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Publisher: Ke Ai   (Total: 15 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 15 of 15 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advances in Climate Change Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.321, h-index: 5)
Animal Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Emerging Contaminants     Open Access  
Geodesy and Geodynamics     Open Access  
Green Energy & Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Infectious Disease Modelling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Finance and Data Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Natural Gas Geoscience     Open Access  
Non-coding RNA Research     Open Access  
Petroleum     Open Access  
Plant Diversity     Open Access  
Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology     Open Access  
World J. of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
Journal Cover Green Energy & Environment
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   ISSN (Print) 2468-0257
   Published by Ke Ai Homepage  [15 journals]
  • Parameterization of COSMO-RS model for ionic liquids

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Jingli Han, Chengna Dai, Gangqiang Yu, Zhigang Lei
      The adjustable parameters in the popular conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) within the Amsterdam density functional (ADF) framework have been re-optimized to fit to the systems containing ionic liquids (ILs). To get the optimal values of misfit energy constant a’, hydrogen bond coefficient c hb and effective contact surface area of a segment a eff, 2283 activity coefficient data points at infinite dilution and 1433 CO2 solubility data points exhaustively collected from references were used as training set. The average relative deviations (ARDs) of activity coefficients at infinite dilution and CO2 solubility between experimental data and predicted values are 32.22% and 17.61%, respectively, both of which are significantly lower than the original COSMO-RS versions. Predictions for other activity coefficients of solutes in ILs, solubility data of CO2 in pure ILs and the binary mixtures of ILs at either high or low temperatures, and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) for binary systems involving ILs have also been performed to demonstrate the validity of the parameterization of COSMO-RS model for ILs. The results showed that the predicted results by COSMO-RS model with the new optimized parameters are in much better agreement with experimental data than those by the original versions over a wide temperature and pressure range. The COSMO-RS model for ILs presented in this work improves the prediction accuracy of thermodynamic properties for the systems containing ILs, which is always highly desirable for general chemical engineers.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:12:10Z
       
  • Enhanced Efficiency in Concentrated Parabolic Solar Collector (CPSC) with
           a Porous Absorber Tube Filled with Metal Nanoparticle Suspension

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Mohammad Hatami, Jiafeng Geng, Dengwei Jing
      In this study, effects of different nanoparticles and porosity of absorber tube on the performance of a Concentrating Parabolic Solar Collector (CPSC) were investigated. A section of porous-filled absorber tube was modeled as a semi-circular cavity under the solar radiation which is filled by nanofluids and the governing equations were solved by FlexPDE numerical software. The effect of four physical parameters, nanoparticles type, nanoparticles volume fraction (φ), Darcy number (Da) and Rayleigh number (Ra), on the Nusselt number (Nu) was discussed. It turns out that Cu nanoparticle is the most suitable one for such solar collectors, compared to the commonly used Fe3O4, Al2O3, TiO2. With the increased addition of Cu nanoparticles all the parameters φ, Da and Ra shows a significant increase against the Nu, indicates the enhanced heat transfer in such cases. As a result, low concentration of Cu nanoparticle suspension combined with porous matrix was supposed to be beneficial for the performance enhancement of concentrating parabolic solar collector.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:12:10Z
       
  • Perovskite oxides La0.4Sr0.6CoxMn1-xO3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) as an effective
           electrocatalyst for lithium—air batteries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Yajun Zhao, Tao Liu, Qiufan Shi, Qingchun Yang, Chunxiao Li, Dawei Zhang, Chaofeng Zhang
      Co-doped perovskite oxide La0.4Sr0.6CoxMn1-xO3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) composites are prepared by sol–gel method utilizing citric acid as chelating agent. These composites show good catalytic activities when tested as catalysts rechargeable lithium—air batteries. In particular, the La0.4Sr0.6Co0.4Mn0.6O3 shows a lower potential gap. When these samples are tested as catalysts for Li—air batteries at a current density of 100 mA g−1, the discharge capacities with different La0.4Sr0.6CoxMn1-xO3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) catalysts are 5819, 6420, and 7227 mA h g−1, respectively. In addition, under a capacity limitation of 1000 mA h g−1, the cell using La0.4Sr0.6Co0.4Mn0.6O3 as catalyst shows good cycling stability up to 46 cycles. The good electrochemical performance suggests that suitable doping of Co in Mn site of La0.4Sr0.6MnO3 could be a promising route to improve the catalytic activity.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:12:10Z
       
  • DMC-grafted cellulose as green-based flocculants for agglomerating fine
           kaolin particles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Meng Li, Yulong Wang, Xiaobang Hou, Xia Wan, Hui-Ning Xiao
      Novel cellulose based flocculants C-g-P (DMC) with various chain architectures are synthesized through a situ graft copolymerization. The cationic ammonium chloride group (DMC) is grafted onto cellulose by two separate inverse emulsion polymerization with γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570) and double bond addition reactions, which is a new and simple method to employ KH-570 as a brigde for the connection of cellulose matrix and DMC group. The effects of pH, flocculant dose, standing time on turbidity of kaolin suspensions and particle sizes been studied systematically. In addition, the response surface methodology (RSM) study confirms that PAC and C-g-P (DMC) have synergy in turbidity removal with a higher removal efficiency of 98.32%. Moreover, C-g-P (DMC) 1 has higher removal efficiency with 96.5% at a low dosage of 0.6 mg•L-1 and better floc properties than C-g-P (DMC) 2 and C-g-P (DMC) 3, suggesting that the length and quantity of cationic branch chains plays a crucial role in Kaolin flocculation due to their dramatically enhanced bridging effects.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:12:10Z
       
  • Molecular dynamics study of room temperature ionic liquids with water at
           mica surface

