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Publisher: Smart Science and Technology LLC   (Total: 21 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 21 of 21 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abdomen     Open Access  
Cancer Cell & Microenvironment     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Immunoendocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inflammation and Cell Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Itch & Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Macrophage     Open Access  
Molecular & Cellular Epilepsy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Musculoskeletal Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Neurotransmitter     Open Access  
Precision Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Receptors & Clinical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RNA & Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stem Cell and Translational Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Stem Cell Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Telomere and Telomerase     Open Access  
Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Uterus & Ovary     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2380-8500
Published by Smart Science and Technology LLC Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Applicability of electronic medical record-based clinical research in
           terms of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor

    • Authors: Hun-Sung Kim, Hyeseon Lee, Hyunah Kim, Yoo Jin Jeong, Tong Min Kim, So Jung Yang, Sun Jung Baik, Jae Hyoung Cho, Kun-Ho Yoon, In Young Choi
      Abstract:  There has been a rapid increase in the use of the electronic medical record (EMR) system. In the present review, we evaluated the applicability of EMR data in terms of the efficacy of various 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) that are currently available. EMR systems will become more valuable for easily accessing, collecting, verifying, and analyzing data. Therefore, an EMR-based clinical pilot study can be conducted quickly prior to performing a large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT), and it can focus the clinical research before an RCT is performed. Although there are still many limitations in EMR-based clinical research, new information will be available after a large amount of data is collected in the future. EMR data can save time and labor compared with conventional clinical study data, and this is the most important advantage of conventional long-term studies; thus, these data will be advantageous to clinical researchers.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.1499
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
       
  • Amputation-free limb survival in diabetic foot lesions: A Review

    • Authors: Mohamed Sharkawy
      Abstract: In this review, we examine the current status of amputation-free survival among patients with diabetic foot lesions in terms of the prevalence of diabetic foot lesions and amputations among diabetics. Next, we examine the etiological factors that are responsible for the development of diabetic foot lesions and subsequent amputation. We have previously conducted a retrospective investigation from 2004 to 2007. From our analysis of the data collected over this period from patients with diabetic foot lesions, we were able to identify some of the main etiological categories related to the risk for amputation. Based on these etiological categories, we were able to develop a color-coded etiological key that can be easily applied in clinical practice for the assessment of the risk of amputation and thereby direct the referral and further management. Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a prospective study to test the applicability of the etiological key. The amputation-free survival rates achieved with thiskey were found to be comparable to those reported with the use of the currently applied approach of using a multidisciplinary team. We found that changes in blood quality, mainly, anemia and hypoalbuminemia, and peripheral artery disease were the etiological factors that were associated with the least chances of requiring amputation. On the other hand, tissue loss and pervious surgical procedures were found to be indicators of the highest risk for amputation. We also examine the etiological factors conventionally considered to increase the risk of amputation and examine the current practices followed in the management of cases of diabetic foot. We also examine the traditional and advanced treatment options available for the various etiological factors with a view to reducing amputations. We believe that our etiological key has the potential for widespread applicability in developing countries where resources for a multidisciplinary approach may be scarce
      PubDate: 2016-12-27
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.1477
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
       
  • Anti-allergic Effects and Immunomodulatory Activity of Sacran, a Bioactive
           Compound from River alga Aphanothece sacrum

    • Authors: Ngatu Roger Nlandu
      Abstract: Sacran is a newly discovered sulfated glycosaminoglycan-like compound extracted from river alga Aphanothece sacrum (Suizenji-nori in Japanese). The present study evaluated the clinical effects and immunomodulatory activity of topical sacran in a murine model of contact allergy and in vitro. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate sacran’s effect on cell degranulation and the release of b-hexosaminidase release by RBL-2H3 basophilic cells in a model of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in vitro, and the curative effects and immunomodulatory activity of topical application of sacran on hapten-induced eczematous skin lesions in mice. In the in vitro experiment, RBL-2H3 basophilic cells were sensitized with DNP-specific IgE, and b-hexosaminidase release activity was evaluated by ELISA. In the in vivo experiment, 24 NC/Nga male mice, including six normal and three treatment groups of six mice with hapten-induced contact allergy were used. Diseased mice were topically treated either with 20 mL of 2% sacran, 10 mg/ml hydrocortisone (HCT) or phosphate buffered saline (Control). Clinical severity of skin lesions was evaluated, and blood samples were collected to determine the serum levels of the following biomarkers: eotaxin, MCP-1, IgE, IFN-g, IL-4 and IL-5. Skin specimens were taken to determine gene expression levels of IFN-gmRNA, TNF-amRNA, and IL-4 mRNA by RT-PCR. Results of the in vitro experiment showed that sacran solutions inhibited RBL-2H3 cell degranulation and the release of b-hexosaminidase, as significantly low levels of this enzyme were found for sacran-treated cells (vs. control solution; p<0.05). In the in vivo experiment, topical application of sacran markedly reduced serum IL-4, IL-5, total IgE, eotaxin, MCP-1 in allergic mice. In addition, TNF-amRNA gene expression level in lesional mouse skin was also reduced in sacran group as compared with buffer-treated controls (p<0.05). Furthermore, topical sacran, and hydrocortisone as well, alleviated skin symptoms (scaling/dryness, erythema/hemorrhage and erosion/excoriation) and reduced ear thickness (vs. controls). This study showed that sacran inhibited the release of b-hexosaminidase by allergen-challenged RBL-2H3 basophilic cells, exerted anti-inflammatory activity on eczematous skin lesions and downregulated TNF-amRNA expression in mice. These findings suggest that sacran has a potential to serve as an alternative remedy for skin allergic disorders. 
      PubDate: 2016-10-10
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.1438
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
       
