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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3175 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 387, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 385, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 336, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 438, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Learning and Motivation
  [SJR: 0.589]   [H-I: 35]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0023-9690 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9122
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Working for beverages without being thirsty: Human Pavlovian-instrumental
           transfer despite outcome devaluation
    • Authors: Matteo De Tommaso; Tommaso Mastropasqua; Massimo Turatto
      Pages: 37 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Matteo De Tommaso, Tommaso Mastropasqua, Massimo Turatto
      The incentive-motivational salience acquired by a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) is reflected by its ability to strengthen the performance of a separately learned instrumental action exerted to obtain an outcome, a phenomenon known as Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer (PIT). By means of a PIT paradigm, the present study addressed whether the CS motivational properties vary dynamically with the value of the associated outcome. Previous studies on human PIT and outcome devaluation have provided mixed results, showing that in some cases post-training devaluation leaves PIT unaffected when outcomes are palatable foods or drugs, and when the devalued outcome is not consumed immediately. In Experiment 1, thirsty participants first learned to squeeze a rubber bulb to accumulate a beverage (plain water or sugary drink); then participants learned Pavlovian associations between cues and the beverage. When tested in extinction, a PIT effect emerged as expected. In Experiment 2, the PIT effect emerged even despite participants quenched their thirst before the test phase. Our results suggest that the incentive properties of a CS can surprisingly and irrationally endure the devaluation of the associated outcome even when plain water is used as reward, and thirst is quenched by immediate reward consumption. This result may provide important insights in the understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying different types of addiction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:03:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 63 (2018)
       
  • Augmentation’s boundary conditions' Investigation of spatial
           contiguity, temporal contiguity, and target flavor familiarity
    • Authors: Clare Jensen; Kaela Van Til; Ayaka Abe; Perri Nicholson; W. Robert Batsell
      Pages: 49 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Clare Jensen, Kaela Van Til, Ayaka Abe, Perri Nicholson, W. Robert Batsell
      When a preconditioned flavor (A) is conditioned in compound with a novel target flavor (X), the aversion to the target X is increased; this enhanced aversion to X is called augmentation. In 6 experiments with rat subjects, we manipulated the spatial contiguity of cues during compound conditioning (AX+), the temporal contiguity of cues during compound conditioning (AX+), and the familiarity of the target. In all 6 studies, augmentation was recorded with spatially separated flavors. In Experiments 2–4, augmentation was not detected if the two flavors were temporally discontiguous, but augmentation still occurred if the cues were partially contiguous (i.e., the flavors co-occurred for 2 min of a 4-min exposure). Even though stimulus preexposure can often weaken subsequent conditioning, augmentation was observed following 1 or 4 preexposures to the target taste (Experiment 5A) or target odor (Experiment 5B). In sum, manipulations that should weaken, but not eliminate, the within-compound association formed during AX+ conditioning did not prevent augmentation, suggesting the robustness of the within-compound association when one of the elements is a preconditioned flavor.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:03:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 63 (2018)
       
  • The effect of monetary compensation on cognitive training outcomes
    • Authors: Benjamin Katz; Susanne M. Jaeggi; Martin Buschkuehl; Priti Shah; John Jonides
      Pages: 77 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Benjamin Katz, Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl, Priti Shah, John Jonides
      Recent work has established the possibility that messaging and incentive during recruitment may influence the outcome of cognitive training. These factors may impact intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to complete a training intervention, and one provocative single session study suggests that recruitment messaging may be responsible for an expectancy effect in certain training experiments. To examine the effects of payment and payment messaging during recruitment on a longer training program, participants were recruited to complete a twenty-session working memory regimen with or without payment, and with messaging that either emphasized payment or improving cognition. Significant group differences were observed at baseline; unpaid participants reported a significantly higher number of cognitive failures compared to compensated participants. However, both paid and unpaid training groups improved on transfer measures compared to an active control group, and payment had no effect on transfer. An additional post-test survey within the compensated group revealed different motivational orientations that were associated with significant performance differences on the visuospatial reasoning factor at baseline. While these differences in motivation were not predictive of transfer or training gain, it is possible that other elements of the study, including researcher involvement, may also play a role in determining the extent to which participants demonstrate transfer on untrained tasks. We conclude that while payment and recruitment messaging may affect training and transfer performance to some degree, a variety of additional factors likely contribute to the outcome of any individual study and the influence of certain factors may matter less during a longer-term program.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T18:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 63 (2018)
       
  • Insights from rodent food protection behaviors
    • Authors: Megan Marie Martin St. Peters
      Pages: 52 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Megan Marie Martin St. Peters
      This review aims to provide an update on the current state of research in food protection behaviors. This includes a detailed description of food protection behaviors, theoretical considerations, neuroscientific results, a separate examination of robbers’ behaviors, and some suggestions on future studies. The goal is to provide a succinct overview of food protection behaviors while showcasing their usefulness through an ethologically gestalt lens in which to examine underlying systems of interest not only to better understand the species, but also as an antecedent for understanding human behaviors and conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T18:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
       
  • Use of the parallel beam task for skilled walking in a rat model of
           cerebral ischemia: A qualitative approach
    • Authors: Brian Ficiur; Jamshid Faraji; Gerlinde A.S. Metz
      Pages: 74 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Brian Ficiur, Jamshid Faraji, Gerlinde A.S. Metz
      The parallel beam task (PBT), in which animals walk across two elevated parallel beams, is commonly used to assess motor deficits in laboratory rodents. Performance of the PBT challenges postural balance, inter-limb coordination and skilled walking abilities, and is typically assessed by quantitative measures such as number of foot slips and/or successful traversals. We proposed that including qualitative movement analysis of skilled walking would increase resolution and sensitivity of PBT assessments in rats with cortical ischemic lesion. Pre-trained rats with a unilateral devascularization of the primary motor cortex and controls were recorded from lateral and ventral views as they traversed a PBT made of two parallel metal beams. The new qualitative skilled walking scoring system analyzed four elements of posture, limb placement, and targeting (limb rotation and position, number of placing attempts and foot slips) based on frame-by-frame video analysis. The analysis revealed that motor cortex lesions produced significant deficits in contralateral limb rotation and limb placement in both fore- and hind limbs, compared to ipsilateral limbs and control animals. Fore- and hind limbs showed different patterns in limb placement impairments. The results indicate that forelimb foot slips are a more sensitive measure of lesion-induced deficits than hind limb foot slips. Thus, the PTB is an effective task for the assessment of skilled walking and motor learning strategies especially when combined with qualitative movement analysis in rodent models of stroke.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T18:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
       
