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Journal Cover Traditional Medicine Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2406-9086
   Published by Universitas Gadjah Mada Homepage  [28 journals]
  • Histopathological Changes of Egg Cells in the Uterine of Ascaridia galli
           after Treatment with Extract of Veitchia merrillii Nuts

    • Authors: Ummu Balqis, Muslina Muslina, Muhammad Hambal, Farida Athaillah, Muttaqien Muttaqien, Azhar Azhar, Ismail Ismail, Rastina Rastina, Eliawardani Eliawardani, Abdul Harris, Abdullah Hamzah, Henni Vanda, Darmawi Darmawi
      Pages: 139 - 145
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to observe the histopathological changes of the entire egg cells in the uterine of Ascaridia galli worms treated with crude ethanolic extract of Veitchia merrillii nuts. Histopathological changes of the entire egg cells were observed to describe that the activity of extract V. merrillii nuts interfered the reproduction process could decrease the quantity and quality of A. galli eggs. The experiments consisted of 16 head A. galli female adult worms divided into four groups, contained four worms of each, and maintained in 0.9% phosphate buffered saline (PBS). First group, a negative control experiment consisted of A. galli in 0.9% PBS. Second group, concentration of 15 mg/mL albendazole was used as a positive control. Third group and fourth group, in vitro exposure of the worms to the crude ethanolic extract V. merrillii nuts at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 75 mg/mL, respectively. The histopathological changes of egg cells in the uterine region of stained worms was evaluated by light microscopic examination at 40x magnification. The results showed that shrinkage and disintegration of the entire egg cells in the breakage of uterus. The results indicate that the possible use of the plant as a potential anthelmintic against A. galli, the intestinal nematode parasite of domestic fowl.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • Anticancer Activity of Combination of Benalu Belimbing (Macrosolen
           cochinensis) Extract and Sabrang Onion (Eleutherine palmifolia (L) Merr)
           on Cervical Cancer Hela Cell Line

    • Authors: Roihatul Mutiah, Anik Listiyana, Arief Suryadinata
      Pages: 146 - 152
      Abstract: Benalu belimbing (Macrosolen cochinensis) and onion sabrang / onion dayak (Eleutherine palmifolia (L) Merr.) is a traditional medicinal plant that has been used by the community as a cancer drug from generation to generation. This study aims to prove scientifically about the anticancer potential from combination of both plants. Anticancer potential of the plant has been proven by testing the extract both in single form and in combination with Hela cells. While to know the selectivity of the extract to HeLa cell then extract is tested on normal cell Vero cell line. Furthermore, a combination test of both extracts was done using variation dose under IC50. The method used to determine anticancer activity was the MTT method. The results obtained in this study showed that ethanolic extract onion sabrang selectively able to inhibit the growth of cervical cancer cells HeLa on IC50: 40.36 μg / ml with 4.06 for the SI (selectivity index) value. While ethanolic extract of benalu belimbing bselectively can inhibit the growth of cervical cancer cells HeLa on IC50: 217.72 μg / ml with 5.77 for the SI (selectivity Index) value. The combination test of sabrang onion extract and extract of benalu belimbing showed that the combination was highly synergistic in combination dose of EBS 22.62 μg / ml and EBB 23.3 ug / ml with combination index 0.15. Whereas the combination doses having synergistic effects on combination doses 23.3 μg / ml for EBB and 11.31 μg / ml for EBS; 23.3 μg / ml EBB and 16.96 μg / ml EBS with a consecutive combination index; 0.51 and 0.64. From these results it can be concluded that the onion sabrang extract has anticancer effect on HeLa cells and selectively killing HeLa cells because the value of selectivity index is greater than 3. The result of the combination test of both extracts shows that the combination dose having strong synergistic effect, so that combination can be recommended for further research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • Penares sp sponge from Menjangan Island-water West Bali National Park:
           Isolation of Cytotoxic Compounds

    • Authors: Erna Prawita Setyowati, Sudarsono Sudarsono, Retno Murwanti
      Pages: 153 - 159
      Abstract: Sponges are multicellular animals which have cytotoxic compounds. In this study, isolation and cytotoxic activity of Penares sp sponge from Menjangan island-water West Bali National Park have been carried out. The results showed that chloroform extract and GF V Penares sp fraction were toxic according to Brine Shrimp Lethality Test method (each 85% and 63.3% mortality at 25μg/mL concentration). The isolation result of GF V fraction was obtained a compound (Spot 4) that is active as cytotoxic agent against T47D cells (IC50 of 12.7 ug/mL). Spot 4 is a terpenoid compound which has conjugated double bonds.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • Antioxidants and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Characterized
           Ethanolic of Ripe Sesoot (Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq.) Fruit Extract (GpKar)
           and Xanthone

