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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3159 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3159 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Learning and Motivation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.341
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0023-9690 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9122
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • Effects of the number of acquisition sessions and scheduled reinforcers on
           ABA renewal
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Kenneth Madrigal, Cinthia Hernández, Carlos FloresAbstractRecent research has suggested that among different relapse procedures (i.e. resurgence and renewal), an increased number of acquisition sessions contributes on observing a greater relapse. Even when such results seem to be consistent across studies, these can also be explained by attending to the number of scheduled reinforcers, since using different number of acquisition sessions could also result on differences in the number of scheduled reinforcers between groups. ABA renewal was assessed in four groups of rats by varying the number of acquisition sessions (12 and 4) or the number of scheduled reinforcers (240 and 720) between groups. As previous experiments, our results suggest that different number of acquisition sessions results on differences in ABA renewal; nevertheless, different number of obtained reinforcers seem to affect the degree to which renewal is observed. Therefore, it seems like renewal does not only depend upon the amount of training but also on the number of reinforcers obtained during acquisition.
       
  • Effect of the number of between-classes reject baseline relations on
           equivalence class formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Elberto A. Plazas, Carlos-Wilcen VillamilAbstractIn this study, different training conditions involving six combinations of standard (STA) and altered (ALT) baseline trials were compared in regard to the probability of emergence of three 3-member stimulus classes. The STA and ALT baseline trials established the same within-class select relations, but the STA baseline trials established between-classes reject relations as well, while the ALT trials did not. The number of STA trials included in the baseline was related to higher likelihood of equivalence class formation; this relation, however, was not linear and simple, and rather it depended on the distribution of the STA trials, according with two dimensions in baseline training structure: the number of orthogonal relations (AB, AC) and the stimulus classes involved (Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3). A high probability of equivalence class formation was observed when between-classes reject relations were included in at least two stimulus classes, and in one of these for both orthogonal relations. It is concluded that for a six trials baseline between-classes reject relations must be involved in at least the two orthogonal relations and two classes, with a link between these dimensions, for a high probability of equivalence class formation to be ensured. Results are discussed in terms of an account emphasizing the role of sorting behavior on equivalence relations formation.
       
  • Immediate and distal effects of supplemental food and fluid delivery on
           rumination
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 62Author(s): Brittany C. Wierzba, Jeffrey H. TigerAbstractRumination is the repeated regurgitation, chewing, and re-swallowing of previously swallowed food. Several recent studies have examined the utility of supplemental feeding as a treatment for rumination including the delivery of foods and fluids. Results of these studies have been mixed, and the distal effects of these treatments are unclear. In this study, we compared the immediate and distal effects of fixed-time (FT) food and fluid delivery with baseline levels of rumination. We found no immediate or distal effects for FT 30-s fluid delivery. Food delivery on an FT 30-s schedule resulted in slightly lower levels of rumination during food delivery; however, rumination increased relative to baseline upon termination of food delivery.
       
  • Reliability and validity of indirect assessment outcomes: Experts versus
           caregivers
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 62Author(s): Joseph D. Dracobly, Claudia L. Dozier, Adam M. Briggs, Jessica F. JuanicoAbstractClinicians often conduct indirect assessments (IAs; e.g., Durand & Crimmins, 1988; Iwata, DeLeon, & Roscoe, 2013; Matson & Vollmer, 1995) such as questionnaires and interviews with caregivers to gain information about the variables influencing problem behavior. However, researchers have found poor reliability and validity of IAs with respect to determining functional variables. There are numerous variables that might influence the efficacy of IAs as an assessment tool, one of which is the skill set of the person completing the IA. For example, it may be possible to increase the validity and reliability of IAs by having individuals with certain skill sets such as a background in behavior analysis and FBA (“experts”) complete them. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the reliability (i.e., agreement with respect to function and specific IA questions) and validity (i.e., agreement between the outcome of IAs and a functional analysis) of IAs completed by caregivers and “experts” for each of eight children who emitted problem behavior. We found that experts were more likely than caregivers to agree on IA outcomes with respect to (a) overall interrater agreement, (b) item-by-item agreement, and (c) the highest-rated function(s) of problem behavior. Experts were also more likely to correctly identify the function(s), based on comparisons of the results of the IAs and FAs. In addition, caregivers were more likely to (a) disagree on hypothesized functions and (b) identify multiple incorrect functions. The use of experts for completing IAs could have significant impact on their utility and provide a novel method for more rapidly completing the FBA process and developing a function-based treatment.
       
