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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 95, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 340, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Landscape and Urban Planning
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.124
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 28  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0169-2046
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Explaining subjective perceptions of public spaces as a function of the
           built environment: A massive data approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Tomás Rossetti, Hans Lobel, Víctor Rocco, Ricardo Hurtubia People’s perceptions of the built environment influence the way they use and navigate it. Understanding these perceptions may be useful to inform the design, management and planning process of public spaces. Recently, several studies have used data collected at a massive scale and machine learning methods to quantify these perceptions, showing promising results in terms of predictive performance. Nevertheless, most of these models can be of little help in understanding users’ perceptions due to the difficulty associated with identifying the importance of each attribute of landscapes. In this work, we propose a novel approach to quantify perceptions of landscapes through discrete choice models, using semantic segmentations of images of public spaces, generated through machine learning algorithms, as explanatory variables. The proposed models are estimated using the Place Pulse dataset, with over 1.2 million perceptual indicators, and are able to provide useful insights into how users perceive the built environment as a function of its features. The models obtained are used to infer perceptual variables in the city of Santiago, Chile, and show they have a significant correlation with socioeconomic indicators.
       
  • Measuring daily accessed street greenery: A human-scale approach for
           informing better urban planning practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Yu Ye, Daniel Richards, Yi Lu, Xiaoping Song, Yu Zhuang, Wei Zeng, Teng Zhong The public benefits of visible street greenery have been well recognised in a growing literature. Nevertheless, this issue was rare to be included into urban greenery and planning practices. As a response to this situation, we proposed an actionable approach for quantifying the daily exposure of urban residents to eye-level street greenery by integrating high resolution measurements on both greenery and accessibility. Google Street View (GSV) images in Singapore were collected and extracted through machine learning algorithms to achieve an accurate measurement on visible greenery. Street networks collected from Open Street Map (OSM) were analysed through spatial design network analysis (sDNA) to quantify the accessibility value of each street. The integration of street greenery and accessibility helps to measure greenery from a human-centred perspective, and it provides a decision-support tool for urban planners to highlight areas with prioritisation for planning interventions. Moreover, the performance between GSV-based street greenery and the urban green cover mapped by remote sensing was compared to justify the contribution of this new measurement. It suggested there was a mismatch between these two measurements, i.e., existing top-down viewpoint through satellites might not be equivalent to the benefits enjoyed by city residents. In short, this analytical approach contributes to a growing trend in integrating large, freely-available datasets with machine learning to inform planners, and it makes a step forward for urban planning practices through focusing on the human-scale measurement of accessed street greenery.
       
  • Mapping the socio-ecology of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP) extraction
           in the Brazilian Amazon: The case of açaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart) in
           Acre
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): E. Lopes, B. Soares-Filho, F. Souza, R. Rajão, F. Merry, S. Carvalho Ribeiro Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) contribute to the livelihoods of more than 6 million households in the Brazilian Amazon. Of the three most important NTFPs in the Brazilian Amazon – rubber, Brazil nut, and açaí – the latter is the least known, but the one with the most potential and fastest growing markets. Here we map the socioecology of açaí extractive systems in the Western Amazon state of Acre, Brazil. We interviewed 49 extractivists in settlements and in the emblematic Extractivist Reserve Chico Mendes (RCM) to model ecology (tree density, productivity) and production chain of açaí (prices, costs and net revenues) for an area of 164,000 km2. We estimate a potential annual production of 850 thousand tons for the entire Acre State, which could generate net revenues of US$ 71 million/yr. This is well above the average production of 136 thousand tonnes (over the last 25 years). Net revenues average US$ 57 ha−1.yr−1, with açaí contributing, on average, to 17% of the annual household income. In two case studies, we found a diversity of livelihoods comprising agriculture, NTFP collection, and livestock rearing that were grouped in two broad types of extractivist livelihoods: “old” and “new” settlers. Our results suggest that old settlers tend to focus on cattle ranching as their main economic activity, even inside extractive reserves (RESEX). The shift from extractivist activities to cattle ranching undermines the conservation role of this type of protected area. We conclude that without significant financial support in the forms of subsidies and other development programs NTFPs will continue to struggle against the economics of cattle ranching.
       
  • Diversity and influencing factors on spontaneous plant distribution in
           Beijing Olympic Forest Park
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Xiao-Peng Li, Shu-Xin Fan, Jun-Hong Guan, Fan Zhao, Li Dong With intensive management practices on highly cultivated urban vegetation resulting in the over-consumption of natural resources and urban green spaces losing ecological function, interest is growing in spontaneous plants. Our goal was to improve knowledge of the biodiversity and distribution patterns of spontaneous vegetation in urban parks, which may benefit sustainable and low-maintenance planting design in future green spaces. To disentangle these patterns, a field survey was carried out at both habitat (determined by position in the park) and microhabitat (determined by the planted plants) scales. A total of 102 spontaneous plant species were recorded, and most of them were herbaceous plants. The habitats located between road and building (R-B) and waterside (WS) showed maximum levels of diversity and evenness; the two microhabitats showing maximum levels of diversity and evenness were the waterside unplanted plot (WUP) and the flower bed (FB). Microhabitat affected spontaneous plants more significantly than did habitat. Furthermore, canopy density (CD) and intensity of disturbance (ID) were influencing factors at both scales, while community structure of planted plants (P-CS) was only influential at the habitat scale and slope gradient (SG) was influential at the microhabitat scale. Additionally, the impact of specific planted trees was not significant, but some associated species were notable. Species composition showed markedly different characteristics in different habitats and microhabitats. Understanding these patterns and influencing factors could provide helpful references for any future construction of sustainable urban vegetation with low-maintenance, high-biodiversity and local character.
       
  • A scenario analysis of thermal environmental changes induced by urban
           growth in Colorado River Basin, USA
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Zhi-Hua Wang, Ruby Upreti Rapid urban population growth in the cities of South Western United States has led to significant modifications in its environment at local and regional scales. In this study, three densely populated cities in Colorado River Basin (CRB), viz. Phoenix, Las Vegas, and Denver are selected to capture the various dimensions of the impacts of land use changes on emergent hydroclimatic patterns in the entire CRB. We hypothesize that different modes of urban growth will lead to markedly different modification of the thermal environment as well as surface energy balance. To test the hypothesis, we adopted the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting model, incorporating the latest urban modeling system, for regional climate simulations. Projected future urban growth in the period 2010–2100 was obtained from Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The simulations of urban growth in CRB demonstrated significant nocturnal warming of about 0.36 °C, 1.07 °C, and 0.94 °C in near-surface temperatures in Phoenix, Denver, and Las Vegas respectively, with comparatively insignificant changes in daytime temperature. In addition, it was found that the thermal environment of Denver is the most susceptible to the projected future urban growth. Responses in urban surface energy budgets also differ in three cities due to the combined effect of local climatology and mode of urban growth.
       
