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Publisher: Smart Science and Technology LLC   (Total: 20 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 20 of 20 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abdomen     Open Access  
Cancer Cell & Microenvironment     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine     Open Access  
Evidence-based Medicine & Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Immunoendocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Itch & Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Macrophage     Open Access  
Molecular & Cellular Epilepsy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Musculoskeletal Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Neurotransmitter     Open Access  
Precision Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Receptors & Clinical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RNA & Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Stem Cell and Translational Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Stem Cell Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Telomere and Telomerase     Open Access  
Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Uterus & Ovary     Open Access  
Journal Cover
Neurotransmitter
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2375-2440
Published by Smart Science and Technology LLC Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Bupropion inhibits human α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by
           interacting with luminal and non-luminal sites

    • Authors: Hugo Rubén Arias, Dominik Feuerbachb, Marcelo Ortells
      Abstract: The interaction of (±)-bupropion [(±)-BP] with the human (h) α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is determined by functional and structural approaches. The Ca2+ influx results indicate that (±)-BP inhibits hα3β4 AChRs with ~2-fold lower potency than that for (±)-2-(N-tert-butylamino)-3’-iodo-4’-azidopropiophenone [(±)-SADU-3-72], indicating that this photoreactive analog can be used to further characterize the (±)-BP binding sites. The competition binding results show that (±)-BP binds to the [3H]imipramine sites at desensitized hα3β4 AChRs with ~4-fold higher affinity compared to the resting state. Molecular docking results indicate that both enantiomers of BP and SADU-3-72, in the protonated state, interact with luminal and non-luminal sites. BP interacts with a luminal site which overlaps that for imipramine, and with non-luminal sites located in the transmembrane domain (TMD) at interfacial (+α3/-β4) and α3 intrasubunit sites, and in the TMD-ECD (extracellular domain) junction at the +β4/-α3 and +β4/-β4 interfaces. Our results are consistent with a hα3β4 model where BP and SADU-3-72 bind to overlapping non-luminal sites as well as non-overlapping luminal sites, probably in physiological conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2018)
       
  • Conservation and phylogenetic stepwise changes of aquaporin (AQP) 4
           palmitoylation in vertebrate evolution

    • Authors: Takashi Hayashi
      Abstract: The aquaporin (AQP) family channels control water transport across cell membranes in various organs of mammals. Among 13 AQP family subtypes (AQP0-12), AQP4 is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. Previous studies revealed that AQP4M1 full-length splice variant is specifically palmitoylated at two cysteine residues (Cys13 and Cys17) in its N-terminus and the palmitoylation of these sites regulates the supramolecular assembly of AQP4 isoforms on the membrane. Here, I further focused on conservation of these palmitoylation sites found in animal AQP4 orthologs. Analysis of sequence databases provides an insight into phylogenetic stepwise changes of AQP4 palmitoylation motifs in vertebrate lineages. AQP4 palmitoylation mechanism itself has been almost completely conserved throughout vertebrate species in spite of the divergence of AQP4 full-length amino acid sequences during molecular evolution. My findings indicate that dynamic regulation of AQP4 made possible by reversible post-translational protein palmitoylation may be critical for the specific refined functions of water transport in the vertebrate central nervous system.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evolutionary acquisition and divergence of vertebrate HCN2 palmitoylation

    • Authors: Masayuki Itoh, Toshie Kaizuka, Takashi Hayashi
      Abstract: Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels control rhythmic activity in mammalian nervous system and heart. Among four HCN family isoforms (HCN1-4), mouse HCN2 is specifically palmitoylated at five cysteine residues in its N-terminus. Here, we further focused on conservation of these palmitoylation sites found in vertebrate HCN2 orthologs. Analysis of sequence databases provided an insight into stepwise acquisition of HCN2 palmitoylation motifs in vertebrate lineages. The mechanism of HCN2 palmitoylation itself has been broadly conserved throughout vertebrate species in spite of the divergence of HCN2 full-length amino acid sequences during molecular evolution. Furthermore, there exist vertebrate class-specific variation of palmitoylation motifs. Our findings mean that dynamic regulation of HCN2 made possible by reversible post-translational protein palmitoylation may be critical for refined functions of the vertebrate nervous system and heart.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
       
  • The significance of complete distributional analysis of the serotonin
           receptor

