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Journal Cover Animal Nutrition
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  • Browse silage as potential feed for captive wild ungulates in southern

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Khanyisile R. Mbatha, Archibold G. Bakare
      The objective of the review was to assess the potential of indigenous browse trees as sustainable feed supplement in the form of silage for captive wild ungulates. Several attempts to use silage as feed in zoos in temperate regions have been conducted with success. Information on silage from the indigenous browse trees preferred by wild ungulates in southern Africa is scanty. The use of silage from the browse trees is of interest as it has potential to reduce or replace expensive feed sources (pellets, fruits and farm produce) currently offered in southern African zoos, game farms and reserves, especially during the cold-dry season. Considerable leaf biomass from the indigenous browse trees can be produced for silage making. High nutrient content and minerals from indigenous browsable trees are highly recognised. Indigenous browse trees have low water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) that render them undesirable for fermentation. Techniques such as wilting browse leaves, mixing cereal crops with browse leaves, and use of additives such as urea and enzymes have been studied extensively to increase WSC of silage from the indigenous browse trees. Anti-nutritional factors from the indigenous browse preferred by the wild ungulates have also been studied extensively. Indigenous browse silages are a potential feed resource for the captive wild ungulates. If the browse trees are used to make silage, they are likely to improve performance of wild ungulates in captivity, especially during the cold-dry season when browse is scarce. Research is needed to assess the feasibility of sustainable production and the effective use of silage from indigenous browse trees in southern Africa. Improving intake and nutrient utilisation and reducing the concentrations of anti-nutritional compounds in silage from the indigenous browse trees of southern Africa should be the focus for animal nutrition research that need further investigation.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
  • Cloning, expression, and characterization of a porcine pancreatic
           α-amylase in Pichia pastoris

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Lvhui Sun, Tao Qin, Yan Liu, Hua Zhao, Xinjie Xia, Xingen Lei
      Pancreatic α-amylase (α-1, 4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, EC. plays a primary role in the intestinal digestion of feed starch and is often deficient in weanling pigs. The objective of this study was to clone, express, and characterize porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). The full-length cDNA encoding the PPA was isolated from pig pancreas by RT-PCR and cloned into the pPICZαA vector. After the resultant pPICZαΑ-PPA plasmid was transferred into Pichia pastoris, Ni Sepharose affinity column was used to purify the over-expressed extracellular recombinant PPA protein (rePPA) that contain a His-tag to the C terminus and was characterized against the natural enzyme (α-Amylase from porcine pancreas). The rePPA exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 58 kDa and showed optimal temperature (50 °C), optimal pH (7.5), Km (47.8 mg/mL), and Vmax (2,783 U/mg) similar to those of the natural enzyme. The recombinant enzyme was stable at 40 °C but lost 60% to 90% (P < 0.05) after exposure to heating at ≥ 50 °C for 30 min. The enzyme activity was little affected by Cu2+ or Fe3+, but might be inhibited (40% to 50%) by Zn2+ at the concentrations in pig digesta. However, Ca2+ exhibited a dose-dependent stimulation of the enzyme activity. In conclusion, we successfully cloned the porcine pancreatic α-amylase gene and over-expressed the gene in Pichia pastoris as an extracellular, functional enzyme. Our biochemical characterization of the over-produced enzyme depicts its potential and future improvement as an animal feed additive.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
  • Influence of dietary carbohydrases, individually or in combination with
           phytase or an acidifier, on performance, gut morphology, and microbial
           population in broiler chickens fed a wheat-based diet

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Amin Roofchaei, Vahid Rezaeipour, Safieh Vatandour, Fifi Zaefarian
      The objective of this study was to examine the effects of dietary carbohydrases (xylanase and β-glucanase; XG), individually or in combination with phytase or acidifier on the growth performance, carcass attributes, intestinal microbial counts and morphology in broiler chickens fed a wheat-based diet. A total of 240 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 4 treatment groups with 6 replicates of 10 birds each. The dietary treatments included a basal diet, the basal diet with an enzyme complex containing XG, XG plus a microbial phytase (XG + P) and XG plus acidifier (XG + A).The results indicated that feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved in broiler chickens which received XG + A during the entire production period (1 to 35 d) of the trial (P < 0.05).The broiler chickens fed XG + P had lower feed intake compared with the control group at 29 to 35 d of age. The experimental treatments had no effect on the body weight gain of broiler chickens. In carcass traits, except for spleen (P < 0.05), the dietary treatments had no effects on the carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. The birds which received diets supplemented with XG and XG + A had a lower weight of the spleen compare with the control. Addition of XG in combination with phytase (XG + P) resulted in a decrease in ileal enumeration of Escherichia coli at 35 d of age (P < 0.05). However, dietary treatments did not alter the population of ileal Lactobacilli in broiler chickens. Supplementing carbohydrases with phytase and acidifier (XG + P and XG + A) significantly increased the intestinal villus length at 35 d of age (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that supplementation of the wheat-based diet with a combination with carbohydrases and acidifier (XG + A) improves FCR in broiler chickens. Furthermore, combinations of carbohydrases with phytase (XG + P) and with acidifier (XG + A) decrease the E. coli counts and increase the villus length in broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
  • L-leucine stimulates glutamate dehydrogenase activity and glutamate
           synthesis by regulating mTORC1/SIRT4 pathway in pig liver

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Tongxin Wang, Weilei Yao, Qiongyu He, Yafei Shao, Ruilong Zheng, Feiruo Huang
      The liver is the most essential organ for the metabolism of ammonia, in where most of ammonia is removed by urea and glutamine synthesis. Regulated by leucine, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible inter-conversion of glutamate to ammonia. To determine the mechanism of leucine regulating GDH, pigs weighing 20 ± 1 kg were infused for 80 min with ammonium chloride or alanine in the presence or absence of leucine. Primary pig hepatocytes were incubated with or without leucine. In the in vivo experiments with either ammonium or alanine as the nitrogen source, addition of leucine significantly inhibited ureagenesis and promoted the production of glutamate and glutamine in perfused pig liver (P < 0.05). Similarly, leucine stimulated GDH activity and inhibited sirtuin4 (SIRT4) gene expression (P < 0.01). Leucine could also activate mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling (P < 0.05), as evidenced by the increased phosphorylation levels of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6). Interestingly, the leucine-induced mTORC1 pathway activation suitably correlated with increased GDH activity and decreased expression of SIRT4. Similar results were observed in primary cultured hepatocytes. Notably, leucine exerted no significant change in GDH activity in SIRT4-deficient hepatocytes (P > 0.05), while mTORC1 signaling was activated. Leucine exerted no significant changes in both GDH activity and SIRT4 gene expression in rapamycin treated hepatocytes (P > 0.05). In conclusion, L-leucine increases GDH activity and stimulates glutamate synthesis from different nitrogen sources by regulating mTORC1/SIRT4 pathway in the liver of pigs.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
  • Effect of oat hulls as a free choice feeding on broiler performance, short
           chain fatty acids and microflora under a mild necrotic enteritis challenge

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Sarbast K. Kheravii, Robert A. Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
      Structure of fibre has been reported to enhance performance, intestinal function and modify the composition and quantity of the microbial population in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. It is hypothesised that insoluble fibre in oat hulls may improve gut health and reduce intestinal Clostridium perfringens number. This research assessed the effect of free choice oat hulls (OH) on performance and gut microbiota in broilers during a mild (subclinical) necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge. A total of 240 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 24 cages in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were challenge - or +; and OH - or +. On d 16, challenged broilers had lower weight gain and feed intake (P < 0.05) compared with unchallenged broilers. On d 16, broilers given OH had lower feed intake (P < 0.05) and tended to have lower (P = 0.062) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with those without access to OH. Broiler performance, however, was not affected by OH nor by challenge on d 24 and 35. The broilers given OH had heavier gizzards (P < 0.05) compared with those without OH at d 35 but not at d 13 or 16. Increased numbers of C. perfringens (P < 0.001) and reduced numbers (P < 0.05) of Lactobacillus and Salmonellae were observed in the caecal contents of challenged broilers on d 16. Challenged broilers had a lower concentration of caecal acetic acid (P < 0.01) compared with unchallenged broilers at d 16. The broilers given OH had lower concentrations of caecal acetic acid (P < 0.05), propionic acid (P < 0.05), and valeric acid (P < 0.01) compared with those without access to OH. An OH by challenge interaction on succinic acid concentration was observed on d 16 (P < 0.05). Oat hulls elevated the caecal succinic acid concentration only in the unchallenged broilers. This study indicated a positive role of OH through improved gizzard function and increased succinic acid in the gut but its role in controlling NE was not conclusive.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
  • Evaluation of 1α(OH)D3 alone or in combination with cholecalciferol in
           CaP deficiency diets on development of tibial dyschondroplasia in broiler

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Nasir Landy, Majid Toghyani
      This experiment was conducted to determine whether dietary cholecalciferol will alleviate a calcium and phosphorous (CaP) deficiency when 1α(OH)D3 is supplemented, and to determine the effects of adequate and inadequate CaP when 1α(OH)D3 is supplemented and vitamin D3 is adequate. A total of 144 one-d-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to 3 treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: treatment A, adequate CaP + cholecalciferol + 5 μg/kg 1α(OH)D3; treatment B, inadequate CaP + cholecalciferol + 5 μg/kg 1α(OH)D3; treatment C, inadequate CaP + 5 μg/kg 1α(OH)D3. All diets were mixed with 500 FTU/kg of phytase, and cholecalciferol was provided in 5,000 IU/kg except for treatment C that fed diets without vitamin D3. The CaP levels in the adequate diets were 0.90% Ca, 0.66% total phosphorus (tP); 0.75% Ca, 0.59% tP; 0.69% Ca, 0.54% tP for the starter, grower and finisher periods. At d 42 of age, broilers were inspected for incidence and severity of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). The results showed that inadequate CaP supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly decreased the incidence of TD, score and tibia ash compared with broilers fed the same diet in the absence of cholecalciferol (P < 0.05). The broilers fed inadequate CaP diets with cholecalciferol were unable to achieve the same tibia ash and incidence of TD as those fed CaP adequate diets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this trial suggests that broilers fed an inadequate CaP diet with 1α(OH)D3 and adequate level of cholecalciferol are unable to sufficient bone formation. There was no indication that 1α(OH)D3 in the absence of cholecalciferol was effective in reducing TD whereas it could improve tibia ash.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
  • Post-weaning and whole-of-life performance of pigs is determined by live
           weight at weaning and the complexity of the diet fed after weaning