  • Validation of a skills assessment to match interventions to teach motor
           imitation to children with autism
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 62Author(s): Amber L. Valentino, Linda A. LeBlanc, Kerry A. CondeAbstractMotor imitation skills are usually targeted early in intervention with children with autism. Some children readily acquire motor imitation targets that involve objects (e.g., pushing a toy car) but do not acquire targets without objects (e.g., clapping hands). The disparity in acquisition could occur for various reasons, including differences in attending when an object is present as opposed to when no object is present. It also is possible that the delay in imitation that is required when no object is present could contribute to the discrepancy. The purpose of this study was to validate the use a brief assessment of delayed imitation and attending skills to predict the effectiveness of interventions specifically designed to address the identified deficits. The assessment showed one child with autism had deficits in attending, and an intervention that included a salient stimulus produced the quickest acquisition. The second participant’s assessment did not show any deficits in attending, but showed deficits in delayed imitation. For this participant, the intervention designed to address deficits in delayed imitation (i.e., a secondary prompter) was most successful in establishing motor imitation responses.
       
  • A clinical application of procedures to promote the emergence of untrained
           intraverbal relations with children with autism
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 62Author(s): M. Alice Shillingsburg, Sarah E. Frampton, Stacy A. Cleveland, Tom CariveauAbstractStrategies to promote the emergence of untrained verbal relations are of critical importance for learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study examined the effects of systematically training new relations on the emergence of intraverbal relations within the same set and across untrained sets using a multiple probe across behaviors design. Three sets consisting of three classes of stimuli were developed for each of the six participants with ASD. Training was sequentially introduced within set 1 for listener feature/function, tact feature/function, and bi-directional intraverbals. Following mastery of one relation within the set, probes were conducted to assess emergence of all untrained relations within set 1. Once mastery criteria were met through direct training or emergence for all intraverbal relations in set 1, probes were conducted to evaluate relations across all sets (1–3). The procedures were repeated with the remaining sets. Results indicated that some participants showed emergence of untrained intraverbal relations following training of the listener and tact responses, consistent with prior research. Some participants required training across multiple relations and classes before emergence of intraverbals was observed. These results highlight the importance of evaluating performance over multiple sets and the benefits of systematically programming for emergence within clinical work.
       
  • Increasing sharing in children with autism spectrum disorder using
           automated discriminative stimuli
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 62Author(s): Ami J. Kaminski, Wayne W. Fisher, Brian D. Greer, Jessica S. AkersAbstractAppropriate sharing of a high-preference item is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether a multiple schedule of reinforcement could be used to promote appropriate turn-taking behavior. Participants included one dyad of siblings and one dyad of non-related peers who were identified as having poorly developed sharing skills. The first dyad included a 6-year-old diagnosed with autism and his typically developing sister. The other dyad included a 4-year-old and 5-year-old, both diagnosed with autism. During sessions, an auditory and visual stimulus in the form of a PowerPoint® presentation played in the background to signal each participant’s turn with a mutually preferred item. Following baseline, we used a progressive prompt delay to teach the participants to attend and appropriately respond to the stimuli presented in the PowerPoint® presentation. Findings suggest that an auditory and visual stimulus can be used to increase appropriate sharing.
       
  • A comparison of consequences for correct responses during discrete-trial
           instruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 62Author(s): Brad T. Joachim, Regina A. CarrollAbstractWe used an adapted-alternating treatments design to compare the effects of four types of consequences for correct responses on skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction for four children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Contingent on correct responses, the therapist provided either praise, tangible items, tokens, or no differential consequence. Three of four participants acquired target skills in the fewest number of sessions when correct responses resulted in immediate access to tangible items or tokens exchangeable for tangible items at the end of the session. One participant did not acquire target skills in any condition. We assessed participants’ preferences for different consequences using a concurrent-chains assessment. Three of the four participants demonstrated a preference for conditions associated with immediate or delayed tangible items, and one participant demonstrated a preference for descriptive praise.Findings in the current study generally suggest that immediate or delayed tangible items should be used as consequences for correct responses during discrete-trial instruction.
       
