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Publisher: Ke Ai   (Total: 15 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.485, CiteScore: 1)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.442, CiteScore: 1)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Emerging Contaminants     Open Access   (SJR: 1.233, CiteScore: 3)
Geodesy and Geodynamics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.469, CiteScore: 1)
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Infectious Disease Modelling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Finance and Data Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Natural Gas Geoscience     Open Access   (SJR: 0.783, CiteScore: 1)
Non-coding RNA Research     Open Access  
Petroleum     Open Access  
Plant Diversity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.841, CiteScore: 0)
World J. of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
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Green Energy & Environment
Number of Followers: 2  

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ISSN (Print) 2468-0257
Published by Ke Ai Homepage  [15 journals]
  • Rough-surfaced bimetallic copper-palladium alloy multicubes as highly
           bifunctional electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation and oxygen

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Dong Chen, Linlin Xu, Hui Liu, Jun Yang Engineering the morphology of nanomaterials and modifying their electronic structure are effective ways to improve their performance in electrocatalysis. Through combining the co-reduction of Pd2+ and Cu2+ precursors with a digestive ripening process in oleylamine, we report the synthesis of copper-palladium (Cu-Pd) alloy multicubes with rough surfaces. Benefiting from their alloy and unique rough-surfaced structure, which provides ample edge/corner and step atoms as well as the electronic coupling between Cu and Pd leading to the lower of d-band center, the rough-surfaced Cu-Pd alloy multicubes show much better electrocatalytic performance not only for formic acid oxidation but also for oxygen reduction in comparison with those of spherical Cu-Pd alloy nanoparticles and commercial Pd/C catalyst. In contrast, we confirm that the rough-surfaced Cu-Pd alloy multicubes only exhibit very low Faradaic efficiency (34.3%) for electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) due to the presence of strong competing hydrogen evolution reaction, which results in their very poor selectivity for the reduction of CO2 to CO. The findings in this study not only offer a promising strategy to produce highly effective electrocatalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells, but also enlighten the ideas to design efficient electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Template–free Synthesis of Hollow TiO2 Nanospheres Supported Pt for
           Selective Photocatalytic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Hongbing Song, Zong Liu, Yongjie Wang, Na Zhang, Xiaofei Qu, Kai Guo, Meng Xiao, Hengjun Gai Heterogeneous photocatalytic system are widely applied to degrade organic pollutants or converse into high value-added chemicals. Both environmental and energy aspects should be considered to improve these chemical processes, favoring reaction conditions that involve room temperature and ambient O2 pressure. In the present work, hollow titanium dioxide nanospheres were fabricated via template–free method. The prepared samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy, and X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with visible light under atmospheric pressure at room temperature. The designed hollow structure (2%Pt–TiO2–5) not only exhibited a very high surface area, but also promoted photonic behavior and multiple light scattering, which as an efficient photocatalyst performed moderate conversion (about 20%) and high selectivity (>99%) for oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde at room temperature with visible light in solvent of toluene. This work suggests that both hollow structure and Pt nanoparticles have great potential for execution of oxidative transformations under visible light.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Reduced graphene oxide supported PdNi alloy nanocrystals for the oxygen
           reduction and methanol oxidation reactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Hui-Min Liu, Shu-He Han, Ying-Ying Zhu, Pei Chen, Yu Chen The research on electrocatalysts with relatively lower price than Pt and excellent electrocatalytic performance for the cathode oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and anode methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) is vital for the development of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In this work, we develop a cyanogel-reduction method to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported highly dispersed PdNi alloy nanocrystals (PdNi/rGO) with high alloying degree and tunable Pd/Ni ratio. The large specific surface area and the d-band center downshift of Pd result in excellent activity of Pd4Ni1/rGO nanohybrids for the ORR. The modification of Pd electronic structure can facilitate the adsorption of CH3OH on Pd surface and the highly oxophilic property of Ni can eliminate/mitigate the COads intermediates poisoning, which make PdNi/rGO nanohybrids possess superior MOR activity. In addition, rGO improve the stability of PdNi alloy nanocrystals for the ORR and MOR. Due to high activity and stability for the ORR and MOR, PdNi/rGO nanohybrids are promising to be an available bifunctional electrocatalyst in DMFCs.Graphical abstractImage 1In this work, PdNi/rGO nanohybrids with high alloying degree and tunable Pd/Ni ratio were prepared by cyanogel reduction method. Due to its enhanced ORR and MOR activity, Pd4Ni1/rGO nanohybrids are promising to be an available bifunctional electrocatalyst in DMFCs.
  • Popping of g-C3N4 mixed with cupric nitrate: facile synthesis of Cu-based
           catalyst for construction of C−N bond

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Shaoyu Yuan, Penglei Cui, Yunrui Zhang, Hong Zhang, Li Huo, Yongjun Gao A novel strategy to synthesize copper nanoparticles supported on carbon nitride (C3N4) was developed by popping of mixture containing C3N4 and cupric nitrate. Characterizations such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that the structure of g-C3N4 maintained although a popping process occurred. High resolution transmission electronic microscopy (HRTEM) characterization illustrated that copper-based nanoparticles with diameter of < 1 nm were well distributed on g-C3N4. This kind of copper catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity and selectivity in arylation of pyrazole, a simple and effect strategy to construct C−N bond in organic chemistry. According to the results of control experiments and characterizations, cuprous oxide should be the catalytic active phase in the supported coper-based catalyst.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Hybrid polymer electrolyte for Li-O2 batteries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Bojie Li, Yijie Liu, Xiaoyu Zhang, Ping He, Haoshen zhou Li-O2 batteries have attracted much attention because of their high specific energy. However, safety problem generated mainly from the flammable organic liquid electrolytes have hindered the commercial use of Li-O2 batteries. One of the competitive alternatives is polymer electrolytes due to their flexibility and non-flammable property. Moreover, the hybrid polymer electrolyte with enhanced electrochemical properties would be achieved by incorporating inorganic filler, liquid plasticizer and redox mediator into the polymer. While most researches of the hybrid polymer electrolyte focused on Li-ion batteries, few of them took account into its application in Li-O2 batteries. In this review, we mainly discuss hybrid polymer electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries with different composition. The critical issues including conductivity and stability of electrolytes are also discussed in detail. Our review provides some insights of hybrid polymer electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries and offers necessary guidelines for designing the suitable hybrid polymer electrolyte for Li-O2 batteries as well.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenolysis as an Efficient Route in Cleavage of
           Lignin and Model Compounds