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition, Volume 3, Issue 4
      Author(s): Cherie L. Collins, John R. Pluske, Rebecca S. Morrison, Trevor N. McDonald, Robert J. Smits, David J. Henman, Ingunn Stensland, Frank R. Dunshea
      The production performance and financial outcomes associated with weaner diet complexity for pigs of different weight classes at weaning were examined in this experiment. A total of 720 weaner pigs (360 entire males and 360 females) were selected at weaning (27 ± 3 d) and allocated to pens of 10 based on individual weaning weight (light weaning weight: pigs below 6.5 kg; medium weaning weight: 6.5 to 8 kg; heavy weaning weight: above 8.5 kg). Pens were then allocated in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the respective factors being weaning weight (heavy, medium and light; H, M and L, respectively), weaner diet complexity (high complexity/cost, HC; low complexity/cost, LC), and gender (male and female). Common diets were fed to both treatment groups during the final 4 weeks of the weaner period (a period of 39 days). In the first 6 d after weaning, pigs offered the HC diets gained weight faster and used feed more efficiently than those offered the LC diets (P = 0.031). Pigs fed a HC diet after weaning tended to be heavier at the sale live weight of 123 d of age compared with pigs fed the LC diet (P = 0.056). There were no other main effects of the feeding program on growth performance through to slaughter. Weaning weight had a profound influence on lifetime growth performance and weight at 123 d of age, with H pigs at weaning increasing their weight advantage over the M and L pigs (101.3, 97.1, 89.6 kg respectively, P < 0.001). Cost-benefit analyses suggested there was a minimal benefit in terms of cost per unit live weight gain over lifetime when pigs were offered a HC feeding program to L, with a lower feed cost/kg gain. The results from this investigation confirm the impact of weaning weight on lifetime growth performance, and suggest that a HC feeding program should be focused on L weaner pigs (i.e., weaning weight less than 6.5 kg at 27 d of age) in order to maximise financial returns.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
  • Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg
           quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Ahmed S. Hussein, Mostafa A. Ayoub, Ahmed Y. Elhwetiy, Jamal A. Ghurair, Mohsin Sulaiman, Hosam M. Habib
      The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age) were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20). Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05) compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:51:58Z
  • Fecal scores and microbial metabolites in weaned piglets fed different
           protein sources and levels

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Xiaolu Wen, Li Wang, Chuntian Zheng, Xuefen Yang, Xianyong Ma, Yunpeng Wu, Zhuang Chen, Zongyong Jiang
      This experiment studied the effects of dietary protein sources and levels on the gut health of piglets, pH value, and concentrations of microbial metabolites (ammonia-N, volatile fatty acids [VFA], and polyamines) in the distal colonic and proximal colonic digesta of piglets weaned at 21d of age. A total of 150 early-weaned piglets were allotted randomly to 5diets: 1) control diet (CT, 17% CP), 2) CT formulated with more soy protein concentrate (SPC19, 19% CP), 3) more fish meal (FM19, 19% CP), 4) CT formulated with more soy protein concentrate (SPC23, 23% CP), and 5) more fish meal (FM23, 23%CP). Results showed high protein level increased fecal score (P < 0.05), but different protein sources did not (P > 0.05).The pH value and ammonia-N concentration of digesta in the proximal and distal colon of FM23 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CT. Acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid concentrations in the proximal colon of FM23 exceeded those of CT, SPC19, and FM19 (P < 0.05); however, isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid were not affected (P > 0.05). Histamine and spermidine concentrations of FM23 were higher than those of other treatments (P < 0.05). Propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations in the distal colon were higher of FM23 than of FM19 (P < 0.05); putrescine, histamine and spermidine were higher of FM23 than of LP and FM19 (P < 0.05). It was concluded that high dietary CP content increased microbial metabolites (ammonia-N, histamine, putrescine) in colonic digesta and aggravated piglets’ diarrhea.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T12:26:31Z
  • Ruminal fermentation and microbial community differently influenced by
           four typical subtropical forages in vitro

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Muhammad W. Iqbal, Qin Zhang, Yingbai Yang, Caixia Zou, Lili Li, Xin Liang, Shengju Wei, Bo Lin
      The present study evaluated the effects of 4 typical subtropical forages on ruminal microbial community composition to formulate a better diet for buffalo. Corn straw silage, elephant grass, cassava residues and sugarcane tail silage were used as substrates for in vitro fermentation. Eight replicates were set up for every substrate, and fermentation was carried out in a 100-mL glass syringe, using buffalo rumen inoculum. Every replicate was anaerobically dispensed with 10 mL of rumen inoculum, 20 mL of McDougall’s buffer and 200 mg of dried substrate, and placed in a water bath at 39 °C. Gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h of incubation. After 24 h, fermentation was ceased for 4 replicates and samples were collected. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations were measured using gas chromatography. Microbial populations were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and microbial community was analyzed using high throughput sequencing technology. The results showed, cassava residues as substrate had the highest gas production, acetate, propionate and total VFA concentrations (P < 0.05), and corn straw silage had the lowest acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.05). The lowest numbers of fungi, Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes, and the highest number of protozoa were observed with cassava residues (P < 0.05). The least abundances of bacterial phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and genus Prevotella, and substantially higher abundance of phylum proteobacteria (56%) and genus Succinivibrio (52%) were observed with cassava residues. The most abundances of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii and Entodinium were observed with cassava residues. Spearman’s correlations analysis showed, Succinivibrio had strong positive correlations with propionate, butyrate, Metadinium and M. gottschalkii, indicating fermentation products were related to microbial community. In conclusion, incubation with cassava residues resulted in lower number of fiber degrading microbes but higher protozoal population because of its low fiber contents. The microbial community was highly altered by in vitro incubation with cassava residues, whereas remained similar for the other 3 high fiber containing substrates.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T12:26:31Z
  • Efficacy of dietary phytase supplementation on laying performance and
           expression of osteopontin and calbindin genes in eggshell gland

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Divya Shet, Jyotirmoy Ghosh, Sreeja Ajith, Vaibhav B. Awachat, Arumbackam V. Elangovan
      This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary phytase supplementation in the layer feed on egg production performance, egg shell quality and expression of osteopontin (OPN) and calbindin (CALB1) genes. Seventy-five White Leghorn layers at 23 weeks of age were randomly divided into 5 groups consisting of a control diet with 0.33% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and 4 low P diets: 2 diets (T1 and T2) with 0.24% NPP + 250 FTU/kg laboratory produced phytase or commercial phytase and another 2 diets (T3 and T4) with 0.16% NPP + 500 FTU/kg laboratory produced phytase or commercial phytase with complete replacement of inorganic P. The results indicated no significant differences (P > 0.05) in egg production performance and quality of egg during the first 2 months of trial. However, in next 2 months, a significant drop in egg production and feed intake was observed in birds fed diets with low P and 500 FTU/kg supplementation of laboratory produced phytase. Osteopontin gene was up-regulated whereas the CALB1 gene was down regulated in all phytase treatment groups irrespective of the source of phytase. The current data demonstrated that 250 FTU/kg supplementation of laboratory produced phytase with 50% less NPP supplementation and 500 FTU/kg supplementation of commercial phytase even without NPP in diet can maintain the egg production. The up-regulation of OPN and down regulation of CALB1 in egg shell gland in the entire phytase treated group birds irrespective of the source of enzymes is indicative of the changes in P bio-availability at this site.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T12:14:30Z
  • Performances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on
           horse manure

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Nassim Moula, Marie-Louise Scippo, Caroline Douny, Guy Degand, Edwin Dawans, Jean-François Cabaraux, Jean-Luc Hornick, Rudy C. Megido, Pascal Leroy, Frederic Francis, Johann Detilleux
      In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed, while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Means ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric acid (28.1%) and palmitic acid (22.0%). Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P ˂0.05) by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T12:14:30Z
  • Suitability of n-alkanes and chromium (III) oxide as digestibility markers
           in calves at the end of the milk feeding period supplemented with a

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Stephanie Schäfers, Michael Bulang, Ulrich Meyer, Anne Lindwedel, Liane Hüther, Sven Dänicke
      Prebiotics reveal positive effects on the growth performance of pigs and poultry, and might influence intestinal microflora. This, in consequence, could alter recovery rates of digestibility markers. In the current study, we evaluated the suitability of Chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3) and the synthetic alkanes n-dotriacontane (C32) and n-hexatriacontane (C36) as external markers for digestibility estimation compared to the standard total collection method in calves supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides. Eight male German Holstein calves (age of 57 ± 8 days) were divided into 2 milk replacer feeding groups (group receiving galacto-oligosaccharides [A] and control group [B]). Each of 2 groups of 4 individually fed calves received a distinct milk replacer with added markers for 14 days. They were fed twice daily restrictively with milk replacer, concentrate and hay. After an adaptation period of 10 days, total faeces were collected. Faecal marker recoveries (FMR, means ± SD) for C32 were (72 ± 14)% for A and (80 ± 12)% for B. Faecal marker recoveries for C36 was (82 ± 15)% and (88 ± 13)% for groups A and B, respectively. The FMR for Cr2O3 was (102 ± 11)% and (100 ± 1)% for groups A and B, respectively. There were no significant differences between total collection organic matter digestibility and marker based organic matter digestibility when using Cr2O3 and C36. But, when utilizing C32 to calculate nutrient digestibilities, results differed from the total collection method for organic matter, crude protein and ether extract. The results indicate that Cr2O3 and C36 can be applied in digestibility studies with calves and give accurate estimates for OM and nutrient digestibilities without correction for FMR.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T12:14:30Z
  • Intestinal challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in pigs, and
           nutritional intervention to prevent postweaning diarrhea