  • Impact of parenting, reward, and prior achievement on task persistence
    • Authors: Kotaman
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Hüseyin Kotaman
      The purpose of this study was to test the impact of reward, prior achievement, parenting style, and parents’ educational and income levels on second graders’ task persistence in the face of a challenging task. The participants were 179 s graders enrolled in one of three public schools in the Şanlıurfa. Participants were randomly assigned to success, no-reward, and reward groups. On the pre- and posttest, participants’ task persistence was measured through engagement with an unsolvable labyrinth puzzle. Stepwise multiple regression was calculated to predict students’ task persistence based on students’ gender, mother and father education, income, parenting styles, pretest results and experimental grouping (success, no-reward, reward). Regression analyses pointed only to reward as a significant predictor of students’ task persistence. Students’ task persistence decreased on average 421 s when a reward was removed. Task persistence for the success and no-reward groups was significantly higher than for the reward group.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T18:18:03Z
       
  • Evaluating group activity schedules to promote social play in children
           with autism
    • Authors: Dana M. Gadaire; Katrina Bartell; Jamie Villacorta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Dana M. Gadaire, Katrina Bartell, Jamie Villacorta
      We evaluated the effects of group activity schedules on social engagement among children with autism spectrum disorders. Although activity schedules are often applied to dyads, we assigned children to small groups (e.g., 3–4 children) to increase the number of available play partners and potential social validity of the intervention. We also compared the effects of group activity schedules with a similar intervention consisting exclusively of therapist-delivered prompts. Results indicated that activity schedules applied to small groups increased social engagement for 5 out of 5 children. On average, children who were exposed to group activity schedules engaged in higher levels of social engagement than children exposed to therapist prompts alone.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:03:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.11.004
       
  • Effects of extended extinction and multiple extinction contexts on ABA
           renewal
    • Authors: Kirra A. Krisch; Siavash Bandarian-Balooch; David L. Neumann
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Kirra A. Krisch, Siavash Bandarian-Balooch, David L. Neumann
      The return of fear following exposure therapy suggests that extinction does not result in a permanent unlearning of the association between a conditional stimulus (CS) and an unconditional stimulus (US). One proposed mechanism of return of fear is ABA renewal in which a CS is paired with a US in context A, presented alone in context B, and followed by test trials in context A. The current study examined the effects of extended extinction and multiple extinction contexts on ABA renewal in 121 first year psychology students. Using a fear conditioning procedure, renewal of shock expectancy during test was observed when extinction was presented for 12 extinction trials in a single context. In addition, renewal was attenuated when extinction was extended to 36 extinction trials or conducted in multiple contexts with 12 extinction trials. Combining extended extinction with multiple contexts resulted in the greatest attenuation of renewal. The results suggest that prolonged exposure treatment in multiple contexts may enhance the cross-contextual generalizability of extinction learning and reduce the likelihood of renewal of fear.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T21:32:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 63 (2017)
       
  • Relapse of conditioned taste aversion in rats exposed to constant and
           graded extinction treatments
    • Authors: Sadahiko Nakajima; Takaya Ogai; Ayano Sasaki
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Sadahiko Nakajima, Takaya Ogai, Ayano Sasaki
      In a generalized bait-shyness preparation of rats, the graded extinction procedure was not effective in preventing the relapse of conditioned aversion to a target taste. The present study is a replication of this finding in a conventional taste aversion preparation using a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and an injection of poisonous lithium chloride (LiCl) as the unconditioned stimulus (US). After aversive conditioning of salty taste by a CS-US pairing, its extinction was administered by two different experimental procedures. The rats in the constant extinction group were repeatedly exposed to the target CS (NaCl solution). For the rats in the graded extinction group, the concentration of NaCl was gradually increased from a low level to the original one, and an additional interfering sweet taste was gradually faded out. The rats in the graded extinction group were equally or more prone to relapse than those in the constant extinction group. This result was observed by the second reacquisition treatment (Experiment 1), spontaneous recovery after a 30-day interval (Experiment 2), and renewal upon return to the acquisition context (Experiment 3). These results extended the generality of our previous finding, and its theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T21:32:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 63 (2017)
       
  • Pre-exposure and retrieval effects on generalization of contextual fear
    • Authors: Dieuwke Sevenster; Lucas de Oliveira Alvares; Rudi D’Hooge
      Pages: 20 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Dieuwke Sevenster, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares, Rudi D’Hooge
      The degree of generalization from a fearful context to other contexts is determined by precision of the original fear memory. Experiences before and after fear learning affect memory precision. Pre-exposure to a similar context before context conditioning results in increased generalization to the similar context. In contrast, exposure to the conditioning context after fear learning reduces fear generalization. In the current study we aimed to investigate whether the events before and after fear learning interact. We hypothesized that pre-exposure-induced enhanced generalization could be reduced by a return to the conditioning context. We found that, in contrast to previous findings, pre-exposure did not affect generalization. However, a reminder of the conditioning context reduced generalization to both a similar and a different context. The results stress the dynamic nature of emotional memory.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T01:38:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 63 (2017)
       
  • Retention intervals enhance associative competition produced by a
           preexposed CS
    • Authors: Diana Klakotskaia; Rachel A. Richardson; Paige N. Michener; Todd R. Schachtman
      Pages: 27 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Diana Klakotskaia, Rachel A. Richardson, Paige N. Michener, Todd R. Schachtman
      Earlier studies have shown that a latent inhibitor is poor at competing for learning with another conditioned stimulus on a compound conditioning trial. Previous research also has shown that the poor conditioned response produced to a latent inhibitor can be reversed by a retention interval placed after conditioning and prior to testing the conditioned response. In the present conditioned taste aversion experiments, a CS flavor (“A”) was given CS-alone preexposures prior to a pairing of the CS with the US. A serial compound conditioning phase then occurred in which this CS was able to compete with an added novel CS (“B”) when the two CSs were paired with the US. However, prior to the compound conditioning phase, a retention interval occurred lasting either one day or many days (15days in one experiment and 21days in another experiment). It was found that the lengthy retention interval enhanced the competitive potential of the pretrained CS. These results show that treatments that enhance the expression of a CS-US association can also enhance the competitive ability of the CS.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T01:38:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 63 (2017)
       