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Jiaguang Zhang Cleavage of aromatic ether bonds through hydrogenolysis is one of the most promising routes for depolymerisation and transformation of lignin into value-added chemicals. Instead of using pressurized hydrogen gas as hydrogen source, some reductive organic molecules, such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol as well as formates and formic acid, can serve as hydrogen donor is the process called catalytic transfer hydrogenolysis. This is an emerging and promising research field but there are very few reports. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the works is presented on catalytic transfer hydrogenolysis of lignin and lignin model compounds aiming to breakdown the aromatic ethers including α-O-4, β-O-4 and 4-O-5 linkages, with focus on reaction mechanisms. The works are organised regarding to different hydrogen donors used, to gain an in-depth understanding of the special role of various hydrogen donors in this process. Perspectives on current challenges and opportunities of future research to develop catalytic transfer hydrogenolysis as a competitive and unique strategy for lignin valorisation are also provided.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Shell biorefinery: A comprehensive introduction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Max Joshua Hülsey Biomass refinery is considered to be a key technology in the 21st century due to the importance of the sustainable production of various bio-derived fuels and fine chemicals. Besides the synthesis of oxygen-containing chemicals mainly from lignocellulosic biomass, nitrogen-containing chemicals belong to some of the most important commodity and fine chemicals. In this introductory short review the main similarities and difficulties between petroleum oil- and biorefinery will be discussed and future challenges will be highlighted. As a particular example, recent developments in the shell biorefinery – the utilization of shell waste – will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on the structure of shell biomass, the current and emerging fractionation methods and the conversion of chitin and chitosan to various heteroatom-containing chemicals. This review is meant to provide an introduction to beginners in the field of biorefinery as well as a comprehensive discussion of recent proceedings in the field of shell biorefinery. An outlook on the future potential and challenges will be given.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Electrocatalysts Based on Metal@Carbon Core@Shell Nanocomposites: an

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Yi Peng, Shaowei Chen Developing low-cost, high-performance catalysts is of fundamental significance for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. In recent years, metal@carbon core@shell nanocomposites have emerged as a unique class of functional nanomaterials that show apparent electrocatalytic activity towards a range of reactions, such as hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, oxygen reduction reaction, and CO2 reduction reaction, that are important in water splitting, fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The activity is primarily attributed to interfacial charge transfer from the metal core to the carbon shell that manipulate the electronic interactions between the catalyst surface and reaction intermediates, and varies with the structures and morphologies of the metal core (elemental composition, core size, etc.) and carbon shell (doping, layer thickness, etc.). Further manipulation can be achieved by the incorporation of a third structural component. A perspective is also included highlighting the current gap between theoretical modeling and experimental results, and technical challenges for future research.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • A comparative study of the extractive desulfurization mechanism by Cu(II)
           and Zn-based imidazolium ionic liquids

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2017Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Hongping Li, Beibei Zhang, Wei Jiang, Wenshuai Zhu, Ming Zhang, Chao Wang, Jingyu Pang, Huaming Li A comparative study of the extractive desulfurization (EDS) mechanism by Cu(II) and Zn-based ILs ([C4mim]2[MCl4], M = Cu(II) or Zn) has been performed. It is found that the π–π interaction and C-H⋯π interaction play important roles in EDS for both Cu(II) and Zn-based ILs, which is different from Al, Fe-based ILs. In the gas phase models, the interaction energy between Zn-based ILs and dibenzothiophene (DBT) is stronger than the interaction energy of Cu(II)-based ILs. In order to consider the solvent effect, a generic ionic liquid of solvation model has been implemented, which is few considered in the previous calculations of EDS. It is interesting to find that the gap of interaction energies between Cu(II), Zn-based ILs and DBT are reduced when the solvent effect is considered. In addition, by combined discussion of currently theoretical and experimental evidences for metal-based ILs with different compositions, we firstly propose that the EDS performance should be influenced by the balance of the contribution of cation, metal-based anion, metal chlorides and the viscosity.Graphical abstractA comparative study of the extractive desulfurization (EDS) mechanism by Cu(II) and Zn-based ILs has been performed. We firstly propose that the EDS performance should be influenced by the balance of the contribution of cation, metal-based anion, metal chlorides and the viscosity.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Preparation and characterization of bimetallic PtˆNi-P/CNT catalysts via
           galvanic displacement reaction on electrolessly-plated Ni-P/CNT support

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Yangcheng Jiang, Zhen Liu, Jili Song, Ikwhang Chang, Jianhuang Zeng Platinum-based bimetallic catalysts have broad applications in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and water splitting. In this work, galvanic displacement reaction was employed to prepare PtˆNi-P/CNT catalysts using electrolessly-plated Ni-P/CNT. These catalysts were extensively characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Catalytic activities towards methanol oxidation and hydrogen evolution reactions were evaluated and benchmarked with a commercial Pt/C catalyst. Uniform dispersion of Pt on Ni-P particles led to high Pt utilization, and the electrochemical surface area of PtˆNi-P/CNT with 12.1% Pt loading was found to be 126 m2 g-1, higher than that of a commercial Pt/C (77.9 m2 g-1). The Tafel slopes for the PtˆNi-P/CNT catalysts were also found to be smaller than that of Pt/C indicating faster kinetics for hydrogen evolution reaction.Graphical abstractBimetallic PtˆNi-P/CNT catalysts were prepared by galvanic displacement reaction on electrolessly-plated Ni-P/CNT support. Catalytic activities of the catalysts towards methanol oxidation and hydrogen evolution reactions were evaluated and benchmarked with a commercial Pt/C catalyst.Image 1
  • Scale-up of Biomass Conversion using 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate
           as the Solvent

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Ling Liang, Jipeng Yan, Qian He, Tina Luong, Todd R. Pray, Blake A. Simmons, Ning Sun This scale-up study demonstrated the feasibility of an ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment process at 40 kg scale, using the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) as the solvent. The pretreatment was followed by enzymatic hydrolysis through which the process efficiency for biomass conversion to monomeric sugars was determined. The results show that 43 wt% of switchgrass was dissolved in IL after 2 h of pretreatment at 160 °C with 15 wt% solid loading. A 120 h enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated switchgrass results in 96% glucan and 98% xylan conversion. [C2C1Im][OAc] pretreatment has been successfully scaled up to 40 kg with improved sugar titers and yields relative to bench scale (6 kg). The mass flow of the overall process was established and the major scale-up challenges of the process were identified.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Fabrication of biobased heterogeneous solid Brønsted acid catalysts and
           their application on the synthesis of liquid biofuel
           5-ethoxymethylfurfural from fructose

