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Abdomen     Open Access  
Cancer Cell & Microenvironment     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Immunoendocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Inflammation and Cell Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Itch & Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Macrophage     Open Access  
Molecular & Cellular Epilepsy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Musculoskeletal Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Neurotransmitter     Open Access  
Precision Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Receptors & Clinical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RNA & Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science Proceedings     Open Access  
Stem Cell and Translational Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Stem Cell Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Telomere and Telomerase     Open Access  
Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases     Open Access  
Uterus & Ovary     Open Access  
Journal Cover Journal of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism
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   Published by Smart Science and Technology LLC Homepage  [21 journals]
  • Recycling of trace metals by the bulk autophagy in the budding yeast,
           Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    • Authors: Tetsuro Horie, Tomoko Kawamata, Yoshinori Ohsumi
      Abstract: Autophagy is a bulk degradation process, widely conserved among eukaryotic organisms. Since elucidation of autophagic machinery, there is a growing number of reports about diverse physiological roles of autophagy. The diversity of physiological roles of autophagy is caused by dual roles of autophagic process, either in providing deficient nutrients by degrading cytoplasmic components, or in removal of harmful or unnecessary components. Autophagy produces a variety of compound, and influence cell metabolism. These make the physiological roles of autophagy extremely complicated. Adaptation of starvation is one of the physiological roles of autophagy. In this research highlight, we summarize and discuss the known physiological roles of autophagy across various organism and propose unsolved problems of the physiology of autophagy in yeast. Then, we introduce our recent findings regarding the roles of autophagy in recycling the trace metals.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1602
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • NELL2 and energy homeostasis

    • Authors: Jin Kwon Jeong, Hoon-Gu Kim, Byung Ju Lee
      Abstract: A neuron-enriched secreting protein, NELL2 is a highly conserved molecule between rodents and human. With its several functional motifs, NELL2 has been suggested to play a critical role in embryonic neural development and neuronal protection. However, NELL2 function in adulthood brain has not been clearly understood until recently. To uncover NELL2-associated brain physiology in adulthood, we recently performed an experiment ablating hypothalamic NELL2 production over a short time period in adult rats. We observed that NELL2 signaling in brain is tightly associated with an animal’s appetite behavior and metabolism regulation. NELL2 is expressed in several hypothalamic nuclei, including the paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, and the arcuate nucleus, all of which are known to be important in whole body energy homeostasis. Hypothalamic NELL2 was upregulated by fasting, and removal of hypothalamic NELL2 resulted in reduction of daily appetite behavior under normal chow conditions and without changes in water intake. Therefore, rats with hypothalamic NELL2 ablation showed an attenuated body weight gain compared to the control. These data clearly suggested that NELL2 plays an orexigenic role in metabolism regulation. However, the brain regions involved in NELL2 activity for the regulation of metabolism are still uncertain. Furthermore, the effect of NELL2-specific receptor, and NELL2-dependent cellular signaling on metabolism regulation have not been delineated. Therefore, future studies aiming to challenge these issues are necessary to clearly understand contribution of NELL2 on energy homeostasis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1585
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • Capacity of the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle in predicting
           the nutritional risk of hospitalized patients.

    • Authors: Katarina Papera Valente, Marina Abelha Barreto, Naira Marceli Fraga Silva, Valdete Regina Guandalini
      Abstract: Malnutrition is commonly observed in the hospital setting and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, length of hospital stay and hospital costs, and worsening of response to treatment. Identifying the presence of nutritional risk or malnutrition in hospitalized patients is essential so that individualized nutritional therapy can be instituted early. One of the main methods of evaluation of nutritional status is Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), and associated with it, anthropometric measures complement the evaluation. The thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (TAPM) is a measure that can evaluate the muscle compartment and indicate changes in body composition in a simple, practical and noninvasive way. This study presents the main studies that used the TAPM measure with the objective of identifying the capacity to detect hospital malnutrition when compared to the classic nutritional status assessment instruments. The results showed that TAPM is a promising and reliable, easy-to-perform, low-cost measure with the potential to identify malnutrition and nutritional risk in hospitalized patients, in order to accelerate and facilitate the nutritional diagnosis of these patients, as well as to detect protein depletion. However, new studies must be performed to identify the reasons for different findings in the literature, especially regarding the cutoff point for this population, taking into account the age range and gender.Keywords: malnutrition; nutrition assessment; adductor pollicis muscle; anthropometry; hospitalized patients
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1487
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • The Association of non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Body Mass Index
           and Waist Circumference in a Chinese population