  • Economic impacts of a linear urban park on local businesses: The case of
           Gyeongui Line Forest Park in Seoul
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Juhyeon Park, Jeongseob Kim This study aims to explore the economic impacts of urban open spaces using the sales data of local small businesses. A new urban park could attract more visitors and lead to neighborhood revitalization, especially in distressed neighborhoods. In order to explore this mechanism, this study analyzes the case of the Gyeongui Line Forest Park, a previously underutilized railroad that was converted to a linear urban park. A difference-in-difference approach was applied to evaluate the change in the sales of local businesses before and after the park’s opening using credit card and cash sales data provided by the Seoul Metropolitan Government’s Big Data Campus. The results showed that urban linear parks could have positive effects that lead to the neighborhoods’ economic vitality. However, the economic impacts could vary depending on neighborhood contexts. Specifically, economically distressed neighborhoods could benefit more from the opening of a park. This study directly captured the revitalization impact of the Gyeongui Line Forest Park using actual sales data instead of analyzing indirect outcomes such as property values, thereby providing an alternative approach to measure the economic impacts of parks.
       
  • Family-forest owner decisions, landscape context, and landscape change
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Kathleen P. Bell, Marla Markowski-Lindsay, Paul Catanzaro, Jessica Leahy We examined broad-scale patterns in family forest owners’ decisions to use estate planning and conservation tools, and participate in preferential tax programs in eight forested landscapes of the United States. We focused our analyses on patterns across regions and states, and scrutinized the impacts of adding regional and state fixed effects to discrete choice models of owner behaviors. We used chi-square testing and binary discrete choice models to analyze mail-survey responses collected from landowners. Our exploratory research revealed distinct broad-scale patterns by owner decision, with the strongest evidence of state and regional variation in owner participation in preferential tax programs and some evidence of such variation in decisions to use wills and trusts. In contrast, we detected no such differences when examining decision-making about conservation easements across regions or states. Our findings in support of state and regional effects suggest forested landscape contexts beyond owner and parcel characteristics matter and could potentially drive differences in behaviors and forest outcomes. Measures of regional and state fixed effects can provide useful information about contextual differences across forested landscapes, such as differences in public programs and engagement aimed at owners. They can also inform the appropriateness of transferring insights across landscapes. Building on these findings, we share guidance for future data collection and research, including how improved monitoring and greater consideration of contextual factors beyond individual and ownership characteristics could enhance understanding of family forest owner decision-making and landscape change.
       
  • Analysis of factors affecting urban park service area in Beijing:
           Perspectives from multi-source geographic data
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Sihui Guo, Gege Yang, Tao Pei, Ting Ma, Ci Song, Hua Shu, Yunyan Du, Chenghu Zhou The rapid process of urbanization aggravates the imbalance between the supply and demand of urban public services. Urban parks are among the most important urban public services, and their use efficiency has been an important index for urban planning. Therefore, it is essential to estimate well their service area and influencing factors. Traditional survey data used to analyze the characteristics of urban park services are limited by small samples and high cost. Owing to thriving information communication technologies, vast amounts of human activity data have become available that enable understanding of human travel behavior. In this study, we analyzed a park service area, which is defined as the zone of influence of individual parks, in Beijing, and the factors that influence the service area. First, the service area was estimated using 1-SDE based on mobile phone signaling data. A multiple linear regression model was then used to analyze the influence of factors on the park service area. The results show that (1) external factors including population density, the number of commercial facilities, and traffic convenience have significant influences on the park service area; (2) employment places positively influence the park service area on the weekday; and (3) other factors such as park design and park reputation had inconsistent effects on the park service area, in either sign or significance, regarding the weekday and the weekend. The findings of this study will be of practical value when designing parks or undertaking city planning in the future.
       
  • Measuring visual quality of street space and its temporal variation:
           Methodology and its application in the Hutong area in Beijing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Jingxian Tang, Ying Long Although it is widely known that quality of street space plays a vital role in promoting urban vibrancy, there is still no consensus on how to quantitatively measure it for a large scale. Recent emerging dataset Street View Picture has revealed the possibility to overcome the previous limit, thus bringing forward a research paradigm shift. Taking this advantage, this paper explores a new approach for visual quality evaluation and variation identification of street space for a large area. Hutongs, which typically represent for historical street space in Beijing, are selected for empirical study. In the experimental part, we capture multi-years Tencent Street View Picture covering all the Hutongs, and conduct both physical and perceived visual quality evaluation. The physical visual quality of street space is achieved automatically by combining 3-dimensional composition calculation of greenery, openness, enclosure using machine-learning segmentation method SegNet, and 2-dimensional analysis of street wall continuity and cross-sectional proportion; perceived visual quality of street space is evaluated by stay willingness scoring from five aspects. The variation of quality is evaluated based on the identified physical space variations. The result indicates that visual quality of Hutongs are not satisfied, while some regeneration projects in the historical protection block is better. Most Hutongs are in shortage of visual green, relative more continuous but with low cross-sectional ratio. Hutongs near main road witness an increasing trend of motorization. The difference between physical and perceived quality indicates the feasibility and limitation of the auto-calculation method. In the most recent 3–4 years, less than 2.5% Hutongs are improved, which are mainly slow beautification.
       
  • Visibility analysis of oceanic blue space using digital elevation models
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Yi Qiang, Suwan Shen, Qi Chen Published evidence shows that views to blue spaces (e.g. ocean, lake, and river) have positive effects on humans’ health and mental well-beings. However, quantitative assessment of blue space visibility is challenging for large spatial areas with complex terrain or built environment. The assessment approach introduced in this study applied an innovative sampling strategy which generalizes blue space as a lattice of points and calculate visibility of all the points within a continuous area. Compared to traditional viewpoint-based visibility analyses, this approach can assess blue space visibility over a large area at a fine spatial resolution. The raster output can be overlaid with data recorded at different spatial units to study the associations between blue space visibility and socio-economic and health disparities. Additionally, this approach can be applied to assess impact of buildings to blue space visibility over space by comparing outputs generated from different digital elevation models (DEM). The utility of this approach was demonstrated in a case study in the island of O’ahu, Hawaii, which finds that: (1) wealthier and older people possess higher share of ocean visibility; (2) man-made buildings have caused large shrink and redistribution of ocean visibility; (3) high-rise buildings have particularly high and extensive impact to ocean visibility. The findings suggest that improved environmental assessment processes and planning policies are needed to mitigate the inequality of visible blue space in different population groups and preserve the shrinking visible blue space in the process of urban development.
       
  • Exploring the disparities in park access through mobile phone data:
           Evidence from Shanghai, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Yang Xiao, De Wang, Jia Fang The benefits that urban green resources bring to humanity have received increasing attention, with the evidence from recent studies into public service provision—specifically regarding access to green space—being rather mixed. Despite a growing literature base, there is no consensus among scholars on how to measure green space access properly. The traditional GIS-based approach is criticized for inappropriately specifying geographic units and threshold distances, and for ignoring people’s self-movement. This research proposes a novel approach, emphasizing the actual park users’ activities, both spatially and temporally. We took advantage of the large dataset available from mobile phones to analyze billions of anonymized data samples in order to characterize the behavioral patterns of millions of people who accessed green space in an experimental procedure. We chose Shanghai as the case study because residential segregation had occurred—expected to be accompanied by issues of environmental justice. The results found that social equity could be achieved, even where territorial inequity was manifest in a high-population-density context that is undergoing rapid urban growth and transition. Shanghai’s vulnerable groups are not found to be unequally treated at present, but there are warning signs that market mechanisms may worsen the uneven development. Therefore, the local municipalities are required to re-think how to provide green infrastructure to different social groups, responding to the inequality and uneven development that capital can bring.
       