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Yawang Sun, Sung Woo Kim
      Gut health of nursery pigs immediately after weaning is tightly associated with their growth performance and economic values. Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the major concerns related to gut health of nursery pigs which often is caused by infections of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), mainly including F4 (K88)+ and F18+ E. coli. The main virulence factors of ETEC are adhesins (fimbriae or pili) and enterotoxins. The common types of fimbriae on ETEC from PWD pigs are F18+ and F4+. Typically, PWD in pigs is associated with both F18+ and F4+ ETEC infections whereas pre-weaning diarrhea in pigs is associated with F4+ ETEC infection. Enterotoxins including heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) and heat-stable peptide toxins (ST) are associated with causing diarrhea in pigs. At least 109 to 1010 ETEC are required to induce diarrhea in nursery pigs typically lasting 1 to 5 days after ETEC infection. Antibiotics used to be the most effective way to prevent PWD, however, with the increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics, alternatives to the use of antibiotics are urgently needed to prevent PWD. Immunopropylaxis and nutritional intervention of antimicrobial minerals (such as zinc oxide and copper sulfate), organic acids, functional feedstuffs (such as blood plasma and egg yolk antibodies), direct fed microbials, phytobiotics, and bacteriophage can potentially prevent PWD associated with ETEC. Some other feed additives such as nucleotides, feed enzymes, prebiotic oligosaccharides, and clay minerals can enhance intestinal health and thus indirectly help with preventing PWD. Numerous papers show that nutritional intervention using selected feed additives can effectively prevent PWD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T11:16:44Z
  • Potential and challenges of tannins as an alternative to in-feed
           antibiotics for farm animal production

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Qianqian Huang, Xiuli Liu, Guoqi Zhao, Tianming Hu, Yuxi Wang
      Naturally occurring plant compounds including tannins, saponins and essential oils are extensively assessed as natural alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Tannins are a group of polyphenolic compounds that widely present in plant regime and possess various biological activities including antimicrobial, anti-parasitic, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, etc., and therefore are the major research subject in developing natural alternative to in-feed antibiotics. Strong protein affinity is the well-recognized property of plant tannins, which has successfully been applied to ruminant nutrition to decrease protein degradation in the rumen thereby improve protein utilization and animal production efficiency. Incorporation of tannin-containing forage in ruminant diet to control animal pasture bloat and intestinal parasite and pathogenic bacteria load are another three important applications of tannins in ruminant animals. Tannins have traditionally been regarded as “anti-nutritional factor” for monogastric animals and poultry, but recent research have revealed some of them, when applied in appropriate manner, improved intestinal microbial ecosystem, enhanced gut health and hence increased productive performance. The applicability of plant tannins as alternative to in-feed antibiotics depend on many factors that contribute to the great variability in their observed efficacies.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T11:16:44Z
  • Impacts of energy feeds and supplemental protease on growth performance,
           nutrient digestibility, and gut health of pigs from 18 to 45 kg body

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Hongyu Chen, Shihai Zhang, Inkyung Park, Sung Woo Kim
      A total of 144 pigs with 18.4 ± 2.3 kg initial body weight (BW) at 6 wk of age were used in a 40-d trial to evaluate effects of protease (300,000 U/kg feed, BioResource International Inc., Durham, NC, USA) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients, and gut health of pigs fed diets with sorghum. Pigs were randomly allotted to 4 treatments (12 pens per treatment, 3 pigs per pen) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (corn or sorghum basal diets, and 0 or 0.05% protease as 2 factors) with sex and initial BW as blocks. Experimental period had phase 1 (d 1 to 21) and phase 2 (d 22 to 40). About 65% (phase 1) and 72% (phase 2) of cereal grains were used in corn or sorghum based diets. Both grains were ground to 400 μm. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. On d 35, serum was collected to quantify tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Titanium dioxide (0.3%) was added as an indigestible marker for an additional 4 d feeding. On d 40, 32 pigs (8 pigs per treatment) were euthanized to collect digesta from jejunum and ileum (for viscosity and AID), tissues (for morphology) and mucosa samples (for TNF-α and MDA) from duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Replacing corn with sorghum in the diet increased (P < 0.05) overall average daily gain (from 756 to 787 g/day) and average daily feed intake (from 1,374 to 1,473 g/day), reduced (P < 0.05) overall gain:feed ratio (from 0.553 to 0.537), and did not affect AID. Pigs fed diets with sorghum had lower (P < 0.05) MDA content in serum (from 14.61 to 6.48 μmol/L) and jejunum (from 1.42 to 0.91 μmol/g protein), and reduced (P < 0.05) villus height (from 492 to 396 μm) and crypt depth (from 310 to 257 μm) in jejunum. Dietary protease improved (P < 0.05) AID of crude protein (from 81.8% to 86.0%), decreased MDA level (from 1.20 to 0.98 μmol/g protein) in duodenum, and increased (P < 0.05) the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (from 1.08 to 1.21) in duodenum. Overall, use of sorghum fully replacing corn in diets could benefit pigs with enhanced growth and feed intake potentially by reducing oxidative stress, whereas feed efficiency was compromised. Supplementation of protease improved protein digestion and maintained gut health, irrespective of sorghum or corn based diets.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T02:59:14Z
  • Combined effects of chitosan and microencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis
           CG1.0007 probiotic supplementation on performance and diarrhea incidences
           in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+ challenged piglets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Kolawole Aluko, Deepak E. Velayudhan, Ehsan Khafipour, Aike Li, Yulong Yin, Martin Nyachoti
      The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and a microencapsulated Enterococcus faecalis CG1.0007 probiotic (PRO) on growth performance and diarrhea incidences in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88+ challenged piglets in a 14-d study. Thirty piglets, 7.19 ± 0.52 kg initial BW weaned at 21 ± 1 d, were allotted to 5 treatment groups (n = 6) consisting of a corn-soybean meal diet with no additive (negative control, NC), NC + 0.25% chlortetracycline (positive control, PC), NC + 400 mg/kg COS (COS), NC + 100 mg/kg PRO (PRO) and NC + a combination of COS and PRO (CPRO). Pigs were individually housed in cages, acclimated to treatments for a 7-d period and had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the study. On d 8, pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and then orally challenged with 6 mL (1 × 1011 cfu/mL) of freshly grown ETEC inoculum. During post-challenge period, blood was sampled at 24 and 48 h to determine plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and diarrhea incidences and fecal consistency scores were recorded from d 9 to 12. On d 14, all pigs were weighed and then euthanized to obtain intestinal tissue samples for histomorphometric measurements. Growth performance responses were similar among treatments during the pre- and post-challenge periods. There were no significant differences in PUN content, incidences of diarrhea, and fecal consistency scores among treatments. The intestinal histomorphology results did not differ significantly among treatments except for PC with increased (P = 0.0001) villus:crypt ratio compared with the NC. Under the conditions of the present study, it can be concluded that supplementation of piglet diets with 400 mg/kg COS, 100 mg/kg microencapsulated PRO or their combination did not significantly improve piglet growth performance both during the pre- and post-ETEC K88+ oral inoculation. Also, there were no significant reduction of incidences and severity of diarrhea after challenge compared with the control group.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T20:13:09Z
  • Role of methionine on epigenetic modification of DNA methylation and gene
           expression in animals

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Naifeng Zhang
      DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic phenomena affecting gene expression. It is an important mechanism for the development of embryo, growth and health of animals. As a key nutritional factor limiting the synthesis of protein, methionine serves as the precursor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the hepatic one-carbon metabolism. The dietary fluctuation of methionine content can alter the levels of metabolic substrates in one-carbon metabolism, e.g., the SAM, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and change the expression of genes related to the growth and health of animals by DNA methylation reactions. The ratio of SAM to SAH is called ‘methylation index’ but it should be carefully explained because the complexity of methylation reaction. Alterations of methylation in a specific cytosine-guanine (CpG) site, rather than the whole promoter region, might be enough to change gene expression. Aberrant methionine cycle may provoke molecular changes of one-carbon metabolism that results in deregulation of cellular hemostasis and health problems. The importance of DNA methylation has been underscored but the mechanisms of methionine affecting DNA methylation are poorly understood. Nutritional epigenomics provides a promising insight into the targeting epigenetic changes in animals from a nutritional standpoint, which will deepen and expand our understanding of genes, molecules, tissues, and animals in which methionine alteration influences DNA methylation and gene expression.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T18:59:23Z
  • Evaluation of thyme and ajwain as antibiotic growth promoter substitutions
           on growth performance, carcass characteristics and serum biochemistry in
           Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Farshid Kheiri, Mostafa Faghani, Nasir Landy
      The present study was to evaluate thyme and ajwain as antibiotic growth promoter substitutions on growth performance, carcass characteristics and serum biochemistry in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). A feeding trial was conducted over 28 d with 4 groups of Japanese quails fed experimental diets formulated to provide no supplementation (control), or control + 55 mg zinc bacitracin/kg, 2 g thyme/kg, and 2 g ajwain/kg. At 35 d of age, 2 quails from each replicate were sacrificed and eviscerated. Liver, empty small intestine and heart were weighed and calculated as a percentage of live body weight. The carcasses were weighed and the cuts were performed to evaluate the yield of legs and breast. At 35 d of age, 2 quails per replicate were chosen and approximately 1-mL blood samples were collected through brachial vein, and concentrations of albumin, total protein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol were determined. Final body weight were not affected by the dietary treatment whereas, it tended to increase in quails supplemented with antibiotic. Overall feed conversation ratio values were similar though it tended to improve in quails supplemented with thyme compared with other groups. Daily feed intake, internal organ weights and carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Serum total cholesterol contents were lower (P < 0.05) in quails supplemented with ajwain compared with control and quails supplemented with antibiotic and thyme. The highest serum HDL-cholesterol was seen in the group supplemented with thyme compared with other groups. It was concluded that the addition of 2 g/kg thyme can improve serum biochemistry in quails, although its effects on performance criteria was negligible.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T18:59:23Z
  • Essential oils as alternatives to antibiotics in swine production