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Huanhuan Zhang, Mengyang Zhu, Wei Zhao, Song Li, Guang Feng
      Water in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) could impose significant effects on their interfacial properties at a charged surface. Although the interfaces between RTILs and mica surfaces exhibit rich microstructure, the influence of water content on such interfaces is little understood, in particular, considering the fact that RTILs are always associated with water due to their hygroscopicity. In this work, we studied how different types of RTILs and different amounts of water molecules affect the RTIL-mica interfaces, especially the water distribution at mica surfaces, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD results showed that (1) there is more water and a thicker water layer adsorbed on the mica surface as the water content increases, and correspondingly the average location of K+ ions is farther from mica surface; (2) more water accumulated at the interface with the hydrophobic [Emim][TFSI] than in case of the hydrophilic [Emim][BF4] due to the respective RTIL hydrophobicity and ion size. A similar trend was also observed in the hydrogen bonds formed between water molecules. Moreover, the 2D number density map of adsorbed water revealed that the high-density areas of water seem to be related to K+ ions and silicon/aluminum atoms on mica surface. These results are of great importance to understand the effects of hydrophobicity/hydrophicility of RTIL and water on the interfacial microstructure at electrified surfaces.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:12:10Z
       
  • An interface-reconstruction effect for rechargeable aluminum battery in
           ionic liquid electrolyte to enhance cycling performances

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Feng Wu, Na Zhu, Ying Bai, Yaning Gao, Chuan Wu
      Aluminum (Al) metal has been regarded as a promising anode for rechargeable batteries because of its natural abundance and high theoretical specific capacity. However, rechargeable aluminum batteries (RABs) using Al metal as anode display poor cycling performances owing to interface problems between anode and electrolyte. The solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on the anode has been confirmed to be essential for improving cycling performances of rechargeable batteries. Therefore, we immerse the Al metal in ionic liquid electrolyte for some time before it is used as anode to remove the passive film and expose fresh Al to the electrolyte. Then the reactions of exposed Al, acid, oxygen and water in electrolyte are occurred to form an SEI layer in the cycle. Al/electrolyte/V2O5 full batteries with the thin, uniform and stable SEI layer on Al metal anode perform high discharge capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE). This work illustrates that an SEI layer is formed on Al metal anode in the cycle using a simple and effective pretreatment process and results in superior cycling performances for RABs.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:12:10Z
       
  • Ionic liquids: Functionalization and absorption of SO2

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Shuhang Ren, Yucui Hou, Kai Zhang, Weize Wu
      Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), which have excellent properties, such as high gas absorption abilities, extremely low volatility and tunable structures, are regarded as environmentally-friendly absorbents and widely used in SO2 absorption and separation. As a result, a large number of ILs have been synthesized to capture SO2 from flue gas or simulated gas, but a part of them just have physical interaction with SO2 and can hardly absorb SO2 when the content of SO2 is very low. Hence, functional ILs, which can chemically absorb a large amount of SO2 with low contents, have been designed and synthesized for SO2 capture. Up to now, many kinds of functional ILs were investigated for SO2 absorption from flue gas. In this review, the functional ILs are classified into guanidinium based ILs, hydroxyl ammonium based ILs, imidazolium/pyridinium based ILs, quaternary ammonium based ILs, phosphonium based ILs, and other kinds of ILs according to their cations. The capacities of SO2 absorption in these ILs, the mechanism of the absorption, and the ways to enhance the absorption are briefly introduced. The prospect of functional ILs for their application in SO2 removal is presented. The present problems and the further studies are also discussed.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:12:10Z
       
  • Fabrication of hierarchical MXene-based AuNPs-containing core–shell
           nanocomposites for high efficient catalysts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Kaikai Li, Tifeng Jiao, Ruirui Xing, Guodong Zou, Qianran Zhao, Jingxin Zhou, Lexin Zhang, Qiuming Peng
      MXene is a new type of layered two-dimensional transition metal carbide materials differing from graphene, demonstrating intriguing chemical/physical properties. Here the chemical modification of MXene and next fabrication of core–shell MXene–COOH@(PEI/PAA)n composites have been investigated. The obtained MXene-based composites were treated with gold nanoparticles to form MXene–COOH@(PEI/PAA)n@AuNPs nanocomposites, and their catalytic properties for nitro-compounds were studied. The prepared nanocomposites demonstrated good catalytic activity and reproducibility, showing potential applications in composite catalysts and environmental fields.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:12:10Z
       
  • Designing all-solid-state Z-Scheme 2D g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 for improved
           photocatalysis and photocatalytic mechanism insight

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Mao Mao, Shuowei Zhao, Zhigang Chen, Xiaojie She, Jianjian Yi, Kaixiang Xia, Hui Xu, Minqiang He, Huaming Li
      Bi2WO6 was modified by two-dimensional g-C3N4 (2D g-C3N4) via a hydrothermal method. The structure, morphology, optical and electronic properties were investigated by multiple techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electron spin resonance (ESR), respectively. Rhodamine B (RhB) was used as the target organic pollutant to research the photocatalytic performance of as-prepared composites. The Bi2WO6/2D g-C3N4 exhibited a remarkable improvement compared with the pure Bi2WO6. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was because the photogenerated electrons and holes can quickly separate by Z-Scheme passageway in composites. The photocatalytic mechanism was also researched in detail through ESR analysis.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:12:10Z
       
  • Graphene Stirrer with Designed Movements: Targeting on Environmental
           Remediation and Supercapacitor Applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Yang Huang, Wei Chen, Hongfei Li, Minshen Zhu, Fuwei Liu, Qi Xue, Zengxia Pei, Zifeng Wang, Lei Wang, Yan Huang, Chunyi Zhi
      Beyond the traditional focus on improvements in mechanical, electronic and absorption properties, controllability, actuation, and dynamic response of monoliths have received increasing attentions for practical applications. However, most of them could only realize simple response to constant conditions (e.g. a stationary magnetic field) while carrying out humdrum motions. By controlling distribution of metal organic framework obtained carbon-enriched Fe3O4 nanoparticles in self-assembly reduced graphene oxide (RGO) monoliths, we could achieve two distinctive RGO-Fe3O4 stirrers that could dynamically respond to the rapidly changing magnetic field while executing designed movements precisely: rotating with lying down posture or standing straight posture. These stirrers can not only be applied in environmental remediation (e.g. suction skimmer), but also be recycled as electrode active materials for supercapacitors after fulfilling their destiny, realizing transformation of trash to treasure, which will inspire other dynamically responsive monoliths for various applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T23:56:12Z
       
  • A Comparative Study of the Extractive Desulfurization Mechanism by Cu(II)
           and Zn-based Imidazolium Ionic Liquids

