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Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2356-1971 - ISSN (Online) 2406-856X
Published by Universitas Padjadjaran Homepage  [27 journals]
  • Degradation Study of Ketorolactromethamine by a Validated UPLC Method

    • Authors: Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Md. Al-Amin, Md. Nazmul Haque Mijan, Suman Das
      Abstract: UPLC stability indicating method was developed for determining ketorolac tromethamine in its degradation study at different conditions. An isocratic mobile phase composition of 60:10:30 (v/v) containing CH3OH, CH3CN and 5mM NaH2PO4 and C18 column were used at a flow rate of 0.20 mL min-1. Satisfactory retention time was found 2.13±0.05 min at 320 nm when monitored by DAD detector. Forced degradation studies of ketorolac tromethamine was also performed at the following conditions: acid and basic hydrolysis, heat (50-70°C for 1 hr), photolytic (UV and sunlight for up to 3 hr), oxidation (3% hydrogen peroxide for 1 hr). Forced degradation study revealed that ketorolac degraded significantly under thermal conditions. In 1N acid and base hydrolysis, degradation was moderately significant and comparable. It was degraded marginally in 0.1N acid-base hydrolysis which was comparable to oxidative conditions. But in photolytic condition ketorolac shows insignificant degradation. Method was also applied to pharmaceutical formulation.Keywords: UPLC, Ketorolac tromethamine, pharmaceutical formulation, Forced degradation
      PubDate: 2018-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Performance Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer using Propanol as
           Porogen for Atenolol Recognition in Human Serum

    • Authors: Meilia Suherman, Ike Susanti, Driyanti Rahayu, Rimadani Pratiwi, Aliya Nur Hasanah
      Abstract: Atenolol is a cardiovascular drug that has a narrow therapeutic index with long-term use and it’s often used as doping. Atenolol has a small concentration in human boby and it’s in  biological matrix (serum) so in the testing need a selective extraction so  the analyte can be pra-concentration and removed from matrix. Two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) on propanol as porogen  have been made with two different methods i.e. bulk polymerization and precipitation polymerization. The polymer was made using atenolol as a template, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker. Prformance evaluations showed that polymers from bulk polymerization provide better performance than polymers from precipitation polymerization when tested against standard solution. However, this sorbent has low  recovery percentage after applied into serum sample and could not be used as alternative for atenolol extraction in human serum.Key words: Molecularly imprinted polymer, Atenolol, Solid Phase Extraction, Preparation  method, propanol.
      PubDate: 2018-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Antibacterial Activity of Extract and Fraction From Shitake Mushroom
           (Lentinula edodes) Against Acne Bacteria

    • Authors: Ika Kurnia Sukmawati, Ari Yuniarto, Widhya Alighita, Ade Zam-zam J
      Abstract: Acne is an inflammatory disease that occurs in the skin triggered by the bacteria acne treatment can be done by using natural materials that shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). This aims of this study were to determining the antibacterial activity of extracts and fractions shiitake mushrooms with broth microdilution method, determining the value of equality shiitake mushrooms with antibacterial comparison and determining the morphological changes of bacteria after exposure to the test sample with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Tests conducted antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations used is 1 ppm, 2 ppm, 4 ppm, 8 ppm, 16 ppm, 32 ppm, 64 ppm, 128 ppm, 256 ppm, 512 ppm. Best MIC value obtained in fraction of ethyl acetate and n-hexane fraction of the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 256 ppm. KBM value of the n-hexane fraction against Staphylococus aureus bacteria at concentrations of 512 ppm and ethyl acetate fraction against bacteria Staphylococus aureus and epidermidis at a concentration of 512 ppm. Value equality is obtained 1 mg of ethyl acetate fraction of shiitake mushrooms equivalent to 5.346 x 10-2 mg of tetracycline. SEM test results showed the presence of antibacterial activity which is indicated by a change in cell morphology, their lumps and their cell wall frown on Propionibacterium acnes were exposed to ethyl acetate fraction.Key words: Acne, Lentinus edodes, antibacterials, microdilution, SEM
      PubDate: 2018-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Isolation and Activity Assay of Secondary Metabolites of Aspergillus niger
           in-Habiting in Termite‚Äôs Queen Nest Macrotermes gilvus Hagen., on
           Enriched Media