    • Authors: Shou-Wu Lee, Sheng-Shun Yang, Teng-Yu Lee, Hong-Zen Yeh, Chun-Fang Tung, Chi-Sen Chang
      Abstract: Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) often occurs together with obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are two important physical parameters of obesity. Here we analyzed in a Chinese population the statistical relationship between NAFLD and these two obese parameters. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the Taichung Verteran General Hospital during a three-year period from January 2007 to December 2009. Exclusion criteria included large consumption of alcohol and chronic hepatitis (B and C). Patients first went through  liver ultrasound scanning and then were assigned to either the normal  or fatty liver group. Patients were also subgrouped as either overweight/obesity (BMI≧25 mg/m2) or normal weight; central obesity (waist circumference ≧ 90 cm for men and ≧ 80 cm for women) or normal. The statistical association with NAFLD was then compared for each subgroup. Results: A total of 916 patients (24.3%) were classified into the fatty liver group and 2868 patients (75.8%) were classified into the normal group. The ratios of overweight/obesity (59.0% vs. 49.4%, P=0.001) and central obesity (18.4% vs. 15.7%, P=0.006) were significantly higher in the fatty liver group compared with the normal. The positive association with NAFLD was significant in overweight/obesity (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.73), but insignificant in central obesity (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.03). After further stratification, significant positive association was found in patients with both higher BMI and WC (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.80) and higher BMI but normal WC (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.73). But such association was not found  in those with higher WC but normal BMI (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.84). Conclusion: BMI, and not WC, had a strong positive association with NAFLD. Patients with higher BMI and higher WC had additional risk for NAFLD.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1483
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2017)
  • Liver Transplantation for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Role of
           Bariatric Surgery for Comorbid Obesity.

    • Authors: Yuval Adrash Dinesh Patel
      Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly prevalent form of chronic liver disease throughout the world and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality related to liver disease and the consequences of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is projected to become the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States in the near future, and presents unique challenges due to common comorbidities, particularly obesity. As obesity is often a barrier to transplant, distinctive decision-making and care is needed for this growing population. Bariatric surgery offers a promising option for liver transplant specialists to consider in obese patients with NAFLD cirrhosis. This research highlight reviews the rising burden of NAFLD, concerns regarding obesity and liver transplant, and the potential role of bariatric surgery in the liver transplantation paradigm.
      PubDate: 2016-05-30
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1327
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
  • Adiposity estimated using air displacement plethysmography, body mass
           index and body adiposity index in a sample of severely obese patients

    • Authors: Giliane Belarmino, Priscila Sala, Raquel SM Torrinhas, Dan L Waitzberg
      Abstract: The body adiposity index (BAI) was developed as an alternative method to estimate body fat (BF), and it was found to be more sensitive than BMI for this purpose. For BF% estimation, BAI is calculated using a simple equation that includes only hip circumference and body height. Thus, BAI comprises a potentially rapid, inexpensive, and noninvasive assessment tool for use in clinical practice. However, some reports have suggested that BAI may perform poorly in estimating BF% in populations at the extreme limits of fat amount (very low or very high). In our recent study with severely obese subjects, BAI provided differing values for BF% from those estimated by air displacement plethysmography, applied as a reference method. Particularly, BAI exhibited a positive systematic bias to overestimate BF% for those severely obese subjects, with lower values of BF% provided by air displacement plethysmography. Taken together, our data indicates that BAI performance declines when used to estimate BF% in subjects with very high amount of body fat. As severely obese patients are at higher risk for complications associated with excess body fat, the development of a new, simple equation to estimate BF% in this patient population is of clinical interest.
      PubDate: 2016-05-16
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1299
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
  • Molecular regulation of seed oil accumulation