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Hongping Li, Beibei Zhang, Wei Jiang, Wenshuai Zhu, Ming Zhang, Chao Wang, Jingyu Pang, Huaming Li
      A comparative study of the extractive desulfurization (EDS) mechanism by Cu(II) and Zn-based ILs ([C4mim]2[MCl4], M = Cu(II) or Zn) has been performed. It is found that the π-π interaction and C-H···π interaction play important roles in EDS for both Cu(II) and Zn-based ILs, which is different from Al, Fe-based ILs. In the gas phase models, the interaction energy between Zn-based ILs and dibenzothiophene (DBT) is stronger than the interaction energy of Cu(II)-based ILs. In order to consider the solvent effect, a generic ionic liquid of solvation model has been implemented, which is few considered in the previous calculations of EDS. It is interesting to found that the gap of interaction energies between Cu(II), Zn-based ILs and DBT are reduced when the solvent effect is considered. In addition, by combined discussion of currently theoretical and experimental evidences for metal-based ILs with different compositions, we firstly propose that the EDS performance should be influenced by the balance of the contribution of cation, metal-based anion, metal chlorides and the viscosity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T23:56:12Z
       
  • Flexible rechargeable Ni//Zn battery based on self-supported NiCo2O4
           nanosheets with high power density and good cycling stability

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Haozhe Zhang, Xinyue Zhang, Haodong Li, Yifeng Zhang, Yinxiang Zeng, Yexiang Tong, Peng Zhang, Xihong Lu
      The overall electrochemical performances of Ni–Zn batteries are still far from satisfactory, specifically for rate performance and cycling stability Herein, we demonstrated a high-performance flexible Ni//Zn battery with outstanding durability and high power density based on self-supported NiCo2O4 nanosheets as cathode and Zn nanosheets as anode. This Ni//Zn battery is able to deliver a remarkable capacity of 183.1 mAh g−1 and a good cycling performance (82.7% capacity retention after 3500 cycles). More importantly, this battery achieves an admirable power density of 49.0 kW kg−1 and energy density of 303.8 Wh kg−1, substantially higher than most recently reported batteries. With such excellent electrochemical performance, this battery will have great potential as an ultrafast power source in practical application.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T23:56:12Z
       
  • Anthraquinone derivative as high-performance anode material for sodium-ion
           batteries using ether-based electrolytes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Linqin Mu, Yaxiang Lu, Xiaoyan Wu, Yuejun Ding, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Liquan Chen, Xuejie Huang
      Organic materials, especially the carbonyl compounds, are promising anode materials for room temperature sodium-ion batteries owing to their high reversible capacity, structural diversity as well as eco-friendly synthesis from bio-mass. Herein, we report a novel anthraquinone derivative, C14H6O4Na2 composited with carbon nanotube (C14H6O4Na2-CNT), used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries in ether-based electrolyte. The C14H6O4Na2-CNT electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 173 mAh g−1 and an ultra-high initial Coulombic efficiency of 98% at the rate of 0.1 C. The capacity retention is 82% after 50 cycles at 0.2 C and a good rate capability is displayed at 2 C. Furthermore, the average Na insertion voltage of 1.27 V vs. Na+/Na makes it a unique and safety battery material, which would avoid Na plating and formation of solid electrolyte interface. Our contribution provides new insights for designing developed organic anode materials with high initial Coulombic efficiency and improved safety capability for sodium-ion batteries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T15:55:30Z
       
  • Unsymmetrical donor–acceptor–donor–acceptor type indoline based
           organic semiconductors with benzothiadiazole cores for solution-processed
           bulk heterojunction solar cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment, Volume 2, Issue 4
      Author(s): Wenqin Li, Wene Shi, Zihua Wu, Jinmin Wang, Min Wu, Wei-Hong Zhu
      Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on small molecules have attracted potential attention due to their promise of conveniently defined structures, high absorption coefficients, solution process-ability and easy fabrication. Three D–A–D–A type organic semiconductors (WS-31, WS-32 and WS-52) are synthesized, based on the indoline donor and benzotriazole auxiliary acceptor core, along with either bare thiophene or rigid cyclopentadithiophene as π bridge, rhodanine or carbonocyanidate as end-group. Their HOMO orbitals are delocalized throughout the whole molecules. Whereas the LUMOs are mainly localized on the acceptor part of structure, which reach up to benzothiadiazole, but no distribution on indoline donor. The first excitations for WS-31 and WS-32 are mainly originated by electron transition from HOMO to LUMO level, while for WS-52, partly related to transition between HOMO and LUMO+1 level. The small organic molecules are applied as donor components in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells, using PC61BM as acceptor material to check their photovoltaic performances. The BHJ solar cells based on blended layer of WS-31:PC61BM and WS-32:PC61BM processed with chloroform show overall photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.56% and 1.02%, respectively. WS-32 based BHJ solar cells show a higher current density originated by its relatively larger driving force of photo-induced carrier in photo-active layer to LUMO of PC61BM.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-05T15:55:30Z
       
  • Progress in Aqueous Rechargeable Batteries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Jilei Liu, Chaohe Xu, Zhen Chen, Shibing Ni, Ze Xiang Shen
      Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs) were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+) batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. By critically reviewing state-of-the-art technologies and the most promising results so far, we aim to analyze the benefits of ARBs and the critical issues to be addressed, and to promote better development of ARBs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T19:31:18Z
       
  • High-throughput computational screening and design of nanoporous materials
           for methane storage and carbon dioxide capture

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Minman Tong, Youshi Lan, Qingyuan Yang, Chongli Zhong
      The globally increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in atmosphere after combustion of coal- or petroleum-based fuels give rise to tremendous interest in searching for porous materials to efficiently capture carbon dioxide (CO2) and store methane (CH4), where the latter is a clean energy source with abundant reserves and lower CO2 emission. Hundreds of thousands of porous materials can be enrolled on the candidate list, but how to quickly identify the really promising ones, or even evolve materials (namely, rational design high-performing candidates) based on the large database of present porous materials? In this context, high-throughput computational techniques, which have emerged in the past few years as powerful tools, make the targets of fast evaluation of adsorbents and evolving materials for CO2 capture and CH4 storage feasible. This review provides an overview of the recent computational efforts on such related topics and discusses the further development in this field.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-13T16:53:21Z
       
  • SnS2 nanosheets arrays sandwiched by N-doped carbon and TiO2 for
           high-performance Na-ion storage