    • Authors: Yohannes Alen, Evi Guslianti, Netty Suharti
      Abstract: The Fungus is a group of the microorganisms that produce secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites of fungus may be changed in different media. Secondary metabolites from Aspergillus niger in habiting in termite’s queen nest Macrotermes gilvus Hagen are disappeared gradually in artificial media. It was the reason to enrich the media with termite’s queen nest. The purpose of this research was to obtain the similar secondary metabolites of Aspergillus niger as it grows in their habitat. Enrichment was done with the experimental method. It used three concentrations of nest 0.25; 0.75 and 1 g/mL Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media. Isolation was done use chromatography method. The antibiotic activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 10541 were performed by the diffusion method. Results showed that enrichment of nest 1 g/mL media gave the best growth of fungus and it obtain the similar secondary metabolites as it grows in their habitat. Three pure compounds, EG-13-31-2, EG-13-34-9, and EG-13-44-2 were obtained. Based on physicochemical data, all compounds were terpenoid class and one of them (EG-13-34-9) contain the phenolic group. All compounds have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 10541 the bacteriostatic category.Key words: Aspergillus niger; Macrotermes gilvus Hagen; Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA); Isolation; Enrich Media; Diffusion Method
      PubDate: 2018-10-29
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cytotoxic Assay From Stem Bark Aglaia minahassae and Aglaia simplicifolia
           Against HeLa Cervical Cancer Cell Lines

    • Authors: Nunung Kurniasih, Hersa Milawati, Mohamad Fajar, Rizky Abdulah, Desi Harneti Putri Huspa, Unang Supratman
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Cervical cancer ranks as the 2nd leading cause of female cancer in Indonesia. One of healing methods is chemotherapy, but this method still has many side e ects and also expensive treatment. Therefore, natural products discoveries need to be developed due to its important role as an alternative for anti- cancer drug. The aim of this research was to get IC50 value from methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-buthanol from stem bark of A. minahassae dan A. simplicifolia. Stem bark of A. minahassae (1.6 kg) and A. simplicifolia (1.1 kg) was grounded by methanol and its extract is successively extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-buthanol. Their extract’s cytotoxicity was then evaluated against HeLa cell lines. This research showed that A. minahassae’s most cytotoxic extract against HeLa cell lines was n-hexane (IC50 = 27.4190 μg/mL) and n-buthanol (IC50 = 4.3924 μg/mL). Meanwhile, A. sim- plicifolia most cytotoxic extract extract against HeLa cell lines was n-hexane (IC50 = 23.3098 μg/mL). Key words: A. minahassae, A. simplicifolia, cytotoxic assay, HeLa cell lines
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba) for Diabetes Mellitus: Acute Toxicity Test in
           Male Wistar Rats

    • Authors: Rena Nurita, Anisa Vitriana, Isni Maulina Sukmara, Nurul Utami, Maryam Maryam, Fathul Huda, Vycke Yunivita
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease which becoming health community problem in the world. DM patients can be treated by antidiabetic drugs throughout their lifetime. Therefore, to alleviate the concern for the side e ect, it is important to have an alternative therapy which has same e ect but less side e ect. One of alternative therapies which has been known for a long time ago is Mulberry leaves (Morus alba). For something to be clinically used as an alternative therapy, e ective and lethal dose should be known. Here we tried to discover the lethal dose (LD50) and the liver morphological changes, using the e ective dose that had been known from previous study. In our experiment, we used Morus alba leaves infusion and 25 male Wistar rats. These rats were divided into 1 control group and 4 groups treatment dosage, 0.3, 3, 30, and 300 grams/kg bodyweight. We observed the mortality in 7 days and examined the liver morphological changes. From this study, we conclude that 300 grams/ kg bodyweight or 48 grams/kg bodyweigtht in human was pseudolethal dose in male Wistar rats. We did not found any signi cant liver morphological changes. Therefore, we can categorize Morus alba as a harmless alternative therapy. Key words: Alternative therapy, diabetes mellitus, liver morphological changes, lethal dose, Morus alba.
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis from Trigona itama
           Stingless Bees against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    • Authors: Syed A. T. W. Yusop, Mohd R. Asaruddin, Ahmad H. Sukairi, Wan M. A. W. Sabri
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Trigona itama is a stingless bees that produce honey which has been used widely as a traditional medicine. Due to limited research and knowledge on T. itama propolis, it becomes less popular in industrial production than honeybee propolis. The aim of this study was to identify the antibacterial activity and toxicity level in hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of T.itama propolis. T.itama propolis crude extract was tested for antibacterial activity by using disk di usion method. The antibacterial activities were assessed according to the inhibitory zone of agar medium with sample concentration of 1000 μg/mL, 750 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL. The result from this study revealed that all T. itama propolis crude extract shows presence of inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The brine shrimp lethality test was used to monitor the toxicity level of T. itama propolis where methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane fraction showed low activity of toxicity where all crude extract LC50 showed above 250 μg/mL. It could be concluded from this study that extract from T. itama propolis possessed antimicrobial activity and low level of toxicity. Key Words: Escherichia coli, propolis, stingless bees, Staphylococcus aureus, Trigona itama
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Optimization of Extraction from Sappan Wood and Its In uence on Food
           Bacterial Contaminants