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Yingying Wen, Zhou Yu, Kexin Li, Huiqin Guo, Yuhua Dai, Liushui Yan A series of biobased heterogeneous solid Brønsted acid catalysts with perfect spherical microstructures are successfully fabricated directly from waste Camellia oleifera shells by a simple hydrothermal carbonization-annealing-sulfonation process. 350 oC low temperature annealing process helps to increase the activity of the catalyst due to the simultaneous maintenance of the spherical microstructure and aromatic carbon framework. As a renewable catalyst with low cost, the as-prepared materials are successfully applied on the synthesis of green renewable liquid biofuel 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) directly from fructose. In the catalytic test, the influences of reaction time and temperature, fructose concentration, and adding amount of the catalyst on the yield of EMF are investigated systematically. As a result, the optimal reaction temperature is 100 oC, the EMF yield monotonically increases with prolonging the reaction time from 3 to 24 h, the optimal fructose concentration is 0.5 mmol, and the EMF yield gradually increases with increasing the adding amount of the catalyst from 50 to 150 mg. In addition, the as-prepared catalysts exhibit considerably high stability in the current EMF synthesis system, and they can maintain a similar level of reactivity after four catalytic cycles.Graphical abstractA series of biobased heterogeneous solid Brønsted acid catalysts were fabricated directly from waste Camellia oleifera shells. The as-prepared materials were successfully applied on the synthesis of green renewable liquid biofuel 5-ethoxymethylfurfural from fructose. Low temperature annealing carbon microspheres not only maintain the original aromatic carbon framework but also exhibit an improved stability. Therefore, the catalyst prepared from low temperature annealing carbon microspheres showed the highest catalytic activity in the tested materials.Image 1
  • Engineering Porosity into Trimetallic PtPdNi Nanospheres for Enhanced
           Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction Activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Chunjie Li, You Xu, Yinghao Li, Hongjie Yu, Shuli Yin, Hairong Xue, Xiaonian Li, Hongjing Wang, Liang Wang Platinum (Pt)-based multi-metallic nanostructures show great promise as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cell cathodes. Herein, we report a simple, one-step surfactant-directed synthetic strategy to directly synthesize tri-metallic PtPdNi mesoporous nanospheres (PtPdNi MNs) in a high yield. The synthesis could be accomplished under aqueous solution in a mild reaction temperature (40 oC) without needing any organic solvent, yielding well-dispersed PtPdNi MNs with uniform shape and narrow size distribution. Benefitting from their unique mesoporous and highly open structure and tri-metallic composition, the as-synthesized PtPdNi MNs demonstrate superior catalytic activity and stability for ORR in acidic solution in comparison with PtPdNi nanodendrites (PtPdNi NDs), PtPd MNs and commercial Pt/C catalyst. The present approach may open a reliable path to the design of advanced electrocatalysts with desired performance.Graphical abstractWe have developed a simple, one-step surfactant-directed synthetic strategy to directly synthesize trimetallic PtPdNi mesoporous nanospheres (PtPdNi MNs) in a high yield. The as-synthesized PtPdNi MNs demonstrate superior catalytic activity and stability for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to their unique structural and compositional features.Image 1
  • High Energy Batteries Based on Sulfur Cathode

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Jian Zhu, Jianli Zou, Hua Cheng, Yingying Gu, Zhouguang Lu Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become an indispensable part of our daily life, however, the energy and power capability that LIBs can deliver are lagging far behind the ever-increasing demands of portable electronics and electric vehicles. Metal-sulfur batteries as one of the most promising alternatives to LIBs are receiving rapidly growing research interests due to the extremely high energy density and abundant resources of sulfur. In this short review, we will discuss the state-of-art development of high energy density battery technologies based on sulfur cathode in combination with different metal anodes, with focus on sodium, magnesium and aluminum anodes. We leave lithium-sulfur batteries out of discussion since there are already a large number of nicely organized review papers available. The operation mechanism of various anode materials and the variety of electrolytes used in sulfur batteries will be reviewed. Some perspectives on improving the performances and overcoming the remaining issues in sulfur batteries will be discussed. It is expected that this review will draw more attention to sulfur batteries from both the academic and industrial communities.Graphical abstractMetal-sulfur batteries as one of the most promising alternative for lithium ion battery (LIB), have received tremendous attention because of the high theoretical energy density, source abundance, low cost of raw material and environment friendly. However, due to many problems, there is still a long way to go before it reaches the practical stage.Image 1
  • Efficient Hydrolysis of Hemicellulose to Furfural by Novel Superacid
           SO4H-Functionalized Ionic Liquids

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Wei Hui, Yan Zhou, Yan Dong, Zhi-Jun Cao, Fei-Qiang He, Min-Zhong Cai, Duan-Jian Tao Novel superacid SO4H-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs) were designed and prepared in this work. The catalytic activities of SFILs were evaluated in xylan hydrolysis and xylose dehydration to produce furfural. Combined with the results of acid strength of SFILs characterized by solid-state 31P MAS NMR, it was found that the catalytic performance of SFILs were positively correlated to their acid strength. The superacid SFIL [Ch-SO4H][CF3SO3] displayed the best catalytic performance with more than 80% yield of furfural, and it was also obviously superior to usual SO3H-functionalized acidic ILs, mineral liquid acids, and acidic resin Amberlyst-15 catalysts in catalytic activity under optimized conditions. In addition, the superacid SFIL [Ch-SO4H][CF3SO3] could be easily separated from reaction system and reused at least five times without obvious decrease.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Applications of metal–organic frameworks for green energy and
           environment: New advances in adsorptive gas separation, storage and

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 3Author(s): Bin Wang, Lin-Hua Xie, Xiaoqing Wang, Xiao-Min Liu, Jinping Li, Jian-Rong Li The separation of gas molecules with similar physicochemical properties is of high importance but practically entails a substantial energy penalty in chemical industry. Meanwhile, clean energy gases such as H2 and CH4 are considered as promising candidates for the replacement of traditional fossil fuels. However, the technologies for the storage of these gases are still immature. In addition, the release of anthropogenic toxic gases into the atmosphere is a worldwide threat of growing concern. Both in academia and industry, considerable research efforts have been devoted to developing advanced porous materials for the effective and energy-efficient separation, storage, or capture of the related gases. In contrast to conventional inorganic porous materials such as zeolites and activated carbons, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are considered as a type of promising materials for gas separation and storage. In this contribution, we review the recent research advance of MOFs in some relevant applications, including CO2 capture, O2 purification, separation of light hydrocarbons, separation of noble gases, storage of gases (CH4, H2, and C2H2) for energy, and removal of some gaseous air pollutants (NH3, NO2, and SO2). Finally, an outlook regarding the challenges of the future research of MOFs in these directions is given.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Ionic liquids: Functionalization and absorption of SO2