    • Authors: Nosheen Elhai, Robert W. Duncan, Claudio Stasolla
      Abstract: Due to the vast consumption of canola oil in the food industry, there is marketable and scientific interest to manipulate seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of Brassica napus L. During seed development, lipids are mainly stored in the form of triacylgylcerols and their production relies on the availability of sucrose produced during photosynthesis. The selective up regulation of enzymes joining in sucrose transport and metabolism, as well as glycolysis, provide carbon pools for the synthesis of fatty acids and ultimately seed oil production. Seed oil accumulation is also influenced by genes involved in embryo and seed development. Recently, emphasis has been directed toward altering fatty acid biosynthesis through the modification of transcription factors including - LEC1 (LEAFY COTYLEDON1), LEC2 (LEAFY COTYLEDON2), FUS3 (FUSCA3), WRI1 (WRINKLED1), and ABI3 (ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3), which also affect the seed maturation phase of embryo development. These genes interact with each other and play a vital role during embryo and seed development. Improved knowledge of the genetic regulation of seed oil biosynthesis in Arabidopsis and Brassica species, together with current progress in plant genetics and molecular biology, has opened novel research avenues that emphasize the modification of canola oil by manipulating the genetic regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2016-05-09
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1296
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
  • Geometric Means, Reference Ranges, and Selected Percentile Points for
           Blood Volume Measurements by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender

    • Authors: Ram Baboo Jain
      Abstract: Background: Blood volume measurements provide important clinical parameters in certain treatment situations.Method: While a fast, accurate and reliable methodology has been available to estimate the blood volume measurements for almost a decade, the availability of “normal” or “should be” blood volume measurements have not been readily available. In this article, we have provided geometric means and selected percentiles points with 95% confidence intervals for total blood volume, red cell volume, and plasma volume for children aged 8-11 years old, adolescents 12-17 years old, and adults aged 18 years and over by gender, race/ethnicity, age, and body mass index. The reference ranges are also provided.Result: We have also provided mathematical formulae that can be used to compute “should be” blood measurements for specific patients with a given gender, race/ethnicity, age, and body mass index.Conclusion: It is up to individual physicians to decide in a given treatment situation which “should be” index, e.g., geometric mean vs. median they want to use for comparison with actual estimated blood measurements.
      PubDate: 2016-05-09
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1288
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
  • Recent Vitamin D Data from NHANES: Variability, Trends, Deficiency and
           Sufficiency Rates, and Assay Compatibility Issues

    • Authors: Ram Baboo Jain
      Abstract: Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate compatibility between 2001-2006 and 2007-2010 data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Methods: NHANES used a radioimmunoassay to measure 25OHD levels in serum for 2001-2006 25OHD levels but a LC-MS/MS assay to measure 25OHD levels for 2007-2010.  However, regression equations built to derive LC-MS/MS compatible data from radioimmunoassay data for 2001-2006 were used to and make available LC-MS/MS compatible data for 2001-2006 also. Actual data released in public domain were statistically analyzed to measure supposed compatibility between 2001-2006 and 2007-2010 data.Results: The compatibility between derived data for 2001-2006 and direct measurement data for 2007-2010 could not be confirmed for studying trends in 25OHD levels, vitamin D deficiency rates, and vitamin D sufficiency rates because of unusually large shifts in these statistics between 2001-2006 and 2007-2010. Based on 2007-2010 data, the order of mean 25OHD levels and vitamin D sufficiency rates by race/ethnicity was: non-Hispanic white (NHW) > Mexican American (MA) > non-Hispanic black (NHB) and sufficiency rate was as low as 2.8% for NHB 12-19 years old. The order of vitamin D deficiency rates by race/ethnicity was: NHB > MA > NHW and deficiency rate was as high as 17% for 20-64 years old NHB. Females had higher mean 25OHD levels than males except for age groups 6-11 and 12-19 years old. Females had higher vitamin deficiency rates than males and the deficiency rate for females was as high as 4.5% for those aged 12-19 and 65+ years old. Females had higher sufficiency rates than males except for 6-11 years old and the sufficiency rate for females was as high as 47.2% for 65+ years old.Conclusion: Recent release of 25OHD data from NHANES for 2001-2006 was not found to be compatible with 2007-2010 NHANES data. 
      PubDate: 2016-03-08
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1208
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
  • Nutrition Knowledge of Medical Graduates