    • Authors: Putranti Adirestuti, Ririn Puspadewi, Athina Mardatillah, Dismayana Anggita, Meidy Helena, Alfa Octavia, Yosinta Putri
      Pages: 21 - 24
      Abstract: Sappan wood has already known as an ingredient of jamu, especially in Central Java. If it dissolved in hot water, it will show a red color and has been used as health drink for blood current obstruction, diarrhea, blood cough, dysentry, malaria and tetanus. The red pigment of sappan wood contained avonoid and polyphenol. The two kind of extractions of sappan wood used in this experiment were obtained by boiling water extraction at 90oC in 15 minutes and maceration in ethanol 50% overnight. The aim of this research was to nd the potential of inhibiting sappan wood for presence of bacterial contaminants in food, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in several time storages. Microbial examination by observing visual characteristics of damage to the food model and the decrease number of food bacterial contaminants. The result showed that ethanol extract 10% of sappan wood inhibited a food bacterial contaminants in three days at cold temperatures storage (8-10OC), and percent decrease population of E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were 99.74%, 96.28%, and 99.88%, respectively. Key words : Ethanol extract, food contaminant bacterias, inhibiting, sappan wood, water extract
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • In Vitro And in Vivo Antidiabetic Activity of Ethanol Extract and
           Fractions of Hibiscus surattensis L Leaves

    • Authors: Yuliet Yuliet, Elin Yulinah Sukandar, I Ketut Adnyana
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Hisbiscus surattensis L the local name “tamoenju” is utilized by ethnic Sumari (Central Sulawesi) as an antidiabetic herbal, but de nitive studies on ef cacy and safety are lacking. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves and fractions using in vitro and in vivo models. Ethanol extract (EE) of the leaves of H. surattensis L was prepared by maceration. The ethanol extract was separated into three fractions by liquid/liquid extractions to yield n-hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and water fraction (WF). Firstly, the extract and fractions were tested for its inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase in vitro. The results showed IC50 EE, HF and WF more than 5000 ppm while the IC50 fraction of EAF 3888.34 ppm. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) of the extract/fractions were carried out in normal mice. On OGTT, the ethanol extract, EAF, and WF at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg BW were able to inhibit increasing the level of glucose in the blood. The results showed that the extract and fraction of H. surattensis L leaves in vitro had no effect as α-glucosidase inhibitor but in vivo had the hypoglycemic effect especially on the fraction of ethyl acetate and the water fraction. Key words: α-glucosidase, antidiabetic, Hibiscus suratttensis, glucose tolerance.

      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cytotoxic Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Breynia cernua from Papua

    • Authors: Septriyanto Dirgantara, Rosye H.R. Tanjung, Hendra K. Maury, Edy Meiyanto
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Breynia cernua (local name Katuk Hutan) is an Indonesian medicinal plant (family: Euphorbiace- ae) originated from Papua which have been used traditionally as alternative treatment for breast and cervical cancer. The objectives of this research were to investigate potential cytotoxic activity and phytochemical aspect test of B. cernua extract and its fractions. Extraction was performed by macera- tion using ethanol 96%, followed by successive fractionations. Phytochemical screening and in vitro cytotoxic activity test were obtained for extract and active fraction with Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were assessed by 3-(4-5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphe- nyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results from cytotoxic activity test of breast cancer MCF-7 cell line from ethanolic 96% extract and three fractions: n-hexane, ethylacetate and water fractions showed 246.841 ppm, 165.65 ppm, 562.57 ppm dan 713.78 ppm respectively meanwhile the IC50 value of doxorubicin as the positive control was 6 μM. TLC and phytochemical screening showed the pres- ence of alkaloids, terpenoid, avonoids and tannins compounds in this active plant. Keywords: Antitumor, Breynia cernua, BSLT, MCF-7
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Crystallization and Biological Studies of Nypa fruticans Wurmb Sap