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 3Author(s): Shuhang Ren, Yucui Hou, Kai Zhang, Weize Wu Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), which have excellent properties, such as high gas absorption abilities, extremely low volatility and tunable structures, are regarded as environmentally-friendly absorbents and widely used in SO2 absorption and separation. As a result, a large number of ILs have been synthesized to capture SO2 from flue gas or simulated gas, but a part of them just have physical interaction with SO2 and can hardly absorb SO2 when the content of SO2 is very low. Hence, functional ILs, which can chemically absorb a large amount of SO2 with low contents, have been designed and synthesized for SO2 capture. Up to now, many kinds of functional ILs were investigated for SO2 absorption from flue gas. In this review, the functional ILs are classified into guanidinium based ILs, hydroxyl ammonium based ILs, imidazolium/pyridinium based ILs, quaternary ammonium based ILs, phosphonium based ILs, and other kinds of ILs according to their cations. The capacities of SO2 absorption in these ILs, the mechanism of the absorption, and the ways to enhance the absorption are briefly introduced. The prospect of functional ILs for their application in SO2 removal is presented. The present problems and the further studies are also discussed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleFunctional ionic liquids, which are designed and synthesized to chemically absorb SO2 under low partial pressures, have been summarized according to their cations.
  • FCC coprocessing oil sands heavy gas oil and canola oil. 2. Gasoline
           hydrocarbon type analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 3Author(s): Siauw H. Ng, Nicole E. Heshka, Cecile Lay, Edward Little, Ying Zheng, Qiang Wei, Fuchen Ding This study set out to gain a deeper understanding of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) coprocessing approach using canola oil mixed with bitumen-derived heavy gas oil (HGO), for the production of partially-renewable gasoline, with respect to its composition and quality. The FCC coprocessing approach may provide an alternative solution to reducing the carbon footprint and to meet government regulatory demands for renewable transportation fuels. In this study, a mixture of 15 v% canola oil in HGO was catalytically cracked with a commercial equilibrium catalyst under typical FCC conditions. Cracking experiments were performed using a bench-scale Advanced Cracking Evaluation (ACE) unit at a fixed weight hourly space velocity of 8 h−1, 490–530 °C, and catalyst/oil ratios of 4–12 g/g. The total liquid product samples were injected via an automatic sampler and a prefractionator (to remove +254 °C) into a gas chromatographic system containing a series of columns, traps, and valves designed to separate each of the hydrocarbon types. The analyzer gives detailed hydrocarbon types of −200 °C gasoline, classified into paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics by carbon number up to C11 (C10 for aromatics). For a feed cracked at a given temperature, the gasoline aromatics show the highest selectivity in terms of weight percent conversion, followed by saturated iso-paraffins, saturated naphthenes, unsaturated iso-paraffins, unsaturated naphthenes, unsaturated normal paraffins, and saturated normal paraffins. As conversion increases, both aromatics and saturated iso-paraffins increase monotonically at the expense of other components. Hydrocarbon type analysis and octane numbers with variation in feed type, process severity (temperature and catalyst/oil ratio), and conversion are also presented and discussed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of using ClO2 bleaching as substitution of
           traditional Cl2 on PCDD/F reduction in a non-wood pulp and paper mill
           using reeds as raw materials

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 3Author(s): Lili Yang, Liping Fang, Linyan Huang, Yuyang Zhao, Guorui Liu The effectiveness of ClO2 bleaching as a replacement for conventional Cl2 bleaching, which is intensively practiced in developing countries, to reduce polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in non-wood pulp and paper mills has not been field tested. The first field study was performed to investigate PCDD/F variations when ClO2 bleaching was used as a substitute for conventional Cl2 bleaching in a non-wood pulp and paper mill. It was found that the PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQs) in solid and effluent samples were approximately 1.3–14.9 times lower when ClO2 bleaching was used instead of the conventional Cl2 bleaching. 2,3,7,8-Substituted tetrachlorinated dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-TCDF) were the dominant contributors to total PCDD/F TEQs in samples from the investigated mill when using conventional Cl2 bleaching. The formation amounts of 2,3,7,8-TCDF were reduced from 1.56–2.76 pg TEQ/g to 0.02–0.32 pg TEQ/g in solid samples when ClO2 bleaching was used instead of the conventional Cl2 bleaching. The replacement of Cl2 with ClO2 might decrease the chlorination reactions of dibenzofuran as potential precursors, and thus reduce the formation amounts of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. The results could provide important knowledge for suggesting the best available technique for PCDD/F reduction for non-wood pulp and paper mills in developing countries.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Vehicle fuel from biogas with carbon membranes; a comparison between
           simulation predictions and actual field demonstration

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 3Author(s): Shamim Haider, Arne Lindbråthen, Jon Arvid Lie, Petter Vattekar Carstensen, Thorbjørn Johannessen, May-Britt Hägg The energy contents of biogas could be significantly enhanced by upgrading it to vehicle fuel quality. A pilot-scale separation plant based on carbon hollow fiber membranes for upgrading biogas to vehicle fuel quality was constructed and operated at the biogas plant, Glør IKS, Lillehammer Norway. Vehicle fuel quality according to Swedish legislation was successfully achieved in a single stage separation process. The raw biogas from anaerobic digestion of food waste contained 64 ± 3 mol% CH4, 30–35 mol% CO2 and less than one percent of N2 and a minor amount of other impurities. The raw biogas was available at 1.03 bar with a maximum flow rate of 60 Nm3 h−1. Pre-treatment of biogas was performed to remove bulk H2O and H2S contents up to the required limits in the vehicle fuel before entering to membrane system. The membrane separation plant was designed to process 60 Nm3 h−1 of raw biogas at pressure up to 21 bar. The initial tests were, however, performed for the feed flow rate of 10 Nm3 h−1 at 21 bar. The successful operation of the pilot plant separation was continuously run for 192 h (8 days). The CH4 purity of 96% and maximum CH4 recovery of 98% was reached in a short-term test of 5 h. The permeate stream contained over 20 mol% CH4 which could be used for the heating application. Aspen Hysys® was integrated with ChemBrane (in-house developed membrane model) to run the simulations for estimation of membrane area and energy requirement of the pilot plant. Cost estimation was performed based on simulation data and later compared with actual field results.Graphical abstractTechnology readiness level according to the EU commission/Up-Scaling from lab to pilot scale; (a) lab scale module, (b) medium sized module, (c) Multimodule, (d) Membrane Pilot plant. Highlight for graphical content: Biomethane as vehicle fuel from biogas was upgraded in a carbon membrane-based pilot plant process. Applying a single stage separation operation meant a low energy usage; 0.13 kWh/(Nm3 of upgraded biogas). However, the brittleness of hollow fibers remained a challenge.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Carbon coated ultrasmall anatase TiO2 nanocrystal anchored on N,S-RGO as
           high-performance anode for sodium ion batteries