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Faith A. Omonijo, Liju Ni, Joshua Gong, Qi Wang, Ludovic Lahaye, Chengbo Yang
      This review article summarizes the efficacy, feasibility and potential mechanisms of the application of essential oils as antibiotic alternatives in swine production. Although there are numerous studies demonstrating that essential oils have several properties, such as antimicrobial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, feed palatability enhancement and improvement in gut growth and health, there is still a need of further investigations to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their functions. In the past, the results has been inconsistent in both laboratory and field studies because of the varied product compositions, dosages, purities and growing stages and conditions of animals. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils needed for killing enteric pathogens may not ensure the optimal feed intake and the essential oils inclusion cost may be too high in swine production. With the lipophilic and volatile nature of essential oils, there is a challenge in effective delivery of essential oils within pig gut and this challenge could partially be resolved by microencapsulation and nanotechnology. The effects of essential oils on inflammation, oxidative stress, microbiome, gut chemosensing and bacterial quorum sensing (QS) have led to better production performance of animals fed essential oils in a number of studies. It has been demonstrated that essential oils have good potential as antibiotic alternatives in feeds for swine production. The combination of different essential oils and other compounds (synergistic effect) such as organic acids seems to be a promising approach to improve the efficacy and safety of essential oils in applications. High-throughput systems technologies have been developed recently, which will allow us to dissect the mechanisms underlying the functions of essential oils and facilitate the use of essential oils in swine production.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T18:59:23Z
  • Growth performance, haematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality
           characteristics of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed canola
           meal-based diets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Caven M. Mnisi, Victor Mlambo
      The present study investigated the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal (Glycine max) with canola meal (CM) (Brassica napus) on the growth performance, haematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality characteristics of female Japanese quails in a 35-day feeding trial. One hundred and forty 6-week-old quails (158.28 ± 11.919) g were randomly allocated to 5 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets: control diet (CM0; with no CM inclusion); CM0 with 2.5% (CM25), 5.0% (CM50), 12.5% (CM125) and 17.5% (CM175) soybean meal replaced with CM. Average weekly gain (AWG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were determined. Haematology, serum biochemistry, carcass traits and meat quality parameters were determined at slaughter. Quails fed CM175 had the lowest (P < 0.05) feed intake whereas no differences were observed among the other 4 diets. No dietary effects on AWG, FCE and haematological parameters were observed. Serum biochemical parameters were not influenced by diets with the exception of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), where quails fed CM25 had higher ALP (161.0 U/L) than those fed CM0 (37.25 U/L). Quails fed CM25 had the highest chroma (7.39) while those fed CM125 had the lowest (3.58) at 24 h post-slaughter. Diets had no influence (P > 0.05) on cooking losses and peak positive force of quail meat. It was concluded that CM can replace soybean in quail diets up to 12.5% without compromising growth performance, health and quality of meat. Inclusion levels beyond 12.5% promoted poor voluntary feed intake and thus may require feed additives to enhance utilization.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T18:23:55Z
  • Implications of butyrate and its derivatives for gut health and animal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Andrea Bedford, Joshua Gong
      Butyrate is produced by microbial fermentation in the large intestine of humans and animals. It serves as not only a primary nutrient that provides energy to colonocytes, but also a cellular mediator regulating multiple functions of gut cells and beyond, including gene expression, cell differentiation, gut tissue development, immune modulation, oxidative stress reduction, and diarrhea control. Although there are a large number of studies in human medicine using butyrate to treat intestinal disease, the importance of butyrate in maintaining gut health has also attracted significant research attention to its application for animal production, particularly as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. Due to the difficulties of using butyrate in practice (i.e., offensive odour and absorption in the upper gut), different forms of butyrate, such as sodium butyrate and butyrate glycerides, have been developed and examined for their effects on gut health and growth performance across different species. Butyrate and its derivatives generally demonstrate positive effects on animal production, including enhancement of gut development, control of enteric pathogens, reduction of inflammation, improvement of growth performance (including carcass composition), and modulation of gut microbiota. These benefits are more evident in young animals, and variations in the results have been reported. The present article has critically reviewed recent findings in animal research on butyrate and its derivatives in regard to their effects and mechanisms behind and discussed the implications of these findings for improving animal gut health and production. In addition, significant findings of medical research in humans that are relevant to animal production have been cited.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T18:23:55Z
  • Outlook: Sorghum as a feed grain for Australian chicken-meat production

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Peter H. Selle, Amy F. Moss, Ha H. Truong, Ali Khoddami, David J. Cadogan, Ian D. Godwin, Sonia Yun Liu
      The purpose of this review is to generate an outlook for sorghum as a feed grain for broiler chickens based on a survey of relevant stake-holders and recent research outcomes. The likelihood is that Australian grain sorghum production will continue to generate a harvest in the order of 2.5 million tonnes of which some 790,000 tonnes will be used as a feed grain for poultry and pigs. Wheat, the dominant feed grain, is considered to be about $20 per tonne superior to sorghum and this price premium stems largely from the higher crude protein levels in wheat. Nevertheless, feed grains are included in pig and poultry diets primarily to provide energy from starch but energy utilisation by broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets is relatively inferior, because of incomplete starch digestion. Kafirin, the dominant protein fraction, ‘non-tannin’ phenolic compounds and phytate are three ‘starch extrinsic’ factors in sorghum that were found to be compromising starch digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets. Kafirin concentrations in six sorghum varieties were negatively correlated with ME:GE ratios (r = -0.891; P < 0.02) or the efficiency of energy utilisation in broiler chickens. Importantly, kafirin proportions of sorghum protein may be increasing with time in Australia on the basis of changes in sorghum amino acid profiles. If so, this represents a fundamental challenge to sorghum breeders which presumably could be met by the development of sorghum varieties with different characteristics, especially in relation to the γ- and β-kafirin fractions. White sorghum varieties axiomatically contain lower polyphenol concentrations which should be advantageous as concentrations of total phenolic compounds were negatively correlated to ME:GE ratios (r = -0.838; P < 0.04) in six sorghum varieties. Thus it would be desirable if more white varieties were to become available that were suited to local conditions. It is suggested that responses to exogenous phytase in birds offered sorghum-based diets would be more robust if sorghum were to contain lower concentrations of kafirin and phenolic compounds. Also in such sorghums starch gelatinisation temperatures should be lower and pellet quality may be enhanced as a consequence. Paradoxically, while better sorghum varieties almost certainly could be developed, it may not necessarily follow that they will command a price premium from poultry and pig producers.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T09:07:38Z
  • Inoculation and co-inoculation of alfalfa seedlings with root growth
           promoting microorganisms (Piriformospora indica, Glomus intraradices and
           Sinorhizobium meliloti) affect molecular structures, nutrient profiles and
           availability of hay for ruminants

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Milad Jafari, Mojtaba Yari, Mehdi Ghabooli, Mozgan Sepehri, Ebrahim Ghasemi, Arjan Jonker
      Inoculation of alfalfa seedlings with root growth promoting microorganisms under semi-arid climate condition may improve biomass production and nutritive value. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of inoculation of alfalfa seedlings with Piriformospora indica (Pi) and co-inoculating Pi with Glomus intraradices (Gi + Pi) or Sinorhizobium meliloti (Sm + Pi) on hay yield, chemical composition, molecular structures by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, in situ ruminal degradability and in vitro gas production. Seedlings were grown in experimental pots in a greenhouse until first cut and then transferred outside and cut a further 4 times. Biomass yield was similar across the treatments. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration was higher in Pi than control hay, and ADF decreased further with co-inoculation (P < 0.05). The ether extract (EE) concentration was lower for Pi and Gi + Pi compared with control hay, and control, Pi and Gi + Pi hays had lower EE concentration compared with Sm + Pi (P < 0.05). The FTIR spectroscopic vibration peak height ratio related to proteins (amide 1 + amide 2): total carbohydrate ratio was lower for the inoculation treatments compared with control hay (P < 0.05). In situ ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM) and organic matter were higher for hay of inoculated and co-inoculated seedlings than for control hay (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hay of alfalfa seedlings inoculated and co-inoculated with root growth promoting microorganisms had improved nutritional value compared with hay from non-treated alfalfa seedlings, and co-inoculation was the most effective, however, changes were relatively minor.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T09:07:38Z
  • Growth performance and hematology of Djallonké rams fed haulms of 4
           varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Ansah Terry, Yaccub I. Zanabongo, Abdul R. Nurudeen
      The study was conducted to assess the chemical composition of the haulms of 4 dual-purpose groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties and their effects on the growth and hematology of Djallonké rams. The groundnut varieties were ICGV 97049 (Obolo), ICGX SM 87057 (Yenyawoso), RMP 12 (Azivivi) and Manipinta. Rams (means ± SD, live weight 15.0 ± 3.0 kg) were randomly assigned to 4 sole groundnut haulm meal (GHM) treatments, with 4 rams each in an individual pen per treatment (total n = 16 rams). Samples of the groundnut haulms were milled and analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The CP concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in Azivivi, Manipinta and Yenyawoso than Obolo. The highest (P < 0.05) NDF and ADF fractions were obtained in Obolo. Whilst no significant difference was reported in total and daily dry matter (DM) intake among the varieties, CP, NDF and ADF intake all differed between Obolo and the other varieties. The apparent nutrient digestibility did not differ (P > 0.05) when the Djallonké rams were fed the haulms. However, significant differences were observed in final live weight and average daily live weight gain. Rams fed the Yenyawoso variety had higher (P < 0.05) final live weight and average daily live weight gain compared with those that were fed Obolo and Azivivi varieties. Consumption of any of the 4 varieties of groundnut haulms by Djallonké rams did not have any harmful effect on their red and white blood cell numbers and hemoglobin concentration. The study revealed that the different varieties of groundnut haulms differed in nutrient composition and also affected the growth performance of the rams. The Yenyawoso variety may be used as a sole diet for fattening Djallonké rams.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T08:50:50Z
  • Effects of yeast cell wall on growth performance, immune responses and
           intestinal short chain fatty acid concentrations of broiler in an
           experimental necrotic enteritis model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Guang-Da Xue, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct, Robert A. Swick
      Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) causes devastating economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised free of in-feed antibiotics. Prebiotics are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Yeast cell wall extract (YCW) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prebiotic with known immune modulating effects. This study examined the effects of YCW and antibiotics (AB) during subclinical NE on broiler growth performance, intestinal lesions, humoral immune response and gut microflora metabolites. The study employed a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were: NE challenge (yes or no) and feed additive (control, AB, or YCW). Each treatment was replicated in 8 floor pens with 15 birds per pen. Challenged birds had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) than unchallenged birds on d 35 (P < 0.05). Dietary inclusion of AB decreased FCR regardless of challenge (P < 0.05) on d 24 and 35. Inclusion of YCW reduced serum interleukin-1 (IL-1) concentration in NE challenged birds (P < 0.01) and increased immunoglobulin (Ig) G (P < 0.05) and Ig M (P < 0.05) levels compared to other dietary treatments regardless of challenge. Yeast cell wall extract increased formic acid concentration in cecal contents during challenge and increased butyric acid concentration in unchallenged birds on d 16. This study indicates YCW suppressed inflammatory response, promoted generation of immunoglobulin and increased short chain fatty acid production suggesting potential benefits to bird health.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T08:50:50Z
  • Effect of dietary incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich oil
           sources on fatty acid profile, keeping quality and sensory attributes of
           broiler chicken meat