  • Who has access to urban vegetation' A spatial analysis of
           distributional green equity in 10 US cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Lorien Nesbitt, Michael J. Meitner, Cynthia Girling, Stephen R.J. Sheppard, Yuhao Lu This research examines the distributional equity of urban vegetation in 10 US urbanized areas using very high resolution land cover data and census data. Urban vegetation is characterized three ways in the analysis (mixed vegetation, woody vegetation, and public parks), to reflect the variable ecosystem services provided by different types of urban vegetation. Data are analyzed at the block group and census tract levels using Spearman’s correlations and spatial autoregressive models. There is a strong positive correlation between urban vegetation and higher education and income across most cities. Negative correlations between racialized minority status and urban vegetation are observed but are weaker and less common in multivariate analyses that include additional variables such as education, income, and population density. Park area is more equitably distributed than mixed and woody vegetation, although inequities exist across all cities and vegetation types. The study finds that education and income are most strongly associated with urban vegetation distribution but that various other factors contribute to patterns of urban vegetation distribution, with specific patterns of inequity varying by local context. These results highlight the importance of different urban vegetation measures and suggest potential solutions to the problem of urban green inequity. Cities can use our results to inform decision making focused on improving environmental justice in urban settings.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Adapting social surveys to depopulating neighborhoods
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Natalie R. Sampson, Noah J. Webster, Joan I. Nassauer, Amy J. Schulz Survey research is an essential method for understanding if and how landscape interventions provide socio-ecological benefits in residential areas. However, depopulating areas present challenges to methodological conventions for household surveys. We describe the innovative modified approach we used to survey a Detroit neighborhood with high residential vacancy and ongoing depopulation. We conducted household surveys (n = 164) to assess baseline health information, perceptions of neighborhood characteristics, and design preferences related to alternative green infrastructure interventions. Specifically, we describe the iterative decision-making process we used to determine our area frame, identify and contact households, and monitor survey response – a process that led us to a census-based approach. This entailed ongoing assessment of household vacancy in our study neighborhood, using secondary data from multiple sources, tracking household visits during survey administration, and soliciting ongoing input from survey administrators. The iterative process we developed may be informative to others conducting household surveys in depopulating neighborhoods.
       
  • From “red” to green' A look into the evolution of green spaces in
           a post-socialist city
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Denisa L. Badiu, Diana A. Onose, Mihai R. Niță, Raffaele Lafortezza Promoting green infrastructure and other nature-based solutions in urban environments is considered an effective approach to achieve resilience and meet sustainability goals. Countries with a post-Socialist history are still struggling to increase the amount of green spaces in cities. Bucharest is an example of a city that has undergone considerable transformation during the Socialist period (1948–1990) and after. Back then the drivers of urban transformation were mainly related to public land management, whereas after the fall of the Socialist regime private development prevailed. Our study aims to analyze the shift in the amount and distribution of green spaces in Bucharest as a consequence of the transition from a centralized planning system to a market-based system. We used historical maps and aerial images to determine spatial-temporal changes in the structure of Bucharest‘s urban parks and their surrounding areas. To determine the influence of planning approaches on green spaces, we analyzed the legislative framework from the Socialist period (labeled as “red”) and post-Socialist period. Our results showed that the fall of the Socialist regime represented an important institutional change affecting urban green spaces. There was a major increase in the surface and number of green spaces during the Socialist period and a decrease afterwards as a consequence of a weak legislative framework, restitution of lands and ownership conflicts. Our findings provide valuable knowledge on the evolutionary urban processes and sustainability approaches of the post-Socialist period in Romania and important insights for improving planning efforts and maximizing ecosystem services in cities.
       
  • A Bayesian approach to mapping the uncertainties of global urban lands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Zutao Ouyang, Peilei Fan, Jiquan Chen, Raffaele Lafortezza, Joseph P. Messina, Vincenzo Giannico, Ranjeet John Global distribution of urban lands is one of the essential pieces of information necessary for urban planning. However, large disagreement exists among different products and the uncertainty remains difficult to quantify. We applied a Bayesian approach to map the uncertainties of global urban lands. We demonstrated the approach by producing a hybrid global urban land map that synthesized five different urban land maps in ca. 2000 at 1-km resolution. The resulting hybrid map is a posterior probability map with pixel values suggesting the probability of being urban land, which is validated by 30-m higher resolution references. We also quantified the minimum and maximum urban areas in 2000 for each country/continent based on subjective probability thresholds (i.e., 0.9 and 0.1) on our hybrid urban map. Globally, we estimated that the urban land area was between 377,000 and 533,000 km2 in 2000. The credible interval of minimum/maximum urban area can help guide future studies in estimating urban areas. In addition to providing uncertainty information, the hybrid map also achieves higher accuracy than individual maps when it is converted into a binary urban/non-urban map using a probability threshold of 0.5. This new method has the ability to further integrate discrete site/location-based data, local, regional, and global urban land maps. As more data is sequentially integrated, the accuracy is expected to improve. Therefore, our hybrid map should not be regarded as a final product, but a new prior product for future synthesis and integration toward a “big data” solution.
       
  • Using Google Street View to investigate the association between street
           greenery and physical activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Yi Lu Urban greenspaces have been demonstrated to have associations with physical activity and health. Yet empirical studies have almost exclusively focused on parks rather than street, although streets are among the most popular venues for physical activity and street greenery is an indispensable component of urban greenspaces. Even fewer greenspace-physical activity studies have objectively assessed eye-level street greenery. By using free Google Street View images, this study assessed both the quantity and quality of street greenery and associated them with the recreational physical activity occurring in green outdoor environments of 1390 participants in 24 housing estates in Hong Kong. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and other built environment factors, multilevel regression models revealed that the quality and quantity of street greenery were positively linked to recreational physical activity. Our finding is important for interpretations of the operational mechanisms between street greenery and health benefits because it demonstrates that physical activity is an intermediate health-related outcome. The findings also reveal the influences of eye-level street greenery on residents’ physical activity levels and hence contribute to the development and implementation of healthy cities to stimulate physical activity.
       
  • Anthropogenic influences on the time budgets of urban vervet monkeys
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Harriet R. Thatcher, Colleen T. Downs, Nicola F. Koyama Continuing urban developments are ecologically changing many landscapes. A greater understanding of how wildlife adapt behaviorally to these changes is necessary to inform management decisions. Time is a valuable resource to wildlife and a reflection of ecological pressures on the behavioral repertoire of an animal. Data on urban vervet monkey, Chlorocebus pygerythrus, time budgets are generally limited and dated. We aimed to investigate the effect of anthropogenic influences, both human food consumption (positive) and human-monkey conflict (negative) on the time budgets of vervet monkeys in an urban landscape. We collected 20 min. focal animal observations and used generalized linear mixed models to assess the variation in time budget between five urban vervet monkey groups differing in anthropogenic contact over one year. We recorded anthropogenic interactions as positive and/or negative. Our results showed seasonal influences across all behaviors. Furthermore, anthropogenic disturbance influenced all aspects of time budget to some degree. We found a positive interaction effect between positive and negative human incidents on foraging, and a negative interaction effect on movement and social behavior. Overall, vervet monkeys exhibited behavioral flexibility in the urban landscape. We suggest a complex association of costs and benefits to urban living.
       