  • Duration of wheel-running reinforcement: Effects on reinforcement value
           and motivation in free-feeding and food-deprived rats
    • Authors: Terry W. Belke; W. David Pierce; Ian E.A. Cathcart
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 60
      Author(s): Terry W. Belke, W. David Pierce, Ian E.A. Cathcart
      Ten (pair housed) female Long-Evans rats were exposed to 5s, 30s, and 90s wheel-running reinforcement durations on a response-initiated variable interval 20s schedule as food deprivation was manipulated. On free feeding, never-deprived rats showed low wheel running and lever-pressing rates with long postreinforcement pauses (PRPs) for the 5-s reinforcement duration. Subsequently, when food deprived (Deprived 1), rats showed no effect of reinforcement duration on all measures. Under a second deprived condition (Deprived 2) with the rats maintained in single cages, there was no effect of housing (single vs. paired). When data from both deprivation assessments (Deprived 1 and Deprived 2) were combined, rats showed lower wheel running and overall lever-pressing rates with longer pauses on the 90-s duration compared to 30s and 5s bouts of wheel activity. The pattern of results challenges a reinforcement value interpretation, but is consistent with shifts in the motivational basis of wheel running. On free feeding, never-deprived rats were intrinsically motivated to run on wheels and operant lever-pressing was maintained at moderate rates by the automatic reinforcement of wheel running, except at the short reinforcement duration (5s). When food deprived, motivation became food-related and rats showed high rates of lever pressing even at the shortest duration. The weak effects under initial deprivation (Deprived 1) raise questions about equivalence between wheel-running reinforcement duration and reinforcement magnitude using food reinforcement.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T20:26:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
       
  • Examinations of CS and US preexposure and postexposure in conditioned
           taste aversion: Applications in behavioral interventions for chemotherapy
           anticipatory nausea and vomiting
    • Authors: Ying-Chou Wang; Hsin-Yeh Lee; Alan Bo-Han He; Andrew Chih Wei Huang
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 59
      Author(s): Ying-Chou Wang, Hsin-Yeh Lee, Alan Bo-Han He, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
      Examining CS or US preexposure and postexposure to dissociate conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) conditioned learning and apply these findings to alleviate anticipatory nausea and vomiting are crucial for cancer chemotherapy patients. The present study utilized a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm in rats to develop a new behavioral intervention. Experiment 1 evaluated Control, Conditioning, CS preexposure, and CS postexposure groups. Experiment 2 evaluated Control, Conditioning, US preexposure, and US postexposure groups. After conditioning in both experiments, rats were given the CS alone without the US once per day over three trials, and their conditioned taste aversion was measured. The results showed that both CS preexposure and US preexposure interfered with subsequent CS-US conditioning, indicating that both induced proactive interference. Although CS postexposure interfered with prior CS-US conditioning, which indicated extinction, US postexposure did not alter CS-US conditioning. The findings should be considered for the development of new nonpharmacological clinical interventions for cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anticipatory nausea and vomiting.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T19:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • Decaffeinated coffee induces a faster conditioned reaction time even when
           participants know that the drink does not contain caffeine
    • Authors: Mina Fukuda; Kenjiro Aoyama
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 59
      Author(s): Mina Fukuda, Kenjiro Aoyama
      We conducted two experiments based on the hypothesis that the taste, smell, and sight of (decaffeinated) coffee and internal senses of ingestion (caffeine-associated stimuli) would induce a conditioned response even when participants were informed that the drink was decaffeinated coffee. The caffeine-associated stimuli were supposed to be associated with caffeine because the participants drank coffee regularly. In experiment 1, forty-four coffee drinkers received decaffeinated coffee or water and completed a simple reaction time task. Reaction time was faster in the decaffeinated group than in the water group. In experiment 2, we examined whether the effect of decaffeinated coffee was extinguished by the repeated intake of decaffeinated coffee (conditioned stimulus). Forty-four coffee drinkers received decaffeinated coffee or water five times. Then, the participants drank decaffeinated coffee and completed a reaction time task. The effect of decaffeinated coffee was weakened in the test session by the extinction procedure: the repeated intake of decaffeinated coffee. In conclusion, both experiments supported the hypothesis that caffeine-associated stimuli induced a conditioned response in people who drank coffee regularly. Therefore, in everyday life, decaffeinated coffee may improve performance in coffee drinkers.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T03:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • Overt verbalization of strategies to attend to and retain learning about
           the threat conditioned stimulus reduces US expectancy generalization
           during extinction
    • Authors: Jordan Howley; Allison M. Waters
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 59
      Author(s): Jordan Howley, Allison M. Waters
      Exposure-based treatments, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), are leading psychological treatments for anxiety disorders. However, non-response and relapse are common. Extinction principles underlie exposure-based treatments and emphasise that anxiety declines with repeated exposure to the threat conditional stimulus (CS+) in the absence of the aversive unconditional stimulus (US). Attention allocation towards threat stimuli enhances extinction learning and CBT outcomes. Overt verbalization promotes self-regulated learning by enhancing attention to important stimulus features, encoding and retention. This study examined whether overt verbalization of strategies to attend to and retain learning about the threat conditioned stimulus during extinction enhanced fear reduction and retention. A discriminative Pavlovian conditioning and extinction procedure was used. During acquisition, one geometric shape (CS+) was paired with an unpleasant tone (US), and another (CS-) was always presented alone. During extinction, both CSs were presented alone. Prior to extinction, the Verbalization group was instructed to verbalize strategies to enhance attention to (i.e., “look and learn”) and the retention of learning about (i.e., “lock it in”) the threat conditioned stimulus. The Control group completed ‘extinction-as-usual’ without verbalization strategies. Compared with the control group, overt verbalization (a) prevented generalization of US expectancies to the CS- during initial extinction trials, (b) produced more stable extinction of US expectancies during later extinction trials, and (c) yielded significant declines in self-reported anxiety from immediate to delayed post-extinction assessments. There were no verbalization effects on CS evaluations. Verbalization of attention-learning strategies produced less US expectancy generalization when stimulus relationships were initially uncertain, more stable extinction effects when sustained attention was required and greater anxiety reductions. Verbalization may be a simple, cost-effective way to enhance learning during exposure-based interventions and warrants further research with clinical samples.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T03:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • Conditioned inhibition in the spatial domain in humans and rats
    • Authors: Edward S. Redhead; Wai Chan
      Pages: 27 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 59
      Author(s): Edward S. Redhead, Wai Chan
      Spatial learning has been shown to follow associative rules by demonstrations of blocking and overshadowing in both watermazes with rats and virtual watermazes with humans. To examine whether Conditioned Inhibition (CI) can also be demonstrated in a real and virtual watermaze task, two studies were run, one with rats and one with humans. In separate training trials, Beacons A and B marked the position of a platform in quadrant X of circular watermaze (AX+/BX+). In subsequent inhibitory training trials, Beacon A was placed in quadrant Y with no platform present (AY−). To test for any CI of Y, in two probe trials B was suspended above either quadrant Y (BY) or novel quadrant Z (BZ). Time spent under B was recorded in both trials. In both animal and human studies, during no platform probe trials, latencies to reach Beacon B were longer and less time was spent under the beacon when it was suspended in quadrant Y, where inhibitory training had previously taken place (AY− trials), than when it was hung in the novel quadrant Z. Results suggest that quadrant Y had become a conditioned inhibitor strengthening claims that learning in the spatial domain follows the rules of associative models.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T19:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • Social inequality aversion in mice: Analysis with stress-induced
           hyperthermia and behavioral preference
    • Authors: Shigeru Watanabe
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 59
      Author(s): Shigeru Watanabe
      Humans have a sense of fairness and consequently are averse to inequality conditions. Recently, animal researchers suggested that some non-human animals also have inequality aversion. The author used stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) to examine inequality aversion in mice. Experiment 1 measured the change in body surface temperature of mice under the condition of equality or inequality of food delivery. The results demonstrated that mice exhibited a large increment in body surface temperature when given a small piece of cheese and a cage mate was given a large piece. There was no increment in body temperature in equality conditions in which both the subject and the cage mate were given the same amount of cheese. The increase in body temperature was considered stress-induced hyperthermia caused by social inequality aversion. This is the first demonstration of inequality aversion of food delivery in mice. Simultaneous presentation of a large piece of cheese and a cage mate resulted in SIH in observer mice that were given a small piece of cheese, even though the cage mate was separated from the cheese by a partition to prevent it from eating the cheese. In Experiment 2, behavioral effects of inequality were examined in a chamber with two compartments. Mice could observe a cage mate in an adjacent compartment. They preferred a compartment with a cheese-eating cage mate to a compartment with cheese alone or cage mate alone. This result suggests inequality preference rather than inequality aversion. Thus, the results of Experiments 1 and 2 were contradictory. In a subsequent Experiment 3, both behavioral preference and body surface temperature were measured simultaneously. Mice stayed longer in the inequality condition compartment (cheese-eating cage mate), although inequality caused SIH. Supporting the results of both Experiments 1 and 2. Thus, social inequality induced stress (aversive property) but it also induced approaching behavior that might be maintained by the informative value of a food-eating cage mate.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T19:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • Reinforcement of a reinforcing behavior: Effect of sucrose concentration
           on wheel-running rate
    • Authors: Terry W. Belke; W. David Pierce; Alexandra C. Fisher; Mandy R. LeCocq
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 59
      Author(s): Terry W. Belke, W. David Pierce, Alexandra C. Fisher, Mandy R. LeCocq
      Wheel running, unlike typical operant behavior, generates its own automatic reinforcement that alters the control exerted by extrinsic reinforcement on wheel running. The current study investigated the implications of the automatic reinforcement of wheel running by arranging different sucrose concentrations as extrinsic reinforcement for operant wheel running in ad-lib fed and food-deprived rats. Eleven female Long Evans rats ran on fixed revolution 30 schedules that delivered a drop of sucrose solution as reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across values of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% sucrose (w/v). Results showed that under ad-lib feeding, only the highest concentrations increased operant wheel-running rate. By contrast, under deprivation, all concentrations of sucrose increased the rate of wheel running. Despite the differences in sucrose-reinforced operant wheel-running rates by deprivation level (ad lib vs. deprived), wheel-running rates did not differ at the highest concentrations. Prior research on operant lever pressing, a response generating low (or no) automatic reinforcement, has shown considerably higher lever-pressing rates as a function of increasing amounts of sucrose reinforcement when rats are food deprived. Together, these previous observations and the current study suggest that automatic reinforcement generated by an operant decreases the control exerted by extrinsic reinforcement. Additionally, the regulation by extrinsic reinforcement on automatically reinforcing behavior depends on the organism’s motivation or deprivation level (ad lib vs. deprived).