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Sridhar Kalakuntla, Nalini K. Nagireddy, Arun K. Panda, Narasimha Jatoth, Raghunandan Thirunahari, Ravinder R. Vangoor
      The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of commonly used vegetable oil (sunflower oil) with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich oil sources on broiler chicken performance, carcass yield, meat fatty acid composition, keeping quality and sensory attributes of meat. In the current experiment, 300 day-old Krishibro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 5 dietary groups (50 replicates with 6 chicks in each) prepared by replacing sunflower oil (SFO) (2% and 3% of diet during starter and finisher periods, respectively) with n-3 PUFA rich soybean oil (SO), mustard oil (MO), linseed oil (LO) or fish oil (FO) on weight basis. Variation in oil sources had no influence (P > 0.05) on performance and carcass yield. Supplementation of MO, LO or FO significantly (P < 0.01) increased the n-3 PUFA, lowered the n-6 PUFA deposition and n-6: n-3 ratio in breast and thigh without affecting the organoleptic characters (appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability) of meat. However, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) concentration in meat was increased (P < 0.01) with LO and FO supplementation compared with SFO. It is concluded that, dietary incorporation of MO, LO or FO at 2% and 3% level during starter and finisher phase could enrich broiler chicken meat with n-3 PUFA without affecting the bird’s performance and sensory characters of meat.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T08:50:50Z
  • Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture
           supplementation during early and mid-lactation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Hanne H. Hansen, Nasr El-Sayed El-Bordeny, Hossam M. Ebeid
      Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S. cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026), on primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Eight PP and 16 MP lactating buffaloes were fed either a basal total mixed ration (TMR, control; 4 PP and 8 MP) or the basal TMR plus 10 g Yea-Sacc1026 per buffalo cow per day (yeast; 4 PP and 8 MP). The feeds were given from 15 days prepartum to 180 days postpartum. Feed intake, body weight, and milk yields (MY) were recorded and milk and blood samples were collected for analyses. Feces were collected from days 45 to 47 during early lactation and from days 90 to 92 during mid-lactation to determine apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF). Energy corrected milk yield (ECM), feed conversion, and energy and nitrogen conversion efficiency were calculated. Yeast treated MP buffaloes consumed more DM (P < 0.041) and CP than the untreated control group. Apparent digestibility of DM and OM were significantly greater at mid-lactation for treated versus control group (P = 0.001). Crude fiber digestibility was greater in MP than PP buffaloes (P = 0.049), and yeast supplemented MP cows had a greater CF digestibility than control MP buffaloes at mid-lactation (P = 0.010). Total blood lipids decreased after yeast supplementation (P = 0.029). Milk yields, ECM, fat and protein yields increased for yeast treated MP buffaloes (P ≤ 0.039). The study concluded that the response to yeast supplementation in buffalo cows is parity dependent. Multiparous buffaloes respond to yeast supplementation with an increased DM intake and CF digestibility without significant weight gains, allowing a greater ECM yield with less fat mobilization. Supplementing buffaloes with yeast culture may increase milk production in early lactation and results in a more persistent milk production during mid-lactation. Feed conversion and energy and nitrogen conversion efficiency may be increased with the use of yeast supplementation in Egyptian buffaloes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T08:50:50Z
  • Optimal sulphur amino acid to lysine ratio for post weaning piglets reared
           under clean or unclean sanitary conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Roselyn Kahindi, Alemu Regassa, John Htoo, Martin Nyachoti
      Two 14-day experiments, each with 90 (Duroc × [Yorkshire × Landrace]; 7.3 ± 0.6 kg) piglets, were conducted to determine the optimum sulphur amino acid (SAA): Lysine (Lys) ratio for piglets when reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions using performance and non-performance response criteria. Piglets were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments. The basal diet contained 1.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys, and the SAA: Lys ratio was 52%. In diets 2 to 5, the basal diet was supplemented with 4 graded levels of DL-Met to make SAA: Lys ratio of 56%, 60%, 64% and 68%. In Exp. 1, piglets were housed in disinfected clean room. In Exp. 2, piglets were housed in a room previously occupied by other pigs and was not disinfected. On the last day, blood was collected to measure plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and one pig per pen was euthanized to collect jejunal tissue to measure villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), and VH:CD. In Exp. 1, increasing SAA: Lys ratio linearly and quadratically increased VH and VH:CD (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, increasing SAA: Lys ratio linearly increased (P < 0.05) VH and VH:CD and linearly and quadratically decreased PUN (P < 0.05). Estimated PUN and VH-based optimum SAA: Lys requirements for clean and unclean sanitary condition were 60%, 63% and 66%, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T08:50:50Z
  • Influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on the course of
           subclinical necrotic enteritis in a broiler disease model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Nisha Sharma, Samir Ranjitkar, Nishchal K. Sharma, Ricarda M. Engberg
      This experiment was carried out with 375 male broilers (Ross 308) from days 1 to 28 to evaluate the influence of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the manifestation of subclinical necrotic enteritis, microbiota counts, organic acid production and relative weights of gastrointestinal segments. A necrotic enteritis disease model was applied. Birds were allocated into 3 different dietary treatments: a maize based feed (MBF, control diet), and 2 diets supplemented with 15% (CKMS15) or 30% (CKMS30) of crimped ensiled kernel maize. The disease model involved a 10-time overdose of an attenuated live vaccine against coccidiosis given orally on day 17, followed by oral inoculation of Clostridium Perfringens Type A (S48, 108 to109 bacteria/bird) twice daily on days 18, 19, 20 and 21. Scoring of intestinal lesions was performed on days 22, 23, 25 and 28. Ileal and caecal digesta samples were collected for the quantification of selected bacterial groups and organic acids. The results showed that there was no effect of dietary treatments on small intestinal lesion scores (P > 0.05). Lesions scores peaked on days 23 and 25 and decreased again on day 28 (P = 0.001). No effect of age on microbiota counts was observed, but feeding of CKMS30 reduced the number of coliforms in ileal contents (P = 0.01). Dietary treatments did not affect organic acid concentrations in ileum and caeca, but there was an effect of age; butyric acid was higher on days 22, 23 and 25 compared to day 28 (P = 0.04). Acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations in caeca were the highest on days 22 and 28 but the lowest on days 23 and 25. Relative gizzard and caeca weights were increased, and relative ileum weights were decreased when birds were fed CKMS30 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of CKMS in broiler diets had no effects on the course of necrotic enteritis but had potential benefits in terms of inhibition of potentially harmful microorganisms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T02:44:15Z
  • Interactive effect of dietary vitamin E and inorganic mercury on growth
           performance and bioaccumulation of mercury in juvenile olive flounder,
           Paralichthys olivaceus treated with mercuric chloride