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Weina Ren, Haifeng Zhang, Cao Guan, Chuanwei Cheng
      In this paper, SnS2 nanosheets arrays sandwiched by porous N-doped carbon and TiO2 (TiO2@SnS2@N-C) on flexible carbon cloth are prepared and tested as a free-standing anode for high-performance sodium ion batteries. The as-obtained TiO2@SnS2@N-C composite delivers a remarkable capacity performance (840 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1), excellent rate capabilityand long-cycling life stability (293 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1 after 600 cycles). The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of each component of the unique hybrid structure, in which the SnS2 nanosheets with open framworks offer high capacity, while the porous N-doped carbon nanoplates arrays on flexible carbon cloth are able to improve the conductivity and the TiO2 passivation layer can keep the structure integrity of SnS2 nanosheets.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-13T16:53:21Z
       
  • A New Era of Precise Liquid Regulation: Quasi-Liquid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Suojiang Zhang, Yanlei Wang, Hongyan He, Feng Huo, Yumiao Lu, Xiaochun Zhang, Kun Dong
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T13:34:24Z
       
  • NMR Studies of Stock Process Water and Reaction Pathways in Hydrothermal
           Carbonization of Furfural Residue

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Fen Yue, Christian Marcus Pedersen, Xiuyin Yan, Yequn Liu, Danlei Xiang, Caifang Ning, Yingxiong Wang, Yan Qiao
      Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a valuable approach to convert furfural residue (FR) into carbon material. The prepared biochars are usually characterized comprehensively, while the stock process water still remains to be studied in detail. Herein, a NMR study of the main components in stock process water generated at different HTC reaction conditions was reported. Various qualitative and quantitative NMR techniques (1H and 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY and 1H-13C HSQC etc.) especially 1D selective gradient total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY NMR) were strategically applied in the analysis of HTC stock process water. Without separation and purification, it was demonstrated that the main detectable compounds are 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, formic acid, methanol, acetic acid, levulinic acid, glycerol, hydroxyacetone and acetaldehyde in this complicate mixture. Furthermore, the relationship between the concentration of major products and the reaction conditions (180-240 °C at 8 h, and 1-24 h at 240 °C) was established. Finally, reasonable reaction pathways for hydrothermal conversion of FR were proposed based on this result and our previously obtained characteristics of biochars. The routine and challenging NMR methods utilized here would be an alternative other than HPLC or GC for biomass conversion research and can be extended to more studies.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-07T08:20:29Z
       
  • The passivation mechanism of Fe in the acidic AlCl3-EMIC ionic liquid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Dongpeng Xue, Yang Yang, Guoping Ling
      The passivation behavior of Fe in the acidic AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AlCl3-EMIC) ionic liquid was studied by linear sweep voltammetry and chonopotentiometry. Various approaches were used to characterize the composition and morphology of passive film formed on the Fe electrode, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectra and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the critical passivation potential of Fe shifted to more negative when the molar ratio of AlCl3: EMIC changing from 2 to 1.3. A film with a light yellow color was observed on the surface of the Fe electrode after passivation. The composition of the passive film was demonstrated to be FeCl2. The passive film was composed of particulate FeCl2 with average diameter of about 500 nm. The formation of FeCl2 film was attributed to the variation of the electrolyte Lewis acidity from acidic to neutral at the interface during the dissoluiton process of Fe. The reason caused the variation of the electrolyte acidity was dissucessed.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-07T08:20:29Z
       
  • Recent advances in two-dimensional nanomaterials-based electrochemical
           sensors for environmental analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Shao Su, Shimou Chen, Chunhai Fan
      With the rapidly increased concerns in environmental pollution, there have been urgent needs to develop fast, sensitive, low-cost and multiplexed sensing devices for the detection of environmental pollutants. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials hold great promise due to their unique chemical and physical properties, which have been extensively employed to monitor the environmental pollutants combined with different detection techniques. In this review, we summarize recent advances in 2D nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors for detecting heavy metal ions, organic compounds, pesticides, antibiotics and bacteria. We also discuss perspectives and challenges of 2D nanomaterials in environmental monitoring.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-07T08:20:29Z
       
  • MnO/N-C anode materials for lithium-ion batteries prepared by
           cotton-templated combustion synthesis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Cheng-Gong Han, Chunyu Zhu, Yoshitaka Aoki, Hiroki Habazaki, Tomohiro Akiyama
      We herein report a facile one-pot synthesis of MnO/N-doped carbon (N-C) composites via a sustainable cotton-template glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis to yield superior anode materials for Li ion batteries. MnO nanoparticles with several nanometers were well-embedded in a porous N-doped carbon matrix. It displays the unique characteristics, including the shortened Li+-ion transport path, increased contact areas with the electrolyte solution, inhibited volume changes and agglomeration of nanoparticles, as well as good conductivity and structural stability during the cycling process, thereby benefiting the superior cycling performance and rate capability. This favorable electrochemical performance of obtained MnO/N-C composites via a one-pot biomass-templated glycine/nitrate combustion synthesis renders the suitability as anode materials for Li-ion batteries.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-01T06:57:41Z
       
  • Advanced chemical strategies for lithium-sulfur batteries: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Xiaojing Fan, Wenwei Sun, Fancheng Meng, Aiming Xing, Jiehua Liu
      Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has been considered as one of the most promising rechargeable batteries among various energy storage devices owing to the attractive ultrahigh theoretical capacity and low cost. However, the performance of Li-S batteries is still far from theoretical prediction because of the inherent insulation of sulfur, shuttling of soluble polysulfides, swelling of cathode volume and the formation of lithium dendrites. Significant efforts have been made to trap polysulfides via physical strategies using carbon based materials, but the interactions between polysulfides and carbon are so weak that the device performance is limited. Chemical strategies provide the relatively complemented routes for improving the batteries’ electrochemical properties by introducing strong interactions between functional groups and lithium polysulfides. Therefore, this review mainly discusses the recent advances in chemical absorption for improving the performance of Li-S batteries by introducing functional groups (oxygen, nitrogen, and boron, etc.) and chemical additives (metal, polymers, etc.) to the carbon structures, and how these foreign guests immobilize the dissolved polysulfides.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-01T06:57:41Z
       