  • Arsenic Contamination, Exposure Routes and Public Health

    • Authors: Abioye Fayiga
      Abstract: Natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and dissolution of arsenic rich minerals underground contribute to arsenic contamination in the environment. Human activities like mining, application of herbicides and pesticides, wood preservation and irrigation greatly increase levels of arsenic in the soil. Arsenic contaminated soils play a central role in As contamination in the environment. Arsenic contaminated soils may pollute the groundwater below through leaching while dust from contaminated soils may also pollute the air. Irrigation with arsenic contaminated water and atmospheric deposition can also increase As concentration in the soil. People are exposed to arsenic via diet (food chain contamination), drinking of arsenic contaminated groundwater, dermal contact, dust ingestion, and inhalation of arsenic rich dust. Children are particularly exposed to arsenic in indoor dust while playing on the floor and outdoors on playgrounds built with the wood preservative; chromate copper arsenate (CCA). Exposure to As has been associated with health problems such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, hearing problems, reproductive health problems in pregnant women and it affects the unborn. The health effects of As indicate the importance of combating arsenic contamination in order to protect public health. 
      PubDate: 2016-08-15
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.1392
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
       
  • Factors associated with Clinical Nursing and Midwifery Research Topics
           Published in Southern and Eastern African Countries

    • Authors: Carolyn Sun
      Abstract: While clinical nursing research priorities should be determined regional experts, evidence suggests that they may be guided more by the needs of research funders. However, we could not find any studies to assess what drives the research produced by nurses and midwives in southern and eastern African countries.  Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with clinical nursing and midwifery research found in both indexed and grey literature within this region.  This is a cross-sectional descriptive study using Poisson and categorical regression to determine predictors of clinical research within the region.  Information about country, date, level of education of the first author, author affiliations, collected through scoping reviews of the grey and indexed literature was used as was information from a Delphi survey (that identified regional clinical nursing and midwifery research priorities) to assess factors associated with clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries from 2004 to 2014. Topics with a critical priority ranking from the Delphi survey were associated with appearing fewer times in the literature, compared to those topics that were not ranked as a priority (IRR of .39, 95% CI [.20, .77]).  Percent increase in number of publications was a 19.1% for every one additional first author with an international affiliation (IRR 1.19, 95% CI [1.15, 1.23]).  The odds of appearing in grey literature to indexed literature were 492% higher for publications by first authors with a doctorate compared to those with a bachelor's degree or less (OR 4.92, 95% CI [1.93, 12.49]). The odds of appearing in the grey literature compared to indexed literature was 83.8% lower for those topics with major funding compared to unfunded topics (OR .16, 95% 95% CI [.04, .67]). Percent relative growth in publication output from 2004 to 2013 was 115%.   Clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries may not be driven by regional needs. Aligning research with local priorities will ensure that nurses and midwives have the evidence base needed to improve patient outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-05-02
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.1270
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
       
  • Is the Global Occupational Stress Equally Addressed' A Systematic
           Literature Review on Effective Stress Interventions

