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J. of Applied Linguistics and Language Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
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Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research
Number of Followers: 27  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2376-760X
Published by Lulu Press Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Chinese Indirection and Thematic Progression in Chinese ESL Writing

    • Authors: Lorrita Ngor To Yeung
      Pages: 1 - 30
      Abstract: This study investigates how problems of thematic progression in Chinese ESL writing are attributable to differences in thematic development in Chinese and English.  Articles written by thirty English expert writers and thirty Chinese expert writers as well as essays written by thirty advanced ESL learners were closely analyzed.  Textual evidence shows that thematic development is quite often differently executed in Chinese and English. Comparative textual analysis and editing according to English conventions also indicate that Chinese ESL learners have their own ways of thematizing discourse, putting emphasis and using connectives in ways unexpected by English native speakers. These features, often found disrupting the flow of Chinese ESL texts, can be traced to conventions of topicalization in Chinese, which may in turn be accounted for by cognitive and cultural reasons, rather than just developmental factors.  Peculiarities in Chinese ESL thematization may well contribute to the impression of indirection and opacity of their writing.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Role of Pretask planning Time in EFL Learners’ Spoken Performance: The
           Case of Error-Repair, Appropriacy-Repair, and Different Information-

    • Authors: Jafar Entezari, Mohammad Reza Talebinezhad
      Pages: 31 - 45
      Abstract: This study was an attempt to investigate the effect of pretask planning time on repair in oral performance among Iranian intermediate EFL Learners. 60 male and female EFL learners whose level of proficiency was determined through administering an Oxford Placement Test (OPT) participated in this study. They were divided into 3 groups: 1) group with no pretask planning time, 2) group with five minute pretask planning time, and 3) group with ten minute pretask planning time. The instrument utilized in this study was an oral test through which different types of repairs were identified and further analyzed. A number of chi-square tests were performed to determine whether there were significant differences in three kinds of repairs: error-repair, appropriacy-repair, and information- repair in EFL learners’ performance in the three groups. The results revealed that groups with time for pretask planning have fewer repairs than the group with no time, but there was no significant difference in groups with different pretask planning time. The outcome of this study can be used by curriculum developers and English language teachers to consider the importance of a pretask planning in a task-based syllabus.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Motivating Factors as an Investigate Framework among Students in the Field
           of English Language Teaching

    • Authors: Mustapha Hajebi
      Pages: 46 - 55
      Abstract: This study aimed to find out the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivate English language students in the field of English language teaching. In order to collect the necessary data for the study, a mixed methods approach was employed by using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A questionnaire consisting of 80 close-ended questions was administered to 80 English language students in the field of English language teaching. Besides, semi-structured interviews with 20 students were carried out. At the end of the study, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors were founded to be motivation sources for English language students in the field of English language teaching. Imparting knowledge as an intrinsic factor and good relationships with other students and teachers as extrinsic factors were defined as the major motivation sources for the ELT students.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Iranian Male and Female EFL Learners' Perceptions toward the Use of
           Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    • Authors: Mojdeh Ebrahimi Dehkordi, Saeed Taki
      Pages: 56 - 66
      Abstract: This study was an attempt to investigate the perception of Iranian EFL learners toward the use of mobile-assisted language learning. 90 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. They were at different levels of proficiency: Elementary (n=8), intermediate (n=31), upper-intermediate (n=24), and advanced (n=27). The instrument utilized in this study was Mobile Learning Perception Scale developed by Uzunboylu and Özdamlı (2011). Two independent sample t tests were performed to determine whether there were significant differences between Iranian male and female learners perception toward mobile learning. The results revealed that, although, the perception of male learners was slightly more than female learners, it failed to be statistically significant. Therefore, there is no significant difference between Iranian male and female learners’ mobile learning perception and the first null hypothesis was accepted. Also Adequacy of mobile learning perception also has the same lack of significant difference between male and female learners. Therefore, the second null hypothesis was accepted. Besides, both male and female learners had a positive view towards e-learning and technology-based language learning. The outcome of this study can be used by curriculum developers and English language teachers to consider the importance of mobile learning in a language syllabus.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers’ Professional Development
           and Their Emotional Intelligence