  • Integrated carbon nanospheres arrays as anode materials for boosted sodium
           ion storage

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Wangjia Tang, Jianbo Wu, Xiuli Wang, Xinhui Xia, Jiangping Tu
      Developing cost-effective advanced carbon anode is critical for innovation of sodium ion batteries. Herein, we develop a powerful combined method for rational synthesis of free-standing binder-free carbon nanospheres arrays via chemical bath plus hydrothermal process. Impressively, carbon spheres with diameters of 150-250 nm are randomly interconnected with each other forming highly porous arrays. Positive advantages including large porosity, high surface and strong mechanical stability are combined in the carbon nanospheres arrays. The obtained carbon nanospheres arrays are tested as anode material for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) and deliver a high reversible capacity of 102 mAh g-1 and keep a capacity retention of 95% after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.25 A g-1 and good rate performance (65 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 2 A g-1). The good electrochemical performance is attributed to the stable porous nanosphere structure with fast ion/electron transfer characteristics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T06:57:41Z
       
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of using ClO2 bleaching as substitution of
           traditional Cl2 on PCDD/F reduction in a non-wood pulp and paper mill
           using reeds as raw materials

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Lili Yang, Liping Fang, Linyan Huang, Yuyang Zhao, Guorui Liu
      The effectiveness of ClO2 bleaching as a replacement for conventional Cl2 bleaching, which is intensively practiced in developing countries, to reduce polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in non-wood pulp and paper mills has not been field tested. The first field study was performed to investigate PCDD/F variations when ClO2 bleaching was used as a substitute for conventional Cl2 bleaching in a non-wood pulp and paper mill. It was found that the PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQs) in solid and effluent samples were approximately 1.3–14.9 times lower when ClO2 bleaching was used instead of the conventional Cl2 bleaching. 2,3,7,8-Substituted tetrachlorinated dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-TCDF) were the dominant contributors to total PCDD/F TEQs in samples from the investigated mill when using conventional Cl2 bleaching. The formation amounts of 2,3,7,8-TCDF were reduced from 1.56–2.76 pg TEQ/g to 0.02–0.32 pg TEQ/g in solid samples when ClO2 bleaching was used instead of the conventional Cl2 bleaching. The replacement of Cl2 with ClO2 might decrease the chlorination reactions of dibenzofuran as potential precursors, and thus reduce the formation amounts of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. The results could provide important knowledge for suggesting the best available technique for PCDD/F reduction for non-wood pulp and paper mills in developing countries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T06:57:41Z
       
  • Proton dynamics in phosphotungstic acid impregnated mesoporous silica
           proton exchange membrane materials

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Krystina Lamb, Richard A. Mole, Dehong Yu, Roland de Marco, John R. Bartlett, Sarah Windsor, San Ping Jiang, Jin Zhang, Vanessa K. Peterson
      Phosphotungstic acid is an excellent proton conductor that can be incorporated into porous supports, and nanocomposite proton exchange membrane materials made from mesoporous silica impregnated with phosphotungstic acid have been suggested for use in fuels cells operating > 100 °C. In this work quasielastic neutron scattering was used to study proton self-diffusion in mesoporous disordered and P6mm symmetry silica impregnated with two concentrations of phosphotungstic acid. Overall, the silica structure had a significantly greater effect on proton conduction and diffusion than phosphotungstic acid concentration, with higher proton conduction occurring for the P6mm symmetry silica samples. Quasielastic neutron scattering revealed two populations of protons diffusing through each sample, and that proton conduction is limited by the slower of these populations, which diffuse via a jump-diffusion mechanism. Whilst the fundamental jump-diffusion mechanism by which these slower protons moved was found to be similar for both silica supports and phosphotungstic acid concentrations, the faster diffusion occurring in P6mm structured silica arises from a lower residence time of protons moving between sites in the jump-diffusion model, suggesting a lower energy barrier.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T12:00:01Z
       
  • Energy storage and conversion: Driving human development

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment


      PubDate: 2017-07-20T12:00:01Z
       
  • Synthesis of polyurea from 1,6-hexanediamine with CO2 through a two-step
           polymerization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Shan Jiang, Ruhui Shi, Haiyang Cheng, Chao Zhang, Fengyu Zhao
      Activation and transformation of CO2 is one of the important issues in the field of green and sustainable chemistry. Herein, CO2 as a carbon-oxygen resource was converted to CO2-polyurea with 1,6-hexanediamine through a two-step polymerization. The reaction parameters such as temperature, pressure and reaction time were examined; and several kinds of catalysts were screened in the absence and presence of NMP solvent. The formed oligomer and the final polyurea were characterized by FT-IR, VT-DRIFTS, NMR, XRD, AFM and their thermal properties were examined by TGA and DSC. It was confirmed that the final polyurea has a high thermal stability; the melting temperature is 269 oC and the decomposition temperature is above 300 oC. It is a brittle polymer with a tensile strength of 18.35 MPa at break length of 1.64%. The polyurea has a stronger solvent resistance due to the ordered hydrogen bond in structure. The average molecular weight should be enhanced in the post-polymerization as the appearance, hydrogen bond intensity, crystallinity, melting point and the thermal stability changed largely compared to the oligomer. The present work provides a new kind of polyurea, it is expected to have a wide application in the field of polymer materials.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T16:22:55Z
       
  • A Comprehensive Review on Recent Progress in Aluminum-air Batteries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Yisi Liu, Qian Sun, Wenzhang Li, Keegan R. Adair, Jie Li, Xueliang Sun
      The aluminum-air battery is considered as an attractive candidate as the power source of electric vehicles (EVs) because of its high theoretical energy density (8100 Wh kg-1), which is significantly greater than that of the state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, some technical and scientific problems preventing the large-scale development of Al-air batteries have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and the recent advances in Al-air battery technology from aluminum anode, air cathode and electrocatalysts to electrolytes and inhibitors. Firstly for anode part, the alloying of aluminum with transition metal elements is reviewed and shown to reduce the self-corrosion of Al and improve battery performance. Additionally for cathode part, extensive studies of electrocatalytic materials for oxygen reduction/evolution including Pt and Pt alloys, nonprecious metal catalysts, and carbonaceous materials at the air cathode are highlighted. Moreover, for the electrolyte part, the application of aqueous electrolytes and nonaqueous electrolytes in Al-air batteries are discussed. Meanwhile, the addition of inhibitors to the electrolyte to enhance electrochemical performance is also explored. Finally, the challenges and future research directions are proposed for the further development of Al-air batteries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T16:22:55Z
       