    • Authors: Sukairi A. Hafizi, Asaruddin M. Razip, Wan S. W. M. Aliana, Wan Y. S. A. Tarmizi
      Pages: 37 - 42
      Abstract: Nypa fruticans is a standout amongst the most broadly appropriated and helpful palm in the mangrove backwoods in the Southeast Asia. The sap of this plant is produced at the fruit stalks or called as ower stalks or in orescence. Nipa sap contains a lot of chemical constituents that can be used other alter- native to produce sugar that give a lot bene ts. The crystallization process of this sap was conducted in controlled temperature, pressure and humidity. As the crystal formed, remaining liquid was tested for biological studies which are antidiabetic, antioxidant and toxicity test. The antidiabetic properties were determined by inhibition of α-amylase and the result was compared to the synthetic drug which is acarbose. The sample showed that a high property of antidiabetic (50 mg/mL= 78.50% inhibition) compared to the acarbose (50 mg/mL= 80.90% inhibition). Meanwhile, the antioxidant properties of the sample were determined by2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The sample also showed a positive result which is EC50 112.90 mg/mL. Lastly, the toxicity test was tested to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) to get the LC50. The result (LC50=271.7 mg/mL) showed low toxic- ity at different concentration of the sample. From this study, the sample had potential antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, with low toxicity. Key words: α-amylase, antioxidant, Artemia salina, Nypa fruticans, toxicity test

      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Reversibility Time in Testicular Damage on Male Wistar Rat after Treatment
           of Averrhoa blimbi L. Fruits Extract as Antifertility

    • Authors: Kartiawati Alipin, Indra A. Rochman, Desak M. Malini, Madihah Madihah
      Pages: 43 - 48
      Abstract: Belimbing wuluh (Averrhoa blimbi) fruit is commonly used traditionally as antifertility. The bioactive compounds of A. blimbi have been known could inhibit spermatogenesis and development of testes, as well as decrease the quality and quantity of spermatozoa, thus, caused seminiferous tubular atro- phy. This study aimed to determine the reversibility time in testicular damage after the treatment of A. blimbi fruit extract on male Wistar rat. The method employed a completely randomized design (CRD) consists of nine treatments with three replications each. The treatment of the extract at a dose 1140 mg/ kg BW and control group was given the solvent. After 14 days of treatment, the reversibility time was examined in testis histological section by interval of seven days each until 49 days. The results showed that the treatment of A. blimbi fruit extract caused disruptions in seminiferous tubules, i.e. decreased the number of spermatogonium and spermatid, as well as the diameter of lumen and seminiferous tu- bules. The reversibility time was observing at 21 days after the end extract treatments, by increasing the number of of spermatogonium and spermatid, as well as the diameter of lumen and seminiferous tubules that signi cantly different with infertile rat (p<0.05). In conclusion, the reversibility time was 21 days after the treatment of A. blimbi fruit extract as antifertility. Key words: Averrhoa blimbi, rats, reversible time, tubulus seminiferous

      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Formulation of Instant Granule Containing Nano Calcium from the Shell of
           Freshwater Mussels (Anodonta woodiana) for Autism Children

    • Authors: Tri Aminingsih, Sata Yoshida Srie Rahayu, Yulianita Yulianita
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: The small particle size of nano calcium from freshwater mussels shell will tend to increase the absorp- tion of calcium by human’s body and will be very well consumed by children with special needs to suppress hyperactivity disorders that caused by mercury. This study aimed to create and determine the best instant granule formulation containing nano calcium from freshwater mussels shell. The research method began with the manufacture of freshwater mussels shell powder and isolated nano calcium. Nano calcium was tested for its solubility in acid. The granule formula was made with stevia varia- tions. Instant granule evaluation included granule ow test, rest angle, compressibility, water content, solubility, hedonic test, and calcium bioavailability. The results showed that nano calcium was soluble in 1:1 ratio of citric and tartrate acids, so that each formula needs 1.2% citric and 1.2% tartrate acids. Based on the avor, aroma, and texture, the most preferred granule formula contained 600 mg nano calcium, 60 mg citric acid, 60 mg tartaric acid, 400 mg stevia each sachet weighing 5 g. The best in- stant granule evaluation showed that the ow rate was 4.253 g/sec, 33.90 rest angle, 4.65% compress- ibility, 2.21% water content, soluble time 58 second and calcium bioavailability was 100%. Key words: Calcium bioavailability, detoxi cation, freshwater mussels, instant granule, nano cal- cium.
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The Potential Use of Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Dregs as
           Analgesic