    • Authors: Tianan Yang, Mingjing Zhu, Qian Chen, Yuanling Liu, Jianwei Deng
      Abstract: This systematic review was conducted to provide an overview of effective interventions targeting stress at the workplace.The literature search was performed in the database ISI Web of Knowledge and Embase between January 2005 and July 2012. Study characteristics, types of interventions and outcome measures, work settings, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the quality of the studies were extracted, evaluated, and synthesized.A total of 114 studies reported 192 interventions and were identified for analyses. The overwhelming majority of these studies was conducted in high-income countries or regions. These interventions were categorized into seven types: training or learning interventions, social-support interventions, occupational interventions, organizational-structural interventions, physiological interventions, psychological interventions, and interventions combining physiological and psychological aspects. Results showed that training and learning interventions, social-support interventions and interventions combining physiological and psychological aspects were mainly conducted in both the public and the private sectors, while occupational interventions were specifically performed in the public sector. The effectiveness of stress interventions was especially investigated in health, education, and public-administration agencies in the public sector and in manufacturing enterprises in the private sector. Of the 114 studies, 36 studies rated as excellent or good quality reported 66 significantly or partly-significantly effective interventions. Training and learning interventions and social-support interventions were frequently used in both the public and the private sectors, while interventions combining physiological and psychological aspects were mainly applied in the public sector. Furthermore, specific stress interventions extracted from included studies were associated with work settings: Group meetings were most frequently applied in the administrative and health agencies, while fitness exercise was most commonly applied in financial and insurance companies.Our review revealed the great diversity in stress interventions at the workplace, which reflects the difficulties in conducting effective stress interventions there. Further studies that identify the factors that have the most impact on presenteeism are required. This review can serve as a guide for effective interventions targeting stress and the improvement of stress interventions at the workplace.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.1236
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
       
  • The Impact of Methadone Maintenance Treatment on HIV Risk Behaviors among
           High-Risk Injection Drug Users: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Pramila Karki, Roman Shrestha, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Michael M Copenhaver
      Abstract: Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection through preventable drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. In recent decade, there has been a growing evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is associated with a significant decrease in both drug- and sex-related risk behaviors among this high-risk population. The better understanding of the relationship between MMT and HIV-related risk behaviors will help to better inform future HIV prevention strategies, which may have policy implications as well. In this systematic review, we therefore aimed to explore the relevant literature to more clearly examine the possible impact of MMT on HIV risks behaviors among high-risk IDUs. The findings thus far suggest that MMT is associated with a significant decrease in injecting drug use and sharing of injecting equipment. Evidence on sex-related risk behavior is limited, but suggest that MMT is associated with a lower incidence of multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. The literature also suggests that the most significant factor in reducing HIV risks was treatment adherence. As such, more attention needs to be given in future studies to ensure the higher rates of access to MMT as well as to improve the adherence to MMT.
      PubDate: 2016-03-22
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.1229
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
       
  • BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FLUID ADMINISTRATION

    • Authors: Theodosios D. Filippatos, Moses S. Elisaf
      Abstract: Patients with hypovolemia usually need the administration of intravenous fluids. Current evidence points to the use of crystalloids since colloids produce increased adverse effects and human albumin has high cost. Among crystalloids, the use of balanced solutions, mainly Lactated Ringer’s, has been proposed as the infusate of choice since normal saline infusion leads to hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal vasoconstriction. However, it should be mentioned that Lactated Ringer’s should not be infused in patients with severe metabolic alkalosis, lactic acidosis with decreased lactate clearance or severe hyperkalemia and in patients with traumatic brain injury or at risk of increased intracranial pressure. Moreover, the correction of any acid-base or electrolyte disorders that not infrequently co-exist with hypovolemia is crucial. Clinicians should target any co-existing disorders and accordingly determine infusate treatment in patients with hypovolemia. 
      PubDate: 2016-02-15
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.1180
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
       
  • The Importance of Redesigning Approaches Toward HIV Knowledge and
           Prevention in Married Saudi Arabian Women

    • Authors: Maram Taher Alghabbashi
      Abstract: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) began its public health response to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1984. Since then, multiple studies of the epidemiology of transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in KSA have been published, and this has revealed that KSA, due to unique cultural features, has high-risk subpopulations that are different from those in other countries. An important high-risk population in KSA is married women, who are at risk from getting an STI from their husbands. Culturally appropriate and accessible public health prevention and treatment resources are available, but historically, the KSA public health response has focused on low-risk populations in KSA, and the measurement of HIV-related knowledge that is not applicable to this population. This paper argues that married women in KSA constitute a high risk group for contracting HIV, and that public health efforts in KSA should be directed toward better understanding how to reduce the HIV risk of married women in KSA through improved HIV prevention knowledges and practices.
      PubDate: 2016-02-01
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.1172
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
       
  • A retrospective analysis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis-a series of
           25 cases