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 3Author(s): Lingfei Zhao, Tong Tang, Weihua Chen, Xiangming Feng, Liwei Mi Anatase TiO2 has been investigated as one of the most promising anode materials for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) with low cost and high theoretical capacity. Herein, a composite material of TiO2/N,S-RGO@C with carbon coated ultrasmall anatase TiO2 anchored on nitrogen and sulfur co-doped RGO matrix was successfully prepared by a rational designed process. The composite structure exhibited ultrasmall crystal size, rich porous structure, homogeneous heteroatoms doping and thin carbon coating, which synergistically resulted in elevated electron and ion transfer. The anode exhibited high rate capacities with good reversibility under high rate cycling. The carbon coating was investigated to be effective to prevent active material falling and lead to long term cycling performance with a high capacity retention of 181 mAh g−1 after 2000 cycles at 2 C. Kinetic studies were carried out and the results revealed that the superior performance of the composite material were derived from the decreased charge transfer resistance and elevated ion diffusion. Results suggested that the TiO2/N,S-RGO@C composite is a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Parameterization of COSMO-RS model for ionic liquids

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 3Author(s): Jingli Han, Chengna Dai, Gangqiang Yu, Zhigang Lei The adjustable parameters in the popular conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) within the Amsterdam density functional (ADF) framework have been re-optimized to fit for the systems containing ionic liquids (ILs). To get the optimal values of misfit energy constant a′, hydrogen bond coefficient chb and effective contact surface area of a segment aeff, 2283 activity coefficient data points at infinite dilution and 1433 CO2 solubility data points exhaustively collected from references were used as training set. The average relative deviations (ARDs) of activity coefficients at infinite dilution and CO2 solubility between experimental data and predicted values are 32.22% and 17.61%, respectively, both of which are significantly lower than the original COSMO-RS versions. Predictions for other activity coefficients of solutes in ILs, solubility data of CO2 in pure ILs and the binary mixtures of ILs at either high or low temperatures, and vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) for binary systems involving ILs have also been performed to demonstrate the validity of the parameterization of COSMO-RS model for ILs. The results showed that the predicted results by COSMO-RS model with the new optimized parameters are in much better agreement with experimental data than those by the original versions over a wide temperature and pressure range. The COSMO-RS model for ILs presented in this work improves the prediction accuracy of thermodynamic properties for the systems containing ILs, which is always highly desirable for general chemical engineers.Graphical abstractThe adjustable parameters in the popular COSMO-RS model within the ADF framework have been re-optimized to fit to the systems containing ionic liquids (ILs), which enables the good applicability and prediction accuracy of COSMO-RS model (this work) for ILs.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Fabrication of CuOx thin-film photocathodes by magnetron reactive
           sputtering for photoelectrochemical water reduction

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 3Author(s): Tian Xie, Tao Zheng, Ruiling Wang, Yuyu Bu, Jin-Ping Ao The CuOx thin film photocathodes were deposited on F-doped SnO2 (FTO) transparent conducting glasses by alternating current (AC) magnetron reactive sputtering under different Ar:O2 ratios. The advantage of this deposited method is that it can deposit a CuOx thin film uniformly and rapidly with large scale. From the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of these CuOx photocathodes, it can be found that the CuOx photocathode with Ar/O2 30:7 provide a photocurrent density of −3.2 mA cm−2 under a bias potential −0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which was found to be twice higher than that of Ar/O2 with 30:5. A detailed characterization on the structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of these CuOx thin film photocathodes was carried out, and it is found that the improved PEC performance of CuOx semiconductor photocathode with Ar/O2 30:7 attributed to the less defects in it, indicating that this Ar/O2 30:7 is an optimized condition for excellent CuOx semiconductor photocathode fabrication.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Designing all-solid-state Z-Scheme 2D g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 for improved
           photocatalysis and photocatalytic mechanism insight

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 3Author(s): Mao Mao, Shuowei Zhao, Zhigang Chen, Xiaojie She, Jianjian Yi, Kaixiang Xia, Hui Xu, Minqiang He, Huaming Li Bi2WO6 was modified by two-dimensional g-C3N4 (2D g-C3N4) via a hydrothermal method. The structure, morphology, optical and electronic properties were investigated by multiple techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electron spin resonance (ESR), respectively. Rhodamine B (RhB) was used as the target organic pollutant to research the photocatalytic performance of as-prepared composites. The Bi2WO6/2D g-C3N4 exhibited a remarkable improvement compared with the pure Bi2WO6. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was because the photogenerated electrons and holes can quickly separate by Z-Scheme passageway in composites. The photocatalytic mechanism was also researched in detail through ESR analysis.Graphical abstractThe 2D g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 obtained via hydrothermal method exhibited a great improvement compared with pure Bi2WO6, where a Z-Scheme was proved to explain the enhanced photocatalytic performance.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Reaction Mechanism of Hydrogen Activation by Frustrated Lewis Pairs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Lei Liu, Binit Lukose, Pablo Jaque, Bernd Ensing Typically, a Lewis acid and a Lewis base can react with each other and form a classical Lewis adduct. The neutralization reaction can however be prevented by ligating the acid and base with bulky substituents and the resulting complex is known as a “frustrated Lewis pair” (FLP). Since the Lewis acid and base reactivity remains in the formed complex, FLPs can display interesting chemical activities, with promising applications in catalysis. For example, FLPs were shown to function as the first metal−free catalyst for molecular hydrogen activation. This, and other recent applications of FLPs, have opened a new thriving research field. In this short−review, we recapitulate the computational and experimental studies of the H2 activation by FLPs. We discuss the thus-far uncovered mechanistic aspects, including pre−organization of FLPs, the reaction paths for the activation, the polarization of H−H bond and other factors affecting the reactivity. We aim to provide a rather complete mechanistic picture of the H2 activation by FLPs, which has been under debate for decades since the first discovery of FLPs. This review is meant as a starting point for future studies and a guideline for industrial applications.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Aromatization and isomerization of methylcyclohexane over Ni catalysts
           supported on different supports