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T19:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • Derived insensitivity: Rule-based insensitivity to contingencies
           propagates through equivalence
    • Authors: Jean- Louis Monestès; W. James Greville; Nic Hooper
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 59
      Author(s): Jean- Louis Monestès, W. James Greville, Nic Hooper
      Rule-governed behaviours enable rapid acquisition of appropriate and often complex behaviour in novel contexts; however, this capacity can also make individuals insensitive to environmental contingencies. This problem may be exacerbated if rules propagate from one context to another through derived relational responding. Here we assessed whether insensitivity due to rule-following would transfer to stimuli that were never directly associated with that rule, by means of combinatorial entailment. Multiple reinforcement schedules (1A=VR8; 2A=DRL8) were initially presented to two groups, one receiving rules on how to behave to earn as many points as possible, the other not receiving any rule. The participants then completed a matching-to-sample task in which equivalence classes were trained in a one-to-many format (1A⟵1B→1C; 2A⟵12B→2C). Finally, the derived stimuli (1C and 2C) were presented in a second multiple-schedule task, where the associated schedules were reversed (1C=DRL8; 2C=VR8), without informing the participants. Results demonstrated that insensitivity transferred to the stimuli set in equivalence for the participants who received rules, while participants who did not receive any rule adapted quicker to the contingencies changes. Results are discussed in relation to behavioural variability and psychological inflexibility that contributes to the development and maintenance of psychological issues.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T19:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
       
  • The differential effects of incidental anger and sadness on goal
           regulation
    • Authors: SinHui Chong; Guihyun Park
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 58
      Author(s): SinHui Chong, Guihyun Park
      Individuals commonly enter a task domain with pre-existing emotions. These pre-existing emotions, known as incidental emotions, can potentially shape subsequent goal-setting behaviors without individuals’ awareness, and in unique ways based on the characteristics associated with each emotion. Existing literature, however, does little to inform us about the specific effects of these emotions on goal-setting behaviors. In this paper, we draw on the theory of self-regulation of action and affect to argue that incidental anger and sadness originating from an ostensibly unrelated domain will have distinct effects on individuals’ goal-setting behaviors on a task. The theory suggests that anger is associated with approach behavioral tendencies while sadness is associated with deactivation behavioral tendencies. Hence, we hypothesize that individuals who are experiencing anger from an unrelated source will experience higher self-efficacy and in turn set higher goals after receiving task feedback as compared to individuals who are experiencing sadness. Results from a field study and an experimental study, both with undergraduate samples, supported our hypotheses. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T10:25:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
       