  • Heteroatom-doped porous carbon from methyl orange dye wastewater for
           oxygen reduction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Yiqing Wang, Mingyuan Zhu, Yingchun Li, Mengjuan Zhang, Xueyan Xue, Yulin Shi, Bin Dai, Xuhong Guo, Feng Yu
      Banana peel-derived porous carbon (BPPC) was prepared from banana peel and used as an adsorbent for methyl orange (MO) wastewater removal. BPPC-MO50 is a N,S-doped BPPC obtained via secondary carbonization. The BPPC-MO50 exhibited a high specific surface area of 1774.3 m2/g. Heteroatom-doped porous carbon (PC) was successfully synthesized from the BPPC absorbed MO at high temperature and used for oxygen reduction. The BPPC-MO50 displays the highest ORR onset potential among all carbon-based electrocatalysts, i.e., 0.93 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). This is the first report to describe porous carbon-activated materials from agriculture and forestry waste that is used for adsorption of dyes from waste water via an enhanced heteroatom (N,S) content. These results may contribute to the sustainable development of dye wastewater treatment by transforming saturated PC into an effective material and has potential applications in fuel cells or as energy sources.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:58:12Z
       
  • A Green Route to Synthesize Low-cost and High-performance Hard Carbon as
           Promising Sodium-ion Battery Anodes from Sorghum Stalk Waste

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Xiaoming Zhu, Xiaoyu Jiang, Xiaoling Liu, Lifen Xiao, Yuliang Cao
      Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered to be potential candidates for next-generation low-cost energy storage systems due to the low cost and abundance of Na resources. However, it is a big challenge to find suitable anode materials with low cost and good performance for the application of SIBs. Hard carbon could be a promising anode material due to high capacity and expectable low cost if originating from biomass. Herein, we report a hard carbon material derived from abundant and abandoned biomass of sorghum stalk through a simple carbonization method. The effects of carbonization temperature on microstructure and electrochemical performance are investigated. The hard carbon carbonized at 1300 °C delivers the best rate capability (172 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1) and good cycling performance (245 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at 20 mA g-1, 96% capacity retention). This contribution provides a green route for transforming sorghum stalk waste into "treasure" of promising low-cost anode material for SIBs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:58:12Z
       
  • Understanding oxygen electrochemistry in aprotic Li–O2 batteries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Liang Wang, Yantao Zhang, Zhenjie Liu, Limin Guo, Zhangquan Peng
      In the past decade, the aprotic lithium–oxygen (Li–O2) battery has generated a great deal of interest because theoretically it can store more energy than today’s lithium-ion batteries. Although considerable research efforts have been devoted to the R&D of this potentially disruptive technology, many scientific and engineering obstacles still remain to be addressed before a practical device could be realized. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the fundamental understanding the O2 electrochemistry in Li–O2 batteries, including O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse Li2O2 oxidation on recharge and factors that exert strong influences on the redox of O2/Li2O2. In addition, challenges and perspectives are also provided for the future study of Li–O2 batteries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T08:27:42Z
       
  • A review on photo-thermal catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Ee Teng Kho, Tze Hao Tan, Emma Lovell, Roong Jien Wong, Jason Scott, Rose Amal
      The conversion of carbon dioxide into value-added products is of great industrial and environmental interest. However, as carbon dioxide is relatively stable, the input energy required for this conversion is a significant limiting factor in the system’s performance. By utilising energy from the sun, through a range of key routes, this limitation can be overcome. In this review, we present a comprehensive and critical overview of the potential routes to harvest the sun’s energy, primarily through solar-thermal technologies and plasmonic resonance effects. Focusing on the localised heating approach, this review shortlists and compares viable catalysts for the photo-thermal catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide. Further, the pathways and potential products of different carbon dioxide conversion routes are outlined with the reverse water gas shift, methanation, and methanol synthesis being of key interest. Finally, the challenges in implementing such systems and the outlook to the future are detailed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T06:31:48Z
       
  • Metal Porphyrin Intercalated Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Utilized
           for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): MingYan Wang, Wei Zhu, Qing Wang, Ying Yang, Huixian Zhou, Fan Zhang, Lihua Zhou, Joselito M. Razal, Gordon G. Wallace, Jun Chen
      In this paper, we report a simple and facile self-assembly method to successfully fabricate cationic metal porphyrin –MtTMPyP (Mt= Cobalt (II), Manganese (III), or Iron (III); TMPyP= 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin) intercalated into the layer of graphene oxide (GO) by the cooperative effects of electrostatic and π-π stacking interaction between positively charged metal porphyrin and negatively charged GO sheets. Followed by reduction with hydrazine vapor, a series of novel 2D MtTMPyP/rGOn were fabricated. The as-prepared 2D hybrids were fully characterized and tested as non-noble metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an alkaline medium. The MtTMPyP/rGOn hybrids, especially CoTMPyP/rGO5, demonstrated an improved electrocatalytic activity for ORR and a number of exchanged electrons close to 4-electron reaction, increased stability and excellent tolerance to methanol, showing a potential alternative catalyst for ORR in fuel cells and air batteries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T06:31:48Z
       
  • Carbon nitride transparent counter electrode prepared by magnetron
           sputtering for a dye-sensitized solar cell

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): C.Y. Wu, G.R. Li, X.Q. Cao, B. Lei, X.P. Gao
      Carbon nitride (CNx) films supported on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass are prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, in which the film thicknesses are 90∼100 nm, and the element components in the CNx films are in the range of x = 0.15∼0.25. The as-prepared CNx is for the first time used as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs),and show a preparation-temperature dependent electrochemical performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that there is a higher proportion of sp2 C=C and sp3C-N hybridized bonds in CNx-500 (the sample treated at 500 °C) than in CNx-RT (the sample without a heat treatment). It is proposed that the sp2 C=C and sp3C-Nhybridized bonds in the CNx films are helpful for improving the electrocatalytic activities in DSSCs. Meanwhile, Raman spectra also prove that CNx-500 has a relatively high graphitization level that means an increasing electrical conductivity. This further explains why the sample after the heat treatment has a higher electrochemical performance in DSSCs. In addition, the as-prepared CNx counter electrodes have a good light transmittance in the visible light region. The results are meaningful for developing low-cost metal-free transparent counter electrodes for DSSCs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T06:31:48Z
       