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Ye Song, Wei Lin, Xingcui Guo, Linlin Dong, Xindong Mu, Huiping Tian, Lei Wang In this work, nickel metal supported on different supports (SiO2, Al2O3, ZSM-5) were prepared by spraying nickel nitrate on the supports and calcined at 873 K. Then, they were characterized by XRD, XRF, N2 adsorption–desorption, NH3-TPD, MCH-TPD, H2-TPR, and pyridine-FTIR, and tested as catalysts for the dehydrogenation aromatization and isomerization of methylcyclohexane (MCH) under the conditions of S-Zorb catalytic adsorption desulfurization (T = 673 K, P = 1.5 MPa, WHSV = 5 h−1). The H2-TPR results showed that the interaction of NiO with support decreased in the order of NiO/ZSM-5-Fe 
  • Thermal characterization of bio-based phase changing materials in
           decorative wood-based panels for thermal energy storage

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Damien Mathis, Pierre Blanchet, Véronic Landry, Philippe Lagière Decorative wood panels containing pouches of bio-based phase changing materials (PCMs) were prepared. Three different PCM mixtures were used: a blend of capric and lauric acids as well as two commercial products, Puretemp®20 and Puretemp®23 (Puretemp). The panels consist of engraved Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) filled with a plastic pouch filled with PCM. High density fiberboard (HDF) was used on top of the panels to enclose the PCM pouches. PCM mixtures were first tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Phase change temperature and total heat storage of the panels were measured for both fusion and solidification with a Dynamic Heat-Flow Meter Apparatus (DHFMA). DSC and DHFMA results were compared, allowing a better understanding of results gathered from these two techniques. DSC calibration has been revealed important when assessing PCMs. The panels present a phase change temperature and a latent heat storage suitable for buildings applications. The panel made with Puretemp®23 presented the highest energy, with 57.1 J/g. Thermal cycling was conducted on the panels to investigate thermal reliability, which revealed small modifications of thermal properties for two products. For all cases, latent heat was found stable. Hygro-mechanical behavior of the panels was also evaluated as these where designed to be aesthetic decorative panels. This study exposes the potential of a new type of wood-based panels loaded with PCM for thermal energy storage and brings overall knowledge about PCM products thermal characterization.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Freestanding Pt Nanosheets with high porosity and improved
           electrocatalytic performance toward the oxygen reduction reaction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Chuang Fan, Zihan Huang, Xianyu Hu, Zhaoping Shi, Tianyang Shen, Yawen Tang, Xiaojun Wang, Lin Xu Because of the intriguing electronic properties, high specific surface areas and confinement effect, two-dimensional (2D) noble metal nanosheets usually exhibit fascinating physicochemical properties and thus hold great promises in fuel cell devices and beyond. Herein, 2D porous Pt nanosheets composed by interweaved ultrathin nanowires are successfully fabricated via a facile NaCl-templated process. Controlled experiments demonstrate that the adoption of NaCl and appropriate ratio of NaCl and Pt precursor are indispensable for the formation of porous Pt nanosheets. Impressively, the cost-effective NaCl template can be recyclable through a simple recrystallization procedure, which may greatly reduce the synthetic cost. By virtue of their structural merits, including high porosity, 2D anisotropy and abundant defects, the resultant porous Pt nanosheets exhibit superior activity and enhanced stability towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared to the commercial Pt black in alkaline medium. The present study not only offers a high-performance electrocatalyst for fuel cell devices, but also provides a new perspective toward the rational synthesis of 2D noble metal nanosheets with high porosity and diverse functionalities.Graphical abstractHerein, we develop a facile, low-cost and green route to successfully fabricated 2D porous Pt nanosheets via NaCl templated process. Due to the uniquely porous structure facilitated the mass transport and provided high specific surface area and chemically reactive facets, the 2D porous Pt nanosheets showed a remarkable catalytic activity and durability toward the ORR.Image 1
  • Recyclable adsorbent of BiFeO3/Carbon for purifying industrial dye
           wastewater via photocatalytic reproducible

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Shuang Jiao, Yiming Zhao, Chensha Li, Wang Binsong, Yang Qu It is essential to prepare highly-efficiency reproducible adsorbent for purifying industrial dye wastewater. In this work, biscuit with a layered porous structure as a template is applied to prepare a photocatalytic recyclable adsorbent of BiFeO3/Carbon nanocomposites for purifying simulative industrial dye wastewater. It is found that the structure of the prepared BiFeO3/Carbon nanocomposite is related to the natural structure of the biscuit, anealing temperatures and immersing times, demonstrating by XRD, TEM, UV-vis and adsorptive activties. Kinetics data shows that the adsorption rate of the adsorbent to the dye is rapid and fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model, that more than 80% of dyes can be removed in the beginning 30 min. The adsorption isotherm can be perfectly described by the Langmuir model as well. It can be seen from the adsorption data that the adsorption performance can reach over 90% at pH = 2-12, which can imply its universal utilization. The prepared BiFeO3/Carbon nanocomposites have also displyed excellent capacities (over 90% within 30 min) for adsorption of seven different dyes and their mixed one. According to the five times photocatalytic reproducible experiments, it is proved that BiFeO3/Carbon nanocomposites show the excellent stability and reproduction for purifying simulative industral dyes, even the sample have placed for one year. These research results indicate that the adsorbent BiFeO3/Carbon can be a suitable material used in treating industrial dye wastewater potentially.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Study of Effective Parameters for Enhancement of Methane Gas Production
           from Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Hamid Aghajari, Moien Habibi Moghaddam, Mehdi Zallaghi Natural gas hydrate resources have become the major source of energy in the second half of 21st century. Gas production and fluid behavior in natural gas hydrate reservoirs are different from conventional ones. There are three major methods for methane decomposition such as depressurization, thermal stimulation and inhibitor injection. However, CO2 substitution can also be introduced as an alternative method to inject in sediments containing gas hydrate. All these methods tend to imbalance equilibrium condition via temperature and pressure variation in order to fulfill hydrate decomposition process.This study aims to simulate depressurization method for gas production from a hydrate gas bearing layer. Hence, a sensitivity analysis of reservoir parameters includes porosity, permeability, hydrate saturation, hydrate thickness layer; pressure and temperature of single well hydrate model were investigated to determine how these parameters impact on gas production. Results shows depressurization is an efficient method to gas production form hydrate bearing sediments. Through sensitivity analysis it has been concluded that if properties of a hydrate layer such as porosity and permeability become greater, methane production will be increased significantly. Moreover, results investigate that the rate of hydrate dissociate is strongly dependent on pressure reduction, and it has a reverse relationship with bottomhole pressure and reservoir temperature.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Sulfide mineral dissolution microbes: community structure and function in
           industrial bioleaching heaps