  • Assessing preference for and reinforcing efficacy of components of social
           interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 62Author(s): Casey J. Clay, Andrew L. Samaha, Bistra K. BogoevAbstractWe evaluated the degree to which social interactions are reinforcing for two individuals with autism spectrum disorder by comparing individual components (i.e., edible, vocal, and physical interaction) alone and in combination. First, we conducted preference assessments to determine preference hierarchies within three stimulus classes: edible, vocal, and physical interaction. Second, we evaluated preference for individual stimuli across these classes. Third, we examined the relative reinforcing efficacy of highly preferred stimuli assessed individually. Fourth, with individuals for whom physical and vocal stimuli served as reinforcers, we evaluated if adding the other component, physical or vocal, increased the effectiveness of that consequence as a reinforcer. Results suggested differences in the relative reinforcing efficacy of components of social interaction. Additionally, combining components to form compound stimuli produced idiosyncratic differences in relative rates of responding.
       
  • Introduction to the special issue on applied behavior analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 62Author(s): Brian D. Greer, Tiffany Kodak
       
  • Augmentation’s boundary conditions' Investigation of spatial
           contiguity, temporal contiguity, and target flavor familiarity
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Clare Jensen, Kaela Van Til, Ayaka Abe, Perri Nicholson, W. Robert BatsellAbstractWhen a preconditioned flavor (A) is conditioned in compound with a novel target flavor (X), the aversion to the target X is increased; this enhanced aversion to X is called augmentation. In 6 experiments with rat subjects, we manipulated the spatial contiguity of cues during compound conditioning (AX+), the temporal contiguity of cues during compound conditioning (AX+), and the familiarity of the target. In all 6 studies, augmentation was recorded with spatially separated flavors. In Experiments 2–4, augmentation was not detected if the two flavors were temporally discontiguous, but augmentation still occurred if the cues were partially contiguous (i.e., the flavors co-occurred for 2 min of a 4-min exposure). Even though stimulus preexposure can often weaken subsequent conditioning, augmentation was observed following 1 or 4 preexposures to the target taste (Experiment 5A) or target odor (Experiment 5B). In sum, manipulations that should weaken, but not eliminate, the within-compound association formed during AX+ conditioning did not prevent augmentation, suggesting the robustness of the within-compound association when one of the elements is a preconditioned flavor.
       
  • Open field, panel length discrimination by homing pigeons (Columba
           livia
    )
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Brittany A. Sizemore, Melissa A. Schoenlein, Verner P. BingmanAbstractPigeons were trained to find a food reward in a square environmental space where two opposing walls had longer panels attached to them, and the other two opposing walls had shorter panels attached to them. Magnitude discrimination theory would lead to the prediction that there would be asymmetrical discriminative performance between experimental groups; rewarded associations with longer panels were expected to yield better correct choice performance than to shorter panels. Interestingly, pigeons trained with food rewards abutting the long panels did not outperform pigeons trained with food rewards abutting the short panels, although discrimination performance in both groups at the end of training was modest. Reversal training following the initial discrimination training provided the strongest evidence of successful initial learning, and more importantly, that there was no difference in learning performance between the two groups. The difference in the performance of pigeons compared to previous studies in rats is most easily explained by the different experimental procedures employed, most notably the use of appetitive (pigeons-food reward) compared to aversive (rats-escape in a water maze) motivation. Alternatively, the data support the hypothesis that in similar training environments pigeons, compared to rats, are more likely to combine panels of different lengths into a more holistic geometric representation of space.
       
  • Transfer between anticipatory and consummatory tasks involving reward loss
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Amanda C. Glueck, Carmen Torres, Mauricio R. PapiniAbstractDoes recovery from reward devaluation or partial reinforcement (PR) involve the counterconditioning of frustration' Transfer among tasks involving reward loss was used to uncover frustration counterconditioning. In Experiment 1, Phase 1 training in consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC; 32-to-4% sucrose devaluation) eliminated Phase 2 iSNC in one-way avoidance (40-to-3 s safety-time reduction), but the opposite sequence generated no detectable transfer. In Experiment 2, transfer from Phase 1 cSNC to Phase 2 autoshaping extinction after continuous reinforcement increased lever pressing in previously downshifted animals relative to unshifted controls. However, Phase 1 training in autoshaping under partial reinforcement (PR) had no effect on Phase 2 cSNC. Transfer from PR to cSNC also failed when sucrose pellets were used in autoshaping (Experiment 3), when autoshaping acquisition was extended from 100 to 300 trials (Experiment 4), and when preshift training in cSNC was extended from 10 to 20 sessions (Experiment 5). In Experiment 6, Phase 1 training in PR for licking enhanced Phased 2 cSNC, also involving licking, and in Experiment 7 Phase 1 PR training in autoshaping enhanced Phase 2 cSNC after a 22-to-4% sucrose downshift. Whereas prior exposure to cSNC (consummatory task) increased resistance to extinction in autoshaped lever pressing, prior training in one-way avoidance, PR in autoshaping, or PR in taste conditioning (all anticipatory tasks) either had no effect or they enhanced the cSNC effect. Frustration counterconditioning developed during these tasks, but the type of transfer effect depends on task sequence.
       
