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Journal Cover Jurnal Agritech
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0216-0455 - ISSN (Online) 2527-3825
   Published by Universitas Gadjah Mada Homepage  [28 journals]
  • Identifikasi Gen Transgenik pada Produk Susu Bubuk Kedelai dan Susu
           Formula Soya dengan Metode PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

    • Authors: Agustin Krisna Wardani, Annisa Alirsyah, Ana Fauziah
      Pages: 237 - 245
      Abstract: The need of soybean that reached up to 2,2 million tons per year has made Indonesia imports this commodity 1,62 million tons from countries that adopt Genetically Modified (GM) soybean. By the presence of GM soybeans in Indonesia, Genetically Modified Product (GMP) labelling has need to be done. Detection of GMP can be done by using PCR. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of trangenic genetic material in soy milk powder and soy formula products to classify as GMP. Another goal was to determine the optimum annealing temperature of the primers used. Based on this study, the optimum annealing temperature of the CaMV 35S primer and the EPSPS-CP4 primer was 60oC and 59oC. The NOS terminator primer’s optimum annealing temperature was not found. 6 soy milk powder samples and 5 soy formula samples are might be determined to be using transgenic soybeans due to the presence of EPSPS-CP4 genes and CaMV 35S promotor genes. Therefore, those 11 samples were classified as GMP.
      ABSTRAK Kebutuhan kedelai yang mencapai 2,2 juta ton/tahun memaksa Indonesia mengimpor sebanyak 1,62 juta ton. Sebagian besar kedelai impor berupa kedelai transgenik. Dengan munculnya kedelai transgenik di Indonesia, perlu adanya pelabelan Produk Rekayasa Genetika (PRG) untuk memenuhi hak-hak konsumen. Teknik yang dilakukan untuk mendeteksi PRG salah satunya menggunakan metode PCR. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya gen transgenik pada produk susu bubuk kedelai dan formula soya, sehingga produk dapat digolongkan sebagai PRG atau tidak. Selain itu juga bertujuan untuk mengetahui suhu annealing optimum pada primer yang digunakan. Hasil penelitian didapatkan suhu annealing optimum primer CaMV 35S promotor adalah 60oC. Sedangkan untuk primer gen EPSPS-CP4 suhu annealing optimumnya 59oC. Untuk primer NOS terminator suhu annealing optimum tidak ditemukan. Dari amplifikasi DNA sampel, 6 sampel susu bubuk kedelai dan 5 sampel formula soya terdapat sisipan gen EPSPS-CP4 dan gen Promotor CaMV 35S. Dengan demikian 11 sampel tersebut dapat dikatakan sebagai PRG. Kata kunci: Produk rekayasa genetika; PCR; formula soya; susu kedelai bubuk; kedelai transgenik
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.16656
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Aktivitas Antioksidan Danangiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor oleh
           Yogurt dengan Ekstrak Daun Ficus glomerata Roxb

    • Authors: Baiq Rani Dewi Wulandani, Endang Sutriswati Rahayu, Yustinus Marsono, Tyas Utami
      Pages: 246 - 255
      Abstract: Ficus glomerata Roxb has been known to have flavonoids. Flavonoids in plant are known for their antioxidant activity and ability to the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor. This research started with extraction using water on the leaves of Ficus glomerata Roxb to obtained profile of phenolic compounds in the leaves of Ficus glomerata Roxb [gallic acid, flavonol (quercetin dan rutin), flavanol (catechin), dan flavanone]. The next stage was to prepare of yogurt starter inoculation and propagation of starter yogurt and yogurt- making process with the addition of the leaf extract of Ficus glomerata Roxb during the storage process. The purpose of this research is to study the antioxidant activity ability and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor of yogurt with Ficus glomerata leaf extract during storage times (1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days) at 4 °C. The results showed that the antioxidant activity, the value of ophthalaldehyde (OPA) and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- Inhibition on Ficus glomerata –yogurt during storage in the refrigerator (4 °C) is higher and show differences significantly (p < 0,05) compared with plain yogurt that reaches optimal on day 7 of storage.ABSTRAK Ficus glomerata Roxb. telah diketahui memiliki senyawa flavonoid. Senyawa flavonoid yang terdapat didalam tanaman diketahui memiliki kemampuan sebagai antioksidan dan mampu sebagai Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor. Penelitian ini diawali dengan melakukan ekstraksi dengan menggunakan air pada daun Ficus glomerata Roxb untuk mendapatkan profil senyawa phenolik pada ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb [gallic acid, flavonol (quercetin dan rutin), flavanol (catechin), dan flavanone]. Tahap berikutnya adalah inokulasi dan perbanyakan starter yogurt untuk selanjutnya melakukan proses pembuatan yogurt dengan penambahan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb. Pengujian aktivitas antioksidan, pengujian terhadap nilai o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) dan pengujan terhadap angiotensin converting enzyme I- inhibitor dilakukan terhadap yogurt dengan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb selama proses penyimpanan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari kemampuan aktivitas antioksidan dan Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor pada yogurt dengan penambahan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb selama penyimpanan (1, 7, 14, 21, dan 28 hari) pada suhu 4 °C. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas antioksidan, nilai o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) dan Angiotensin Converting Enzyme I- inhibitor pada yogurt dengan ekstrak daun Ficus glomerata Roxb selama proses penyimpanan di dalam refrigerator (4 °C) adalah lebih tinggi dan menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata (p < 0,05) dibandingkan dengan plain yogurt yang mencapai optimalnya pada hari ke-7 penyimpanan.Kata kunci: Angiotensin converting enzyme; Ficus glomerata Roxb; yogurt
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.10846
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Karakteristik Beras Analog Berindeks Glisemik Rendah dari Oyek dengan
           Penambahan Berbagai Jenis Kacang-Kacangan