  • Characterization of Li-rich layered oxides by using Transmission Electron
           Microscope

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Hu Zhao, Bao Qiu, Haocheng Guo, Kai Jia, Zhaoping Liu, Yonggao Xia
      Lithium-rich layered oxides (LrLOs) delivers extremely high specific capacities and are considered to be promising candidates for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, the application of LrLOs needs further understanding of the structural complexity and dynamic evolution of monoclinic and rhombohedral phases, in order to overcome the issues including voltage decay, poor rate capability, initial irreversible capacity loss and etc. The development of aberration correction for the transmission electron microscope and concurrent progress in electron spectroscopy, have fueled rapid progress in the understanding of the mechanism of such issues. New techniques based on the transmission electron microscope are first surveyed, and the applications of these techniques for the study of the structure, migration of transition metal, and the activation of oxygen of LrLOs are then explored in detail, with a particular focus on the mechanism of voltage decay.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T06:31:48Z
       
  • Guidelines for Rational Design of High-Performance Absorbents: A Case
           Study of Zeolite Adsorbents for Emerging Pollutants in Water

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Xiaoxuan Wei, Ya Wang, Arturo J. Hernández-Maldonado, Zhongfang Chen
      Rational design is important to achieve high-performance sorbents used to remove the contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from water. However, it is hard to propose effective design guidelines due to the lack of a clear understanding of the interaction mechanisms. By means of systematic quantum chemical computations, as a case study, we investigated the interactions between zeolite X/Mn+-zeolite X (Si/Al = 1, Mn+ = Cu2+ and Ni2+) and three commonly used CECs (namely salicylic acid, carbamazepine and ciprofloxacin) in water to clarify the adsorption mechanisms. Our computations found that anionic salicylic acid cannot be adsorbed by neither zeolite X nor Mn+-zeolite X in neutral water due to the high electrostatic repulsion. In comparison, carbamazepine and ciprofloxacin have favorable binding energies with both zeolite X and Mn+-zeolite X, and their interactions with Mn+-zeolite X are stronger due to the joint effects of H-bond, metal complexation and electrostatic interaction. The adsorption loading of ciprofloxacin, which has a large molecular size, on Mn+-zeolite X is limited due to the steric hindrance. In general, steric hindrance, electrostatic interaction, H-bond and metal complexation are dominant factors for the examined systems in this study. Thus, for the design of high-performance absorbing materials, we should fully consider the molecular properties of pollutants (molecular size, surface electrostatic potential and atomic type, etc.), and properly enhance the favorable effects and avoid the unfavorable factors as much as possible under the guidance of the interaction mechanisms.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T14:07:20Z
       
  • Ultra-light and Flexible Pencil-Trace Anode for High Performance
           Potassium-ion and Lithium-ion Batteries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Zhixin Tai, Yajie Liu, Qing Zhang, Tengfei Zhou, Zaiping Guo, Hua Kun Liu, Shi Xue Dou
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T03:20:39Z
       
  • Laccase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles by Dopamine Polymerization
           for 4-Chlorophenol Removal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Di Zhang, Manfeng Deng, Hongbin Cao, Songping Zhang, He Zhao
      In this work, a new immobilization method based on dopamine (DA) self-polymerization was developed for laccase immobilization on magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs). To optimize the immobilization condition including reaction pH, DA concentration and enzyme concentration, a central composite response surface method was applied. The optimal condition was determined as pH value of 5.92, laccase concentration of 0.25 mg·mL-1 and DA concentration of 12.74 mg·mL-1, under which a high enzyme activity recovery of 88.17% was obtained. By comparing with free laccase, the stabilities of immobilized laccase towards pH, thermostability, storage were enhanced significantly. Approximately 60% of relative activity for immobilized laccase was remained after being incubated for 6 h at 50 °C, but the free laccase only remained 25%. After 40 days of storage at 4 °C, the laccase immobilized by DA kept about 89% of its original activity, but the free laccase only retained 48%. After recycled 10 times, the relative activity of immobilized laccase still retained 70%. The immobilized laccase was then applied to catalyze the degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 86% percentage of 4-CP was removed within 2 h. After degraded 10 times, the relative activity of immobilized laccase still remained 64% of its initial activity, which exhibits an excellent reusability and operational stability.

      PubDate: 2017-04-20T23:12:36Z
       
  • Facile and Controllable Synthesis of BaCO3 Crystals Superstructures using
           a CO2-Storage Material

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Feng Sha, Bo Guo, Jing Zhao, Fei Zhang, Xianshu Qiao, Liang Ma, Chang Liu, Jianbin Zhang
      We here report a new CO2 capture and storage method that converted CO2 into a novel alkyl carbonate salt, denoted as CO2SM, by a system consisted of equimolar 1,4-butanediol (BDO) and 1,2-ethylenediamine (EDA). This novel CO2SM was then used to prepare BaCO3 crystals through a simple and fast hydrothermal synthesis under mild conditions. The CO2SM was both the source of CO2 and the modifier to regulate the nucleation and growth of BaCO3 crystals. The morphology of the BaCO3 crystals could be tuned from rod to shuttle by adjusting the key influencing factors, including CO2SM concentration, mineralization temperature, and mineralization time. A possible mechanism for the synthesis of BaCO3 crystals from the CO2SM was also presented. After the BaCO3 crystals were isolated, the filtrate of the hydrothermal reaction could be recycled to again absorb CO2 and prepare BaCO3 crystals of the same polymorph. This novel approach appears promising for preparing well-formed metal carbonates.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:57:25Z
       
  • Green energy for green future

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment


      PubDate: 2017-03-27T13:40:54Z
       
  • 3D Hollow Sphere Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs: Its High-performance Bi-functional
           Cathode Catalysis and Application in Rechargeable Zinc–air Battery