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Jun-Ho Lee, Jin-hyeok Lee, Seonghun Won, Jim H. Damusaru, Sungchul C. Bai
      A 6-week feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, TA) on growth and mercury (Hg) accumulation in juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Vitamin E and HgCl2 were added to the semi-purified basal diet. Six semi-purified diets in a 2 × 3 factorial design were formulated to contain 2 levels of Hg (0 or 20 mg HgCl2/kg diet) and 3 levels of vitamin E (0, 100, or 200 mg TA/kg diet). Experimental fish (n = 360, 9.99 ± 0.15 g) were randomly allocated into 30-L tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank with 3 replicates in each treatment and were fed twice a day. At the end of the feeding trial, dietary Hg depressed the growth performances in terms of weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish, while fish fed the diets supplemented with vitamin E showed significant growth improvement in both presence and absence of HgCl2 in the diets (P < 0.05). Survival rate was not affected in fish fed the experimental diets. Whole body compositions of fish such as lipid and moisture contents were influenced by dietary vitamin E supplementation. Total Hg contents of muscle, liver and kidney tissues were significantly reduced in fish fed diets supplemented with vitamin E (P < 0.05), while the two-way ANOVA showed that increasing Hg concentration has resulted in a reduction in vitamin E. Whole body fatty acids of fish like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents were decreased by dietary Hg. However, supplementation of dietary vitamin E improved the α-linolenic acid (ALA) and EPA contents in fish. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation of vitamin E had potential effects on growth improvement and ameliorating inorganic Hg bioaccumulation in juvenile olive flounder.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T02:44:15Z
  • Rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle as inoculum for feed evaluation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Pius Lutakome, Fred Kabi, Francis Tibayungwa, Germana H. Laswai, Abiliza Kimambo, Cyprian Ebong
      Use of nonlinear mathematical models has been majorly based on in vitro gas production (GP) data generated when substrates are incubated with rumen liquor from fistulated steers. However, existing evidence suggests that rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle of unknown dietary history also generates quantifiable in vitro GP data. Fitting and description of GP data obtained from 4 diets incubated with rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle was evaluated using single-pool exponential model with discrete lag time (EXPL), logistic (LOG), Groot’s (GRTS) and Gompertz (GOMP) models. Diets were formulated by varying proportions of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay and a concentrate mixed on dry matter basis to be: 1,000 g/kg Rhodes grass hay (RGH) and 0 of the concentrate (D1), 900 g/kg RGH and 100 g/kg concentrate (D2), 800 g/kg RGH and 200 g/kg concentrate (D3), 700 g/kg RGH and 300 g/kg concentrate (D4). Dietary kinetics for the models were determined by measuring GP at 2, 4, 8, 10, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. Model comparison was based on derived GP kinetics, graphical analysis of observed versus predicted GP profiles plus residual distribution and goodness-of-fit from analysis of root mean square error (RMSE), adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj-R2) and Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). Asymptotic GP, half-life and fractional rate of GP differed (P < 0.001) among the 4 models. The RMSE, Adj-R2 and AIC ranged between 1.555 to 4.429, 0.906 to 0.984 and 2.452 to 15.874, respectively, for all diets compared across the 4 models. Based on the goodness-of-fit statistical criterion, GP profiles of D1 were more appropriately fitted and described by GRTS and GOMP than the EXPL and LOG models. The GRTS model had the lowest AIC value for D2 (2.452). Although GRTS model had the most homogenous residual dispersion for the 4 diets, all the 4 models exhibited a sigmoidal behavior. Therefore, rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle of unknown dietary history can be used to derive nutritionally important feed parameters, but choice of the most appropriate model should be made based on fitting criteria and dietary substrates incubated.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T02:44:15Z
  • Effect of phytase superdosing, myo-inositol and available phosphorus
           concentrations on performance and bone mineralisation in broilers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Sophie Ann Lee, Devanaboyina Nagalakshmi, Mantina Venkata Lakshmi Narasimha Raju, Savaram Venkata Rama Rao, Michael Richard Bedford
      A total of 2,376 Ross broiler chickens were used to investigate the effect of myo-inositol (MYO) and phytase supplementation on performance and bone mineralization variables in broilers fed diets formulated to have varying concentrations of available phosphorus (P). The trial was designed as a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial; with and without phytase superdosing (0 or 1,500 FTU/kg), MYO (0 or 3 g/kg), and dietary P (low, moderate or high). At 21 d, dietary phytase and MYO had no consistent benefit on bone mineralization variables. Bone ash reduced by 4.7% from the medium to low P diet (P < 0.01), with no effect of phytase supplementation. Superdosing improved bone P content by 6% in birds fed the low P diet, signifying an interaction between dietary P concentrations and phytase (P < 0.05). Dietary MYO addition resulted in a numerical reduction in bone ash and a significant reduction in bone strength (P < 0.05). At 42 d, the beneficial effect of phytase superdosing on feed intake and body weight gain (BWG) was evident in the low P diet. Superdosing reduced FCR at all P levels (P < 0.05), although this effect was more pronounced on the low P diet, suggesting that sufficient P being released from the phytase itself to re-phosphorylate MYO and hence improve FCR. The significant improvement in FCR shown with superdosing was greater than with MYO alone, and the combination led to no further improvement in FCR compared with superdosing alone, signifying a phytase and MYO interaction (P < 0.05). From these results, it can be estimated that MYO is providing around 30% to 35% of the total response to superdosing.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T02:44:15Z
  • Feed supplementation with arginine and zinc on antioxidant status and
           inflammatory response in challenged weanling piglets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Nadia Bergeron, Claude Robert, Frédéric Guay
      Although supplementing the diet with zinc oxide and arginine is known to improve growth in weanling piglets, the mechanism of action is not well understood. We measured the antioxidant status and inflammatory response in 48 weanling castrated male piglets fed diets supplemented with or not with zinc oxide (2,500 mg Zn oxide per kg) and arginine (1%) starting at the age of 20 days. The animals were injected with lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg) on day 5. Half of them received another injection on day 12. Blood samples were taken just before and 6, 24 and 48 h after injection and the mucosa lining the ileum was recovered following euthanizing on days 7 and 14. Zinc supplementation increased glutathione (reduced and total) during days 5 to 7 and arginine decreased oxidized glutathione measured on days 5 and 12 and the ratio of total antioxidant capacity to total oxidative status during days 12 to 14. Zinc decreased plasma malondialdehyde measured on days 5 and 12 and serum haptoglobin measured on day 12 and increased both metallothionein-1 expression and total antioxidant capacity measured in the ileal mucosa on day 14. Tumour necrosis factor α concentration decreased from days 5 to 12 (all effects were significant at P < 0.05). This study shows that the zinc supplement reduced lipid oxidation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation during the post-weaning period, while the arginine supplementation had only a limited effect.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T02:44:15Z
  • Techniques for evaluating digestibility of energy, amino acids,
           phosphorus, and calcium in feed ingredients for pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Fengrui Zhang, Olayiwola Adeola
      Sound feed formulation is dependent upon precise evaluation of energy and nutrients values in feed ingredients. Hence the methodology to determine the digestibility of energy and nutrients in feedstuffs should be chosen carefully before conducting experiments. The direct and difference procedures are widely used to determine the digestibility of energy and nutrients in feedstuffs. The direct procedure is normally considered when the test feedstuff can be formulated as the sole source of the component of interest in the test diet. However, in some cases where test ingredients can only be formulated to replace a portion of the basal diet to provide the component of interest, the difference procedure can be applied to get equally robust values. Based on components of interest, ileal digesta or feces can be collected, and different sample collection processes can be used. For example, for amino acids (AA), to avoid the interference of fermentation in the hind gut, ileal digesta samples are collected to determine the ileal digestibility and simple T cannula and index method are commonly used techniques for AA digestibility analysis. For energy, phosphorus, and calcium, normally fecal samples will be collected to determine the total tract digestibility, and therefore the total collection method is recommended to obtain more accurate estimates. Concerns with the use of apparent digestibility values includes different estimated values from different inclusion level and non-additivity in mixtures of feed ingredients. These concerns can be overcome by using standardized digestibility, or true digestibility, by correcting endogenous losses of components from apparent digestibility values. In this review, methodologies used to determine energy and nutrients digestibility in pigs are discussed. It is suggested that the methodology should be carefully selected based on the component of interest, feed ingredients, and available experimental facilities.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T02:44:15Z
  • Using probiotics to improve swine gut health and nutrient utilization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Shengfa F. Liao, C. Martin Nyachoti
      To maintain a healthy gut is definitely key for a pig to digest and absorb dietary nutrients efficiently. A balanced microbiota (i.e., a healthy micro-ecosystem) is an indispensable constituent of a healthy gut. Probiotics, the live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer good health benefits onto the host, are a category of feed additives that can be used to replenish the gut microbial population while recuperating the host immune system. Besides their antitoxin and diarrhea reduction effects, dietary supplementation of probiotics can improve gut health, nutrient digestibilities and, therefore, benefit nutrient utilization and growth performance of pigs. Current knowledge in the literature pertinent to the beneficial effects of utilizing various probiotics for swine production has been comprehensively reviewed, and the safety and the risk issues related to probiotic usage have also been discussed in this paper. Considering that the foremost cost in a swine operation is feed cost, feed efficiency holds a very special, if not the paramount, significance in commercial swine production. Globally, the swine industry along with other animal industries is moving towards restricting and eventually a total ban on the usage of antibiotic growth promoters. Therefore, selection of an ideal alternative to the in-feed antibiotics to compensate for the lost benefits due to the ban on the antibiotic usage is urgently needed to support the industry for profitable and sustainable swine production. As is understood, a decision on this selection is not easy to make. Thus, this review paper aims to provide some much needed up-to-date knowledge and comprehensive references for swine nutritionists and producers to refer to before making prudent decisions and for scientists and researchers to develop better commercial products.

      PubDate: 2017-07-20T02:44:15Z
  • Effect of chicken egg anti-F4 antibodies on performance and diarrhea
           incidences in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+-challenged piglets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Kolawole Aluko, Deepak E. Velayudhan, Ehsan Khafipour, Lin Fang, Martin Nyachoti
      The aim was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of spay-dried whole egg containing anti-F4 antibodies (SDWE) against recombinantly produced F4 antigens in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+ (ETEC)-challenged piglets. Twenty-seven 21-d-old and individually housed piglets were randomly allotted to 3 treatments consisting of a wheat-soybean meal basal diet containing either 0 (control egg powder; CEP), 0.1% (SDWE1) or 0.4% (SDWE2) SDWE. After a 7-d adaptation period, blood samples were collected from all pigs, and pigs were weighed and orally challenged with an ETEC inoculum. Blood was sampled at 24 h and 48 h post-challenge, and diarrhea incidences and scores were recorded. On d 14, all pigs were weighed and then euthanized to obtain intestinal tissue samples for histomorphology measurement. During the pre-challenge period, pigs fed the SDWE showed a linear improvement (P < 0.05) in average daily gain (ADG) and gain to feed ratio (G:F), but there were no differences among treatments in growth performance during the post-challenge period. Diarrhea incidences and scores, fecal shedding of ETEC, plasma urea nitrogen content and intestinal histomorphology were similar among treatments. The results show that 0.4% SDWE supported greater piglet performance before challenge although such benefits were not evident during the post-challenge period at either 0.1% or 0.4% supplementation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:35:41Z
  • Nutrient density of prestarter diets from 0 to 10 days of age affects
           intestinal morphometry, enzyme activity, serum indices and performance of
           broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Ficinine V. Ivanovich, Ocmanyan A. Karlovich, Reza Mahdavi, Egorov I. Afanasyevich
      A total of 480 day-old Cobb 500 broilers were used to investigate the effects of different levels of digestible amino acids (DAA; 100%, 107% and 114% of Cobb recommendations) and ME (3,000 or 2,900 kcal/kg) of prestarter diet on mixed sex broilers performance, enzyme activity, small intestine morphology, and serum metabolites. Broilers were randomly allotted to 6 treatments, where each treatment applied to 4 pens with 20 birds in each. The birds were subjected to their respective treatment diets from 1 to 10 days of age. This was followed by feeding common starter and finisher diets for the last 29 days. The enzyme activity of the pancreas was measured at 10 days of age. Morphometric indexes of jejunum were measured at 10 days of age and the end of the feeding period. Our results showed that the body weight (BW) increased as the DAA density of the prestarter diet increased from 100% to 114% over the first 10 days and the entire period of the study. Birds fed 114% DAA presented a better feed conversion ratio on day 10 (P < 0.05). At day 39, carcass weight and breast yield increased as the DAA levels increased from 100% to 114% (P < 0.05). The whole intestine length, small intestine length, and weights of the pancreas were lower in birds fed 100% DAA-diets at 10 days of age (P < 0.05). Increasing the dietary DAA and ME did not affect serum amylase, lipase, and protease concentrations and pancreatic amylase and lipase activity (P > 0.05); however, the activity of pancreatic protease increased as the DAA level increased from 100% to 114% (P < 0.05). The villus width and villus surface area (VSA) increased as the DAA level increased from 100% to 114% on day 10 (P < 0.05). At 10 days of age, crypt depth was the lowest in the birds fed plenty DAA prestarter diets (P < 0.05). It was found that dietary treatments at 39 days of age did not affect intestinal morphology. The results of the present work indicate that DAA level of 114% of Cobb recommendations and energy level of 2,900 kcal/kg diet may be recommended for starting broiler chicks.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:35:41Z
  • An increase in corn resistant starch decreases protein fermentation and
           modulates gut microbiota during in vitro cultivation of pig large
           intestinal inocula