    • Authors: Marigold Castillo, Ronald Feinstein, Martin Fisher
      Abstract: Obesity continues to be a growing problem today. Specifically, childhood obesity has become one of the most critical public health challenges of this time. Increased weight and poor health lead to higher medical costs, thus, efforts must be made to deal with this problem. This research highlight discusses a study that assessed the nutrition knowledge of medical/osteopathic school graduates entering a pediatric residency program and compares it to the knowledge of previous medical graduates found in the literature.   It is imperative that medical education continue to incorporate clinical nutrition education in medical school and beyond because it has been shown that the dedicated time has a beneficial effect on the nutrition knowledge of medical students.
      PubDate: 2016-02-22
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1188
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
  • Bioelectrical Impedance and Ultrasound to Assess Body Composition in
           College-Aged Adults

    • Authors: Kelly Johnson, Brian Miller, Trisha A McLain, Ann L Gibson, Ronald Otterstetter
      Abstract: Ultrasound techniques are emerging as a cost-effective alternative to body composition analysis. However, ultrasound wanding at seven sites used for the Jackson and Pollock has not been investigated in comparison to bio-electrical impedance (BIA) body composition analysis (BCA) techniques. A convenience sample (N = 48; Male n = 19, Female n = 29) volunteered and completed the study. Body fat percentage was assessed using the multi-frequency InBody 520 octopolar BIA (MF- BIA) and the BodyMetrix® BX2000 Ultrasound system within 10 minutes of one another. Agreement was assessed using a paired-sample t-test, correlation, Bland and Altman plot, and frequencies of grouped individual differences.There was no significant difference in body fat percentage estimates between ultrasound and BIA (p = 0.143). The Bland and Altman plot revealed than 95% of ultrasound estimates fell within ± 9.7% of MF-BIA estimates. Additionally, 68.8% of ultrasound estimates were within ± 5% of MF-BIA estimates. The results of this investigation are applicable to both practitioners and professionals working in the wellness/fitness industry as well as for health screenings and obesity prevention. Over the past three decades, BIA has been commonly used in wellness and fitness consultations to provide accurate, quick, and cost-effective results. Ultrasound body composition techniques using the seven-site Jackson Pollock methodology were not statistically different than MF-BIA suggesting their interchangeability for a sample similar to ours.
      PubDate: 2016-02-08
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1176
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)

    • Authors: Edward Jo, Jeong-Su Kim, Michael J Ormsbee, Carla Prado, Andy V Khamoui
      Abstract: Medically prescribed very-low calorie diet (VLCD) programs have shown efficacy in producing clinically significant weight-loss in obese patients.  This loss in bodyweight (BW), however, cannot be solely accounted for by reduced adiposity, but also significant deficits in lean tissue.  With respect to these frequently reported weight-loss patterns for lean body mass (LBM), the potential for optimum weight-loss as well as sustainable weight-maintenance is adversely affected on a number of levels.  Lowered resting metabolic rate (RMR), neuromuscular impediments, and poor physical function have been reported to occur as a result of reduced LBM.  Any of these factors taken together with a dramatic loss of lean tissue would be a condition that is conducive to impeded fat reduction, weight-regain, and relapses of prior health complications.  Therefore, the main purpose of this review is 3 fold: 1) to comprehensively discuss the molecular and morphological adaptations to VLCD treatment in lean and fat tissues, 2) to provide molecular- to practical-based rationale for systematic exercise applications in VLCD treatments, and 3) to discuss current research limitations and future research implications. 
      PubDate: 2016-01-07
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.1105
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2016)
  • Human Milk Banking: a bridge between the preterm mother and infant; the
           experience from a Greek Public Perinatal Center