    • Authors: Yessi Febriani, Hesti Riasari, Wiwin Winingsih, Diah Lia Aulifa, Ayu Permatasari
      Pages: 57 - 64
      Abstract: Red ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) had been used as excipient in jamu for most people in Indo- nesia. Based on recent research, ethanol extract of red ginger had analgesics activity. The purpose of this research to determine analgesic activity content in water extract of the fresh and dry red ginger and ethanol extract of fresh and dry of red ginger dregs. Fresh and dry of red ginger extracted using decoc- tion method, and the dregs of fresh and dry red ginger extracted using soxhletation method in ethanol 96% at 400C. Red ginger water extract and red ginger dregs extract had been examined for analgesic by witkin method. The results showed, fresh and dry red ginger water extract had analgesic activity for 25 minutes but the activity reduced in 30 minutes. Fresh and dry red ginger dregs ethanol extract still had analgesic activity until 30 minutes. TLC chromatogram was sprayed with FeCl3 and formed two spots with grey colour for both extracts. After sprayed with vanillin sulfate, it formed violet and blue spots from both extracts. From the retention factor (Rf) , possibility shogaol and gingerol contained in extract that have analgesic activity. Key words: Analgesic, dregs, phenolic, red ginger (Zingiber o cinale Roscoe), Witkin method.
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Studies of Nypa fruticans (Nypa Palm Sugar)
           Extract

    • Authors: Wan M. A. W. Sabri, Mohd R. Asaruddin R. Asaruddin, Ahmad H. Sukairi, Syed A. T. W. Yusop
      Pages: 65 - 69
      Abstract: Nypa fruticans Wurmb which belongs to the family of Arecaceae is one of the most widely distributed and useful palm in the mangrove forests in the Southeast Asia. Nypa palm sugar or commonly known as “Gula Apong” was processed using nypa palm sap as raw material. The nypa palm sugar was expected to benefit wider community as source of alternative sweetener. In this study, 2, 2-diphenyl1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and cytotoxicity test of methanol extract of nypa palm sugar were conducted. The antioxidant activity was determined based on DPPH scavenging activity of extract. The cytotoxicity test was conducted against brine shrimp Artemia salina, and the LC50 value of the extract was calculated. The antioxidant activity showed that the EC50 of nypa palm sugar was 1304 mg/mL while the value of EC50 for ascorbic acid was 0.6112 mg/mL. The results of the cytotoxicity showed that the methanol extract of nypa palm sugar was interpreted as non-toxic as the value of LC50 was 184.0 mg/mL.Keywords: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, Nypa fruticans, nypa palm sugar
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effect of Ethanol Concentration on Antibacterial Activity of Bligo Fruit
           Extract (Benincasa hispida Thunb) to Salmonella typhi

    • Authors: Fhahri Mubarak, Sartini Sartini, Dia Purnawanti
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Bligo fruit (Benincasa hispida Thunb) is one of medicinal plants that used to cure typhoid fever which caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. The aim of this research is to find ont the effect of ethanol concentration as a solvent from Bligo fruit (Benincasa hispida Thunb) extracts as an antibacterial, especially to Salmonella typhi. This simplicia was being extracted with 96% ethanol, 70% ethanol, and 50% ethanol by using maceration method for 3x24 hours. The antibacterial activity test was done by diffusion of agar method to the MHA medium by obserring the resistor zone which formed from 96% ethanol, 70% ethanol and 50% ethanol. The diametres that have been obtained are 6,815 mm for 96% ethanol, 25,223 mm for 70% ethanol while for 50% ethanol there is no resisten zone can be seen. From the result canbe conclude that the best concentration of ethanol that has a great potencial as resistor to Salmonella typhi bacteria is the Bligo fruit (Benincasa hispida Thunb) extracts of 70% ethanol.Key words: Bligo fruit (Benincasa hispida Thunb), Antibacterial, Salmonella typhi.
      PubDate: 2018-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of
           Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) from Garut West Java