  • Nonlinear assessment of motor variability during practice and competition
           for individuals with different motivational orientations
    • Authors: Breanna E. Studenka; Travis E. Dorsch; Natalie L. Ferguson; Cameron S. Olsen; Richard D. Gordin
      Pages: 16 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 58
      Author(s): Breanna E. Studenka, Travis E. Dorsch, Natalie L. Ferguson, Cameron S. Olsen, Richard D. Gordin
      The aim of the present study was to document how differing motivational orientation profiles, situated within environmental constraints (i.e., a competitive and practice environments) influence the nonlinear variability of performance and subsequent retention of a visual motor tracking skill. Myriad research associates atypical nonlinear aspects of motor variability with pathology; however, few empirical efforts have explored the influence of individual differences and environmental factors on nonlinear aspects of motor output and skill retention. Participants performed an isometric force-tracking task, matching the force indicated by a target line displayed across a computer screen. Dependent variables were performance outcome (root mean squared error) and the complexity of the produced signal (Sample Entropy) across practice, competition, and retention. Participants with high task orientation, regardless of high or low levels of ego orientation, exhibited the greatest visual motor tracking improvement as well as the greatest increases in irregularity of force variability from practice to competition and retention. We conclude that individual differences play a key role in the structure of continuous behavior, and that this structure influences the learning of continuous motor skills.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T07:54:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
       
  • Sequential organization of movement kinematics is associated with spatial
           orientation across scales and species
    • Authors: Douglas G. Wallace
      Pages: 27 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 58
      Author(s): Douglas G. Wallace
      A large part of an animals’ behavioral repertoire involves non-conditioned or spontaneously occurring behaviors (e.g., exploration, food hoarding, food protection, food handling). These behaviors are highly organized sequences of movement. In general, these movement sequences alternate between periods of fast linear speeds with little change in heading and periods of slow linear speeds with larger change in heading. This sequential organization or movement segmentation can be quantified as the correlation between linear and angular speeds. This review examines evidence that the strength of movement segmentation is related to direction estimation independent of scale when humans or rats are restricted to using self-movement cues to guide navigation and may be a novel measure of spatial orientation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T08:54:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
       
  • Using video modeling with voiceover instruction plus feedback to train
           implementation of stimulus preference assessments
    • Authors: Casey L. Nottingham; Jason C. Vladescu; Antonia R. Giannakakos; Lauren K. Schnell
      Pages: 37 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 58
      Author(s): Casey L. Nottingham, Jason C. Vladescu, Antonia R. Giannakakos, Lauren K. Schnell
      Behavior analysts frequently use stimulus preference assessments to identify putative reinforcers for consumers with autism spectrum disorder. The current study evaluated the effect of video modeling with voiceover instruction and on-screen text (VMVOT) and performance feedback to train staff to implement the multiple-stimulus-without-replacement, paired-stimulus, and single-stimulus preference assessments. Generalization probes with a larger stimulus array and with an actual consumer were conducted. The results indicated that VMVOT may be a useful prelude to in-vivo training approaches, as all staff mastered the preference assessments and demonstrated high levels of generalized responding. This outcome is discussed in light of previous staff training studies and avenues for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T09:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
       
  • An animal model of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
    • Authors: Clare J. Liddon; Michael E. Kelley; Christopher A. Podlesnik
      Pages: 48 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 58
      Author(s): Clare J. Liddon, Michael E. Kelley, Christopher A. Podlesnik
      Basic and translational research provides the opportunity to evaluate variables that may be difficult to examine thoroughly with clinical populations. For example, practitioners report that problem behavior treated with differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is often prone to treatment relapse. We sought to assess resurgence in the context of an animal model of a clinical DRA treatment with pigeons. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that an animal model of a clinical DRA preparation produced a resurgence of a previously extinguished target response when extinguishing a more recently trained alternative response. In Experiment 2, we found that repeatedly reversing reinforcement and extinction contingencies between target and alternative responding tended to increase the likelihood of resurgence of target responding relative to no contingency reversals. The resurgence of target responding in both experiments is discussed in the context of developing novel animal models closely approximating applied conditions as a platform to assess manipulations relevant to designing better behavioral treatments for problem behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T10:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
       
  • An extinction cue reduces appetitive Pavlovian reinstatement in rats
    • Authors: Douglas C. Brooks; Devin A. Fava
      Pages: 59 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 58
      Author(s): Douglas C. Brooks, Devin A. Fava
      A Pavlovian appetitive conditioning preparation with rats was used to assess the effect of an extinction cue on reinstatement after extinction. Reinstatement provides an animal analog to relapses following treatment in humans; it occurs when a conditioned stimulus elicits strong conditioned responding following extinction and presentation of the unconditioned stimulus. An extinction cue is a stimulus presented during extinction of behavior controlled by the conditioned stimulus and is also presented later when the behavior would be expected to return/relapse following extinction (i.e., when reinstatement occurs). An extinction cue has been shown previously to reduce and prevent other instances of relapse analogs (spontaneous recovery and renewal). The authors tested whether an extinction cue would also reduce reinstatement, and included controls for reinstatement and for potential alternative accounts of an extinction cue’s effect on reinstatement. The extinction cue reduced reinstatement, but a cue not presented during extinction did not affect reinstatement, bearing on several alternative explanations of the reduction effect. The authors suggest the extinction cue reduces reinstatement by helping to retrieve a memory encoded during extinction, and that reinstatement is due at least in part to a failure to retrieve that extinction memory.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T10:23:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
       
  • Social context-switch effects on the reacquisition of appetitive responses
           in rats
    • Authors: Javier Nieto; Tere A. Mason; Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
      Pages: 66 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 58
      Author(s): Javier Nieto, Tere A. Mason, Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
      It is widely accepted that the presence of one animal can influence what another learns. The present experimental series explored the role of social context in the retrieval of extinguished instrumental responses. A new experimental task with rats to study operant responses in groups was used. During acquisition, all rats were trained to approach the spout of a bottle to drink a sweet solution. Then, rats underwent extinction. Finally, a reacquisition test was conducted. A slow reacquisition was found when the social context of extinction and test were the same. However, when rats were tested in a social context different from extinction (using the same rats from acquisition or new ones) rapid reacquisition was observed. The present data suggests a parallelism between social and physical contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:55:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
       
  • Effects of emotion and motivation on memory dissociate in the context of
           losses​
    • Authors: Holly J. Bowen; Julia Spaniol
      Pages: 77 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation, Volume 58
      Author(s): Holly J. Bowen, Julia Spaniol
      Both emotion and motivation exert influence over memory processes, but whether they do so via similar or different cognitive mechanisms is not yet fully understood. In the laboratory, the two types of affect are typically manipulated with different procedures, making it difficult to compare their effects on memory. In the current study, a modified monetary incentive delay task was used to induce anticipatory and outcome-related affective states. Participants either had partial control over outcomes (motivation condition) or had no control over outcomes (emotion condition). Reward-unrelated target stimuli were presented in the context of reward anticipation (gain or loss) and in the context of outcome feedback. Incidental memory for the targets was measured after a short delay. Gain and loss anticipation cues did not differentially affect memory performance, suggesting that anticipatory affect − whether emotional or motivational − has little effect on long-term memory. In contrast, outcome feedback did influence the mnemonic fate of target stimuli, but only in the case of loss feedback. Here, memory was better in the motivation condition than in the emotion condition. Overall, these findings suggest that the effects of emotion and motivation on memory dissociate in the wake of negative feedback. We propose that enhanced memory for the circumstances in which a loss is incurred – when the loss is controllable – may serve an adaptive function.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
       