    • Authors: Kalliopi Dritsakou, Georgios Liosis, Georgia Valsami, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Maria Skouroliakou
      First page: 10
      Abstract: : Worldwide growing clinical evidence has placed raw human milk feeding and the supply of donor milk as well as the early initiation of breastfeeding as a basic nutritional policy for preterm infants in Greece. Nowadays, donor human milk banking is promoted, protected, and supported as an extension of the Greek national breastfeeding policy. In fact, human milk banking besides collecting, processing, and storing donor milk consists a bridge between the preterm mother and infant, especially during the first days of lactation, that preterm mother’s milk cannot completely fulfill her infants’ needs. Human milk banking represents a tool for breastfeed­ing promotion. Preterm infants fed with an absolute human milk diet are able to initiate breastfeeding earlier compared to those who are fed mainly with a preterm formula, who achieve later on time to initiate bottle-feeding. The policy of early aggressive nutrition even from the first hour of life with the minimal enteric feeding, is now practiced, by most neonatologists, in our country too, while early nutrition is also considered to be safe in terms of lifelong biological effects. For all the infants, both terms and preterms, human milk imposes potential beneficial effects on immunity and the maternal-infant emotional bond. However, the nutritional role of human milk in premature infants is less well defined as it contains insufficient amounts of some nutrients. Multi-component bovine fortifiers provide extra nutrients to supplement human milk (protein, energy, calcium, phosphate, and carbohydrate, as well as vitamins and trace minerals), while targeted fortification of human milk is associated with short-term improvements at hospital discharge, in weight gain, linear and head growth, feeding tolerance and length of stay in NICU.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.978
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2015)
  • The use of sorghum to produce gluten-free breads (GFB): a systematic

    • Authors: Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira Pineli, Renata Puppin Zandonadi, Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho, Viviani Ruffo de Oliveira, Lúcio Flávio de Alencar Figueiredo
      First page: 10
      Abstract: SSorghum is a strategic gluten-free crop cereal for food security due to its tolerance to drought and heat environment, with an interesting composition related to its similarity to corn, aggregated to resistant starch and phenolic compounds in many of the accessions. Sorghum grains should be applied for human consumption in several gluten-free products, such as breads. We assessed application of sorghum to make gluten-free breads (GFB) and to evaluate the advantages already achieved in its use, and what challenges remain. We searched electronic databases and bibliographies published from January 2005 to June 2015 by using the keywords sorghum, bread and gluten-free, and eleven studies on sorghum GFB were included. Sorghum GFB were developed mainly with red and white commercial sorghum flours and little information was provided about accessions. Only one of the studies has explored nutritional advantages of sorghum flour on glycemic index of bread. The other studies have focused on technological approaches to improve bread quality, which involved germination of sorghum grains, high pressure, application of sourdough and the use of starches and additives. Positive results were achieved with the partial application of germinated sorghum flour, sourdough, and lyophilized pressure-treated sorghum batter. Good results with the partial replacement of sorghum flour by starch, mainly native cassava starch, was observed. Concerning additives, emulsifiers were the most successful, but levels optimization were still required. The limited number of sorghum accessions used in the studies in comparison with the high diversity of sorghum and the scarce information on the accessions indicates that the potential of sorghum was not fully investigated for technological application. The use of accessions with quantified tannins and other phenolic compounds and resistant starch should be studied for health benefits, and the technological impacts related to the presence of these compounds must be investigated and overcome. Optimization of additive levels and association of positive results from different studies may contribute to quality improvement. Sensory evaluation and consumer studies are still incipient and very important, especially in countries in which sorghum is not used for human consumption. 
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.944
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2015)
  • Influence of vegetarian diet to the factors associated with metabolic