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Yan Jia, Qiaoyi Tan, Heyun Sun, Yupeng Zhang, Hongshan Gao, Renman Ruan Heap bioleaching is one of the most clean and economical processes for recovery of low-grade and complex ores, because the sulfide minerals are natural habitats for acidophiles capable of iron- and sulfur-oxidation. The most exciting advances in heap bioleaching are occurring in the field of microbiology, especially with the development of advanced molecular biology approaches. These chemolithotrophic microorganisms living in the acid mine environment fix N2 and CO2 and obtain energy for growth from soluble ferrous iron and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds during oxidation of sulfide minerals. The ferric iron as oxidant and sulfuric acid are a result of microbial activity and provide favorable conditions for the dissolution of sulfide minerals. Various microbial consortia were applied successfully in commercial bioleaching heaps around the world, and microbial community and activity were adapted related to the local climatic conditions, ore characteristics and engineering configuration. This review focuses on diversity of bioleaching microbes, their role in heap bioleaching processes, their community structure and function in industrial heaps and the relation to the ore characteristics and the engineering configuration, to give implications for optimizing leaching efficiency of heap bioleaching.Graphical abstractIron- and sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles promote heap bioleaching for metal extraction from sulfide minerals by using atmospheric gases and the inherent mineral compounds.Graphical abstract for this article
  • DMC-grafted cellulose as green-based flocculants for agglomerating fine
           kaolin particles

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2Author(s): Meng Li, Yulong Wang, Xiaobang Hou, Xia Wan, Hui-Ning Xiao Novel cellulose based flocculants C-g-P (DMC) with various chain architectures are synthesized through a situ graft copolymerization. The cationic ammonium chloride group (DMC) is grafted onto cellulose by two separate inverse emulsion polymerization with γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570) and double bond addition reactions, which is a new and simple method to employ KH-570 as a bridge for the connection of cellulose matrix and DMC group. The effects of pH, flocculant dose, standing time on turbidity of kaolin suspensions and particle sizes have been studied systematically. In addition, the response surface methodology (RSM) study confirms that PAC and C-g-P (DMC) have synergy in turbidity removal with a higher removal efficiency of 98.32%. Moreover, C-g-P (DMC) 1 has higher removal efficiency with 96.5% at a low dosage of 0.6 mg L−1 and better floc properties than C-g-P (DMC) 2 and C-g-P (DMC) 3, suggesting that the length and quantity of cationic branch chains play a crucial role in Kaolin flocculation due to their dramatically enhanced bridging effects.Graphical abstractNovel cellulose based flocculants C-g-P (DMC) with various chain architectures are synthesized through a situ graft copolymerizationm, which is a new and simple method to employ γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570) as a bridge for the connection of cellulose matrix and DMC group. The results suggest that the length and quantity of cationic branch chains plays a crucial role in Kaolin flocculation due to their dramatically enhanced bridging effects.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Enhanced efficiency in Concentrated Parabolic Solar Collector (CPSC) with
           a porous absorber tube filled with metal nanoparticle suspension

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2Author(s): Mohammad Hatami, Jiafeng Geng, Dengwei Jing In this study, effects of different nanoparticles and porosity of absorber tube on the performance of a Concentrating Parabolic Solar Collector (CPSC) were investigated. A section of porous-filled absorber tube was modeled as a semi-circular cavity under the solar radiation which is filled by nanofluids and the governing equations were solved by FlexPDE numerical software. The effect of four physical parameters, nanoparticles type, nanoparticles volume fraction (φ), Darcy number (Da) and Rayleigh number (Ra), on the Nusselt number (Nu) was discussed. It turns out that Cu nanoparticle is the most suitable one for such solar collectors, compared to the commonly used Fe3O4, Al2O3, TiO2. With the increased addition of Cu nanoparticles all the parameters φ, Da and Ra shows a significant increase against the Nu, indicates the enhanced heat transfer in such cases. As a result, low concentration of Cu nanoparticle suspension combined with porous matrix was supposed to be beneficial for the performance enhancement of concentrating parabolic solar collector.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Molecular dynamics study of room temperature ionic liquids with water at
           mica surface

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2Author(s): Huanhuan Zhang, Mengyang Zhu, Wei Zhao, Song Li, Guang Feng Water in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) could impose significant effects on their interfacial properties at a charged surface. Although the interfaces between RTILs and mica surfaces exhibit rich microstructure, the influence of water content on such interfaces is little understood, in particular, considering the fact that RTILs are always associated with water due to their hygroscopicity. In this work, we studied how different types of RTILs and different amounts of water molecules affect the RTIL-mica interfaces, especially the water distribution at mica surfaces, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD results showed that (1) there is more water and a thicker water layer adsorbed on the mica surface as the water content increases, and correspondingly the average location of K+ ions is farther from mica surface; (2) more water accumulated at the interface with the hydrophobic [Emim][TFSI] than in case of the hydrophilic [Emim][BF4] due to the respective RTIL hydrophobicity and ion size. A similar trend was also observed in the hydrogen bonds formed between water molecules. Moreover, the 2D number density map of adsorbed water revealed that the high-density areas of water seem to be related to K+ ions and silicon/aluminum atoms on mica surface. These results are of great importance to understand the effects of hydrophobicity/hydrophicility of RTIL and water on the interfacial microstructure at electrified surfaces.Graphical abstractWith increasing water content, the amount of water on the mica surface becomes higher and the interface layer thicker. More water accumulated at the interface with the hydrophobic ionic liquid [Emim][TFSI] than in case of the hydrophilic ionic liquid [Emim][BF4] due to the respective hydrophobicity and ion size of ionic liquids.Graphical abstract for this article
  • High-throughput computational screening and design of nanoporous materials
           for methane storage and carbon dioxide capture

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2Author(s): Minman Tong, Youshi Lan, Qingyuan Yang, Chongli Zhong The globally increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in atmosphere after combustion of coal- or petroleum-based fuels give rise to tremendous interest in searching for porous materials to efficiently capture carbon dioxide (CO2) and store methane (CH4), where the latter is a kind of clean energy source with abundant reserves and lower CO2 emission. Hundreds of thousands of porous materials can be enrolled on the candidate list, but how to quickly identify the really promising ones, or even evolve materials (namely, rational design high-performing candidates) based on the large database of present porous materials? In this context, high-throughput computational techniques, which have emerged in the past few years as powerful tools, make the targets of fast evaluation of adsorbents and evolving materials for CO2 capture and CH4 storage feasible. This review provides an overview of the recent computational efforts on such related topics and discusses the further development in this field.Graphical abstractHigh-throughput computational screening and design technique: a powerful tool in revealing useful structure-property relationships as well as finding and creating high-performance porous materials for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and methane (CH4) store.Image 1
  • Recent advances in two-dimensional nanomaterials-based electrochemical
           sensors for environmental analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2Author(s): Shao Su, Shimou Chen, Chunhai Fan With the rapidly increased concerns in environmental pollution, there have been urgent needs to develop fast, sensitive, low-cost and multiplexed sensing devices for the detection of environmental pollutants. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials hold great promise due to their unique chemical and physical properties, which have been extensively employed to monitor the environmental pollutants combined with different detection techniques. In this review, we summarize recent advances in 2D nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors for detecting heavy metal ions, organic compounds, pesticides, antibiotics and bacteria. We also discuss perspectives and challenges of 2D nanomaterials in environmental monitoring.Graphical abstractTwo-dimensional nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors are powerful tools for environmental pollutants analysis with high sensitivity and selectivity.Image 1
  • Heteroatom-doped porous carbon from methyl orange dye wastewater for
           oxygen reduction