    • Authors: Sri Utami, Pratami Adityaningsari, Insan Sosiawan, Susi Endrini, Qomariyah Romadhiyani Sachrowardi, Sonny Pamudji Laksono, Said Nafik, Betharie Cendera Arrahmani, Ervi Afifah, Wahyu Widowati
      Pages: 160 - 165
      Abstract: Oxidative stress has been known to contribute to Alzheimer’s disease. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme may lead to Alzheimer’s disease as a neurotransmitter. Antioxidants may have protective activities against oxidative damage and Alzheimer’s disease. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors also can be used in the treatment of various neurological disorders for management of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aimed to determine antioxidant and anticholinesterase effects of Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. fruit extract (GpKar) and its compounds, xanthone. Antioxidant activity was measured by H2O2 scavenging inhibitory activity, while anticholinesterase activity was measured using modified Ellman method. GpKar has higher H2O2 scavenging inhibitory activity (IC50= 967.28 µg/ml) compared to xanthone (IC50= 1198.95 µg/ml). In the anticholinesterase inhibitory activity, GpKar has lower activity (IC50= 70.25 µg/ml) compared to xanthone (11.80 µg/ml). In summary, GpKar has higher antioxidant activity but lower anticholinesterase activity compared to its compounds, xanthone. However, GpKar has potency as antioxidant agent to prevent Alzheimer’s disease.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • Antibacterial Compound Identification of Cayenne Pepper Leaf Extract
           (Capsicum frutescens L.) against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Cell Leakage

    • Authors: Riri Fauziyya, Laela Hayu Nurani, Nanik Sulistyani
      Pages: 166 - 174
      Abstract: Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma that can be caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study aims to determine the active fraction of cayenne pepper leaves on the growth of K. pneumoniae. Cayenne pepper leaf which previously defatted using n-hexane was macerated with 95% ethanol, then fractionated successively with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Ethanol extract and each fraction with concentration of 40% were tested for their antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae using disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). 1% amoxicillin was used as positive control and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as negative control. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the most active fraction was then determined. Determination of antibacterial compound in the most active fraction was carried out by TLC-bioautography and followed by Gass Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry. Cell leakage analysis was performed using UV spectrophotometry to detect the release of protein and nucleic acid, as well as Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used to detect ion release of K+ and Ca2+. The results showed that the most active fraction against K. pneumoniae was the ethyl acetate fraction with MIC value of 10% and inhibition zone of 7.25±0.25 mm. TLC-Bioautography of ethyl acetate fraction with eluen n-hexane: ethyl acetate (6:4) obtained an active stain at Rf 0.12. Compounds having 94% similarity with 1-propanol, 2-amino was predicted as the active compound.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • Determination of FICI of Ethanolic Extract of Aloe Vera Skin Leaves (Aloe
           vera (L.) Burm.f.) and Gentamicin Sulphate againts Staphylococcus aureus

    • Authors: Rifani Amalia, Rafika Sari, Robiyanto Robiyanto
      Pages: 175 - 181
      Abstract: The main therapy of wounds infection using antibiotic such as gentamicin sulfate can be applied topically. Increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance forces new strategy to combine plant extract and antibiotic. These two combinations are expected to reduce the incidence of microbial resistance. Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera skin leaves contain anthraquinone that has antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect and Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) from combination of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera skin leaves and gentamicin sulphate which can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) determination was used Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The concentration of extract solution used were 1,25; 2,5; 5; 10 mg/mL while the solution concentration of gentamicin sulfate used were 2,5; 5; 15; 25 µg/mL. Solution DMSO was used as negative control. Combination solution was made with volume ratio 1:1 from MIC of extract and gentamicin shulphate. The result showed that the MIC of the of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera skin leaves was about 2.5 mg/mL and MIC gentamicin sulphate was about 5 µg/mL. Combination of ethanolic extract of Aloe vera skin leaves and gentamicin sulfate can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 7,63 mm. FICI of combination was 2 and its antibacterial activity was indifferent compared to single extract and single gentamicin sulphate.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • Anticancer Activity Of Plant Genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): A Review