    • Authors: Goharshad Majidinia
      Pages: 67 - 80
      Abstract: Teachers have a key role in students' educational success or failure, it is therefore important to do more research on teacher related factors. Teachers' emotional intelligence and professional development seem to be significant factors in students’ achievement. However, little is known about the relationship between these two factors in English as a foreign/ second language (EFL/ESL) learning environment. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the relationship between teachers’ emotional intelligence and their professional development.  In this study, 60 English language teachers were selected through convenience sampling method. They all have taught English more than five years and were from Gorgan, Iran. Their age ranged from 30 to 50. Two instruments were used: Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Bar-On, 1997) and Professional Development Questionnaire (Varies, Jansen & Grift, 2013). After data collection, the data were analyzed in the software SPSS. First, Kolmogorov-Smirnov was run to test data normality. Since the data were normal, Pearson correlation test was run to see whether there would be any relationship between the participants’ professional development and their emotional intelligence. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ professional development and their emotional intelligence. The finding has some implications for EFL teachers and teacher trainers; teachers will be more successful in their professional development by developing their emotional intelligence.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Systematic Polysemy in Gĩkũyũ

    • Authors: Florence Gathoni Gachugi, Justine Sikuku, Patrick Kiliku
      Pages: 81 - 90
      Abstract: Polysemy is a phenomenon whereby words have multiple distinct yet related senses. These senses are related in a systematic way and form systematic patterns. This paper explores the different systematic patterns of polysemy exhibited by Gĩkũyũ nouns, where these nouns have sets of senses that are related in similar ways. These senses cut across different semantic fields such as plants, animal, people, body parts, and objects, types of food and beverages, events. Some of the senses invoke metaphoric relations.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Investigating Assessment Literacy of EFL Teachers in Iran

    • Authors: Zahra Rezaei Fard, Omid Tabatabaei
      Pages: 91 - 100
      Abstract: Assessment literacy is the possession of knowledge about the basic principles of sound assessment practice, including its terminology, the development and use of assessment methodologies and techniques, and familiarity with standards of quality in assessment. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of assessment literacy of EFL teachers in Eghlid, Fars Province, Iran. The participants were included 52 EFL teachers teaching English at public schools and private institutes. The sampling method was convenient available method. The instrument used to collect data was Melter’s (2003) Classroom Assessment Literacy Inventory adapted from a similar instrument called the Teacher Assessment Literacy Questionnaire (Plake, 1993; Plake, Impara, & Fager, 1993). Data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis. The results showed that the most of the teachers were at the low level of assessment literacy.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Effects of Using Songs on Adult EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    • Authors: Azim Javadi Safa
      Pages: 101 - 112
      Abstract: This study investigates the effect of music on the acquisition of English vocabulary in two groups of male adult Persian learners of English at intermediate level. Through simple random sampling 60 participants have been selected and 30 of them have been assigned to experimental group which are exposed to song for vocabulary learning and the other 30  ones have been assigned to control group which receive prose version of the song as listening. As a result of performing independent T-test, the null hypothesis was rejected. Consequently it supports the claim that tapping into song promotes vocabulary learning of adults language learners. However, further investigation is needed in order to determine whether there is any difference between male and female and between different proficiency levels in this regard.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Test Preparation: Reducing EFL Test-takers’ Stressful Barriers

    • Authors: Awwad Othman Abdelaziz Ahmed
      Pages: 113 - 130
      Abstract: This study tried to verify whether EFL teachers provide their students with test taking strategies and prepare them well in advance in order to reduce the stressful barriers that face them when taking tests. The theoretical framework of this study covered relevant material on the subject matter in order to shorten the gap between tests and test takers in this regard. The instrument used was a questionnaire based on material close to test preparation and test stress. It includes (20) items, each one on was based on a 5- point Likert Scale ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree". It was given to (100) Sudanese university students of English as a foreign language. The aim of this questionnaire was to collect data needed to make the statistical analyses and to check them against the hypotheses of the study. The data obtained analyzed by using (SPSS) program. Descriptive analysis was also used to calculate the means and the standard deviations for each item of the questionnaire. The findings proved that stress did not promote students to study well in advance of the examinations. Furthermore students did not familiarize themselves with the type of questions that will be given before taking the test. Interestingly, students found their test stress reduced when they started to study more regularly. Based on these findings, it has been recommended that teachers should encourage their students to form study groups. Their aim is to exchange knowledge and provide support and encouragement for one another. Students should not have frantic review just before the test time, it will be more confusing methods than helpful ones. Finally, no meaningful correlation was found due to gender and test stress.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Difficulties of Iraqi EFL Learners with Substance Errors in Writing

