculation made by 697 Portuguese students in elementary grades. Each student completed a written assessment of mathematical knowledge. A system code (e.g. FR = failure to regroup) has been used to grade the tests. A reliability check has been performed on 65 per cent randomly selected exams. Findings Data frequency analyses reveal that the most common type of error was miscalculation for both addition (n = 164; 38.6 per cent) and subtraction (n = 180; 21.7 per cent). The second most common error type was related to failure to regroup in addition (n = 74; 17.5 per cent) and subtraction (n = 139; 16.3 per cent). Frequency of error types by grade level has been provided. Findings from the hierarchical regression analyses indicate that students’ performance differences emerged as a function of error types which indicated students’ types of difficulties. Research limitations/implications There are several limitations of this study: the use of a convenient sample; all schools were located in the northern region of Portugal; the limited number of problems; and the time of the year of assessment. Practical implications Students’ errors suggested that their performance in calculation tasks is related to conceptual and procedural knowledge and skills. Error analysis allows teachers to better understand the individual performance of a diverse group and to tailor instruction to ensure that all students have an opportunity to succeed in mathematics. Social implications Error analysis helps teachers uncover individual students’ difficulties and deliver meaningful instruction to all students. Originality/value This paper adds to the international literature on error analysis and reinforces its value in diagnosing students’ type and severity of math difficulties.
      Citation: Journal for Multicultural Education
      PubDate: 2018-03-21T09:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JME-01-2017-0002
       
 
 
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