    • Authors: Hua Ye, Ming-rui Chen, Wanfu Wu
      Abstract: Objectives: To explore the character of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST), and to improve the early diagnosis and treatment of such a disease. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the ­patient ages, risk factors, clinical presentations, imaging characters and treatment of 25 CVST cases. Results: The most common age coverage of CVST attacks is from 18 to 45, the most common risk factors include female oral contraceptive (32%) and post-delivery or post-abortion (20%). The most common presentation is headache (80%), followed by paralysis (44%) and seizure (40%). Neuroimaging shows that transverse sinus is the most commonly affected sinus, followed by superior sagittal sinus. Low molecular heparin is effective to CVST and the prognosis of most patients is good. Conclusion: The diagnosis of CVST should be considered in young patients with recent unusual headaches or with stroke-like symptoms, in patients with intracranial hypertension, and in patients with hemorrhagic infarcts. To make a definite diagnosis and treat the patients in time, Enhanced MRI+MRV or Enhanced CT+CTV should be performed immediately, and if necessary, DSA should be performed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-31
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.979
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2015)
       
  • Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Practice Agreements: A Strategy to
           Improve Adherence to Evidence-Based Guidelines

    • Authors: Alex Adams, Michael Klepser, Donald Klepser
      Abstract: N/A
      PubDate: 2015-08-03
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.923
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2015)
       
  • Perspectives of Health Promotion and Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular
           Disease: Revisiting the Social-Ecological Model

    • Authors: Catherine Savage, Basil H Aboul-Enein, Joshua Bernstein
      Abstract:  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of CVD is strongly related to lifestyle risk behaviors. Behavioral modification of these lifestyle behaviors through a healthy lifestyle continues to be a significant factor in reducing and preventing CVD risk. On-going development of behavior health interventions have been identified as an effective response to CVD risk. This position paper investigates theoretical frameworks and models of behavioral health that integrate socio-ecological perspectives and constructs that address CVD at the community and population levels. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation and performance of recent ecologic intervention-based behavior change programs that address CVD. 
      PubDate: 2015-07-28
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.911
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2015)
       
  • Prevalence of chest pain in older patients in Trinidad and influencing
           factors

    • Authors: Rishi Ramtahal, Sri Ramchowdary Nallamothu, Okezie Nweze
      Abstract: A study aimed to identify the prevalence of chest pain in older patients attending the Emergency Department(ED) of Area Hospital Point Fortin in Trinidad and its associated influencing factors. This study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. ED cards of patients 65 years and older who attended the ED of Area Hospital Point Fortin, Trinidad during 12 randomly selected one-week periods for each month between October 2011 and September 2012 were identified and studied. Information from the ED cards were filled out on questionnaires, and the data collated was analyzed. Three hundred and twenty-three patient ED cards were used and analyzed for the study. Patient ages ranged from 65 to 101 years. The mean age was 78.4 +/- 7.97 years.The age adjusted prevalence of chest pain in this older population (n=323) presenting to the emergency department was 7.9% in age group 65 -74 years, 6.2% in the age group 85- 94 years and 6.1% in the age group over 84 years. The overall prevalence of chest pain was 7.1%.Diabetes (p=0.008, OR 4) and Ischemic Heart Disease (p=0.001, OR 5.52) were both significant predictors for chest pain in the elderly while hypertension (p=0.18), age (p=0.82) and gender (p=0.08) were not. The overall prevalence of chest pain in patients 65 years and older was 7.1%, which was lower than other studies. Diabetes and Ischemic Heart Disease were both significant predictors for chest pain in older people while hypertension, age and gender were not. Further studies should be done to confirm the prevalence in this specific population and investigate the etiologies and risk factors of chest pain. 
      PubDate: 2015-07-20
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.901
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2015)
       
  • Use of Generalized Additive Models to identify risk factors of HIV/AIDS

    • Authors: Dawit Getnet Ayele
      Abstract: The transmission of HIV/AIDS is the basic problem in Sub-Saharan African Countries. In Ethiopia, it is the basic problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify social, geographic and demographic risk factors of HIV/AIDS based on the HIV test result. The data used in this study is from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) for female respondents. The method of Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the result of HIV/AIDS test result. The results gave more insight regarding the distribution of current age of respondents, age at first cohabitation, age at 1st sex, age at 1st birth, husband/partner’s age, family size and children ever born. The results from the model confirm that HIV test result is high for early ages. Moreover, based on the result, respondents who know about HIV/AIDS and STI’s have higher chance to prevent HIV/AIDS. Besides these using condoms and have one sexual partner reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS.
      PubDate: 2015-06-15
      DOI: 10.14800/emph.848
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2015)
       
 
 
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