  • Comparing illusion of control and superstitious behavior: Rate of
           responding influences judgment of control in a free-operant procedure
    • Authors: Marcelo Frota Lobato Benvenuti; Thais Ferro Nogara de Toledo; Reinaldo Augusto Gomes Simões; Lisiane Bizarro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Marcelo Frota Lobato Benvenuti, Thais Ferro Nogara de Toledo, Reinaldo Augusto Gomes Simões, Lisiane Bizarro
      The objective of this experiment was to study similarities between superstitious behavior and illusion of control. We used different motivational instructions to generate high and low rates of responding and exposed participants to noncontingent reinforcement in order to evaluate superstitious behavior and illusion of control. College students (n=40) responded over three 10-min sessions in a computer-based free operant procedure that alternated signaled periods of noncontingent presentation of points (VT schedule) and periods in which the points were not presented (extinction, EXT). In one group of participants, points were the only reward; for the other group, instructions stated that points were later exchangeable for photocopy vouchers. We compared rates of responding and estimates of control. Points exchangeable for photocopy vouchers produced higher rates of responding and estimates of control. Frequency of response and estimates of control were positively correlated. It was concluded that motivational instructions influenced both rate of responding and judgment of control. Even when a high rate of responding was extended in time (two more sessions for each participant), judgments of control were biased by noncontingent reinforcement. Through direct comparison between superstitious behavior and illusion of control, we showed that behavioral dynamics can be important in studies of illusion of control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T21:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.10.002
       
  • Examining the influence of CS duration and US density on cue-potentiated
           feeding through analyses of licking microstructure
    • Authors: Alexander W. Johnson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Alexander W. Johnson
      In the current study, groups of mice were trained with either short (20s) or long (120s) conditioned stimulus (CS) durations associated with different rates of sucrose unconditioned stimulus (US) delivery, to examine whether different behavioral forms of cue-potentiated feeding in sated mice would be evoked. In training mice received presentations of an auditory CS for 20s during which a sucrose US was delivered at a density of 1/9s (Group-20-s). A second group of mice received an auditory CS for 120s and a US density of 1/49s (Group-120-s). During training, a shorter CS duration and higher rate of US delivery resulted in greater acquisition of food cup responding, and during the test stage Group-20-s mice also displayed higher CS evoked lick rates, though all mice showed cue-potentiated feeding. An analysis of licking microstructure revealed that Group-120-s mice displayed CS evoked licking behavior that reflected an increase in the perceived palatability of the sucrose US. These findings are discussed with respect to the influence of CS duration and US density on associatively activated sensory and affective representations of a US, and contrast mediated effects resulting from presentation of excitatory and inhibitory conditioned stimuli.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T11:25:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2017.06.012
       
  • Geometric vs. non-geometric information. Explaining male rats’ selective
           preferences in a navigation task
    • Authors: Virginia Mesa; Alba Osorio; Sandra Ballesta; Josep M. Marimon; V.D. Chamizo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Virginia Mesa, Alba Osorio, Sandra Ballesta, Josep M. Marimon, V.D. Chamizo
      In three experiments, male rats were trained to find a hidden platform in a Morris pool which was completely surrounded by circular curtains (black in Experiments 1 and 2, and beige in Experiment 3). Experiment 1, a preliminary experiment, addressed single landmark learning and established that a plain shiny white cylinder and a striped cylinder were of different salience. Then in Experiments 2 and 3 rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool with the platform defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool (either the white or the striped cylinder) and a particular corner of the pool (as in Rodríguez, Torres, Mackintosh, & Chamizo, 2010, Experiment 2). Following acquisition, a test trial without the platform pitted these two sources of information against one another. In Experiment 2, rats spent more time in the area of the pool that corresponded to the cylinder when it was white, whereas they spent more time in the distinctive corner of the pool when the cylinder was striped. However, in Experiment 3 (with beige curtains in order to reduce the salience of the white cylinder) all rats spent more time in the distinctive corner of the pool. Subsequent tests with the two cues (landmark and pool-geometry) presented individually showed that all rats in the two experiments had learned to find the platform using the two sources of information. In addition, a clear geometry advantage was found in both groups of rats tested in Experiment 3. This study shows for the first time that changing the salience of a landmark can strongly affect the preference for a geometric cue over a landmark cue in male rats.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T10:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.09.001
       
  • Working memory decline in normal aging: Memory load and representational
           demands affect performance
    • Authors: Giuliana Klencklen; Pamela Banta Lavenex; Catherine Brandner; Pierre Lavenex
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Giuliana Klencklen, Pamela Banta Lavenex, Catherine Brandner, Pierre Lavenex
      Normal aging is associated with numerous changes in cognitive capacities, including an overall decline in working memory performance. Nevertheless, whereas some neuropsychological evaluations have suggested that visuo-spatial working memory may exhibit a greater age-related decline than verbal working memory, other assessments made in real-world tasks, or in tasks with higher memory loads, have suggested that age-related declines in working memory performance may be similar for spatial, visual and verbal information. Here, we tested young (20–30 years) and older (64–73 years) healthy adults in real-world laboratory memory tasks designed to assess the impact of memory load (one, two or three items to remember) on age-related changes in working memory performance for color and allocentric spatial information. We used several measures to characterize working memory performance: the total number of choices to find the goal(s), a measure of overall task performance; the number of correct choices before erring, an estimate of memory capacity; and the number of errorless trials, a measure of perfect memory. All measures revealed: (1) an overall decline of working memory performance with age; (2) a greater age-related decline of working memory performance with higher memory loads, regardless of the type of information; (3) no evidence that spatial working memory was more affected by age than color working memory. We discuss how age-related declines in working memory performance may be most influenced by memory load, the representational demands of the task and its dependence on hippocampal function, and not by the type of information to be remembered.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T10:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.09.002
       
  • Differential reinforcement of low rate responding in social skills
           training
    • Authors: Dana M. Gadaire; Genevieve Marshall; Elanor Brissett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Dana M. Gadaire, Genevieve Marshall, Elanor Brissett
      Social skills are unique in that excessive rates of responding may be just as socially undesirable as deficient responding. Furthermore, most social skills training programs utilize group formats such that one intervention (e.g., differential reinforcement) is applied universally to children with varied behavioral repertoires. Following exposure to continuous schedules of reinforcement for pro-social behaviors, we observed excessive levels of peer-directed compliments and physical contact. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of a full-session differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL) schedule in maintaining socially appropriate levels of these interactions. We used descriptive observations of typically developing children to establish normative criteria for the DRL schedules. Results indicated full-session DRL schedules were effective in maintaining participants’ responding at levels below criterion levels without wholly eliminating responding.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T03:43:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.08.005
       