  • Land use and socio-economic determinants of urban forest structure and
           diversity
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Chao Fan, Mark Johnston, Lindsay Darling, Lydia Scott, Felix Haifeng Liao The spatial distribution of urban greenness within a city is largely influenced by land use configuration and social factors. This study builds upon previous research focusing on urban forest patterns in relation to land use and socio-economic determinants, while expanding the set of measures used to represent the forest structure. Instead of focusing on canopy cover alone, this study examines two additional attributes, stem density and species diversity, and evaluates the relative importance of land use and socio-economic indicators in determining the urban forest structure in Cook County, Illinois. A combination of remotely sourced data sets and tree records from field surveys are used collectively in addressing the following hypotheses: (H0) Canopy cover alone sufficiently describes the predominant forest patterns in Cook County, (H1) Forest structure measured as described by canopy cover, stem density, and species diversity, varies across census tracts, and (H2) Spatial variability is explained by the land use distributions and a defined set of socio-economic variables. Our results show that the land use and socio-economic factors are better correlates with canopy cover and stem density than species diversity. Overall, Cook County’s urban forest is unevenly distributed across census tracts, with wealth, education, racial composition, and home ownership playing different roles in shaping the forest structure. Our study also identifies the many challenges the urban forest is currently facing and highlights key priorities for future planning and management efforts towards a healthier, more diverse regional forest.
       
  • Moderately urbanized areas as a conservation opportunity for an endangered
           songbird
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Boris Droz, Robin Arnoux, Thierry Bohnenstengel, Jacques Laesser, Reto Spaar, Raffael Ayé, Christophe F. Randin Urban sprawl has increased in Western Europe principally due to conversion of farmland areas, which has constrained remaining farmland to more intensive use. Urban densification aims to counteract urban sprawl; however, it threatens urban green spaces that act as sustainable alternative habitats for wildlife. In this study, we used the Common Redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) as a model species to develop sustainable planning recommendations for urban green spaces. Using species distribution models (SDMs) in combinations with high-resolution predicting variables (2 × 2 m grid cell), we defined the suitable habitat of a Common Redstart territory in a moderately urbanized environment. We then predicted how the distribution would be affected under realistic scenarios of land-use modification (termed conservation scenario and threat scenario) in an effort to provide recommendations for urban green space planning. Tree canopy cover was the principal land-cover type in the SDMs that explained the current species distribution followed by impervious surface and short-cut lawn. In the conservation scenario where tree canopy coverage was increased we predicted an increase in optimum habitat for the Common Redstart from 7% to 27% of the study area. In contrast, under a threat scenario based on urban densification, we predicted a decrease in the optimum habitat to only 4% of the study area. The SDMs results were used to highlight the importance of the suitable areas that have a predicted potential to conserve and promote an interconnected urban green space networks to maintain urban biodiversity.
       
  • Is urban spatial development on the right track' Comparing strategies
           and trends in the European Union
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 181Author(s): Chiara Cortinovis, Dagmar Haase, Bruno Zanon, Davide Geneletti Urban spatial development is a crucial issue for spatial planning and urban governance, ultimately determining cities’ sustainability. While a set of spatial strategies to address urban development are progressively gaining international consensus, their actual applicability is still contested. An interesting test-bed is represented by the European Union (EU), where common spatial strategies have been discussed since 1993. This paper aims to identify the main spatial strategies promoted at the EU-level and to investigate whether the recent spatial development trends of EU cities have been following the directions suggested by the strategies. By analysing 30 policy documents, we identified six main strategies: compact city, urban regeneration, functional mix, no land take, green city, and high density. For each strategy, we selected a set of indicators and applied them to the analysis of 175 cities representative of the variety of conditions across the EU.Most cities progressed towards compact city and functional mix, but almost none halted land take. Urban regeneration was more intense in Northern and Western cities, while Southern cities show the most significant increase in green spaces. Growing cities achieved a higher density, but expanded inefficiently producing abandonment of urbanized areas and fragmentation of agricultural land. Shrinking cities continued in the paradox of contemporary population loss and expansion already observed by previous studies. The results highlight potential conflicts and trade-offs in the implementation of the strategies. Similar analyses can stimulate comparison, exchange, and cooperation among cities, thus supporting the mainstreaming of non-prescriptive strategies formulated at the international level.
       
  • The urban matrix matters: Quantifying the effects of surrounding urban
           vegetation on natural habitat remnants in Santiago de Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Ignacio C. Fernández, Jianguo Wu, Javier A. Simonetti Urbanization destroys and fragments natural habitats, resulting in a system of natural remnants embedded in an urban matrix. Urban natural remnants (UNRs) can provide multiple ecosystem services for urban areas. Nevertheless, the long-term provision of ecosystem services by UNRs depends on their capacity to retain the ecosystem processes supporting the services. As vegetation from the urban matrix could play a key role in remnants ecological dynamics, understanding the effect of surrounding urban vegetation on UNRs ecosystem processes is fundamental for sustainable urban planning. In this work, we used a multi-temporal and -spatial scale approach to evaluate the role that vegetation patterns (i.e. composition and configuration) of the urban matrix have played on ecosystem processes (i.e. primary productivity) of 10 UNRs located in the city of Santiago (Chile). Using a set of six remote sensing-derived vegetation indices (years 1985–2010), we analyzed how temporal changes in primary productivity of UNRs were related to changes in vegetation patterns of the surrounding urban matrix, and assessed the potential role of the matrix’s socioeconomic level on these results. Our results show that productivity decreased in all UNRs and that this productivity loss was spatially correlated with the changes in vegetation cover of the surrounding urban matrix. UNR productivity was more strongly correlated with matrix composition than matrix configuration. Correlation strength between matrix composition and UNR productivity increased in time and decreased with distance from the edge of UNRs inward, suggesting that the effects of matrix vegetation on the ecological processes within UNRs are both time- and location-dependent. The socioeconomic level of the matrix showed a positive association with the vegetation cover of the matrix, but did not have a statistically significant correlation with UNR primary productivity. Results from our work demonstrate that the changes in urban matrix vegetation induced by urbanization may have strong impacts on the ecological processes that underpin the provision of ecosystem services by UNRs. If planners ought to increase the provision of ecosystem services by these UNRs, the strategies should not only focus on managing vegetation within UNRs, but also on properly planning vegetation in the surrounding urban matrix.
       