    • Authors: Donald Emilio Kalonio, Rini Hendriani, Elisabeth N. Barung
      Pages: 182 - 189
      Abstract: Plants of the genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae) is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. Plants of this genus are used both empirically and scientifically as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antiviral, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antitumor. Results of the molecular docking simulation of chemical content of these plants could potentially provide an anticancer effect. This paper aims to review the anticancer activity of plant genus Clerodendrum based on scientific data. The method used in this study is the literature study. Searches were conducted online (in the database PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar) and on various books (Farmakope Herbal Indonesia and PROSEA). A total 12 plants of the genus Clerodendrum have anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo, thus potentially to be developed as a source of new active compounds with anticancer activity.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • Dechlorophyllation of Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and
           Mangifera indica L. Leaves Methanolic Extract by Electrocoagulation

    • Authors: Ratna Budhi Pebriana, Endang Lukitaningsih, Siti Mufidatul Khasanah
      Pages: 190 - 198
      Abstract: The present of chlorophyll is not expected in the isolation process of plant active constituent. Electrocoagulation is a potential dechlorophyllation method. This research aims to know the effectivity of electrocoagulation in the dechlorophyllation process of Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. leaves methanolic extract as well as the effect to the total phenolic content. Electrocoagulation are performed using copper, silver, aluminum and iron plates as the electrode. Dechlorophyllation by extraction using n-hexane is performed as reference. The % absorbance of chlorophyll and % of total phenolic content of dechlorophyllated samples are measured spectrophotometrically. Electrocoagulation process reduces % absorbance of chlorophyll in Cosmos caudatus Kunth., Morinda citrifolia, and Mangifera indica L. leaves methanolic extract. The more the duration of electrocoagulaton process the lower the % absorbance of chlorophyll obtained. % absorbance of chlorophyll of the electrocoagulated extract according to paired t-test (P=0.95) are significantly different with the previous. One way ANOVA continued with LSD (P=0.95) shows that the % absorbance of chlorophyll from the electrocoagulated extract are significantly different with those extracted with n-hexane. Electrocoagulation process reduces total phenolic content along with duration of electrocoagulation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • Antiinflammatory Activity Test of Aqueous Extracts Herb of Ciplukan
           (Physalis angulata L.) in Caragenan Inducted Wistar Rat (Rattus norvegicus

    • Authors: Sri Luliana, Ressi Susanti, Ellya Agustina
      Pages: 199 - 205
      Abstract: Ciplukan (Physalis angulata L.) empirically has been used to treat sore throat, inflammatory of the airways, gingivitis, and other diseases. This research was to determine the inflammatory activity of water herb extract of P. angulata L. on white male rats edema Wistar strain induced carragenan. P. angulata L. herbs were extracted using infundation method and were dried with frezee drying. Parameter that would be observed of this research was the inhibition foot edema of rat after induction of 0.1 mL of λ-carragenan 2% for 360 minutes. Measurement of edema volume was using pletismometer. The results of this research showed water herb extract of P. angulata L. in dose 100, 200, and 400 mg/kgBW has potensial as an antiinflammatory drug by percent respectively were 20.13; 28.93; and 34.70%. The three doses hasn’t showed any significant difference (p>0.05) with the positive control of diclofenac sodium dose 4.5 mg/kgBW was 33.90%. Conclusion of this research states water herb extract of P. angulata L. has antiinflammatory activity with effective dose of 400 mg/kgBW.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Correlation of Pemogan Community Knowledge about Usada Taru Pramana
           with the Behaviour of Utilization and Conservation of Herbal Medicine

    • Authors: Ni Putu Udayana Antari, I Putu Tangkas Suwantara, Erna Cahyaningsih
      Pages: 206 - 210
      Abstract: Usada Taru Pramana is a record of hundreds medicinal plants. Researcher is interested to know the knowledge level of Pemogan Villager about Usada Taru Pramana and its influence on the utilization behavior and conservation of herbal medicine. Data were collected using a valid and reliable structured questionnaire with a cross-sectional survey design. According to Spearman's test result from total 150 samples, Pemogan Villager knowledge about Usada Taru Pramana is not correlated with the utilization behavior and conservation of herbal medicine (P value=0,280 and r=0,089). There were no significant differences between the both variables with respondents' education level, age and gender. The results showed that the factor which influenced the studied variables is very complex. There were "aja wera" belief in Balinese society, which means that the general public is prohibited from learning directly from the Lontar. Pemogan Villager also hampered by the scarcity of land and medicinal plants around them.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2017)
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Heriot-Watt University
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