    • Authors: Bayu Kanetro, Dwiyati Pujimulyani, Sri Luwihana, Alimatus Sahrah
      Pages: 256 - 262
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to determine the best legumes for increasing protein of artificial rice that was made of dried growol or oyek based on physical, sensory charactersitics and glycemic index. The experiment design of this research was randomized complete design with the single factor of legumes type, that were soybean mungbean, vevet bean, and cowpeas. The first step of artificial rice processing was mixing dried oyek and legumes flour with 3:7 ratio. The next step was forming the dough into the same as rice, steaming, and drying for producing artificial rice that could be stored. The products of artificial rice were analyzed for texture, colour, and preference level of dried and steamed procuct, proximate composition of dried product, and glycemic index (IG) of steamed product. The result of this research showed that the type of legumes affected the physical and sensory characteristic of artificial rice. The best legumes for producing artificial rice was mungbean. The preference level of the best product was better than the other legumes, and the same as original rice. The proximate composition especially protein content of the best product was the same as original rice, and its IG was be categorized in low IG food product.ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan jenis kacang-kacangan yang tepat untuk meningkatkan kadar protein beras analog dari growol kering atau oyek berdasarkan sifat fisik, kimia, sensoris, dan indeks glisemik. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan rancangan acak lengkap faktor tunggal yaitu jenis kacang-kacangan yang meliputi kacang kedelai, tunggak, koro, dan kacang hijau. Beras analog/artificial dibuat melalui tahap pembuatan adonan yang terdiri campuran tepung kacang-kacangan dan tepung oyek dengan perbandingan 3:7. Selanjutnya dibentuk menyerupai beras, dikukus, dan dikeringkan sehingga diperoleh beras analog yang dapat disimpan. Produk kering dan produk yang siap dikonsumsi (nasi analog) selanjutnya dianalisis tekstur, warna,tingkat kesukaan, dan komposisi proksimat pada beras analog, serta indeks glisemik pada nasi analog. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jenis kacang-kacangan berpengaruh terhadap sifat fisik dan tingkat kesukaan beras maupun nasi analog. Jenis kacang-kacangan terbaik adalah kacang hijau yang memberikan tingkat kesukaan nasi analog paling baik dibandingkan jenis kacang-kacangan lainnya dan nilainya sama atau tidak berbeda nyata dengan nasi biasa. Komposisi proksimat beras analog terbaik khususnya kadar proteinnya hampir sama dengan beras biasa, dan IG-nya dikategorikan dalam bahan pangan ber-IG rendah.Kata kunci: Beras analog/artificial; ubi kayu; oyek; indeks glisemik; kacang-kacangan
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.31538
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Perbaikan Sifat Laju Transmisi Uap Air dan Antibakteri Edible Film dengan
           Menggunakan Minyak Sawit dan Jeruk Kunci

    • Authors: Budi Santoso, Zuhara Hilda, Gatot Priyanto, Rindit Pambayun
      Pages: 263 - 270
      Abstract: The objective of the research was to improve water vapor transmission rate and antibacterial properties of edible film by using red palm oil and Citrus mitis. The research design was factorial completely randomized design with three replications. There were three studies: the addition of Uncaria gambir Roxb extract, palm oil concentration, and pH value at the concentration 0, 1.5, and 3 (% w/v); 0, 1.5, and 3 (% v/v); and 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. The results showed that interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb extract, palm oil and pH had significant effected on solubility of edible film. Interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb and palm oil had significant effected on thickness, percentage of elongation and solubility of edible film. Interaction of Uncaria gambir Roxb and pH had significant effected on solubility of edible film. Characteristic of edible film was produced thickness 0.15 to 0.28 mm, percentage of elongation 23.33 to 87.78%, solubility 33.9 to 49.16%, water vapor transmission rate 3.43 to 8.52 g.m-2.d-1, and inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus 0.2 to 8.2 mm.ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah untuk memperbaiki laju transmisi uap air dan sifat antibakteri edible film dengan menggunakan minyak sawit dan jeruk kunci. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dengan tiga kali ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas konsentrasi ekstrak gambir; 0, 1,5, dan 3 (% b/v), konsentrasi minyak sawit; 0, 1,5, dan 3 (% v/v), dan pH (3, 4, 5, dan 6). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa interaksi ekstrak gambir, minyak sawit, dan derajat keasaman (pH) berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film. Interaksi ekstrak gambir dengan minyak sawit berpengaruh nyata terhadap ketebalan, persen pemanjangan, dan kelarutan edible film. Interaksi minyak sawit dengan derajat keasaman (pH) berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film. Interaksi ekstrak gambir dengan derajat keasaman (pH) berpengaruh nyata terhadap kelarutan edible film. Karakteristik edible film yang dihasilkan adalah ketebalan 0,15–0,28 mm, persen pemanjangan 23,33–87,78%, kelarutan 33,9–49,16%, laju transmisi uap air 3,43–8,52 g.m-2.hari-1, dan diameter daya hambat terhadap Staphylococcus aureus 0,2–8,2 mm.Kata kunci: Antibakteri; edible film; gambir; minyak sawit; pH
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.31539
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius)
           dan Fraksi-Fraksinya

