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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3157 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 416, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 404, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 349, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 458, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Learning and Motivation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.341
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0023-9690 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9122
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • Concomitant abuse of methadone and methamphetamine could impair spatial
           learning and memory in male rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): Fatemeh Nouri, Mohammad Reza Afarinesh, Vahid Sheibani, Alireza Foroumadi, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Mostafa Mahmoudi, Ehsan Rohani Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) has been considered as an effective medication for opioid dependence. However there are reports of methamphetamine abuse among MMT patients due to greater desired effects and fewer side effects than either substance alone. Little research has been done on the effects of methamphetamine abuse on cognitive behaviors during MMT. In the current study, we investigated spatial learning and memory along with the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as important factors in neural plasticity under concomitant use of methadone and methamphetamine in male rats. The animals received administration of methadone (2.5 mg/Kg, SC, twice a day) and methamphetamine (0.5 mg/Kg, SC, once a day) concomitantly or either alone for 21 days. Three hours after each treatment, the rats were trained in eight-arm radial maze for 7 days, and their learning and working memory were evaluated. Moreover, western blotting was performed to evaluate hippocampal BDNF protein levels. The results showed that administration of methadone and methamphetamine concomitantly impaired spatial learning and memory more than methadone alone (P 
       
  • Investigating the effect of conditional vs hierarchical framing on
           motivation
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): Varsha Eswara Murthy, Matthieu Villatte, Louise McHugh Manipulating motivational factors is an effective method for increasing desired behavior and reducing problematic behavior, as well as for increasing satisfaction from desired but challenging actions. From the Relational Frame Theory (RFT) perspective, hierarchical networks of symbolic positive reinforcers are advantageous motivators as they provide intrinsic, overarching, and inexhaustible reinforcement to our actions, even when they cause some degree of distress. The current study aimed to investigate how motivation based on hierarchical versus conditional versus a mixed (hierarchical and conditional) framing impacts performance and psychological experiences in a distress tolerance task. Participants completed an anagram task, followed by the presentation of scripts relating to three separate framing conditions. Participants then proceeded to take part in an adapted PASAT-C to measure task persistence, followed by completion of self-report measures evaluating mood, self-efficacy, and experiences of task participation. A final anagram task was completed to evaluate the effect of framing condition on task performance and transfer of framing conditions across different tasks. Hierarchical and mixed groups outperformed the conditional group on measures of task performance and persistence. This effect was transferred to performance on the anagram task. Significantly increased self-efficacy, comfortableness, and willingness were observed for both the hierarchical and mixed conditions over the conditional group with the hierarchical group outperforming the mixed group. This study highlights the potential differing effects that framing tasks conditionally, hierarchically or both hierarchically and conditionally can have on motivation and task performance.
       
  • Stimulus comparison: Effects of the pre-exposure schedule and instructions
           for perceptual learning and attention
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): Rocío Angulo, Gumersinda Alonso, Leandro Luigi Di Stasi, Andrés Catena This study aimed to test the effects of the preexposure schedule and certain kinds of verbal instructions for pre-exposure in perceptual learning and attention to the distinctive features of the stimuli. For this, in two experiments adult human participants received concurrent or blocked pre-exposure to two stimuli, and were then required to judge them as same or different in a target identification task. During pre-exposure, participants could receive unspecific instructions to look only at the stimuli (Experiments 1 and 2), asking for “same/different” judgments (Experiments 1 and 2), or only for “different” or “same” judgments (Experiment 2), whilst the dwell time on the distinctive and common features of the stimuli was also recorded. Regardless of the instructions, Experiment 1 found a clear benefit of the concurrent schedule relative to the blocked schedule in the ability to differentiate the stimuli, accompanied by a preference to look at the distinctive features of the stimuli. In the concurrent preexposure condition, the instructions asking for same/different judgments boosted stimulus differentiation in general, along with an attentional shift, while a clear effect of instructions was not found for the blocked preexposure conditions. Experiment 2 further found that whilst such effects of the instructions for the concurrent schedule might appear when the participants were asked uniquely whether the stimuli were the same, these were stronger when the instructions asked explicitly whether the stimuli were different. According to these novel findings, the benefit of the concurrent preexposure schedule for human perceptual learning might arise from an attentional shift toward the distinctive elements; the instructions encouraging the search for stimulus differences are not needed for either stimulus differentiation or an attentional shift during concurrent preexposure, even though such instructions might enhance both effects. Several valuable implications of these findings for human and non-human perceptual learning are discussed.
       
  • The effect of visualization format and content complexity on acquisition
           of tactical actions in basketball
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): Ghazi Rekik, Aïmen Khacharem, Yosra Belkhir, Naila Bali, Mohamed Jarraya This study tried to identify how varied level of content complexity (low vs. medium vs. high) could affect learning outcomes, cognitive load investment, and attitudes when learning basketball tactical actions from different formats of visualization (dynamic vs. static) within physical education context. One hundred and fifty secondary school students (Mage = 15.31 years, SD = .64) took part in the experiment. They were quasi-randomly (i.e., matched for gender) assigned to the six experimental conditions and asked to rate their perceived cognitive load (i.e., mental effort invested and estimated difficulty), indicate their attitudes (i.e., attention, enjoyment, engagement and challenge) and perform the learning tests (i.e., game comprehension test and game performance test) immediately after the learning phase. Results showed that for low-complexity content, both formats of visualization have similar effects on cognitive load investment, and learning outcomes. However, for medium and high complexity contents, the dynamic format had a clear advantage over the static format in terms of cognitive load investment and learning outcomes. Moreover, it was found that whatever the level of content complexity, students exposed to the dynamic visualization reported more positive attitudes compared to those exposed to the static visualization. Considering the learning outcomes and the subjective experiences (i.e., cognitive load and attitudes), the results recommend the use of dynamic visualizations for learning basketball tactical actions whatever the level of content complexity.
       