    • Authors: Yoshihisa Koyama, Makoto Kondo, Shoichi Shimada
      Abstract: Monoamines, including serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline are essential neurotransmitters of the central nervous system (CNS). Although monoamine-containing neuronal somata are located in the brainstem, their axons project throught the brain. Thus, the monoamine system features a widespread network and is involved in diverse brain functions. Because individual neural functions are dependent on different types of monoamine receptors, it is important to understand the expression of each receptor within the CNS. In order to further elucidate the monoamine system, we performed distributional analysis in the entire CNS, targeted for 5-hydroxytryptamine 3A receptor (5-HT3AR), the only ionotropic receptor amongst the monoamine receptors. Because our method has high sensitivity and contrast, our findings reveal 5-HT3AR expression in novel regions as well as detailed localization throughout the entire CNS. These findings will facilitate further studies on the serotonin system. In this article, we illustrate the detailed distributional analysis of 5-HT3AR expression and suggest a renewed focus on the importance of whole distributional analysis of monoamine neurotransmitters. We hope for future studies to further investigate distribution of monoamine receptors throughout the entire CNS.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
       
  • Beyond a neurotransmitter: The role of serotonin in plants

    • Authors: Lauren Alexandra Elizabeth Erland, Praveen K Saxena
      Abstract: Serotonin is a neurotransmitter than has been identified across all forms of life. In recent years the presence and function of serotonin in plants (phytoserotonin) is becoming an increasingly active area of research. Serotonin has been found to function as a plant growth regulator, and a stress defense molecules. Through these functions serotonin has been implicated in mediation of morphogenesis, vegetative growth, reproductive development, seed germination and survival, abiotic and biotic stress survival and mediation of plant signaling and mediation of plant cycles. Despite its widespread importance in plants there is still very little understood about the mechanism of action of this important signaling molecule in plants, therefore, this review provides a brief overview of the roles and mechanisms of serotonin in the plant system. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
       
  • Pb(II) Disruption of Synaptic Activity Through Ca(II)- and Zn(II)-binding
           Proteins

    • Authors: Michael Kirberger
      Abstract: Metal toxicity is a pervasive global health problem due to the increasing bioavailability of non-essential metals released into the environment as a result of human industry. Neurotoxicity occurs at the molecular level through various mechanisms of metal dyshomeostasis, resulting in acute and chronic systemic pathologies.Research in our laboratory and others has demonstrated that divalent lead (Pb2+) can replace numerous essential metals in proteins, including both Ca2+ and Zn2+, which play prominent roles in neural activities. The promiscuous nature of Pb2+ ions is likely due to the polarizable nature of the ion which allows it to readily conform to a variety of different metal binding geometries and coordination numbers, and bind opportunistically in regions of proteins outside of known metal binding sites, which may alter protein structure and allosterically inhibit function.Because Pb2+ is deeply entwined in Ca2+-regulated activities, and given the extensive and integral involvement of Ca2+-signaling in neural pathways, the purpose of this brief review is to highlight recent research efforts to understand the mechanisms through which Pb2+ can interfere with neurotransmission and synaptic activity in Ca2+- and Zn2+-signaling pathways in neurons. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
       
  • Examination of configural association theory and conflict resolution model
           through hippocampal theta activity

    • Authors: Yuya Sakimoto, Dai Mitsushima
      Abstract: The configural association theory and the conflict resolution model both propose a hippocampal function in the non-spatial Go/No-go stimulus discrimination task. The first theory suggests a critical role of the hippocampus in the formation of configural representations for compound stimuli in which multiple stimuli are simultaneously presented. The second theory hypothesizes that the hippocampus is important for the response inhibition to a stimulus that is at conflict with incompatible goals or response tendencies. Although these theories promote different interpretations of the link between the hippocampal function and the non-spatial discrimination task, they both allude to the involvement of the hippocampus in information processing for compound stimuli in the negative patterning task. Although recent, our research by electrophysiological approach showed that the hippocampal theta power was declined by compound stimulus of negative patterning task, and we showed that the hippocampal theta power was declined by a compound stimulus of feature negative task. These results showed that the decline in hippocampal theta activity was elicited by behavioral inhibition for conflict stimuli having overlapping elements. This finding strongly supports the conflict resolution model and suggests a hippocampal role in learning of behavioral inhibition for conflict stimulus during non-spatial stimulus discrimination tasks.
      PubDate: 2017-01-02
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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