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Xuemei Li, Nengneng Xu, Haoran Li, Min Wang, Lei Zhang, Jinli Qiao
      There has been a continuous need for high active, excellently durable and low-cost electrocatalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Among many low-cost metal based candidates, transition metal oxides with the CNTs composite have gained increasing attention. In this paper, the 3-D hollow sphere MnO2 nanotube-supported Co3O4 nanoparticles and its carbon nanotubes hybrid material (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method combined with post-heat treatment. The morphology and composition of the catalysts are thoroughly analyzed through SEM, TEM, TEM-mapping, XRD, EDX and XPS. In comparison with the commercial 20% Pt/C, Co3O4/MnO2, bare MnO2 nanotubes and CNTs, the hybrid Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs-350 exhibit perfect bi-functional catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction under alkaline condition (0.1M KOH). Therefore, high cell performances are achieved which result in an appropriate open circuit voltage (∼1.47V), a high discharge peak power density (340 mW cm-2) and a large specific capacity (775 mAhg−1 at 10 mA cm-2) for the primary Zn-air battery, a small charge–discharge voltage gap and a high cycle-life (504 cycles at 10 mA cm-2 with 10 mins per cycle) for the rechargeable Zn-air battery. In particular, the simple synthesis method is suitable for a large-scale production of this bifunctional material due to a green, cost effective and readily available process.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T22:50:08Z
       
  • A Review on Photoelectrochemical Cathodic Protection Semiconductor Thin
           Films for Metals

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Yuyu Bu, Jin-Ping Ao
      Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cathodic protection is considered as an environment friendly method for metals anticorrosion. In this technology, a n-type semiconductor photoanode provide photogenerated electrons for metal to achieve cathodic protection. Comparing with traditional PEC photoanode for water splitting, it requires the photoanode providing a suitable cathodic potential for the metal, instead of pursuit ultimate photon to electric conversion efficiency, thus it is a more possible PEC technology for engineering application. To date, amount of research have been contributed to developing novel n-type semiconductors and advanced modification method to improve the performance on PEC cathodic protection metals. Herein, the recent progresses in this field are summarized, importantly highlights the fabrication process of PEC cathodic protection thin film, various nanostructure controlling, doping, compositing methods and their operation mechanism. Finally, the current challenges and future potential works on improving the PEC cathodic protection performance are proposed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T19:03:17Z
       
  • Advanced Electron Microscopy Characterization of Nanomaterials for
           Catalysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Dong Su
      Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become one of the most powerful techniques in the fields of material science, inorganic chemistry and nanotechnology. In terms of resolutions, advanced TEM may reach a high spatial resolution of 0.05 nm, a high energy-resolution of 7 meV. In addition, in situ TEM can help researcher to image the process happened within 1 ms. This paper reviews the recent technical approaches of applying advanced TEM characterization on nanomaterials for catalysis. The text is organized according to the demanded information of nanocrystals from the perspective of application: for example, size, composition, phase, strain, and morphology. The electron beam induced effect and in situ TEM are also introduced. I hope this review can help the scientists in related fields to take advantage of advanced TEM to their own researches.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T14:57:33Z
       
  • Harvesting, sensing and regulating light based on photo-thermal effect of
           Cu@CuO mesh

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Xuan Wu, Jie Xu, George Y. Chen, Rong Fan, Xiaokong Liu, Haolan Xu
      A system of light harvesting, sensing and regulating was designed based on the photo-thermal and Seebeck effect of flexible CuO nanostructures. Cu@CuO meshes were prepared via self-oxidation of Cu mesh and utilized as the photo-thermal material. Upon irradiation by visible light, the temperature of the Cu@CuO mesh dramatically increases. The temperature difference between the irradiated and non-irradiated parts of the Cu@CuO mesh produced a measurable voltage output due to the Seebeck effect. The generated voltage was then converted into a digital signal to control a rotary neutral-density disc to filter the received light. This enabled regulation of the intensity of the incident light at a selected region. This system is cost effective and has potential applications in greenhouses, factories and smart buildings to minimize energy consumption and improve wellbeing.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T14:57:33Z
       
  • Efficient and recyclable Rh-catalytic system with involvement of
           phosphine-functionalized phosphonium-based ionic liquids for tandem
           hydroformylation-acetalization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Peng Wang, Xia Chen, Dong-Liang Wang, Yong-Qi Li, Ye Liu
      The phosphine-functionalized phosphonium-based ionic liquids (dppm-Q, dppe-Q, dppp-Q and dppb-Q) as the bi-functional ligands enable the efficient one-pot tandem hydroformylation-acetalization. It was found that, in dppm-Q, dppe-Q, dppp-Q and dppb-Q, the incorporated phosphino-fragments were responsible for Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation and the phosphoniums were in charge of the subsequent acetalization as the Lewis acid catalysts. Moreover, the diphosphonium-based ionic liquid of dppb-DQ could be applied as a co-solvent to immobilize the Rh/dppb-Q catalytic system with the advantages of the improved catalytic performance, the available catalyst recyclability, and the wide generality for the substrates.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T20:48:02Z
       
  • Synergistic effect of polyoxometalate solution and TiO2 under UV
           irradiation to catalyze formic acid degradation and their application in
           the fuel cell and hydrogen evolution

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2017
      Source:Green Energy & Environment
      Author(s): Congmin Liu, Zhe Zhang, Wei Liu, Xu Du, Shi Liu, Yong Cui
      The synergistic effect of H3PMo12O40 or H3PW12O40 polyoxometalate solution (POM) and TiO2 to catalyze formic acid oxidation was investigated. Under UV irradiation, hole and electron were photogenerated by TiO2. Formic acid was oxided by the photogenerated hole and photogenerated electron was transferred to reduce polyoxometalate. With this design, formic acid can be converted into electricity in the fuel cell and hydrogen can be generated in the electrolysis cell without noble metal catalyst. Unlike other noble metal catalysts applied in the fuel cells and electrolysis cell, POM and TiO2 are stable and low cost. The maximum output power density of liquid formic acid fuel cell after 12h UV irradiation is 5.21 mW/cm2 for phosphmolybdic acid and 22.81 mW/cm2 for phosphotungstic acid respectively. The applied potential for the hydrogen evolution is as low as 0.8 V for phosphmolybdic acid and 0.6 V for phosphotungstic acid.

      PubDate: 2017-01-13T16:05:58Z
       
 
 
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