    • Authors: Chatarina Lilis Suryani, Siti Tamaroh Cahyono Murti, Agusta Ardiyan, Astuti Setyowati
      Pages: 271 - 279
      Abstract: Fractionation process of pandan leaf (Pandanus amaryllifolius) extract could enhance its antioxidant activity as higher purity of bioactive compounds was achieved. The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract fractions of pandan leaves and to determine the fraction that has the highest antioxidant activity. The research was divided into three stages: (1) extraction and fractionation of pandan leaf extract, (2) phytochemical analysis of pandan leaf fractions, and (3) analysis of antioxidative activity. The analysis of antioxidant activity includes reducing power approach by ferrithiocyanate (FTC), DPPH radical scavenging, and the calculation of EC50. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of pandan leaves had a higher reductive ability than the ethanol extract, while its DPPH radical scavenging activity was lower. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were quantified in ethyl acetate fraction > ethanol extract > hexane fraction. Ethanol extract of pandan leaves and ethyl acetate fraction qualitatively contained alkaloid, flavonoid, phenolic, and saponin. Terpenoid compounds were present in ethanol extract whereas steroid compounds were present in ethyl acetate fraction. Hexane fraction only contained steroid and phenolic compounds. Higher reducing power values were ethyl acetate fraction, ethanol extract, hexane fraction, and vitamin E commercial respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction had higher antioxidant activity value (FTC method) than hexane fraction and ethanol extract.  Ethyl acetate had a higher DPPH radical scavenging activity value than vitamin E. Ethyl acetate fraction, hexane fraction, ethanol extract, and vitamin E commercial had EC50 values of 0.90; 8.66; 4.51; and 11.76 mg/mL respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of pandan leaves is a potential source of natural antioxidant.
      ABSTRAKProses fraksinasi ekstrak daun pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) dapat meningkatkan aktivitas antioksidannya karena dengan proses fraksinasi akan diperoleh komponen bioaktif yang lebih murni. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan dari fraksi-fraksi ekstrak etanol daun pandan dan menentukan fraksi yang mempunyai aktivitas antioksidan yang tinggi. Penelitian dibagi dalam 3 tahap yaitu ekstraksi dan fraksinasi ekstrak daun pandan, analisis fitokimia fraksi-fraksi daun pandan, dan uji aktivitas antioksidannya. Uji aktivitas antioksidan meliputi analisis daya mereduksi dengan metode feritiosianat (FTC) dan daya tangkap radikal DPPH serta perhitungan EC50. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fraksi etil asetat dari ekstrak etanol daun pandan mempunyai kemampuan mereduksi lebih tinggi dibanding ekstrak etanolnya, namun daya tangkap radikal DPPH-nya lebih rendah. Komponen fenol dan flavonoid yang terkandung dalam fraksi etil asetat > esktrak etanol > heksan. Ekstrak etanol daun pandan dan fraksi etil asetat secara kualitatif mengandung alkaloid, flavonoid, fenol, dan saponin. Senyawa terpenoid terdapat pada ekstrak etanol sedangkan steroid terdapat pada fraksi etil asetat. Fraksi heksan hanya mengandung senyawa steroid dan fenolik. Daya mereduksi yang dimiliki fraksi etil asetat > ekstrak etanol > heksan > vitamin E komersial. Aktivitas antioksidan yang dimiliki BHT > vitamin E > fraksi etil asetat > ekstrak etanol > fraksi heksan. Daya tangkap radikal DPPH dari BHT > ekstrak etanol > fraksi heksan atau fraksi etil asetat>. Fraksi etil asetat, fraksi heksan, ekstrak etanol, dan vitamin E komersial  mempunyai nilai EC50 berturut-turut sebesar: 0,90; 8,66; 4,51; dan 11,76 mg/mL. Fraksi etil asetat ekstrak etanol daun pandan berpotensi sebagai sumber antioksidan alami.Kata kunci: Ekstrak etanol daun pandan; fraksinasi; antioksidan; daya mereduksi; DPPH
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.11312
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Pengaruh Pelapis dapat Dimakan dari Karagenan terhadap Mutu Melon Potong
           dalam Penyimpanan Dingin

    • Authors: Doddy Andy Darmajana, Nok Afifah, Enny Solihah, Novita Indriyanti
      Pages: 280 - 287
      Abstract: Recently, fresh-cut melon consumption has been increasing due to the health benefits. One of methods to reduce the decay of quality by minimal processing of fruits is edible packaging. This method may extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut melon. The objective of this research was to study the effectiveness of the edible coatings and edible films to maintain the quality of fresh-cut melon during storage at 10°C for 6 days. The edible solutions were prepared by dissolving  carrageenan of 2%, glycerol of 1%, and tween 80 of 0.2% into aquadest. These solutions were used as coating systems by dipping and wrapping method. Uncoated fruits served as controls. Quality was measured in terms of weight loss, hardness, soluble solids, pH value, and total plate count. The result revealed that for all treatments the value of weight loss, soluble solid content, and total plate count increased during storage whilst hardness, pH, decreased. In terms of microbiological, the coating improved the shelf-life of fresh-cut melon (up to 2 days) compared to the controls.                                                                   ABSTRAKKonsumsi buah melon potong segar meningkat beberapa tahun terakhir karena manfaat kesehatannya. Salah satu alternatif terbaru untuk mengurangi penurunan kualitas yang disebabkan oleh pengolahan minimal buah-buahan adalah pengembangan edible packaging (kemasan dapat dimakan). Mereka diharapkan dapat memperpanjang umur simpan buah melon potong. Tujuan penelitian untuk mempelajari efektivitas edible coating dan edible film untuk menjaga kualitas buah melon potong segar selama penyimpanan pada temperatur 10oC selama 6 hari. Larutan edible dibuat dengan melarutkan 2% karagenan, 1% gliserol, dan 0,5% tween 80 dalam aquadest pada temperatur 70-80 °C. Larutan ini digunakan sebagai sistem pelapisan dengan metode pencelupan dan metode pembungkusan. Buah melon tanpa pelapis disiapkan sebagai kontrol. Pengukuran kualitas buah melon meliputi susut bobot, kekerasan, total padatan terlarut, nilai pH, dan total plate count. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa untuk semua perlakuan terjadi peningkatan susut bobot, total padatan terlarut, dan angka lempeng total selama penyimpanan, sementara kekerasan dan pH mengalami penurunan. Dalam hal mikrobiologi, pelapisan meningkatkan masa simpan buah melon potong (hingga 2 hari) dibandingkan dengan kontrol.Kata kunci: Karagenan; edible coating; edible film; melon
       