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Xiangyu He, Weiwei Sun, Ting Ge, Chunlong Mu, Weiyun Zhu
      High protein diet could cause an increase in protein fermentation in the large intestine, leading to an increased production of potentially detrimental metabolites. We hypothesized that an increase in corn resistant starch content may attenuate the protein fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistant starch on protein fermentation by inocula from large intestine of pigs using in vitro cultivation. Fermentation patterns were analyzed during a 24-h incubation of cecal and colonic digesta with varying corn resistant starch contents, using casein protein as sole nitrogen source. The results showed that the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production were significantly increased (P < 0.05), while ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), which indicated protein fermentation, decreased when the corn resistant starch levels increased (P < 0.05). The copies of total bacteria, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were significantly increased with the increased corn resistant starch levels after incubation (P < 0.05). The copies of the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in cecum were significantly higher than those in colon (P < 0.05). We conclude that the addition of corn resistant starch weakens the protein fermentation by influencing microbial population and reducing protein fermentation in the cecum and colon in vitro.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:35:41Z
  • Husbandry practices and gut health outcomes in weaned piglets: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Balachandar Jayaraman, Charles M. Nyachoti
      The immediate post-weaning period is one of the most stressful phases in a pig’s life, and during this period, piglets are usually exposed to environmental, social and psychological stressors which have direct or indirect effects on gut health and overall growth performance. In this review, the impact of husbandry practices on gut health outcomes and performance of piglets is discussed. Husbandry practices in the swine barn generally include nutrition and management practices, maintenance of hygienic standards and disease prevention protocols, and animal welfare considerations. Poor husbandry practices could result in reduced feed intake, stress and disease conditions, and consequently affect gut health and performance in weaned piglets. Reduced feed intake is a major risk factor for impaired gut structure and function and therefore a key goal is to maximize feed intake in newly weaned piglets. In weaned piglets, crowding stress could reduce pig performance, favor the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria resulting in diarrhea, stimulate immune responses and interfere with beneficial microbial activities in the gut. Sanitation conditions in the swine barn plays an important role for optimal piglet performance, because unclean conditions reduced growth performance, shifted nutrient requirements to support the immune system and negatively affected the gut morphology in weaned piglets. Appropriate biosecurity measures need to be designed to prevent disease entry and spread within a swine operation, which in turn helps to keep all pigs and piglets healthy. Collectively, husbandry practices relating to feeding and nutrition, animal welfare, biosecurity and disease prevention are important determinants of gut health and piglet performance. Thus, it is suggested that adopting high husbandry practices is a critical piece in strategies aimed at raising pigs without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:35:41Z
  • Weaning stress and gastrointestinal barrier development: Implications for
           lifelong gut health in pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Adam J. Moeser, Calvin S. Pohl, Mrigendra Rajput
      The gastrointestinal (GI) barrier serves a critical role in survival and overall health of animals and humans. Several layers of barrier defense mechanisms are provided by the epithelial, immune and enteric nervous systems. Together they act in concert to control normal gut functions (e.g., digestion, absorption, secretion, immunity, etc.) whereas at the same time provide a barrier from the hostile conditions in the luminal environment. Breakdown of these critical GI functions is a central pathophysiological mechanism in the most serious GI disorders in pigs. This review will focus on the development and functional properties of the GI barrier in pigs and how common early life production stressors, such as weaning, can alter immediate and long-term barrier function and disease susceptibility. Specific stress-related pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for driving GI barrier dysfunction induced by weaning and the implications to animal health and performance will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T07:35:41Z
  • Gluconeogenesisduring starvation and refeeding phase is affected by
           previous dietary carbohydrates levels and a glucose stimuli during early
           life in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Xiaofang Liang, Jia Wang, Guan Gong, Min Xue, Yingchao Dong, Xiufeng Wu, Xin Wang, Chunshan Chen, Xufang Liang, Yuchang Qin
      Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G) or a low glucose diet (F) from first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching, dph). Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H) or a low carbohydrate diet (L) until 20 wk. In the current study, the fish in 4 groups (GL, FL, GH and FH) were experienced to starvation for 21 d following by re-feeding of their corresponding diets for 21 d. Fish were sampled at postprandial 6 and 24 h before starvation (P6h and P24h), starvation 7, 14 and 21 d (S7, S14 and S21) and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d during refeeding (R1, R7, R14 and R21). Plasma samples during refeeding were taken at P6h at each time point. Glycaemia levels, liver and muscle glycogen contents, activities and mRNA levels of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. We found that both dietary carbohydratelevels and early glucose stimuli significantly affected the metabolic responses to starvation and refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (P < 0.05). During prolonged starvation, Siberian sturgeon firstly mobilized the liver glycogen and then improved gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates were abundant, whereas preserved the liver glycogen stores at a stable level and more effectively promoted gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates are absent to maintain glucose homeostasis. During refeeding, as most teleostean, Siberian sturgeon failed controlling the activities and mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic forms (PEPCK-C), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), but particularly controlled phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mitochondrial forms (PEPCK-M) activities and mRNA expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, except in GL group). Siberian sturgeon has a full compensatory ability on growth, but this ability would be obstructed by early glucose stimuli when refeeding the low carbohydrate diet after S21.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T03:47:19Z
  • Recent advances in sturgeon nutrition

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Silas S.O. Hung
      Sturgeons are fish species of biological and economical importance, and most of them are endangered, vulnerable or rare because of their large size, late sexual maturity, long period between spawning, and longevity. These unique biological characteristics make them highly susceptible to overfishing, degradation of habitat and spawning ground, and contamination of water and sediments by pollutants. The objective of the current review is not to exhaustively include all studies on sturgeon nutrient requirements and utilization conducted under laboratory conditions, but to critique some studies and update previous reviews. The goal is to provide a basis for recommendations for future research so that these important fish species can be managed and produced sustainably. Energy, protein, lipid carbohydrate, vitamin, and mineral requirements and utilizations were reviewed or critiqued. Future studies to develop suitable chemically defined diets to support good growth of sturgeon are urgently needed. Furthermore, future experiments should be designed systematically with more consideration on within and among studies and within and among different species of sturgeon. Finally, future experiments should be designed with a systematic approach with multiple doses (inputs) and multiple responses (outputs) at several levels of hierarchical organization in a biological system using traditional biochemical and modern molecular techniques and computer modeling with proper experimental design and methodology. This approach will provide a more realistic and holistic understanding of the mechanisms of nutrient requirements and utilizations, which will help us better manage wild sturgeon stocks and produce sturgeon more efficiently and sustainably under aquaculture conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T23:27:30Z
  • Responses of milk production of dairy cows to jugular infusions of a
           mixture of essential amino acids with or without exclusion leucine or