    • Authors: Mohanad Qasim Mohammed
      Pages: 131 - 147
      Abstract: The present research adopts an empirical method by studying substance errors in the argumentative composition writing of Iraqi EFL learners. The participants in this study are 70 Iraqi EFL learners (31 males and 39 females) majoring in English from 4 classes and 3 grades (grade 2, 3, and 4) in the University of AL-Mustansirih in Iraq. The writing errors are identified and classified into categories and sub-categories according to a revised version of James (2001) error classification. The analysis of the writing task shows that Iraqi EFL learners have problems in substance areas. The common types of substance errors are spelling, capitalization, and punctuation. As for the frequency findings of substance errors, we found that the totality of substance errors are 855 times, which divide into three categories. The highest frequency of substance errors is spelling errors, which account for 49% of the totality of errors.  Moreover, a new phenomenon is that learners overuse the space between parts of compound words and split the word into two words as in “every thing” or “out side”. A further new phenomenon we identified is learners’ failure to separate the constituent words by fusing two separate words as in “feednews” or “infront”. This error changes two things. Firstly, it changes the form of the word. Secondly, it changes the meaning of the word in some cases. As to the possible causes of errors, it is noticed that in some writings in the findings these errors attributed to Arabic language transfer “first language”.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Effect of Audio-Visual vs. Written Contexts on Idiom Learning of
           Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    • Authors: Esmail Zare Behtash, Amin Saed, Zohreh Dehghan
      Pages: 148 - 155
      Abstract: Due to the significant role of idioms in second language learning and the difficulties EFL learners experience in learning them, finding ways to improve the learning process of idioms is of high importance. The present study investigated the effect of audio-visual vs. written contexts on idiom learning of Iranian Intermediate EFL learners. It was also an attempt to identify which context would lead to the language learners’ enhanced idiom comprehension. Particularly, the study explored the effect of audio-visual context on learners’ idiom learning, the effect of written-context on learners’ idiom learning, and finally the difference between idiom improvements of learners who were exposed to audio-visual compared to their counterparts in the written group. The participants were English language learners (L2) at Language Academy in Isfahan, Iran. They were all female, Persian native speakers. Their age range was between 19 and 26. Initially, a total of 80 EFL students were selected to participate in this study. Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT) was implemented to ensure homogeneity of learners in proficiency. According to the results of the test, 60 intermediate learners were selected. Then, they were randomly divided into two groups of 30. In the first group, they were taught the idioms through written contexts and in second group they were taught idioms through audio visual technique. After twelve sessions, a post-test administered to the learners in order to evaluate their improvement in learning idioms. In order to analyze data, descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics including paired and independent-samples t-tests were run. The results of the study showed that students exposed to the audio-visual context significantly outperformed in the post-test (p<0.01). Moreover, they significantly scored better compared to the written-group (p<0.01). Findings pinpoint important implications for idiom teaching and learning.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Types of Perceptual Mismatches in Intermediate EFL Classes