    • Authors: Ülle Parm, Jaak Jürimäe, Aivar Orav, Evelin Lätt, Sandra Sokmann, Kata Pedamäe, Anna-Liisa Tamm
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a condition that increases type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease that are associated with abdominal obesity, low high-density cholesterol (HDL), high serum triglycerides and elevated fasting glucose levels. Influence of vegetarian diet to these parameters has demonstrated, but the results are debatable. Aim was to explain how vegetarian diet is related to specific body composition and blood biochemical characteristics associated with MS. This study was conducted in 2013 in Estonia. All participants filled in questionnaire, gave a blood sample and their body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The level of total cholesterol, low-density cholesterol (LDL), HDL, apolipoprotein B (APOB), apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1), triglycerides, glucose, haemoglobin A1c, and insulin level in blood were measured and fasting homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The study comprised of 68 vegetarians (mean practice time of 7.3±4.7y) and 103 omnivores. Both groups were matched by sex and age. Omnivores had higher levels of total-cholesterol and APOA1 (p<.001 both) than vegetarians. Higher levels of LDL (p=.002) and APOB (p=.003) in all omnivores groups and in men (p=.003 and .002, respectively) appeared, as insulin (p=.023) and HOMA (p=.048) were greater in women. Lower levels of body mass index (BMI; p<.001) and higher ratios of total-cholesterol/HDL (p=.019); APOB/APOA1 (p=.026); LDL/HDL (p=.021) only in men vegetarians compared to omnivores emerged. Results of multivariate linear regression analyses also showed lover values of BMI, total-cholesterol, LDL, APOB, APOA1 and insulin in vegetarians but all these parameters were similarly influenced by lower BMI. In conclusion the vegetarian diet improves lipid metabolism by reducing the BMI.
      PubDate: 2015-07-20
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.888
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2015)
  • The volumetric effects of nandrolone deconate treatment on the adrenal
           zones of male and female rats

    • Authors: Gokhan Cuce, Erdal Tasgın, Sadullah Bahar, Sefa Lok
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Nandrolone deconoate (ND), a testosterone analog, is often inappropriately used at high doses by sportspersons. The aim of the present study was to explore the volumetric effects of ND on the adrenal gland zones of male and female rats using a stereological technique. A total of 34 rats (30 days of age; 17 males, 17 females) was used. Control male (HMC) and female (HFC) control groups, vehicle male (VM) and female groups (VF), and ND male (NDM) and female (NDF) groups, were formed. Intraperitoneal (IP) injections were given 5 days a week for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, all rats were euthanized and the adrenal glands immediately removed. The tissues were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and paraffin blocks were prepared for routine histological examination. Serial sections were selected using a systematic random sampling method, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic images were transferred to a personal computer. The zonal and medullary volumes were estimated using the Cavalieri principle. In male rats, significant differences were evident in the volumes of the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and medulla between the HMC and VM groups (P<0.05). The medullary volumes differed between the VM and NDM groups (P<0.05); however, NDM was the experimental group and VM the vehicle (oil) group. No difference was evident between the NDM and control groups. In female rats, no difference was evident between any two groups. Thus, ND does not seem to affect the rat adrenal glands. 
      PubDate: 2015-04-26
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.782
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2015)
  • Persistent Inflammatory, Immunosuppressed, Catabolic Syndrome (PICS):

    • Authors: Martin Daniel Rosenthal, Frederick Alan Moore
      First page: 10
      Abstract: A new phenotype of multiple organ failure has emerged: Persistent Inflammatory, Immunosuppressed, Catabolic Syndrome (PICS). Comorbidities and age >65 years have been established as the leading risk factors for PICS. As the percentage of elderly people continues to increase the prevalence of PICS in our ICUs will surely grow.  Malnutrition (despite appropriate supplementation), recurrent nosocomial infections, frailty, ventilator dependence, and an indolent death depicts the central theme that plagues PICS patients.  Aligned with the recently awarded P50 grant by NIGMS entitled, “PICS: A New Horizon for Surgical Critical Care”, and the University Of Florida’s Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center will investigate the genetic make-up of PICS patients, better understand frailty and the implication in trauma patients, and hopefully elucidate new therapies.  Currently, there are no therapies to combat PICS aside from nutritional inference elaborated after reviewing the literature on Burns, Cachexia, and Sarcopenia.
      PubDate: 2015-04-26
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.784
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2015)
  • Oral lactoferrin versus ferrous sulphate and ferrous fumerate for the
           treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy