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Wen Tian, Tianyou Wu, Rui Zhao, Jinhao Xu, Yao He, Hongrong Wang
      The purpose of this study was to determine effects of jugular infusion of either balanced or imbalanced amino acid mixture on milk production and composition in dairy cows. Eight mid-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 5-d continuous jugular infusions of saline (CTL), essential amino acid (EAA) mixture prepared on the profile of casein (CSN, 160 g/d), EAA mixture excluding leucine (Leu) (-Leu, 163 g/d) or EAA mixture excluding arginine (Arg) (-Arg, 158 g/d) in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 infusion periods separated by a 7-d interval period. The basal diet was formulated with corn grain, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, corn silage, alfalfa hay and Chinese wildrye grass hay according to NRC (2001) and supplied 1.6 Mcal net energy for lactation (NEL) and 94.4 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg dry matter (DM) to meet requirements for lactation. The results showed that the dry matter intake (DMI) and normal physiological status were not affected by amino acid mixture infusions. Compared with CTL treatment, the CSN treatment increased milk yield (14.9%, P < 0.001), milk lactose yield (14.5%, P = 0.001), milk fat yield (16.6%, P = 0.01), milk protein yield (18.2%, P < 0.001) and the contents of αS1-casein (αS1-CN, 11.8%, P = 0.007), β-casein (β-CN, 4.2%, P = 0.035) and κ-casein (κ-CN, 8.5%, P = 0.003). However, the -Leu and -Arg treatments had lower milk yield (6.3%, P = 0.058 and 5.7%, P = 0.073, respectively), milk protein yield (8.8%, P = 0.010 and 8.2%, P = 0.011, respectively) and the contents of αS1-CN (7.3%, P = 0.057 and 8.4%, P = 0.026, respectively), β-CN (4.2%, P = 0.033 and 3.8%, P = 0.048, respectively) and κ-CN (5.8%, P = 0.023 and 7.6%, P = 0.003, respectively) than those of the CSN treatment. Milk lactose yield (5.9%, P = 0.076) tended to decrease when Leu was removed from amino acid mixture infusate. In conclusion, the supply of casein profile can increase milk production in dairy cows, but a deficiency of Leu or Arg had negative effects on milk yield and milk protein yield.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T04:03:03Z
  • The role of supplemental glycine in establishing a subclinical necrotic
           enteritis challenge model in broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Guang-Da Xue, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct, Robert A. Swick
      Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) is an economically important disease in the broiler industry. With the move towards removal of antibiotics from feeds, solutions to control subclinical NE are desperately being sought. Dietary glycine has been shown to promote proliferation of Clostridium perfringens (Cp) and may thus be useful to include in a NE challenge model. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of increased dietary glycine levels on subclinical NE. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was carried out using day-old male Ross 308 chicks (n = 624) allocated to 48 floor pens with 8 treatments of 6 replicates with 11 birds per treatment. Factors were: Cp challenge (C- or C+), Eimeria spp. challenge (E- or E+), and dietary glycine in the grower diet (0 g/kg or 10 g/kg). Birds challenged with Eimeria (P < 0.01) and Cp (P < 0.01) on d24 and Cp (P < 0.05) on d35 had higher FCR, but lower in birds fed glycine (P = 0.003) on d24. Supplementation of glycine reduced feed intake on d24 and increased weight gain on d35 (P < 0.05). A Cp × Eimeria × glycine interaction (P < 0.05) showed a higher jejunal lesion scores in birds challenged with a combination of Cp and glycine compared with those with Eimeria and glycine or the unchallenged birds. Lesion score interactions between Cp and glycine (P < 0.05) in the ileum and Cp and Eimeria in the duodenum (P < 0.05) and ileum (P < 0.05) illustrated higher lesion scores in birds challenged with Cp without Eimeria or glycine compared to those not challenged with Cp. This study suggests that using glycine can partially replace Eimeria in a subclinical NE challenge model in promoting the intestinal lesions but not impairing chicken performance.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T04:03:03Z
  • Effect of dietary supplementation with sugar cane extract on meat quality
           and oxidative stability in finishing pigs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Yangchun Xia, Yansen Li, Xiangxing Shen, Massami Mizu, Toma Furuta, Chunmei Li
      The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with sugar cane extract on meat quality and oxidative stability of Longissimus dorsi muscle in finishing pigs. Eighteen barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Jiaxing Black), with an average initial body weight of 62.1 ± 5.0 kg, were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets with 6 replicates per treatment for 42 days. The diets comprised a normal diet, a normal diet supplemented with 5 or 25 g/kg SCE. The results showed that SCE supplementation did not affect final body weight of finishing pigs. Dietary SCE supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) Longissimus dorsi muscle pH24 h, and tended to reduce (P < 0.1) and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) shear force, drip loss, myofiber cross sectional area and lactate dehydrogenase activity at 5 and 25 g/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, dietary SCE treatments significantly decreased (P < 0.05) malonaldehyde content and total superoxide dismutase activity in Longissimus dorsi muscle, and tended to reduce (P < 0.1) malonaldehyde content in serum. Altogether, these data indicate that SCE is an effective feed additive to improve pork meat quality, and the underlying mechanism may be partly due to the improved oxidative stability induced by dietary SCE supplementation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:45:48Z
  • Growth performance of nursery and grower-finisher pigs fed diets
           supplemented with benzoic acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Hengxiao Zhai, Wen Ren, Shikui Wang, Jinlong Wu, Patrick Guggenbuhl, Anna-Maria Kluenter
      Two experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of benzoic acid on the growth performance of nursery and grower-finisher pigs. A randomized complete block design was used in both experiments with the initial body weight as the blocking factor. There were 3 treatments corresponding to 3 dietary levels of benzoic acid: 0.0, 0.3%, and 0.5%. In experiment 1, a total of 144 PIC L1050 barrows (initial body weight 7.1 ± 0.6 kg) were used with each treatment replicated 8 times. In experiment 2, a total of 288 PIC L1050 barrows (initial body weight 36.1 ± 3.6 kg) were used with each treatment replicated 16 times. There were 6 barrows in each replicate pen for both experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 lasted 28 and 70 days, respectively. In experiment 1, average daily gain (ADG) of all growth phases increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing supplementation of benzoic acid, which led to a linear improvement in average body weight on d 28 (P < 0.05). There was also an improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) of d 0 to 14 (linear effect: P < 0.05) and in average daily feed intake (ADFI) of d 14 to 28 and d 0 to 28 (linear effect: P < 0.01). In experiment 2, ADG during d 0 to 35 and d 35 to 70 and average body weight on d 35 improved linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing supplementation of benzoic acid. Average daily gain of d 0 to 70 and average body weight on d 70 increased significantly in a both linear and quadratic manner. There was a linear improvement in FCR in all growth phases (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of benzoic acid at the supplementation levels of 0.3% and 0.5% significantly improved the growth performance of nursery and grower-finisher pigs in the current study; the nursery pigs responded to the dietary supplementation of benzoic acid up to 0.5% linearly while the grower-finisher pigs achieved the optimal ADG at the calculated supplementation level of 0.36% benzoic acid.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:12Z
  • Effects of purified zearalenone on selected immunological and
           histopathologic measurements of spleen in post-weanling gilts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Peng Chen, Shuzhen Jiang, Zaibin Yang, Libo Huang, Faxiao Liu
      The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) on the lymphocyte proliferation rate (LPR), interleukin-2 (IL-2), mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histopathologic changes of spleen in post-weanling gilts. A total of 20 crossbred piglets (Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc) with an initial BW of 10.36 ± 1.21 kg (21 d of age) were used in the study. Piglets were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. The results showed that LPR and IL-2 production of spleen decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as dietary ZEA increased. Splenic mRNA expressions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were linearly up-regulated (P < 0.05) as dietary ZEA increased. On the contrary, linear down-regulation (P < 0.05) of mRNA expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was observed as dietary ZEA increased. Swelling splenocyte in 1.1 mg/kg ZEA treatments, atrophy of white pulp and swelling of red pulp in 2.0 and 3.2 mg/kg ZEA treatments were observed. The cytoplasmic edema in 1.1 mg/kg ZEA treatments, significant chromatin deformation in 2.0 mg/kg ZEA treatment and phagocytosis in 3.2 mg/kg ZEA treatment were observed. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce splenic damages and negatively affect immune function of spleen in post-weanling gilts.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T13:01:40Z
  • Effect of storage time on the characteristics of corn and efficiency of
           its utilization in broiler chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Dafei Yin, Jianmin Yuan, Yuming Guo, Lee I. Chiba
      Corn is one of the staple food and feed ingredients in China, therefore its storage is of particular importance. Corn is typically stored for 2 or more years in national barns before it is sold as a food or feed ingredient. However, the effects of stored corn in national barns on the animal performance and nutrient utilization have not been investigated thus far. This study attempted to determine the effects of storage time on the chemical and physical characteristics of corn and its nutritional value, broiler growth performance, and meat quality. Corn grains used in the present study were stored for 4 different periods, from 2 to 5 yr, under the same conditions in a building at the Beijing National Grain Storage Facility. A total of 240 birds in Exp. 1 and 90 birds in Exp. 2 were used to compare the effects of storage time on the utilization of nutrients of corn, the performance, and meat quality of broilers. The content of starch, crude protein, amino acids, fatty acids, and test weight generally decreased with increasing storage time. Corn stored for over 4 yr showed decreased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities and increased fat acidity. Body weight gain (BWG) and European production index (EPI) of broilers from 0 to 3 wk tended to decrease linearly with storage time (0.05 < P < 0.10), and the BWG and EPI of broilers from 4 to 6 wk decreased quadratically (P < 0.05), whereas feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased with storage time (P < 0.05). The FCR, performance, and EPI of broilers positively correlated with CAT activity (P < 0.05), and negatively correlated with fat acidity (P < 0.05). Drip loss of breast muscle increased linearly with corn storage time (P < 0.001); however, pH decreased linearly with corn storage time. Drip loss had a strong negative correlation with POD (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences of the storage length on metabolizable energy (ME), digestibility of crude protein, and starch (P > 0.05). The digestibility of histidine and arginine, and C18:2 and C18:3 changed quadratically with storage time (P < 0.05). Collectively, the results suggest that the use of corn stored for 4 yr in animal feed decreased the performance and meat quality of broilers. Fat acidity, CAT, and POD activities can be used as indexes for evaluating the storage quality of corn.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T12:46:22Z
  • Dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotide supplementation accelerate
           carbon turnover (δ13C) on stomach of weaned piglets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Animal Nutrition
      Author(s): Amanda Dias Assoni, Alessandro Borges Amorim, Mayra Anton Dib Saleh, Marcos Lívio Panhoza Tse, Dirlei Antonio Berto
      The use of stable isotope analysis as a tool for characterization of carbon turnover (δ13C) in piglet’s tissues by tracing its feeding system has drawn attention. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the influence of dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotides supplementation on carbon turnover in fundic-stomach region of weaned piglets at an average age of 21 days. The diets consisted of additive-free diet – control (C); 1% glutamine (G); 1% glutamic acid (GA) and 1% nucleotides (Nu). At weaning day (day 0: baseline), 3 piglets were slaughtered to quantify the δ13C of stomach. The remaining 120 piglets were blocked by weight and sex, randomly assigned to pens with 3 piglets slaughtered per treatment at days 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 20, 27 and 49 after weaning in order to verify the fundic-stomach isotopic composition by treatments. Samples were analyzed in terms of 13C/12C ratio by mass spectrometry and converted to relative isotopic enrichement values (δ13C ‰) used to plot the first order exponential curves over time using OriginPro 8.0 software. The inclusion of glutamine, glutamate and nucleotides in piglet’s diets has accelerated the carbon turnover in stomach during the post-weaning period, demonstrating also that glutamate has guaranteed fastest 13C incorporation rate on fundic-stomach region and pH-lowering. Besides that, stable isotopes technique (δ13C) has proved to be an important methodology to determine the time-scales at which piglets shift among diets with different isotopic values, characterizing the trophic effects of additives and the phenotypic flexibility of stomach.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T12:46:22Z
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