    • Authors: Mojtaba Kamali, Fatemeh Behjat
      Pages: 156 - 168
      Abstract: The present study is an attempt to delve into the most frequent perceptual mismatches that are prone to occur in intermediate EFL classes in Iranian context and to provide some remedies to minimize perceptual mismatches. The participants of this study were two classes of 44 intermediate EFL male students. Data, which consisted of all teacher-learners’ interactions in the two classes, were collected using a voice recorder during 5 consecutive sessions, with each session lasting for one hour and forty-five minutes, as well as post-observational interviews with some students. Data were analyzed by two experienced English language teachers. The analysis of the verbal data and interviews with students indicated that cultural (23%), linguistic (20%), and communicative (18%) mismatches were the most frequent types of mismatches that occurred in intermediate EFL classes. Some remedies, techniques and strategies to minimize the perceptual mismatches in EFL classes conclude this study.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Notion of a Symbolic Reading of Orwell’s "Animal Farm" Inconsistency
           of "The End of History" by Francis Fukuyama

    • Authors: Al Tayeb Al Nasri Mohammed Ahmed Abu al Ghasim
      Pages: 169 - 175
      Abstract: This paper is limited to one author, namely George Orwell and his novel "Animal Farm" (1945), it discusses the appeal of communism, the state of totalitarianism and the central moment of unfolding its precarious inheritance, through a symbolic acts of the animals as a cautionary and archetype of human political behavior. In this sense Orwell expresses the event following the Russian Revolution and the slow stages through which a system of tyranny was established under Stalin. In this notion Orwell decides to monitor Karl Marx on his prediction of communism that would displace capitalism. Inconsistency, Fukuyama's position contradicts these ideas in his essay "The End of the History" (1992), that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. A symbolic Textuality is a significant methodology as a discourse analysis that is used her as an anatomy of the temptation of political contradiction that fall as quarries of tyranny. The paper concludes that the novel warns people against consequences of oppression in awaken of violent revolutions. In the end this paper affirms hegemony of capitalism ambitious system together with globalization and increasing demands for transparency and fair governance.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Maximizing Exposure to Online Tasks to Improve Critical Thinking and
           Academic Writing Achievement

    • Authors: Reza Biria, Shadi Shirani
      Pages: 176 - 185
      Abstract: The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of online tasks on improving critical thinking and academic writing achievement of Iranian EFL learners. To perform this study, 150 Iranian EFL learners studying English in a private Language Institute in Isfahan were selected. They took an Oxford Placement Test and 100 intermediate-levels were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. Then, both groups were given a pre-test of writing and critical thinking questionnaire before the treatments sessions to determine the participants' writing ability and critical thinking at the beginning of the research period.  During the treatments, both groups were taught writing courses. The experimental group received the courses through online program while the control group received traditional teaching of the writing courses. Having finished the treatments, the learners in the both groups were given the post-test of writing ability and critical thinking questionnaire. Data were analyzed through Independent Samples t-test to test the hypotheses of this study. The findings revealed that writing ability of the experimental group improved after the instruction while the instruction did not have significant effect on developing writing ability of the control group. In other words, the experimental group outperformed the control group at the significant level. Moreover, critical thinking ability of both experimental and control group did not improved after the instruction.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • An Overview of Cross-linguistic Influence in Language Learning

    • Authors: Azim Javadi Safa
      Pages: 186 - 203
      Abstract: This review paper begins with a short discussion on the relationship between first and second language. Subsequently, it presents a set of models and hypotheses as the main theoretical frameworks which are commonly drawn on to support, describe and give account of the related studies in this field. Then, it elaborates on the issue of cross-linguistic influence or language transfer by presenting its historical overview. It then continues by discussing its terminologies and classifications. It also gives a brief account of the reasons for the occurrence of language transfer. In addition, different approaches to transfer studies are concisely addressed. Moreover, it reports on the empirical transfer studies of different types including oral and written transfer and various levels such as syntactical, lexical, and conceptual. Finally, concluding the facilitative effect of the cross language transfer, it calls for more attention for further research and practical considerations in designing language learning materials.
      PubDate: 2018-05-17
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Effect of English Teachers’ Code-Switching and Translation
           Strategies on the Enhancement of Iranian EFL Junior Secondary Program
           Students’ Language Learning