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.10377
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Fungal Population of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) Kernels Affected by Water
           Activity During Storage

    • Authors: Kiki Nurtjahja, Okky Setyawati Dharmaputra, Winiati Pudji Rahayu, Rizal Syarief
      Pages: 288 - 294
      Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of various water activities (aw) on fungal population in nutmeg kernels during storage. The seed nutmegs were obtained from ripe fruits one week after they fell on the ground in North Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The kernels (moisture content ± 10%) were stored 0, 15, and 30 days in various aw (0.75, 0.80, 0.83, 0.90, 0.97) using saturated salt solutions at 29 °C in sorption containers. Serial dilution method followed by a pour-plate method in Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18) was used to isolate and quantify the fungal population. Results revealed that kernels stored at aw = 0.75 was not significantly (p < 0.05) different from at aw = 0.80-0.83. Fungal population of kernels determined  aw and significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by duration of storage. Range of aw 0.80-0.83 has a smaller total fungal population than aw ≥ 0.90. Thirteen different genera/species were isolated and identified including Aspergillus and Eurotium (6 species), Penicillium (3 species), Fusarium (2 species), 1 species each of Cladosporium or Syncephalastrum, and isolate A. The largest total fungal population (5.0×105 CFU g-1) was present at the beginning of storage (aw = 0.97) and it was dominated by Penicillium citrinum (2.6×105 CFU g-1) followed by Cladosporium cladosporioides (1.7×105 CFU g-1). After 30 days of storage (aw = 0.97) the population of P. citrinum was still dominant with a population of 2.4×104 CFU g-1. Eurotium chevalieri followed with a population of 1.2×104 CFU g-1.


      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.10639
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Transesterifikasi In Situ Biji Kemiri (Aleurites moluccana L) Menggunakan
           Metanol Daur Ulang dengan Bantuan Gelombang Ultrasonik

    • Authors: Mahlinda Mahlinda, Meuthia Busthan
      Pages: 295 - 301
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the use of recovered methanol for in situ transesterification reaction candlenut seed (Aleurites moluccana L) as a biodiesel bysonication. The influence of the ratio of recovered methanol to seed, catalyst concentration, reaction time and the temperature was investigated. Important properties of biodiesel such as density, viscosity and acid number were checked according to SNI 7182:2012 standards. The result showed that the maximum yield which has been obtained was 57,85% at recovered methanol to seed ratio 40:1, catalyst concentration 4%, reaction temperature 65 °C and reaction time 80 minutes. The test result of biodiesel properties showed that two parameters (density and viscosity)  were conformed to SNI 7182:2012 standards, meanwhile acid value was higher than the maximum standards. In conclusion, the recovered methanol was feasible to produce biodiesel via in situ transesterification but the yield was lower if compared with the use of fresh methanol.                                         ABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari penggunaan metanol daur ulang pada reaksi transesterifikasi in situ biji kemiri (Aleurites moluccana L) menjadi biodiesel menggunakan radiasi gelombang ultrasonik. Pengaruh dari rasio metanol daur ulang terhadap biji, jumlah katalis, waktu reaksi dan temperatur telah diteliti. Sifat penting dari biodiesel seperti densitas, viskositas dan bilangan asam telah diuji menurut satandar SNI 7182:2012. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rendemen maksimum yang dapat diperoleh adalah 57,85% pada rasio metanol daur ulang tehadap biji 40:1, jumlah katalis 4%, temperatur reaksi 65 °C dan waktu reaksi 80 menit. Hasil pengujian sifat biodiesel menunjukkan bahwa dua paramater (densitas dan viskositas) telah memenuhi standar SNI 7182:2012, sementara bilangan asam lebih tinggi dari standar maksimum. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa metanol daur ulang cocok untuk memproduksi biodiesel secara in situ transesterifikasi tetapi rendemennya lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan penggunaan metanol baru.Kata kunci: Biodiesel; kemiri; transesterifikasi in situ; metanol daur ulang
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.11263
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Fermentasi Biji Kakao Kering Menggunakan Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
           Lactobacillus lactis, dan Acetobacter aceti