  • Local policy and landowner attitudes: A case study of forest fragmentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Anna L. Haines, Aaron W. Thompson, Daniel McFarlane, Anthony K. Sharp Wisconsin is known for its extensive forest resources and its attraction to visitors and permanent and seasonal homeowners. Development, due to this attraction, within the state’s private forestland has been a growing phenomenon for many years and communities are struggling to implement tools to reduce its negative impact. One group of tools is local land use policies, but many communities are not equipped to regulate more than the basics, such as minimum lot size, and it is not clear that moving beyond the basics would conserve future forest resources or whether or not private landowners would find more restrictive land use policies acceptable. In this paper, we conduct a case study of northern Wisconsin by analyzing two dimensions: the possible effect of local land use policy on forest fragmentation and landowner attitudes to policy. The purpose is to uncover whether conventional or density-based zoning conserves more forestland and which policies local landowners would support. We find that, one, density-based zoning can conserve more total and core forest than conventional zoning. Two, when landowners view a particular scenario as a severe threat, they are more inclined to support some forms of land use regulation over others. These findings indicate that local governments can open up a dialogue for more restrictive local land use policies for conserving forest and limiting forest fragmentation, if landowners understand the impact among various alternatives.
       
  • Urbanisation and ecosystem services in sub-Saharan Africa: Current status
           and scenarios
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Stephan Pauleit, Sarah Lindley, Sarel Cilliers, Charlie Shackleton
       
  • “Let’s go to the park.” An investigation of older adults in
           Australia and their motivations for park visitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Stephen C. Gibson What motivates older adults to visit and use parks' Do older adults access parks for different reasons than younger adults' Prior studies determine age influences park visitation, but we know little about why. Older adults are particularly disadvantaged if their specific needs, preferences, or constraints in frequenting parks are not considered as lack of visitation and potential health decline result.Referencing self-determination theory from the social psychology literature, this study focuses on fulfillment of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs in older adults as a precursor to motivation for park visitation. To build deeper understanding of older adult motivation to visit and use parks, the study develops and tests a theoretical model of motivation for park visitation using quantitative methods to investigate psychological needs in the motivation to visit parks and elements of parks required to satisfy these needs.Providing support for hypothesized relationships in the model, findings indicate that older adults differ from younger adults in the level and type of motivation to visit parks. Specifically, older adults are motivated to revisit parks that fulfill their autonomy needs. Natural environment, a common park amenity, was the strongest predictor of autonomy need fulfillment in older adults, followed by location elements of convenience and community. Finally, results indicated that when older adult autonomy needs are fulfilled, park revisitation is likely. Results confirm that park design must be specific to older adults to entice visitation.
       
  • Resident support for urban greenways across diverse neighborhoods:
           Comparing two Atlanta BeltLine segments
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Nathan P. Palardy, B. Bynum Boley, Cassandra Johnson Gaither Urban greenways are increasingly seen as sustainable infrastructure initiatives designed to catalyze economic development, urban renewal and healthy cities. However, there has been little consideration for how the racial and socioeconomic composition of neighborhoods influence resident support for greenways. This is important due to documented divergent racial preferences for recreation and the potential paradoxical impact greenways can have on gentrification. Hence, this study assessed resident perceptions of the Atlanta BeltLine in two neighborhoods differing in their racial and socioeconomic composition. Using a theoretical framework grounded in social exchange theory and Weber’s theory of formal and substantive rationality, results from 418 surveys (600 distributed) revealed that in an affluent, majority white neighborhood, the BeltLine was supported more by residents, with residents indicating greater use of the trail and higher levels of psychological empowerment than residents of a less affluent, majority African American neighborhood. Despite these differences, support for the BeltLine was found to be a function of the same factors of frequency of use, perceived economic benefits and perceived psychological empowerment across both neighborhoods. Results suggest that residents generally form their opinions of urban greenways in a similar fashion even though the model explained more variance in the majority white neighborhood (68% vs 57%), highlighting the need for future research to investigate other factors that may influence why African Americans support or oppose urban greenways in their neighborhoods. Implications are discussed for urban planners, who have the difficult task of developing urban greenways within heterogeneous cities.
       
  • Informing water-saving communication in the United States using the
           situational theory of problem solving
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Alexa J. Lamm, Laura A. Warner, Lisa K. Lundy, Jyothi Swaroop Bommidi, Peyton N. Beattie Environmental communication professionals have been conducting water conservation programs across the nation, recognizing the need to conserve water as one of the top issues facing the United States (U.S.). Research has shown the number of people that will be exposed to water scarcity will steadily increase. This research uses the Situational Theory of Problem Solving in an attempt to further understand why and how landscape irrigators (residents that control their home landscape irrigation systems) across the U.S. recognize water as an issue and choose to communicate about water conservation. The findings revealed landscape irrigators recognize water use as an issue but exhibit a low level of communicative action when addressing the issue. In addition, as their perceived level of involvement increases, they are less likely to communicate about water conservation, revealing a sense of cognitive dissonance and discomfort with their behavior to the point they would rather not discuss the problem. Recommendations include encouraging environmental communication professionals to communicate at the community level to discuss community conservation effects, utilize existing clientele to develop a sense of involvement among their circles of influence and encourage the use of social media techniques when communicating to further their reach.
       
  • A plaza too far: High contrast in butterfly biodiversity patterns between
           plazas and an urban reserve in Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Isabela Freitas Oliveira, Marília Bruzzi Lion, Márcio Zikán Cardoso The extent of biodiversity in the urban setting is related to the degree of land transformation and the relative quantity of green spaces in the city. Large tracts of green spaces may harbor species and serve as sources of colonists to other urban spaces, but the degree to which this occurs is not well known, particularly in cities in the tropics. Here we evaluate if a large urban green space (Dunas State Park) affects the diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in city plazas. We sampled 18 plazas, varying in size (1000 to>3000 m2) and distance to the Park’s edge (up to 3000 m). In each plaza, we measured number of trees, plant cover in it and in surrounding buffers of up to 200 m. Butterflies were captured using standardized traps. We found that butterfly communities were significantly different between Park and plazas, and that individuals plazas represented a poor sample of the total butterfly diversity. Distance to the park did not influence butterfly communities in the plazas, nor did any of the local plaza characteristics. Plazas harbored mostly generalist species and experienced more fluctuations in butterfly abundance than the Park. The Park is the only significant repository of fruit-feeding butterfly biodiversity in our system. We conclude that the urban setting is a strong filter for species settlement, a worrisome conclusion for tropical cities. We offer advice on how city planners may improve this trend.
       
  • From the household to watershed: A cross-scale analysis of residential
           intention to adopt green stormwater infrastructure
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Sarah Coleman, Stephanie Hurley, Donna Rizzo, Christopher Koliba, Asim Zia Improved stormwater management for the protection of water resources requires bottom-up stewardship from landowners, including adoption of Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI). We use a statewide survey of Vermont paired with a cross-scale and spatial analysis to evaluate the influence of interacting spatial, social, and physical factors on residential intention to adopt GSI across a complex social-ecological landscape. Specifically, we focus on how three GSI practices, (“rain garden (bio retention),” “infiltration trenches,” and “actively divert roof runoff to a rain barrel/lawn/garden instead of the street/sewer”) vary with barriers to adoption, and household attributes across stormwater contexts from the household to watershed scale. Private landowners, who may be motivated more by on-site and neighborhood stormwater problems, may gravitate toward practices like infiltration trenches compared with practices (e.g., rain gardens) perceived to serve stormwater function over larger areas. Diversion of roof runoff was found to be more likely to be a part of a larger assembly of green behaviors. Improved stormwater management outcomes at the watershed, town, neighborhood, and household levels depend on adaptive approaches and adjusting strategies along the rural-urban gradient, across the bio-physical landscape, and according to varying norms and institutional arrangements.
       