  • Consummatory successive negative contrast in rats: Assessment through
           orofacial taste reactivity responses
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Lucas Cuenya, Stefana Bura, Matías Serafini, Matías LópezAbstractRats exposed to a downshift from a large reward (32% sucrose) to a small reward (4% sucrose) show an abrupt and transient reduction in consumption in comparison with animals that are always exposed to the small reward. This effect is called consummatory Successive Negative Contrast (cSNC) and involves negative affective consequences that lead to an aversive emotional, cognitive and behavioral state of frustration. There are few previous works that have investigated the hedonic alterations that undergo an unexpected incentive devaluation. The hedonic impact of fluids can be reliably assessed by examining the orofacial reactions of acceptance and rejection in the taste reactivity (TR) test. This study addressed in male adult Wistar rats the hedonic impact of incentive devaluation in an adapted cSNC protocol. Specifically, the orofacial responses to a sucrose solution infused into the oral cavity were measured. It was observed that animals exposed to reward devaluation, from a 32% to a 4% sucrose solution, showed a decrease in the duration of appetitive responses (tongue protrusions, mouth movements, paw licks) as compared with subjects which only experienced the low concentration of sucrose. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that incentive devaluation in a cSNC not only results in reduced intake, but also in a reduction in the hedonic value or palatability of the devalued reward.
       
  • Effect of water temperature on swimming-based taste aversion learning in
           rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Sadahiko NakajimaAbstractSwimming endows rats with conditioned aversion to a taste solution consumed shortly prior to swimming. The present study explores the effects of water temperature on this swimming-based taste aversion learning using simple conditioning (Experiment 1) and differential conditioning (Experiment 2) paradigms. In both experiments, swimming in 22 °C water effectively established taste aversion, while the aversion based on swimming in 30 or 38 °C water was weak and ambiguous. These findings are in contrast with the hypothesis that the energy expended during swimming is a crucial factor in the establishment of this learning, because it is known that the amount of physical activity is higher in warmer water.
       
  • The effect of monetary compensation on cognitive training outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Benjamin Katz, Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl, Priti Shah, John JonidesAbstractRecent work has established the possibility that messaging and incentive during recruitment may influence the outcome of cognitive training. These factors may impact intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to complete a training intervention, and one provocative single session study suggests that recruitment messaging may be responsible for an expectancy effect in certain training experiments. To examine the effects of payment and payment messaging during recruitment on a longer training program, participants were recruited to complete a twenty-session working memory regimen with or without payment, and with messaging that either emphasized payment or improving cognition. Significant group differences were observed at baseline; unpaid participants reported a significantly higher number of cognitive failures compared to compensated participants. However, both paid and unpaid training groups improved on transfer measures compared to an active control group, and payment had no effect on transfer. An additional post-test survey within the compensated group revealed different motivational orientations that were associated with significant performance differences on the visuospatial reasoning factor at baseline. While these differences in motivation were not predictive of transfer or training gain, it is possible that other elements of the study, including researcher involvement, may also play a role in determining the extent to which participants demonstrate transfer on untrained tasks. We conclude that while payment and recruitment messaging may affect training and transfer performance to some degree, a variety of additional factors likely contribute to the outcome of any individual study and the influence of certain factors may matter less during a longer-term program.
       