    • Authors: Mulono Apriyanto, Sutardi Sutardi, Supriyanto Supriyanto, Eni Harmayani
      Pages: 302 - 311
      Abstract: The aims of the study was to improve quality of cocoa bans by fermentation of sun dried cocoa beans. The fermentation variations were conducted as follows: first, fermentation without the addition of inoculum (control), the second treatment using inoculum of S. cerevisiae (FNCC 3056), L. lactis (FNC 0086) and A. aceti (FNCC 0016), each of 108 cfu/g  given simultaneously at the beginning of fermentation.and the third treatment wassequential administration, i.e: yeast at the initial fermentation, lactic acid bacteria after 24 hours fermentation, and acetic acid bacteria after 48 hr of fermentation third with the same microbial population with the second treatment. The fermentation was conducted for120 hours. The fermentation temperature were controlled during fermentation as follows: 35 °C  for the first 24 hours, 45 °C  for the next second 24- hours, 55 °C the third 24 hours and 35 °C for the last 48 hours of fermentation. The results showed that after the rehydration, pulp composition of dry beans could be used as a substrate for fermentation. During fermentation, dry cocoa beans showed reduction of total sugar content, pH and total polyphenols for all the three treatments. Cut test of dried cocoa beans during the fermentation showed the increasing percentage of brown color of the three treatments. Reducing sugar and fermentation indexes increasedfor all treatments during fermentation. Concentration of ethanol, lactic acid and acetic acid reached highest level at 24, 60, and 108 hours of fermentationfor all treatments.  Highest populations of S. cerevisiae, L. lactis and A. aceti of three treatments obtained at 24, 48 and 72 hours of fermentation. After fermentation and roasting, dry beans produced hydrophobic amino acids as precursors of flavor and volatile compounds.                                               ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perubahan sifat kimia pada fermentasi biji kakao kering jemur. Biji kakao kering jemur yang diperoleh dari petani memiliki kadar air yang tidak seragam. Guna menimalkan kegagalan fermentasi maka biji kakao kering jemur diperoleh melalui pengeringan biji kakao segar menggunakan kabinet dryer dengan sebelumnya dikondisikan pada suhu seperti pengeringan dengan sinar matahari, dan masing ditentukan kadar gula reduksinya. Percobaan fermentasi biji kakao kering dilakukan fermentasi pada wadah fermentasi dengan jumlah biji 150 g setiap wadah. Sebelum difermentasi terlebih dahulu biji kakao kering jemur direhidrasi agar didapat kadar air mendekati biji segar, kemudian biji kakao kering jemur diinkubasi selama enam hari dan tanpa dibalik selama fermentasi. Setiap perlakuan diulangi tiga kali dan diamati tiap 24 jam sampai 120 jam. Kadar gula reduksi (kontrol 4,49–11,45%, inokulum diawal (IA) 4,69–11,55%, inokulum bertahap (IB) 4,64–11,54%), kadar asam tertitrasi (kontrol 4,48–6,45%, inokulum diawal (IA) 4,64–6,39%, inokulum bertahap (IB)  4,45–6,59%), populasi Saccharomycescerevisiae (kontrol 5,56–7,28 (log CFU/g), inokulum diawal (IA) 6,45–8,75 (logCFU/g), inokulum bertahap (IB) 6.88 – 8.99 (logCFU/g), Lactobacillus lactis (kontrol 6,66–8,15 (log CFU/g), inokulum diawal (IA) 7,65–8,21(log CFU/g), inokulum bertahap (IB) 7,66–8,95 (log CFU/g) dan Acetobacter aceti (kontrol 4,26–6,95% (log CFU/g), inokulum diawal (IA) 4,85–7,40 (log CFU/g), inokulum bertahap (IB) 4,35–7,91 (log CFU/g)) dalam pulp fermentasi diamati selama proses fermentasi. Untuk mengetahui kualitas biji kakao dilakukan pengukuran pH (kontrol 5,67–3,98, inokulum diawal (IA) 5,67–3,55, inokulum bertahap (IB) 5,67–3,50), kadar etanol (kontrol 0,3–0,5%, inokulum diawal (IA) 0,3–0,52%, inokulum bertahap (IB) 0,35–0,53%) dan indeks fermentasi selama fermentasi (kontrol 0,31–0,88, inokulum diawal (IA) 0,32–0,99, inokulum bertahap (IB) 0,33–1,03).Kata kunci: Acetobacter aceti; biji kakao kering jemur; fermentasi; Lactobacillus lactis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.17113
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Pengaruh Metode Kombinasi Autoklaf 2 Siklus dan Hidrolisis Asam Sitrat
           

    • Authors: Priyanto Triwitono, Yustinus Marsono, Agnes Murdiati, Djagal Wiseso Marseno
      Pages: 312 - 318
      Abstract: Mung beans are potential sources of amylose as ingredients low-calorie RS-3. Studies on physical and chemical properties are most important for the obesity treatment in the future. Preparation method of RS-3 using a combination treatment of 2 cycles autoclaving and citric acid hydrolysis on mung bean starch of Walet varieties and the effect on chemical and physical properties were conducted. The result showed that the preparation method improved amylose content by 20% and RS by 47.3%, decrease the swelling power by 47.6%, increase in the WHC by 237.8% and OHC by 9.3%. The starch color also become brighter with the ∆ E 32.6. Its viscosity became lower with a setback of 710 Cp. The amilograph curve type changed from type C to D. The granule shape become irregular and the size increase three-fold. The diffraction pattern has steady in type C but the intensity increased.
                                                                   ABSTRAKKacang hijau merupakan jenis kacang-kacangan sumber amilosa yang potensial sebagai bahan dasar RS-3 rendah kalori. Kajian tentang sifat fisika dan kimiawinya membuka peluang pemanfaatannya untuk penanganan obesitas di masa datang. Telah dilakukan preparasi RS dari pati kacang hijau varietas Walet dengan perlakuan kombinasi autoklaf 2 siklus dan hidrolisis asam sitrat dan dikaji pengaruhnya terhadap sifat kimia dan fisikawinya. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan kombinasi autoklaf 2 siklus dan hidrolisis asam sitrat mampu meningkatkan kadar amilosa sebesar 20% dan RS sebesar 47,3%, menurunkan swelling power sebesar 47,6%, meningkatkan WHC sebesar 237,8% dan OHC sebesar 9,3%. Pengaruh lainnya  yaitu mampu menurunkan derajat putih warna pati dengan ∆ E sebesar 32,6, menurunkan viskositas dengan viskositas balik 710 Cp. Tipe kurva amilografi berubah dari tipe C ke tipe D, bentuk granula tidak beraturan, ukuran granula meningkat tiga kali lipat, dan pola difraksinya tidak berubah (tetap tipe C) tetapi intensitasnya meningkat.Kata kunci: Amilosa; autoklaf; obesitas; asam sitrat; kacang hijau; RS; pati
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.11620
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Komposisi Asam Lemak, Angka Peroksida, dan Angka TBA Fillet Ikan Kakap
           (Lutjanus sp) pada Suhu dan Lama Penyimpanan Berbeda