  • The impact of socio-cultural differences on formation of intrinsic
           motivation: The case of local and foreign students
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 65Author(s): Julia Konstantinovna Kazakova, Elena Mikhailovna Shastina Currently, intrinsic motivation becomes a key focus in the classroom processes, including language learning. This paper examines the commonalities and differences in the formation of intrinsic motivation of local and foreign students based on their socio-cultural background. The sample consisted of 107 students of Foreign Languages Department in Kazan Federal University (56% Russians, 44% foreign). Thus, foreign students from Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan and Turkmenistan tend to experience mental and even physical discomfort, which strengthens their general belief in achieving their goal. Local students on the contrary feel at home thus they do not fall apart from the usual way of life and have to search for some inner inspiration. The article describes the psychological process in interaction with social and cultural environment and may serve as a tool for teachers to support developmental strategies. Findings aim to increase intercultural understanding between international students and foreign language teachers as well as to improve university policies that address students’ needs.
       
  • Comparing illusion of control and superstitious behavior: Rate of
           responding influences judgment of control in a free-operant procedure
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 64Author(s): Marcelo Frota Lobato Benvenuti, Thais Ferro Nogara de Toledo, Reinaldo Augusto Gomes Simões, Lisiane Bizarro The objective of this experiment was to study similarities between superstitious behavior and illusion of control. We used different motivational instructions to generate high and low rates of responding and exposed participants to noncontingent reinforcement in order to evaluate superstitious behavior and illusion of control. College students (n = 40) responded over three 10-min sessions in a computer-based free operant procedure that alternated signaled periods of noncontingent presentation of points (VT schedule) and periods in which the points were not presented (extinction, EXT). In one group of participants, points were the only reward; for the other group, instructions stated that points were later exchangeable for photocopy vouchers. We compared rates of responding and estimates of control. Points exchangeable for photocopy vouchers produced higher rates of responding and estimates of control. Frequency of response and estimates of control were positively correlated. It was concluded that motivational instructions influenced both rate of responding and judgment of control. Even when a high rate of responding was extended in time (two more sessions for each participant), judgments of control were biased by noncontingent reinforcement. Through direct comparison between superstitious behavior and illusion of control, we showed that behavioral dynamics can be important in studies of illusion of control.
       
  • Evaluating group activity schedules to promote social play in children
           with autism
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Learning and Motivation, Volume 64Author(s): Dana M. Gadaire, Katrina Bartell, Jamie Villacorta We evaluated the effects of group activity schedules on social engagement among children with autism spectrum disorders. Although activity schedules are often applied to dyads, we assigned children to small groups (e.g., 3–4 children) to increase the number of available play partners and potential social validity of the intervention. We also compared the effects of group activity schedules with a similar intervention consisting exclusively of therapist-delivered prompts. Results indicated that activity schedules applied to small groups increased social engagement for 5 out of 5 children. On average, children who were exposed to group activity schedules engaged in higher levels of social engagement than children exposed to therapist prompts alone.
       
  • A re-examination of responding on ratio and regulated-probability interval
           schedules
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): Omar D. Pérez, Michael R.F. Aitken, Amy L. Milton, Anthony Dickinson The higher response rates observed on ratio than on matched interval reward schedules has been attributed to the differential reinforcement of longer inter-response times (IRTs) on the interval contingency. Some data, however, seem to contradict this hypothesis, showing that the difference is still observed when the role of IRT reinforcement is neutralized by using a regulated-probability interval schedule (RPI). Given the mixed evidence for these predictions, we re-examined this hypothesis by training three groups of rats to lever press under ratio, interval and RPI schedules across two phases while matching reward rates within triads. At the end of the first phase, the master ratio and RPI groups responded at similar rates. In the second phase, an interval group yoked to the same master ratio group of the first phase responded at a lower rate than the RPI group. Post-hoc analysis showed comparable reward rates for master and yoked schedules. The experienced response-outcome rate correlations were likewise similar and approached zero as training progressed. We discuss these results in terms of a contemporary dual-system model of instrumental conditioning.
       
  • Instrumental lever pressing for wheel running is a bitonic function of
           wheel revolutions per reinforcement: Effects of constraint and automatic
           reinforcement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Learning and MotivationAuthor(s): W. David Pierce, Terry W. Belke, Allison F. Harris The current study investigated the relationship between wheel-running reinforcement and operant lever pressing when an opportunity to run is defined by the number of wheel revolutions rather than duration of wheel access. Twelve female Long-Evans rats responded on response-initiated variable interval 15-s schedules for the opportunity to run for 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, or 40 revolutions. Half the rats received an ascending order of revolutions/reinforcement; the other half, received a descending order. Results showed that wheel-running and lever-pressing rates were described by a bitonic relationship with revolutions/reinforcement, initially rising then falling, as revolutions/reinforcement increased. Long postreinforcement pause (PRP) durations occurred with few revolutions, short PRPs with an intermediate number, and long PRPs again with a high number of revolutions; thus, PRP showed an inverted U-shaped function. Rather than a reinforcement-magnitude interpretation, our findings suggest that number of revolutions/reinforcement (or duration of wheel access) be conceptualized as constraint on an automatically-reinforcing behavior (wheel running). Specifically, we propose that the automatic-reinforcement value of contingent wheel running varies with its rate of occurrence, which causes instrumental lever-pressing rates to vary with wheel-running rates. The current analysis of constraint and the automatic reinforcement of the contingent behavior is shown to further extend the response-deprivation hypothesis to wheel-running reinforcement.
       
 
 
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