  • Impact of parenting, reward, and prior achievement on task persistence
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Hüseyin KotamanAbstractThe purpose of this study was to test the impact of reward, prior achievement, parenting style, and parents’ educational and income levels on second graders’ task persistence in the face of a challenging task. The participants were 179 s graders enrolled in one of three public schools in the Şanlıurfa. Participants were randomly assigned to success, no-reward, and reward groups. On the pre- and posttest, participants’ task persistence was measured through engagement with an unsolvable labyrinth puzzle. Stepwise multiple regression was calculated to predict students’ task persistence based on students’ gender, mother and father education, income, parenting styles, pretest results and experimental grouping (success, no-reward, reward). Regression analyses pointed only to reward as a significant predictor of students’ task persistence. Students’ task persistence decreased on average 421 s when a reward was removed. Task persistence for the success and no-reward groups was significantly higher than for the reward group.
       
  • A positive psychological intervention for failing students: Does it
           improve academic achievement and motivation' A pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Anna Muro, Joaquim Soler, Àusias Cebolla, Ramon CladellasAbstractIn the last decade, positive psychology interventions (PPI) applied in both clinical and non-clinical samples have demonstrated a proven efficacy to increase positive emotions, well-being, and life satisfaction. However, few studies have used objective indicators of performance to explored the efficacy of PPI to increase students' motivation to study or to improve performance. Therefore, we developed and applied a PPI in a sample of high-school students with poor academic achievement. A pre-post study design including both an interventional and a control group was developed to compare the two groups in terms of average grades and number of failed subjects. Average grades increased significantly in both groups (repeated-measures ANOVA), but this increase was higher in the PPI group. Based on regression analyses, the two factors that explained 40% of the motivation to continue studying were allocation to the PPI group and the overall grade average post-intervention. These findings suggest that PPIs are effective in increasing motivation to study and in enhancing the academic performance of poor performing high school students.
       
  • Working for beverages without being thirsty: Human Pavlovian-instrumental
           transfer despite outcome devaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Matteo De Tommaso, Tommaso Mastropasqua, Massimo TurattoAbstractThe incentive-motivational salience acquired by a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) is reflected by its ability to strengthen the performance of a separately learned instrumental action exerted to obtain an outcome, a phenomenon known as Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer (PIT). By means of a PIT paradigm, the present study addressed whether the CS motivational properties vary dynamically with the value of the associated outcome. Previous studies on human PIT and outcome devaluation have provided mixed results, showing that in some cases post-training devaluation leaves PIT unaffected when outcomes are palatable foods or drugs, and when the devalued outcome is not consumed immediately. In Experiment 1, thirsty participants first learned to squeeze a rubber bulb to accumulate a beverage (plain water or sugary drink); then participants learned Pavlovian associations between cues and the beverage. When tested in extinction, a PIT effect emerged as expected. In Experiment 2, the PIT effect emerged even despite participants quenched their thirst before the test phase. Our results suggest that the incentive properties of a CS can surprisingly and irrationally endure the devaluation of the associated outcome even when plain water is used as reward, and thirst is quenched by immediate reward consumption. This result may provide important insights in the understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying different types of addiction.
       
  • Retention intervals enhance associative competition produced by a
           preexposed CS
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Diana Klakotskaia, Rachel A. Richardson, Paige N. Michener, Todd R. SchachtmanAbstractEarlier studies have shown that a latent inhibitor is poor at competing for learning with another conditioned stimulus on a compound conditioning trial. Previous research also has shown that the poor conditioned response produced to a latent inhibitor can be reversed by a retention interval placed after conditioning and prior to testing the conditioned response. In the present conditioned taste aversion experiments, a CS flavor (“A”) was given CS-alone preexposures prior to a pairing of the CS with the US. A serial compound conditioning phase then occurred in which this CS was able to compete with an added novel CS (“B”) when the two CSs were paired with the US. However, prior to the compound conditioning phase, a retention interval occurred lasting either one day or many days (15 days in one experiment and 21 days in another experiment). It was found that the lengthy retention interval enhanced the competitive potential of the pretrained CS. These results show that treatments that enhance the expression of a CS-US association can also enhance the competitive ability of the CS.
       
  • Pre-exposure and retrieval effects on generalization of contextual fear
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Dieuwke Sevenster, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares, Rudi D’HoogeAbstractThe degree of generalization from a fearful context to other contexts is determined by precision of the original fear memory. Experiences before and after fear learning affect memory precision. Pre-exposure to a similar context before context conditioning results in increased generalization to the similar context. In contrast, exposure to the conditioning context after fear learning reduces fear generalization. In the current study we aimed to investigate whether the events before and after fear learning interact. We hypothesized that pre-exposure-induced enhanced generalization could be reduced by a return to the conditioning context. We found that, in contrast to previous findings, pre-exposure did not affect generalization. However, a reminder of the conditioning context reduced generalization to both a similar and a different context. The results stress the dynamic nature of emotional memory.
       