    • Authors: Rahim Husain, Suparmo Suparmo, Eni Harmayani, Chusnul Hidayat
      Pages: 319 - 326
      Abstract: Fish has a high nutritional value and is a major food source in many countries. Fish lipid has a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20: 5n-3) and docosahexsanoic acid (DHA; 22: 6n-3). The objective of this research was to determine fatty acids composition of snapper (Lutjanus sp) fillet and its damage during the storage process. The results showed that total of the saturated fatty acids (SFA) increased from 4.35% to 25.55%, 28.06%, 32.73%, and 61.75% during storage at 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, respectively. Total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were 23.72%, 23.69%, 14.4%, 22.66%, and 29.4% at storage temperature of 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Total PUFA decreased from 25.06% to 15.98%, 14.99%, 10.32%, and 8.84% at 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Peroxide value, as primary peroxide of snapper fillet, increased about 10.60 times with an increased in storage temperature from 0 °C to 40 °C. Value of TBA increased 6.60 times with an increased in temperature from 0 °C to 40 °C during 45 days.ABSTRAKIkan memiliki nilai gizi tinggi dan merupakan sumber makanan utama di banyak negara. Lipid ikan memiliki kandungan tinggi asam tak jenuh ganda (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid, PUFA), terutama asam eikosapentanoat (EPA; 20:5n-3) dan asam docosahexsanoat (DHA; 22:6n-3). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi asam lemak fillet ikan kakap (Lutjanus sp) dan kerusakan akibat proses penyimpanan. Hasil analisis asam lemak jenuh (Saturated Fatty Acid, SFA) menunjukkan bahwa asam lemak jenuh meningkat dari 4,35% menjadi 25,55%, 28,06%, 32,73%, dan 61,75% selama penyimpanan pada 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, dan 40 °C. Total asam lemak tak jenuh (Mono Unsaturated Fatty Acid, MUFA) adalah 23,72%, 23,69, 14,4%, 22,66%, dan 29,4% pada penyimpanan 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, dan 40 °C. Sedangkan total PUFA turun dari 25,05% menjadi 15,98%, 14,99%, 10,32%, dan 8,84%  pada penyimpanan 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 30 °C, dan 40 °C. Angka  peroksida sebagai produk primer dari oksidasi  fillet ikan kakap  meningkat 10,6 kali dengan kenaikan suhu dari 0 °C sampai 40 °C. Angka TBA meningkat 6,6 kali dari suhu 0 °C ke suhu 40 °C pada lama penyimpanan 45 hari.Kata kunci: Komposisi asam lemak; fillet ikan kakap (Lutjanus sp); angka peroksida; angka TBA
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.11212
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Tingkat Kelarutan Peptida Tempe dengan Bobot Molekul Kecil pada Berbagai
           Jenis Pelarut

    • Authors: Rusdah Rusdah, Maggy Thenawidjaya Suhartono, Nurheni Sri Palupi, Masahiro Ogawa
      Pages: 327 - 333
      Abstract: There are various methods exist to extract soluble peptide from soybean and its fermented products. This study was aimed to evaluate the solubility of low molecular weight peptide of tempe from two types of bean (GMO and non-GMO soybean) and two different treatment (boiling and non-boiling). The solvents used were water and organic solvents which commonly used as solvents for soy-fermented product. The result showed that  acetonitrile (A): water (W): trifluoroacetic acid (TF) provided higher solubility of the peptides compared with water (p < 0.05). The addition of trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile-water mixture (A1W1) increased the peptide recovery about 1.522 mM (31.7%). The GMO tempe showed the higher content of peptide recovery compared with non-GMO tempe, while boiled tempe also gave higher peptide recovery than non-boiled tempe.ABSTRAKMetode ekstraksi peptida terlarut pada produk kedelai dan fermentasi kedelai sangat bervariasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa sifat kelarutan peptida dengan berat molekul kecil pada sampel tempe yang diambil dari dua jenis kedelai (GMO dan non-GMO) serta dua jenis perlakuan (perebusan dan tanpa perebusan) yang berbeda. Pelarut yang digunakan meliputi air dan pelarut organik yang umum digunakan dalam ekstraksi peptida kedelai dan produk fermentasinya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pelarut organik asetonitril: air: asam trifluoroasetat (A1W1TF) memberikan tingkat kelarutan peptida tempe kedelai lebih baik dibanding pelarut air (p < 0,05). Penambahan asam trifluoroasetat pada pelarut campuran asetonitril-air (A1W1) terbukti meningkatkan peptida terlarut hingga 1,522 mM (31,7%). Tempe GMO menunjukkan kelarutan peptida lebih tinggi dibanding non-GMO sedangkan proses perebusan juga diketahui mempunyai tingkat kelarutan yang lebih tinggi dibanding tempe tanpa perebusan.Kata kunci: Asetonitrile; kelarutan; peptida; tempe; asam trifluoroasetat
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.10697
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Pengaruh Penambahan Maltodekstrin dan Suhu Inlet Spray Dryer terhadap
           Karakteristik Fisiko-Kimia Bubuk Sari Kerandang (Canavalia virosa)