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2Author(s): Yiqing Wang, Mingyuan Zhu, Yingchun Li, Mengjuan Zhang, Xueyan Xue, Yulin Shi, Bin Dai, Xuhong Guo, Feng Yu Banana peel-derived porous carbon (BPPC) was prepared from banana peel and used as an adsorbent for methyl orange (MO) wastewater removal. BPPC-MO50 is a N,S-doped BPPC obtained via secondary carbonization. The BPPC-MO50 exhibited a high specific surface area of 1774.3 m2/g. Heteroatom-doped porous carbon (PC) was successfully synthesized from the BPPC absorbed MO at high temperature and used for oxygen reduction. The BPPC-MO50 displayed the highest ORR onset potential among all carbon-based electrocatalysts, i.e., 0.93 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). This is the first report to describe porous carbon-activated materials from agriculture and forestry waste that is used for adsorption of dyes from wastewater via an enhanced heteroatom (N,S) content. These results may contribute to the sustainable development of dye wastewater treatment by transforming saturated PC into an effective material and has potential applications in fuel cells or as energy sources.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • NMR studies of stock process water and reaction pathways in hydrothermal
           carbonization of furfural residue

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2Author(s): Fen Yue, Christian Marcus Pedersen, Xiuyin Yan, Yequn Liu, Danlei Xiang, Caifang Ning, Yingxiong Wang, Yan Qiao Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a valuable approach to convert furfural residue (FR) into carbon material. The prepared biochars are usually characterized comprehensively, while the stock process water still remains to be studied in detail. Herein, a NMR study of the main components in stock process water generated at different HTC reaction conditions was reported. Various qualitative and quantitative NMR techniques (1H and 13C NMR, 1H–1H COSY and 1H13C HSQC etc.) especially 1D selective gradient total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY NMR) were strategically applied in the analysis of HTC stock process water. Without separation and purification, it was demonstrated that the main detectable compounds are 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, formic acid, methanol, acetic acid, levulinic acid, glycerol, hydroxyacetone and acetaldehyde in this complicate mixture. Furthermore, the relationship between the concentration of major products and the reaction conditions (180–240 °C at 8 h, and 1–24 h at 240 °C) was established. Finally, reasonable reaction pathways for hydrothermal conversion of FR were proposed based on this result and our previously obtained characteristics of biochars. The routine and challenging NMR methods utilized here would be an alternative other than HPLC or GC for biomass conversion research and can be extended to more studies.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • α-Fe2O3 nanoplates with superior electrochemical performance for
           lithium-ion batteries

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2Author(s): Li Xu, Yuhui Tian, Tiefeng Liu, Henan Li, Jingxia Qiu, Sheng Li, Huaming Li, Shouqi Yuan, Shanqing Zhang On account of the high theoretical capacity, high corrosion resistance, environmental benignity, abundant availability and low cost, the research on α-Fe2O3 has been gradually fastened on as promising anodes materials toward lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A high-performance anode for LIBs based on α-Fe2O3 nanoplates have been selectively prepared. The α-Fe2O3 nanoplates can be synthesized with iron ion-based ionic liquid as iron source and template. The α-Fe2O3 nanoplates as the anode of LIBs can display high capacity of around 1950 mAh g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 which have exceeded the theoretical capacity of α-Fe2O3. On account of unique nanoplate structures and gum arabic as binder, the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates also exhibit high rate capability and excellent cycling performance.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Fabrication of hierarchical MXene-based AuNPs-containing core–shell
           nanocomposites for high efficient catalysts

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Green Energy & Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2Author(s): Kaikai Li, Tifeng Jiao, Ruirui Xing, Guodong Zou, Qianran Zhao, Jingxin Zhou, Lexin Zhang, Qiuming Peng MXene is a new type of layered two-dimensional transition metal carbide materials differing from graphene, demonstrating intriguing chemical/physical properties. Here the chemical modification of MXene and next fabrication of core–shell MXene–COOH@(PEI/PAA)n composites have been investigated. The obtained MXene-based composites were treated with gold nanoparticles to form MXene–COOH@(PEI/PAA)n@AuNPs nanocomposites, and their catalytic properties for nitro-compounds were studied. The prepared nanocomposites demonstrated good catalytic activity and reproducibility, showing potential applications in composite catalysts and environmental fields.Graphical abstractMXene-based AuNPs-containing core–shell nanocomposite materials with excellent catalytic activity and high recyclability were prepared, demonstrating potential applications for composite catalytic materials.Image 1
  • FCC coprocessing oil sands heavy gas oil and canola oil. 3. Some cracking

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018Source: Green Energy & EnvironmentAuthor(s): Siauw H. Ng, Nicole E. Heshka, Ying Zheng, Qiang Wei, Fuchen Ding Coprocessing of bitumen-derived feeds and biomass through a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) route has the potential to assist in the reduction of fuel and petroleum product carbon footprints while meeting government regulatory requirements on renewable transportation fuels. This approach is desirable because green house gas (GHG) emissions for producing renewable biofuels are significantly lower than those for fossil fuels, and coprocessing can be executed using existing refining infrastructure to save capital cost. The present study investigates the specific FCC performances of pure heavy gas oil (HGO) derived from oil sands synthetic crude, and a mixture of 15 v% canola oil in HGO using a commercial equilibrium catalyst under typical FCC conditions. Cracking experiments were performed using a bench-scale Advanced Cracking Evaluation (ACE) unit at fixed weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 8 h−1, 490–530 °C, and catalyst/oil ratios of 4–12 g/g. This work focuses on some cracking phenomena resulting from the presence of oxygen in the blend—a lower heat requirement for cracking due to the exothermic water formation, which also entails lower hydrogen yield at a given severity. The distribution of feed oxygen in gaseous and liquid products, the mitigation in GHG emissions, and the technological and economical advantages of the coprocessing option are also discussed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
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