  • Suburban gardening in Rochester, New York: Exotic plant preference and
           risk of invasion
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Scott G. Ward, Kathryn L. Amatangelo Horticulture has long been an important source of exotic plant species that may naturalize and become invasive. To analyze the extent of exotic plant species and their possible preference in modern landscaping in Rochester, New York, USA, we inventoried 101 randomly chosen suburban (peri-urban) house gardens. On average, 72% of plants per property were not native to the Eastern United States. Of the exotic species present in gardens, 44% have naturalized in New York State. Additionally, invasive plants were often intentionally planted, such as Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), which was found in nearly half of the gardens. We also sought to ascertain if garden diversity could be correlated with the age, size, or cost of properties. Although our findings were not as distinct as previous garden inventories, property size and mortgage value correlated positively with species richness. Overall, landscape trends across all property types favored exotic over native garden plants.
       
  • Artificial lighting triggers the presence of urban spiders and their webs
           on historical buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Stefano Mammola, Marco Isaia, Daniele Demonte, Paolo Triolo, Marco Nervo Different spider species living in the urban environment spin their webs on building facades. Due to air pollution, web aggregations entrap dirt particles over time, assuming a brownish-greyish colouration and thus determining an aesthetic impact on buildings and street furniture. In Europe, the most common species causing such an aesthetic nuisance is Brigittea civica (Lucas) (Dictynidae). In spite of the socio-economical relevance of the problem, the ecological factors driving the proliferation of this species in the urban environment are poorly described and the effectiveness of potential cleaning activities has never been discussed in scientific literature. Over one year, we studied the environmental drivers of B. civica webs in the arcades of the historical down-town district of Turin (NW-Italy). We selected a number of sampling plots on arcade ceilings and we estimated the density of B. civica webs by means of digital image analysis. In parallel, we collected information on a number of potential explanatory variables driving the arcade colonization, namely artificial lighting at night, substrate temperature, distance from the main artificial light sources and distance from the river. Regression analysis showed that the coverage of spider webs increased significantly at plots with higher light intensity, with a major effect related to the presence of historical lampposts with incandescent lamps rather than halogen lamps. We also detected a seasonal variation in the web coverage, with significant higher values in summer. Stemming from our results, we are able to suggest good practices for the containment of this phenomenon.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Do local factors or teleconnections control urbanization' The shifting
           balance in a Chinese megaregion
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Kun Wang, Weiqi Zhou Numerous studies have investigated the local driving forces of expansion of developed land in a single city, or in comparisons of several cities. Few studies, however, have examined both the local and distant or “tele” drivers. We take the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) urban megaregion as a case study to investigate the local and tele driving forces of expansion of developed land from 1984 to 2010. We pose two research questions at an urban megaregion scale: (1) What are the effects of local and tele driving factors on expansion of developed land; (2) Does the relative importance of these two kinds of factors change through time' We examined the expansion of developed land, and classified the potential driving factors into local and tele variables, and detected their effects on expansion of developed land for three periods, 1984–1990, 1990–2000, and 2000–2010. The results showed that the BTH megaregion experienced a rapid and significant expansion of developed land during 1984–2010, with an increase of 9970.60 km2, or an annual rate of 276.96 km2. The local and tele driving factors both affected the expansion of developed land. Overall, local drivers were dominant in the process of urbanization for BTH. However, over that time period, the effect of local driving factors deceased, while that of tele driving factors increased. This study extends the understanding of expansion of developed land in a holistic view by including both local and tele drivers, and provides quantitative insights into the issue of urban planning and management in urban megaregion.
       
  • Quantifying place: Analyzing the drivers of pedestrian activity in dense
           urban environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Yuan Lai, Constantine E. Kontokosta Understanding pedestrian behavior is critical for many aspects of city planning, design, and management, including transportation, public health, emergency response, and economic development. This study bridges in-situ observations of pedestrian activity and urban computing by integrating high-resolution, large-scale, and heterogeneous urban datasets and analyzing both fixed attributes of the urban landscape (e.g. physical and transit infrastructure) with dynamic environmental and socio-psychological factors, such as weather, air quality, and perceived crime risk. We use local pedestrian count data collected by the New York City (NYC) Department of Transportation (DOT) and an extensive array of open datasets from NYC to test how pedestrian volumes relate to land use, building density, streetscape quality, transportation infrastructure, and other factors typically associated with urban walkability. We quantify, classify, and analyze place dynamics, including contextual and situational factors that influence pedestrian activity at high spatial–temporal resolution. The quantification process measures the urban context by extracting rich, yet initially fragmented and siloed, urban data for individual geolocations. Based on these features, we then construct contextual indicators by selecting and combining features relevant to pedestrian activity, and develop a typology of place to support the generalizability of our analysis. Finally, we use multivariate regression models with panel-corrected standard errors to estimate how specific contextual features and time-varying situational indicators impact pedestrian activity across time of day, day of the week, season, and year. The results provide insights into the key drivers of local pedestrian activity and highlight the importance accounting for the immediate urban environment and socio-spatial dynamics in pedestrian behavior modeling.
       
  • Measuring human perceptions of a large-scale urban region using machine
           learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Fan Zhang, Bolei Zhou, Liu Liu, Yu Liu, Helene H. Fung, Hui Lin, Carlo Ratti Measuring the human sense of place and quantifying the connections among the visual features of the built environment that impact the human sense of place have long been of interest to a wide variety of fields. Previous studies have relied on low-throughput surveys and limited data sources, which have difficulty in measuring the human perception of a large-scale urban region at flexible spatial resolutions. In this work, a data-driven machine learning approach is proposed to measure how people perceive a place in a large-scale urban region. Specifically, a deep learning model, which has been trained on millions of human ratings of street-level imagery, was used to predict human perceptions of a street view image. The model achieved a high accuracy rate in predicting six human perceptual indicators, namely, safe, lively, beautiful, wealthy, depressing, and boring. This model can help to map the distribution of the city-wide human perception for a new urban region. Furthermore, a series of statistical analyses was conducted to determine the visual elements that may cause a place to be perceived as different perceptions. From the 150 object categories segmented from the street view images, various objects were identified as being positively or negatively correlated with each of the six perceptual indicators. The results take researchers and urban planners one step toward understanding the interactions of the place sentiments and semantics.
       