    • Authors: Titiek Farianti Djaafar, Umar Santoso, Anggara Ariestyanta
      Pages: 334 - 342
      Abstract: Kerandang (Canavalia virosa) can be found in sandy beaches in Kulon Progo and Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta. The kerandang seeds can be processed into kerandang milk such as soybean, as one form of product diversification. The objective of this study was to know the physicochemical characteristics of the kerandang milk powder. Peeled kerandang seeds were processed into kerandang milk with seed water ratio of 1:8 (w/v). The addition of maltodekstrin (0%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% (w/v)) into kerandang milk, then dried using a spray dryer with inlet temperature of 80 °C; 100 °C, and 120 °C. Analyses were conducted on the water content, bulk density, solubility, water holding capacity (WHC), fat holding capasity (FHC), soluble protein, total phenolic, genistein, and antioxidant activity. This study was conducted using acompletely randomized design with three replications. The results of this study showed that Water Holding Capacity of kerandang milk ranged of 2,98% to 64,55%. Inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration and interaction of these two factors gave significant effects on the WHC of kerandang milk powder. FHC of kerandang milk powder increased (108.89%–262.25%) with the higher concentration of maltodextrin and spray inlet temperature. The bulk density of  kerandang milk powder was between 0.34g/mL–0.58g/mL. Kerandang milk powder solubility at various pH was closely related tot he protein content in milk powder kerandang. The dissolved protein content of kerandang milk powder decreased with the increased of maltodextrin concentration and inlet temperature. The content of total phenolic of kerandang milk powder ranged from 1.33 gGAE/100g to7.55 gGAE/100g. The antioxidant activity of the kerandang milk ranged between 9.61% to 74.87%.
      ABSTRAKKerandang (Canavalia virosa) dapat dijumpai di sepanjang lahan pasir pantai di Kabupaten Kulonprogo dan Bantul, Yogyakarta. Biji kerandang dapat diolah menjadi sari kerandang seperti halnya kedelai, sebagai bentuk diversifikasi produk. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik fisik dan kimia bubuk sari kerandang. Biji kerandang kupas (tanpa kulit ari) diolah menjadi sari kerandang dengan perbandingan biji dan air 1:8 (b/v). Penambahan maltodekstrin sebanyak 0%; 5%; 7,5%; dan 10% (b/v) padasari kerandang, kemudian dikeringkan menggunakan spray dryer dengan suhu inlet 80 °C; 100 °C; dan 120 °C. Analisis yang dilakukan meliputi kadar air, bulk density, kelarutan, water holding capacity (WHC), fat holding capasity (FHC), protein terlarut, total fenolik, genistein, dan aktivitas antioksidan. Percobaan dilakukan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan ulangan percobaan sebanyak tiga kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan menahan air (WHC) bubuk sari kerandang berkisar antara 2,98%–64,55%. Konsentrasi suhu inlet dan maltodekstrin serta interaksi keduanya memberikan perbedaan nyata terhadap WHC bubuk sari kerandang. FHC bubuk sari kerandang (108,89%–262,25%) mengalami peningkatan dengan bertambahnya konsentrasi maltodekstrin dan temperatur inlet spray dryer. Bulk density  bubuk sari kerandang berkisar antara 0,34 g/mL–0,58 g/mL. Kelarutan bubuk sari kerandang di berbagai pH berhubungan erat dengan kandungan protein dalam bubuk sari kerandang. Protein terlarut bubuk sari kerandang menurun dengan semakin meningkatnya konsentrasi maltodekstrin dan temperatur inlet. Total fenolik bubuk sari kerandang berkisar antara 1,33 g GAE/100 g–7,55 g GAE/100 g. Aktivitas antioksidan bubuk sari kerandang berkisar antara 9,61%–74,87%.Kata kunci: Karakteristik; bubuk sari kerandang; fisiko-kimia
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.10446
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Pengaruh Pelapisan Kitosan dan Suhu Penyimpanan terhadap Karakter Fisik
           Buah Sawo (Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg) Selama Pematangan