  • Ethological approaches to studying psychological phenomena
    • Authors: Douglas G. Wallace
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Douglas G. Wallace


      PubDate: 2017-09-02T19:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.07.004
       
  • Reprint of “Sequential organization of movement kinematics is associated
           with spatial orientation across scales and species”
    • Authors: Douglas G. Wallace
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Douglas G. Wallace
      A large part of an animals’ behavioral repertoire involves non-conditioned or spontaneously occurring behaviors (e.g., exploration, food hoarding, food protection, food handling). These behaviors are highly organized sequences of movement. In general, these movement sequences alternate between periods of fast linear speeds with little change in heading and periods of slow linear speeds with larger change in heading. This sequential organization or movement segmentation can be quantified as the correlation between linear and angular speeds. This review examines evidence that the strength of movement segmentation is related to direction estimation independent of scale when humans or rats are restricted to using self-movement cues to guide navigation and may be a novel measure of spatial orientation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T03:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.07.003
       
  • The generalization of conditioned startle responses from known to unknown
           lies
    • Authors: Verena Zimmermann; Jasmin Wittmann; Daniela Sparrer; Andreas Mühlberger; Youssef Shiban
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Verena Zimmermann, Jasmin Wittmann, Daniela Sparrer, Andreas Mühlberger, Youssef Shiban
      Throughout history, there has always been a need to find out whether people are telling the truth. Classical deception detection methods, such as polygraph-based techniques, have so far failed to accurately and reliably detect deception, as they are limited in various aspects. Therefore, results are susceptible to manipulation. In the current study, we attempt to improve lie detection using a classical conditioning procedure with startle response as an outcome variable. Thirty-six participants were asked to report true and false sentences (10 each) before the test procedure. We knew the truth value of only 50% of the sentences (the value of the other 50% was revealed after the experiment was over). Aversive conditioning was used, i.e. participants were presented with the unconditioned stimulus (air blast of 5bar, 50ms; contingency of 75%) when uttering known lies. There was a significant difference in participants’ startle reaction to false statements compared to truths, both in the known lies category and, more importantly, in the unknown lies category. We recommend further investigation of this phenomenon by changing the conditioning parameters (duration, contingency) in order to optimize this promising method and achieve a higher level of accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.05.002
       
  • String-pulling for food by the rat: Assessment of movement, topography and
           kinematics of a bilaterally skilled forelimb act
    • Authors: Ashley A. Blackwell; Jenny R. Köppen; Ian Q. Whishaw; Douglas G. Wallace
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Ashley A. Blackwell, Jenny R. Köppen, Ian Q. Whishaw, Douglas G. Wallace
      A variety of behavioral tests have been developed to assess skilled forelimb function in the rat, including tests that assess use of a single limb in reaching for food and placing it in the mouth for eating. The present study describes bilateral hand use in string-pulling to obtain a food reward. The movement consists of alternating forelimb movements in which a limb is advanced to grasp a string and withdraw it toward the body in order to retrieve a food reward. The movements of aim, advance, grasp, pull and push are associated with hand shape changes including collect, overgrasp, grasp and release. The topography and kinematics of limb and hand movement are assessed by digitizing methods that derive trajectory, distance, and velocity measures. The task is acquired by a rat within a few days of training, features few missed grasps, shows improvements with practice, and yields dozens of independent reaches by each hand in a single test session. The present analysis provides simple methods for describing each independent forelimb and hand movement and its topographic and kinematic properties. The similarities between string-pulling and other rat forelimb movements are discussed in relation to the idea that rat forelimb movements are conserved in tasks such as string-pulling, walking, reaching for food and grid walking. The task is also discussed with respect to its potential to investigate neural and cognitive bases of fine motor control.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T10:10:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.03.010
       
  • Assessing preference for and reinforcing efficacy of components of social
           interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Casey J. Clay; Andrew L. Samaha; Bistra K. Bogoev
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Casey J. Clay, Andrew L. Samaha, Bistra K. Bogoev
      We evaluated the degree to which social interactions are reinforcing for two individuals with autism spectrum disorder by comparing individual components (i.e., edible, vocal, and physical interaction) alone and in combination. First, we conducted preference assessments to determine preference hierarchies within three stimulus classes: edible, vocal, and physical interaction. Second, we evaluated preference for individual stimuli across these classes. Third, we examined the relative reinforcing efficacy of highly preferred stimuli assessed individually. Fourth, with individuals for whom physical and vocal stimuli served as reinforcers, we evaluated if adding the other component, physical or vocal, increased the effectiveness of that consequence as a reinforcer. Results suggested differences in the relative reinforcing efficacy of components of social interaction. Additionally, combining components to form compound stimuli produced idiosyncratic differences in relative rates of responding.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.03.008
       
  • Introduction to the special issue on applied behavior analysis
    • Authors: Brian D. Greer; Tiffany Kodak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Brian D. Greer, Tiffany Kodak


      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.03.005
       
  • Behavioral and neural subsystems of rodent exploration
    • Authors: Shannon M. Thompson; Laura E. Berkowitz; Benjamin J. Clark
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Shannon M. Thompson, Laura E. Berkowitz, Benjamin J. Clark
      Animals occupy territories in which resources such as food and shelter are often distributed unevenly. While studies of exploratory behavior have typically involved the laboratory rodent as an experimental subject, questions regarding what constitutes exploration have dominated. A recent line of research has utilized a descriptive approach to the study of rodent exploration, which has revealed that this behavior is organized into movement subsystems that can be readily quantified. The movements include home base behavior, which serves as a central point of attraction from which rats and mice organize exploratory trips into the remaining environment. In this review, we describe some of the features of this organized behavior pattern as well as its modulation by sensory cues and previous experience. We conclude the review by summarizing research investigating the neurobiological bases of exploration, which we hope will stimulate renewed interest and research on the neural systems mediating these behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.03.009
       