  • Rethinking urban green infrastructure and ecosystem services from the
           perspective of sub-Saharan African cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Sarah Lindley, Stephan Pauleit, Kumelachew Yeshitela, Sarel Cilliers, Charlie Shackleton Urban green infrastructure and its ecosystem services are often conceptualised in terms of a predominantly western perspective of cities and their wider social, economic and environmental challenges. However, the benefits which are derived from urban ecosystems are equally – if not more – important in the cities of the developing world. Cities in sub-Saharan Africa are well known to be facing severe pressures. Nevertheless, despite the challenges of rapid population change, high levels of poverty and seemingly chaotic urban development processes, there are also tremendous opportunities. Realising the opportunities around urban green infrastructure and its benefits requires harnessing the inherent local knowledge and community innovation associated with a multitude of inter-connected urban social-ecological systems. Such systems are a powerful driving force shaping urban realities. Associated planning regimes are frequently lambasted as being either absent, weakly enforced, corrupt or wholly inappropriate. Much of this criticism is justified. However, it must also be recognised that decision-makers are frequently working in contexts which lack the scientific foundations through which their decision-making might be made more effective and complementary to bottom-up initiatives. The paucity of research into urban ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa and the lack of development of context-specific conceptual, theoretical and empirical foundations is a problem which must be addressed. Drawing on papers from a Special Issue centred on urban green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services in sub-Saharan Africa, we consider what concepts and frameworks are in use and what needs to be considered when framing future research. We also synthesise key messages from the Special Issue and draw together themes to help create a new research agenda for the international research community.
       
  • Measuring security in the built environment: Evaluating urban
           vulnerability in a human-scale urban form
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Dalit Shach-Pinsly Designing secured urban spaces is one of the main ambitions of urban planners during the planning and design process. People usually travel by foot through safe routes and urban spaces in the built environment as they are perceived as safe areas, such as: lighted paths, walking on the livable side of a sidewalk instead of walking beside a sealed façade, or away from unsecured building entrances. The way people use and interact in their built environment involves their cognitive perception, which depends upon the urban fabric details. Therefore, planners and decision makers aimed in understanding the way the components of the built environment affect unsecured environments so as to assess the risks before design decisions are made. However, they lack new approaches and models with which to evaluate a qualitative sense of security that is understandable on a human-scale in the built environment. This research deals with this gap in information and measures one unmeasurable qualitative aspect of the built environment, the sense of security, in quantitative terms based on a geo-spatial system, and then relate it to human-scale urban form. The Security Rating Index (SRI) establishes a GIS-based, quantifiable system to identify and rate insecure urban spaces to be used by urban planners and city decision makers to evaluate and improve urban resilience. The system is based on measurements of urban elements that influence the sense of security in the built environment, and can be used to identify characteristics and hot spots of unsecured spaces in a city. The SRI is demonstrated on several case studies on different scales.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • From urban lawns to urban meadows: Reduction of mowing frequency increases
           plant taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Simon Chollet, Charlotte Brabant, Samson Tessier, Vincent Jung In regions where intensive farming is the dominant land use, urban areas are an opportunity for biodiversity conservation. Thence there is an urgent need to promote more biodiversity-friendly cities. Lawns are widely distributed urban habitats which cover important surface in public and private places. However theses habitats are currently poor refuges for plant and animal communities due to their intensive management. This study assesses if a reduction in mowing frequency results in a more diverse plant community and changes functional ecological characteristics of urban lawns. We used a quasi-experimental situation resulting from 25 years differentiated management in public green spaces of Rennes (France) to evaluate the effect of reduced mowing frequency on plant taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity. Our results clearly demonstrate that a reduction of mowing frequency induces a dramatic increase in the different components of plant community diversity that results in a switch from urban lawns to urban meadows.
       
  • Assessing urban landscape ecological risk through an adaptive cycle
           framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Fanghan Luo, Yanxu Liu, Jian Peng, Jiansheng Wu Cities are suffering various ecological risks due to rapid urbanization and global climate change. Urban landscape ecological risk assessment is conducive to identifying high risk areas and guiding risk prevention. However, few studies have characterized the dynamic processes of landscape ecological risk. In this study, taking Beijing City as a case study, the adaptive cycle in resilience theory was incorporated into a risk assessment framework using such three criteria as potential, connectedness, and resilience, together with integrating exposure and disturbance effects of risk sources. This framework contributed to understanding the complex interactions between landscapes and risk effects from a holistic and dynamic view. The results showed that the ecological risk of “potential” and “connectedness” weakened radially from downtowns to outer suburbs. The distributions of “resilience”, “exposure”, “disturbance”, and the final risk, all exhibited a concentric pattern of the higher risk, highest risk, and lowest risk sequentially from downtowns to outer suburbs. The results reflected the facts that residents living in downtowns had taken ecological restoration measures to reduce risk, while continuous urban constructions in outer suburbs increased the risk. In terms of the adaptive cycle phases of ecological risk, Yanqing, Miyun, Huairou, Mentougou, Fangshan and Pinggu districts were in the reorganization α-phase; Daxing, Changping, Shunyi and Tongzhou districts were in the exploitation r-phase; Dongcheng, Xicheng, Fengtai, Haidian, Chaoyang and Shijingshan districts were in the conservation K-phase. The results provided scientifically spatial guidance for implementing resilient urban planning, in order to realize sustainable development of metropolitan areas.
       
  • The effect of urban park landscapes on soil Collembola diversity: A
           Mediterranean case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): V. Milano, G. Maisto, D. Baldantoni, A. Bellino, C. Bernard, A. Croce, F. Dubs, S. Strumia, J. Cortet By increasing landscape patchiness and habitat loss, urbanization threatens biodiversity. Its adverse effects may be mitigated by urban parks, in which conditions that promote structural and functional biodiversity contribute to preserve ecosystem processes. Therefore, deep knowledge of urban park biodiversity and of patterns driving species assemblages is required, especially for soil communities which are understudied. This study, conducted in public parks in Montpellier (Southern France), is the first one examining the impact of landscape patterns on Collembola communities. Moreover, soil abiotic properties were analyzed to examine how local factors drive species assemblages in different landscape types. The results of the study highlighted that Collembola community structure is affected by landscape patterns. Specifically, Collembola communities with species-abundance structures typical of late successional stages were found within woody landscapes, whereas those with early successional stage structures were observed in wide turf patches surrounded by other vegetation covers. When turf patches become small and isolated, homogenization was observed in Collembola community composition. From the perspective of urban park planning, managers should consider limiting landscape fragmentation (i.e. interspersion and configuration of impervious surfaces) and preserving landscape diversity (especially through woody vegetation patches). These may promote the development of diverse and structured Collembola communities, indicators of the overall soil quality.
       
  • What are the drivers of and barriers to children’s direct
           experiences of nature'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Masashi Soga, Takahiro Yamanoi, Kazuaki Tsuchiya, Tomoyo F. Koyanagi, Tadashi Kanai In our increasingly urbanised world, children are becoming disconnected from the natural world. This progressive separation of humans from nature, “extinction of experience,” is viewed both as a major public health issue and as one of the fundamental obstacles to halting global biodiversity loss. Thus, it has become increasingly important to understand what drives and limits children’s direct experiences of nature. We administered a large-scale questionnaire to 5801 children from 45 elementary schools in Tochigi, central Japan. Children were asked to provide information on frequency of nature experiences, extent of nature relatedness, time pressure, inclination towards screen-based media, and their family members’ attitudes towards nature-based activities (family members’ nature orientation). We also calculated the proportion of urbanised areas within a 1-km radius of each school. Results showed that the frequency of children’s nature experiences was significantly positively associated with individual nature relatedness and family members’ nature orientation; time pressure and inclination towards screen-based media were not significantly negatively related to children’s frequency of nature experiences. Degree of urbanisation had significant negative influences on the frequency of direct experiences of nature. Male children participated in nature-based activities more frequently. Overall, our study demonstrates that children’s direct engagement with neighbourhood nature is shaped by multiple opportunity- and orientation-related factors, which has important policy implications as it implies that there can be no simple, straightforward way to promote children’s nature experiences. Thus, to minimise the ongoing extinction of experience, a variety of different and complementary approaches must be taken.
       