    • Authors: Widya Mudyantini, Santosa Santosa, Kumala Dewi, Nursigit Bintoro
      Pages: 343 - 351
      Abstract: Sapodilla (Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit with thin peel. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the effect of chitosan coating concentrations and storage temperature on the physical and chemical characteristics of sapodilla and (2) to determine the chitosan coating concentrations and the optimum storage temperature for the storage of sapodilla. Factorial Split-Plot Design was used in this experiment: three levels of storage temperature as the main factors (5 °C, 15 °C, 25 °C) and four levels of chitosan concentrations (0%, 2%, 3%, 4%)  as the sub-factors. Each treatment was made in five replicates. Collected data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Duncan’s Multiple Test (DMRT) at the test level of 5%. Sapodillas used in this study had the same age in the weight of 100-120 grams and were harvested from the same tree. They were observed until rotten. The parameters observed were the concentrations of chitosan coating thickness on sapodillas’peel, the permeability of chitosan membrane to the air water vapour and oxygen, shelf life, hardness, content of chlorophyll and carotenoid, and respiration of the fruit. Observed data showed that the higher chitosan concentrations was used, the higher capability of the sapodilla’s peel to hampered water vapour  and oxygen’s to peddix the peel. However,  the chitosan coating concentration  of 4% and the storage temperature of 5 °C temperature made the chitosan layer flaked. The treated concentrations of chitosan coating (0%, 2%, 3%, 4%) at certain storage temperature variations (5 °C, 15 °C, 25 °C) and their interactions had an effect on the physical characters of sapodilla in all parameters. The higher coated chitosan concentration applied, the hardness of sapodilla increased. The chlorophyll contents of sapodilla peel were increasing along with the hampering of the ripening. When the sapodillas were ripe, the carotenoid contents increated. The oxygen contents were decreasing along with the ripening of the sapodillas. The CO2 contents were increasing along with the ripening process of the sapodillas. The optimum treatment to keep sapodillas’ shelf life was the chitosan coating of 3% and the the storage temperature of 5 °C. ABTSRAKBuah sawo (Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg) merupakan buah klimaterik yang mempunyai kulit tipis dan cepat matang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji pengaruh konsentrasi pelapisan kitosan dan suhu simpan terhadap sifat fisik dan kimiawi buah sawo serta menentukan konsentrasi pelapisan kitosan dan suhu simpan yang paling optimum untuk memperpanjang masa simpan buah sawo. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Split Plot Design pola faktorial dengan dua faktor, yaitu suhu penyimpanan terdiri dari tiga taraf (5 °C, 15°C, 25 °C) sebagai faktor utama dan konsentrasi kitosan yang terdiri dari empat taraf (0%, 2%, 3%, 4%) sebagai sub faktor. Setiap kombinasi dengan lima ulangan. Data dianalisis menggunakan Analisis Varian (ANAVA) kemudian dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) pada taraf uji 5%. Buah dengan umur fisiologis sama, berat 100 – 120 g dipanen dari satu pohon. Buah diberi perlakuan pelapisan kitosan dan disimpan pada temperatur yang berbeda, selanjutnya diamati sampai buah tidak layak dikonsumsi. Parameter yang diamati adalah tebal lapisan kitosan berbagai konsentrasi pada kulit buah, permeabilitas membran kitosan terhadap uap air dan O2, masa simpan, kekerasan buah, kandungan klorofil dan karotenoid serta laju respirasi. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan semakin tinggi konsentrasi kitosan, semakin terhambat masuknya uap air dan oksigen ke dalam kulit buah, tetapi konsentrasi kitosan 4% dan suhu 5 °C menyebabkan lapisan kitosan mengelupas. Perlakuan konsentrasi pelapisan kitosan (0%, 2%, 3%, 4%) dan suhu simpan  (5 °C, 15 °C, 25 °C) serta interaksinya mengakibatkan semakin tinggi konsentrasi kitosan, kekerasan buah sawo semakin meningkat, juga kadar klorofil kulit buah. Semakin buah matang kadar karotenoid semakin meningkat, demikian juga kadar CO2. Kadar oksigen semakin menurun seiring dengan pemasakan buah. Perlakuan optimum untuk mempertahankan masa simpan buah sawo adalah perlakuan pelapisan kitosan 3% dan suhu simpan 5 °C.Kata kunci: Kitosan; karakter fisik; sawo (Manilkara achras (Mill.) Fosberg); suhu
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.17177
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Bioavailabilitas α-Tokoferol Minuman Emulsi Minyak Sawit dalam Plasma
           Darah dan Hati Tikus (Rattus norvegicus)

    • Authors: Winda Christina Harlen, Tien Ruspriatin Muchtadi, Nurheni Sri Palupi
      Pages: 352 - 361
      Abstract: Theoritically, it should contains high amount of α-tocopherol but its bioavailability have not been studied yet. The aim of this research were (1) to review the chemical composition of POED by doing proximate test then calculate α-tocopherol level in the product and (2) to evaluate bioavailability of α-tocopherol based on in vivo study. Bioavailability evaluation was carried out by measuring Relative Tocopherol Accumulation Factor (TAF), meanwhile its chemical composition was measured by proximate test and chromatographic analysis using HPLC. α-tocopherol contents of this products were 192,63 μg/g. Bioavailability study was carried out for 14 days using Rattus norvegicus rats. The prepared food contains 30 mg/kg α-tocopherol were given to vitamin-E-depleted rats. Tocopherol Accumulation Factor (TAF) proposed for the test group is 1/45,61, which indicated that 45,61 μg vitamin E from this product was needed to accumulate 1 μg tocopherol in the liver. Tocopherol relative bioavailability of POED was 82,46%. It showed that POED has good bioavailability.ABSTRAKMinuman emulsi minyak sawit (MEMS) merupakan salah produk berbasis emulsi oil-in-water yang dapat menjadi sumber vitamin E dalam bentuk α-tokoferol. Komposisi dasarnya adalah olein minyak sawit, air, dan pengemulsi. Secara teoritis, produk ini kaya akan α-tokoferol namun bioavailabilitasnya belum diketahui. Oleh karena itu, tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1) Menganalisis komposisi kimia MEMS melalui uji proksimat dan kadar α-tokoferolnya, dan (2) Mengevaluasi bagaimana bioavailabilitas α-tokoferol secara in vivo. Evaluasi bioavailabilitas dengan memperhitungkan Tocopherol Accumulation Factor (TAF) relatif, sedangkan komposisi kimia didapatkan melalui analisis proksimat dan kromatografi dengan HPLC untuk mengetahui kadar α-tokoferol. Kadar α-tokoferol yang didapatkan sebesar 192,63 μg/g. Pengujian biovailabilitas dilakukan selama 14 hari menggunakan hewan coba berupa tikus Rattus norvegicus. Ransum yang diberikan mengandung 30 mg/kg α-tokoferol. Nilai TAF sebesar 1/45,61, yang berarti bahwa 45,61 μg vitamin E dari MEMS dapat menghasilkan 1 μg tokoferol hati. Bioavailabilitas relatif α-tokoferol pada MEMS terhadap α-tokoferol murni sebesar 82,46%. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa MEMS memiliki bioavailabilitas yang baik.Kata kunci: α-tokoferol; bioavailabilitas; minyak sawit; minuman emulsi minyak sawit; Tocopherol Accumulation Factor
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.22146/agritech.11683
      Issue No: Vol. 37, No. 3 (2018)
       
 
 
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