    • Authors: Mohamed Rezk, Mohamed Kandil, Ragab Dawood, Abd-Elhamid Shaheen, Adel Allam
      First page: 10
      Abstract: A prospective, randomized, parallel-group, multi-center study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Menoufia University Hospital and central hospitals at Menoufia governorate, Egypt including 300 pregnant women in the second trimester diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) who were divided into three groups, the first received lactoferrin capsules, the second received ferrous sulphate capsules and the third received ferrous fumerate capsules daily for two months.    There was a highly significant difference between the three groups (p< 0.001) regarding increments in Hb after one  and two months and overall increase in Hb in the lactoferrin group, there was a highly significant difference between the three groups(p< 0.001) with gastrointestinal adverse effects being the least in the lactoferrin group, there was a highly significant difference between the three groups(p< 0.001) with the best compliance, acceptability and overall satisfaction in the lactoferrin group.                                                                                                   According to the results obtained in this clinical trial, oral lactoferrin was better tolerated and more acceptable with higher increase in mean hemoglobin when compared to oral iron therapy over two month treatment. Oral lactoferrin can be used as a good substitute to oral iron therapy in mild to moderate IDA during pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2015-04-07
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.740
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2015)
  • Body fat distribution in Italian, Spanish and Estonian children

    • Authors: Stefania Toselli
      Pages: 10 - 14800/janh
      Abstract: Obesity, and especially abdominal obesity, is associated with increased risk of a number of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Many disturbances related to abdominal obesity show their onset in the childhood years. Thus, during these years, it’s important to properly monitor body fat and its distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate the fat patterning in Italian, Estonian and Spanish schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 2024 children (1005 boys and 1019 girls) aged 6 to 11 years. Anthropometric measurements included triceps, biceps, subscapular, supraspinal, suprailiac, thigh, medial and lateral calf skinfold thicknesses, height and humerus width. Two indices of central adiposity and one frame index were calculated. Italian children of both sexes showed higher values of skinfold thicknesses than Estonian and Spanish children, while Spanish children showed overall higher values of central adiposity indexes, followed by Italian children. On the contrary, Estonian children showed higher values of the frame index and lower central adiposity. From a public health perspective, a priority will be the development of programs aiming to prevent obesity, in particular when a central pattern of fat distribution emerges during childhood.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.674
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2015)
  • Ubiquinol (Reduced CoQ10): A novel yet ubiquitous nutrient for heart

    • Authors: Marc Maurice Cohen
      Pages: 10 - 14800/janh
      Abstract: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a ubiquitous nutrient in human cells where it is essential for mitrochondrial energy production. CoQ10 exists in both an oxidized (ubiquinone) and reduced form (ubiquinol), with ubiquinol being the bioactive form. In addition to its use in cellular ATP production ubiquinol acts as a powerful lipid-soluble antioxidant that protects lipid membranes and lipoproteins from oxidative stress. Lower circulating levels of ubiquinol are found in patients with cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure (CHF) with deficiency being greater with increasing severity of disease. CoQ10 supplementation is well tolerated and without toxicity or drug interactions and there is evidence to suggest that CoQ10 supplementation may provide clinical improvements for patients with CHF patients as well as for patients with hypertension, statin-induced myopathy and for those undergoing cardiac surgery. Most research to date has focused on ubiquinone rather than ubiquinol, which has only recently become available as a supplemental nutrient. Effective doses of ubiquinol for congestive cardiac failure range from 100mg to 600mg/day yet most research to date has been limited to relatively small, short-term, and potentially biased trials that have used low doses of ubiquinone rather than ubiquinol. The evidence of clinical benefits with CoQ10 supplementation in cardiovascular disease is largely inconclusive and further large-scale trials are required to determine if the higher bioavailability and more potent activity of ubiquinol produces better clinical responses than ubiquinone. Ubiquinol therefore remains an interesting non-prescription, nutritional supplement that may be a useful adjunctive therapy for cardiac complaints despite not yet being recognized as a form of standard care. 
      PubDate: 2015-02-19
      DOI: 10.14800/janhm.647
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2015)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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