  • Social order: Using the sequential structure of social interaction to
           discriminate abnormal social behavior in the rat
    • Authors: Tia N. Donaldson; Daniel Barto; Clark W. Bird; Christy M. Magcalas; Carlos I. Rodriguez; Brandi C. Fink; Derek A. Hamilton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Tia N. Donaldson, Daniel Barto, Clark W. Bird, Christy M. Magcalas, Carlos I. Rodriguez, Brandi C. Fink, Derek A. Hamilton
      Social interactions form the basis of a broad range of functions related to survival and mating. The complexity of social behaviors and the flexibility required for normal social interactions make social behavior particularly susceptible to disruption. The consequences of developmental insults in the social domain and the associated neurobiological factors are commonly studied in rodents. Though methods for investigating social interactions in the laboratory are diverse, animals are typically placed together in an apparatus for a brief period (under 30min) and allowed to interact freely while behavior is recorded for subsequent analysis. A standard approach to the analysis of social behavior involves quantification of the frequency and duration of individual social behaviors. This approach provides information about the allocation of time to particular behaviors within a session, which is typically sufficient for detection of robust alterations in behavior. Virtually all social species, however, display complex sequences of social behavior that are not captured in the quantification of individual behaviors. Sequences of behavior may provide more sensitive indicators of disruptions in social behavior. Sophisticated analysis systems for quantification of behavior sequences have been available for many years; however, the required training and time to complete these analyses represent significant barriers to high-throughput assessments. We present a simple approach to the quantification of behavioral sequences that requires minimal additional analytical steps after individual behaviors are coded. We implement this approach to identify altered social behavior in rats exposed to alcohol during prenatal development, and show that the frequency of several pairwise sequences of behavior discriminate controls from ethanol-exposed rats when the frequency of individual behaviors involved in those sequences does not. Thus, the approach described here may be useful in detecting subtle deficits in the social domain and identifying neural circuits involved in the organization of social behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T07:54:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.03.003
       
  • Increasing sharing in children with autism spectrum disorder using
           automated discriminative stimuli
    • Authors: Ami J. Kaminski; Wayne W. Fisher; Brian D. Greer; Jessica S. Akers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Ami J. Kaminski, Wayne W. Fisher, Brian D. Greer, Jessica S. Akers
      Appropriate sharing of a high-preference item is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (Baron-Cohen et al., 1985). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether a multiple schedule of reinforcement could be used to promote appropriate turn-taking behavior. Participants included one dyad of siblings and one dyad of non-related peers who were identified as having poorly developed sharing skills. The first dyad included a 6-year-old diagnosed with autism and his typically developing sister. The other dyad included a 4-year-old and 5-year-old, both diagnosed with autism. During sessions, an auditory and visual stimulus in the form of a PowerPoint® presentation played in the background to signal each participant’s turn with a mutually preferred item. Following baseline, we used a progressive prompt delay to teach the participants to attend and appropriately respond to the stimuli presented in the PowerPoint® presentation. Findings suggest that an auditory and visual stimulus can be used to increase appropriate sharing.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T16:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.02.004
       
  • Defensive burying as an ethological approach to studying anxiety:
           Influence of juvenile methamphetamine on adult defensive burying behavior
           in rats
    • Authors: E.M. Anderson; M.L. McWaters; L.M. McFadden; L. Matuszewich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): E.M. Anderson, M.L. McWaters, L.M. McFadden, L. Matuszewich
      The defensive burying test is an ethological approach that has both pharmacological and physiological validity in studying rodent anxiety-like behaviors. The defensive burying test measures the naturally occurring behavior of displacing bedding toward a noxious stimulus. Exposure to psychostimulants can alter anxiety behaviors in children and adults, however few studies have investigated the long-term effects of chronic juvenile stimulant exposure on anxiety behaviors in adulthood. Therefore, the current experiment tested the effects of juvenile methamphetamine exposure on defensive burying behavior in adulthood. Juvenile (PD20-34) male and female rats were either given intraperitoneal injections of 2.0mg/kg methamphetamine or saline or were not handled, and then all groups were left undisturbed until adulthood. As adults, rats’ anxiety-like behavior was assessed after exposure to a single shock probe in a defensive burying paradigm. Adult male rats that were exposed to methamphetamine as juveniles showed a significant increase in the latency to begin burying following the shock, indicative of decreased behavioral reactivity towards the shock. However, there were no other differences between treatment groups. Interestingly, there were no sex differences in any measure. These findings suggest that early exposure to the stimulant drug methamphetamine has limited effects on defensive burying behaviors when measured in adulthood. Defensive burying is an important ethological approach to assess rodent anxiety and can increase our understanding of coping behaviors in rodents following stimulant drug exposure.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T16:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.02.001
       
  • Validation of a skills assessment to match interventions to teach motor
           imitation to children with autism
    • Authors: Amber L. Valentino; Linda A. LeBlanc; Kerry A. Conde
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Amber L. Valentino, Linda A. LeBlanc, Kerry A. Conde
      Motor imitation skills are usually targeted early in intervention with children with autism. Some children readily acquire motor imitation targets that involve objects (e.g., pushing a toy car) but do not acquire targets without objects (e.g., clapping hands). The disparity in acquisition could occur for various reasons, including differences in attending when an object is present as opposed to when no object is present. It also is possible that the delay in imitation that is required when no object is present could contribute to the discrepancy. The purpose of this study was to validate the use a brief assessment of delayed imitation and attending skills to predict the effectiveness of interventions specifically designed to address the identified deficits. The assessment showed one child with autism had deficits in attending, and an intervention that included a salient stimulus produced the quickest acquisition. The second participant’s assessment did not show any deficits in attending, but showed deficits in delayed imitation. For this participant, the intervention designed to address deficits in delayed imitation (i.e., a secondary prompter) was most successful in establishing motor imitation responses.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T16:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.02.005
       
  • Homeward bound: The capacity of the food hoarding task to assess complex
           cognitive processes
    • Authors: Shawn S. Winter; Philip A. Blankenship; Max L. Mehlman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Learning and Motivation
      Author(s): Shawn S. Winter, Philip A. Blankenship, Max L. Mehlman
      Food hoarding is an adaptive behavior that functions to reduce the risk of predation. Rats are central-place hoarders that remove food from its sources and store or consume it at a nest or refuge location. Food hoarding is a spontaneous behavior that experimenters have taken advantage of to assess various aspects of cognition. The food hoarding task involves an outward segment where the rat leaves a refuge to search for food, upon finding food they have to decide if it will be eaten at the source or hoarded to the refuge, and a homeward segment to return to the refuge. This task can be separated into two components, decision making and navigation, and the design of the task can be manipulated to assess either one of these components. The decision making component is influenced by a number of variables including anxiety, security of the food location, and temporal estimates of the time to eat compared to travel time. The navigation component can be designed to assess different navigation strategies. Because rats exhibit a hierarchy of spatial information processing, providing access to select subsets of spatial cues allows for assessment of different sources of spatial information that can provide insights into the ability of a rat to use specific navigation strategies. The most prominent use of the food hoarding task has been applied to the navigation component and has provided valuable insights into the neurobiology of spatial orientation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T16:51:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lmot.2017.01.003
       
 
 
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