    • Authors: Seyede Khadijeh Mirbazel, Masoumeh Arjmandi
      Pages: 204 - 217
      Abstract: The present study aims at focusing on the significance of employing L1 in L2 classroom (in EFL context) via code-switching and translation strategies by English teachers. It argues the use of L2 solely for teaching English (in EFL classroom) seems inadequate to achieve L2 teaching and learning goals. Employing L1 alongside L2 in EFL context, especially at low level, contributes students to learn L2 more effectively. For this purpose, 45 Iranian Junior Secondary Program (JSP) or first grade students were selected, and then, they were divided into three groups of 15 and were randomly assigned to two experimental groups of code-switching and translation strategies and one control group. After pretesting, the first group was taught by code-switching strategy, the second group was taught by translation strategy, and the third or control group was taught by the use of English solely. Also, there was a posttest based on the content of students’ English textbook. The collected data were analyzed through calculating descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. The results revealed that the first grade students in the experimental groups (A and B) attained the higher scores in the posttest compared to the control group. The findings of this study highlighted the effective features of utilizing the code-switching and translation strategies to maximize students’ meaningful learning, and fortify the flow of interaction between students and teacher collaboratively.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers’ Creativity and Their
           Classroom Management

    • Authors: Roghayeh Azimifar, Farahnaz Abedini
      Pages: 218 - 230
      Abstract: The present study was an attempt to extend our knowledge on the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ creativity and their classroom management. It was also intended to check the significant difference between male and female teachers with regard to the relationship between Iranian teachers’ creativity and their classroom management. Examining the difference between male and female teachers regarding their creativity and classroom management was the other aim of this study. To achieve such goals, one hundred EFL teachers participated in the study. The sampling method was availability non-probability sampling. Two questionnaires were utilized, namely, Creativity Fostering Teacher Behavior Index developed by Soh (2000) and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS) developed by Martin and Sass (2010). By employing Pearson correlation coefficient and independent sample t-test, the findings highlighted that there was a statistically positive significant relationship between teachers’ creativity and their classroom management. However, there was not any significant difference between males and females regarding the relationship between Iranian teachers’ creativity and their classroom management. In addition, the findings revealed that there was not any statistically significant difference between male and female teachers with respect to their creativity and their classroom management.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Discoursal Features of Classroom Interaction: Yesterday vs. Today's
           EFL Teachers

    • Authors: Hosein Masjedi, Seyyed Parsa Tabatabaei
      Pages: 231 - 246
      Abstract: In the present research the Initiation-Response-Feedback model developed by Sinclair and Coulthard (1975) was used to study types of moves and exchanges in the initiation and feedback phase of experienced and novice instructors. Additionally this study tried to describe the difference between various types of teacher-student and student-student interaction brought about and affected by different moves and exchanges used by teachers in initiation and feedback phases. A sample of 10 male and female teachers, 5 with more than 6 years of experience and 5 with less than 2 years of experience were chosen from the teachers teaching in language schools. The language classes were observed and audio-recorded. Then observations were transcribed and coded using Sinclair and Coulthard's (1975) model. It was revealed that experienced teachers make use of different moves and exchanges more than novice teachers. Based on the results of the Chi-square tests, the performance of novice and experienced teachers was significantly (.000, .008<.05) different from each other in different boundary exchanges (framing moves and focusing move) and teaching exchanges (opening move, responding move, follow-up move) of the initiation and feedback phases.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
  • Dogs’ Nature for Learning Human Languages

    • Authors: Seyede Khadijeh Mirbazel, Masoumeh Arjmandi
      Pages: 247 - 255
      Abstract: There is a lingering question of how dogs comprehend human language. The most evidences declare that the cognitive abilities of dogs differ in significant ways from other animals that have had prolonged contact and/or training with humans. This analytical paper is a case study which aims at speculating about the significance of dog’s ability to recognize and comprehend human language sounds, speech and vocabulary in a natural situation not tutoring. This paper considers the relationship between Chomsky’s innateness hypothesis for human and dog’s ability to learn human language. The researchers of this study believe that the in-built program in dogs’ brains is like LAD in human brains. Concluding that dogs are able to comprehend, communicate and respond to language stimuli when their masters use language like a human child. However, the researchers of this study observed that the dogs’ nature for learning human language was very fast during their first three months of life - through naturally not training - little by little, there was a reduction rate.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
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