    • Authors: Diki Prayugo Wibowo, Yessi Febriana, Hesti Riasari, Diah Lia Auilifa
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: West Java is rich in essential oil-producing plants, essential oils known to be responsible for some pharmacological activities among its antioxidant and antimicrobial. This research aims to know antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and identify the components of a compound essential oil of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.). Components chemistry identified with GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass pectrometer). Antioxidant activity measured by using the DPPH method (2 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) at 516 λ wavelength absorbance. Antimicrobial activity determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) using microdilution method. The result of GC-MS showed the highest component on nutmeg containing 22.22% myristicin. The antioxidant test showed nutmeg had IC50 at 3,16%, essential oil showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of essential oils range from 0.313% to 10%. The content of essential oils of nutmeg plants that grow in the area of West Java Garut can be used to overcome the problems of antioxidants and antimicrobial.Key words: Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt), Chemical Composition.
      PubDate: 2018-10-13
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The Prediction of Curcumin Content in the Turmeric Rhizome with Raman
           Handheld Spectroscopy

    • Authors: I Made Agus Gelgel Wirasuta, Cokorda Istri Tirta Rusmala Dewi, Ni Putu Linda Laksmiani, I Gusti Ayu Made Srinadi, Deddi Prima Putra
      Pages: 88 - 92
      Abstract: The quality control of herbal medicine should be started from the determination of the active substance at harvest time. The Raman spectrometry has been used for this propose. The aim of this study is to determine the quantification of curcumin in turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis of PLS-R that are expected to provide reference method for quality control in turmeric rhizome, especially for raw materials of Herbal drugs. Parameters that can be used for analysis of curcumin levels on turmeric rhizome obtained using intensity of data Raman and the data obtained from the standard method will be processed with multivariate analysis methods PLS-R. The validation value of quantification result using Raman-PLSR is seen from R2 value of 0.957, RMSEC value of 0,199 and p-value of 0.00. The study showed the developed method could be implemented on to determine the prediction quantification of raw material herbal medicine.Keyword : Curcumin,  PLS-R, Turmeric, Raman Spectroscopy
      PubDate: 2018-10-12
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Synthesis N1-Tersier-Butilteobromin from Teobromin and
           Tersier-Butylbromides

    • Authors: Sri Gustini Husein, Achmad Zainuddin, Sani Hoeruman
      Pages: 93 - 99
      Abstract: Xantine derivatives are known to have some pharmacological activity, such as a bronchodilator. The substitution on atoms N1 xantine can improve the activity and selectivity as a tracheaspasm. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of concentration sodium hydroxide in sodium acetate as solvent used on the production yield of N1-tert-butilteobromin. The result of the synthesis was isolated using chloroform and purified with the preparative thin layer chromatography. The molecule structure of N1-tert-butilteobromin was confirmed using ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometry. The result showed that sodium hydroxide concentration could effect the results of yield. The yields of 4%, 8%, and 12% sodium hydroxide concentration were 3.7% (0.074 g), 7.2% (0.144 g), and 1.3% (0.026 g), respectively.Keywords: N1-tert-butylteobromin, sodium hydroxide, tert-butylbromide, theobromine
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Isolation And Characterization of Physicochemical Properties of Mucilago
           Gedi Leaf (Abelmoschus manihot L. Medik)

    • Authors: Elvie Rifke Rindengan, Marline Abdassah, Anis Yohana Chaerunisaa
      Pages: 100 - 106
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to isolation of mucilage from gedi leaf (Abelmoschus manihot L. Medik) and characterized physicochemical properties. The isolation result was yellowish brown powder that swelling and dissolves slowly in water, but does not dissolve in ethanol, methanol, acetone and ether. The yield is 1.33%. Swelling index value 100% and viscosity 28 ± 2.65 mpas, pH 7.1. Proximate analysis showed 10.46% water content, 38.80% ash, 14.66% protein, 0.69% fat, 35.38% carbohydrate Water holding capacity (WHC) and  oil holding capacity (OHC) of musilago are respectively 4.23 ± 0.18 and 0.65 ± 0.14. Viscosity, Swelling index, WHC and OHC mucilage gedi leaf  may be considered as pharmaceutical excipients.Keywords: Mucilage, Abelmoschus manihot, swelling, viscosity
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2018)
       
 
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