  • Relapse of conditioned taste aversion in rats exposed to constant and
           graded extinction treatments
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Sadahiko Nakajima, Takaya Ogai, Ayano SasakiAbstractIn a generalized bait-shyness preparation of rats, the graded extinction procedure was not effective in preventing the relapse of conditioned aversion to a target taste. The present study is a replication of this finding in a conventional taste aversion preparation using a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and an injection of poisonous lithium chloride (LiCl) as the unconditioned stimulus (US). After aversive conditioning of salty taste by a CS-US pairing, its extinction was administered by two different experimental procedures. The rats in the constant extinction group were repeatedly exposed to the target CS (NaCl solution). For the rats in the graded extinction group, the concentration of NaCl was gradually increased from a low level to the original one, and an additional interfering sweet taste was gradually faded out. The rats in the graded extinction group were equally or more prone to relapse than those in the constant extinction group. This result was observed by the second reacquisition treatment (Experiment 1), spontaneous recovery after a 30-day interval (Experiment 2), and renewal upon return to the acquisition context (Experiment 3). These results extended the generality of our previous finding, and its theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
       
  • Effects of extended extinction and multiple extinction contexts on ABA
           renewal
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Kirra A. Krisch, Siavash Bandarian-Balooch, David L. NeumannAbstractThe return of fear following exposure therapy suggests that extinction does not result in a permanent unlearning of the association between a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US). One proposed mechanism of return of fear is ABA renewal in which a CS is paired with a US in context A, presented alone in context B, and followed by test trials in context A. The current study examined the effects of extended extinction and multiple extinction contexts on ABA renewal in 121 first year psychology students. Using a fear conditioning procedure, renewal of shock expectancy during test was observed when extinction was presented for 12 extinction trials in a single context. In addition, renewal was attenuated when extinction was extended to 36 extinction trials or conducted in multiple contexts with 12 extinction trials. Combining extended extinction with multiple contexts resulted in the greatest attenuation of renewal. The results suggest that prolonged exposure treatment in multiple contexts may enhance the cross-contextual generalizability of extinction learning and reduce the likelihood of renewal of fear.
       
  • Evaluation of renewal mitigation of negatively reinforced socially
           significant operant behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 63Author(s): Michael E. Kelley, Corina Jimenez-Gomez, Christopher A. Podlesnik, Andrew MorganAbstractRenewal is a relapse phenomenon that occurs when previously treated target behavior re-emerges as a result of context change. Typically, a target response is reinforced in Context A, extinguished in Context B, and then re-emerges in Context A - despite the continuation of the extinction procedure. In the current study, we initially reinforced inappropriate mealtime behavior or aggression in Context A across three children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Next, therapists either differentially reinforced an alternative response or extinguished responding by terminating the relationship between problem behavior and the reinforcer in Context B. Problem behavior re-emerged upon the return to Context A even though treatments continued. Finally, we tested repeated exposure to Context A and pairing Contexts A and B for mitigating renewal. Results suggested that modification of the training conditions can effectively mitigate renewal of responding.
       
  • Reprint of: Using video modeling with voiceover instruction plus feedback
           to train implementation of stimulus preference assessments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2018Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Casey L. Nottingham, Jason C. Vladescu, Antonia R. Giannakakos, Lauren K. Schnell, Joshua L. LipschultzAbstractBehavior analysts frequently use stimulus preference assessments to identify putative reinforcers for consumers with autism spectrum disorder. The current study evaluated the effect of video modeling with voiceover instruction and on-screen text (VMVOT) and performance feedback to train staff to implement the multiple-stimulus-without-replacement, paired-stimulus, and single-stimulus preference assessments. Generalization probes with a larger stimulus array and with an actual consumer were conducted. The results indicated that VMVOT may be a useful prelude to in-vivo training approaches, as all staff mastered the preference assessments and demonstrated high levels of generalized responding. This outcome is discussed in light of previous staff training studies and avenues for future research.
       
 
 
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