  • Links between ecological and human wealth in drainage ponds in a
           fast-expanding city, and proposals for design and management
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Alexandre Miró, Jeanette Hall, Marcia Rae, David O'Brien Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) are engineering solutions for managing storm water, and they can also provide blue spaces that equitably benefit the health and wellbeing of urban dwellers. The main objectives of this study were to test whether affluent neighbourhoods have SuDS with better ecological quality in one of Europe’s fastest developing cities, and to investigate whether designable or manageable habitat characteristics of the SuDS, and the adjacent terrestrial area, are related to ecological quality. We estimated SuDS ecological quality by dimension reduction of five biotic and abiotic ecosystem components through performing a Principal Coordinate Analysis. Then we regressed SuDS ecological quality against socio-economic descriptors of the neighbourhood. We next applied non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis tests and probabilistic co-occurrence analysis to assess associations between habitat characteristics and ecological quality of SuDS. Our data showed that more affluent neighbourhoods have SuDS of higher ecological quality. We identified thresholds for some easily designable and manageable habitat characteristics of SuDS clearly linked to their ecological quality. There was strong co-occurrence of habitat characteristics, with aggregation of features linked to poor and good ecological quality, in SuDS designed as detention basins/swales or ponds respectively. Our results can be applied to the design and management of SuDS to foster good ecological quality irrespective of the neighbourhood. This study will be valuable for building and managing SuDS in a nature-based way, thus providing more socially equitable access to high-quality urban blue space.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Modeling anthropogenic noise impacts on animals in natural areas
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Alexander C. Keyel, Sarah E. Reed, Kathryn Nuessly, Elizeth Cinto-Mejia, Jesse R. Barber, George Wittemyer Noise is a globally pervasive pollutant that can be detrimental to a range of animal species, with cascading effects on ecosystem functioning. As a result, concern about the impacts and expanding footprint of anthropogenic noise is increasing along with interest in approaches for how to mitigate its negative effects. A variety of modeling tools have been developed to quantify the spatial distribution and intensity of noise across landscapes, but these tools are under-utilized in landscape planning and noise mitigation. Here, we apply the Sound Mapping Tools toolbox to evaluate mitigation approaches to reduce the anthropogenic noise footprint of gas development, summer all-terrain vehicle recreation, and winter snowmobile use. Sound Mapping Tools uses models of the physics of noise propagation to convert measured source levels to landscape predictions of relevant sound levels. We found that relatively minor changes to the location of noise-producing activities could dramatically reduce the extent and intensity of noise in focal areas, indicating that site planning can be a cost-effective approach to noise mitigation. In addition, our snowmobile results, which focus on a specific frequency band important to the focal species, are consistent with previous research demonstrating that source noise level reductions are an effective means to reduce noise footprints. We recommend the use of quantitative, spatially-explicit maps of expected noise levels that include alternative options for noise source placement. These maps can be used to guide management decisions, allow for species-specific insights, and to reduce noise impacts on animals and ecosystems.
       
  • Mapping the relationships between trail conditions and experiential
           elements of long-distance hiking
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Brian A. Peterson, Matthew T.J. Brownlee, Jeffrey L. Marion Trail users that experience acceptable social and ecological conditions are more likely to act as trail stewards, exhibit proper trail etiquette, and use low-impact practices. However, the relationships between specific trail conditions and experiential elements of long-distance hiking are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify how trail conditions influence particular elements of the long-distance hiking experience. The researchers used a mixed-methods approach involving semi-structured interviews (n = 17), quantitative questionnaires (n = 336), ecological measurements of trail conditions (n = 21–5 km sections), and modified Recreation Suitability Mapping (RSM) techniques to quantify the relationships between five trail conditions (trail incision, muddiness, rugosity, trail width, and gradient) and four experiential elements of long-distance hiking (level of challenge, perceived impact to musculoskeletal system, valuation of tread aesthetics, and ability to maintain an ideal hiking pace). Quantified values were weighted, analyzed, and mapped using SPSS 22.0 and ArcMap 10.2.2. Significant differences exist in the scores and distributions of ecological measures across all sections, indicating that trail conditions vary significantly across sampled trail sections. Although, long-distance hikers felt all four experiential elements were important, tread aesthetics was ranked by 50.2% of sampled hikers as the most important experiential element to the overall experience. The resulting information after applying the weights suggests what particular type of experience is likely for each trail section considering the presence of trail conditions.
       
  • ‘Rage against the machine’' The opportunities and risks concerning
           the automation of urban green infrastructure
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Natalie Marie Gulsrud, Christopher M. Raymond, Rebecca L. Rutt, Anton Stahl Olafsson, Tobias Plieninger, Mattias Sandberg, Thomas H. Beery, K. Ingemar Jönsson Contemporary society is increasingly impacted by automation; however, few studies have considered the potential consequences of automation on ecosystems and their management (hereafter the automation of urban green infrastructure or UGI). This Perspective Essay takes up this discussion by asking how a digital approach to UGI planning and management mediates the configuration and development of UGI and to whose benefit' This is done through a review of key issues and trends in digital approaches to UGI planning and management. We first conceptualize automation from a social, ecological, and technological interactions perspective and use this lens to present an overview of the risks and opportunities of UGI automation with respect to selected case studies. Results of this analysis are used to develop a conceptual framework for the assessment of the material and governance implications of automated UGIs. We find that, within any given perspective, the automation of UGI entails a complex dialectic between efficiency, human agency and empowerment. Further, risks and opportunities associated with UGI automation are not fixed but are dynamic properties of changing contextual tensions concerning power, actors, rules of the game and discourse at multiple scales. We conclude the paper by outlining a research agenda on how to consider different digital advances within a social-ecological-technological approach.
       
  • A meta-analysis indicates reduced predation pressure with increasing
           urbanization
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Csaba Béla Eötvös, Tibor Magura, Gábor L. Lövei Urbanization is one of the most important global trends which causes habitat reduction and alteration which are, in turn, the main reasons for the reduced structural and functional diversity in urbanized environments. Predation is one of the most important ecological functions because of its community-structuring effects. According to previous studies effects of urbanization on predation rates appear inconsistent. Predator species are vulnerable to habitat alteration and loss caused by urbanization, therefore, we hypothesised that predation rate would decrease along the rural-urban gradient. To clarify the impact of urbanization on predation, we performed a meta-analysis on predation rates in rural vs. urban areas using published data of 25 studies. Predation rates on taxa other than birds were underrepresented, preventing an overall evaluation. Reported predation rates on birds were significantly higher in rural than in urban habitats.
       
  • Efficiency of landscape metrics characterizing urban land surface
           temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Yanxu Liu, Jian Peng, Yanglin Wang Identification of the relationship between landscape metrics and urban land surface temperature (LST) provides a basic understanding of the interaction of landscape pattern and ecological process. However, the evidenced relationships between landscape metrics and LST are still uncertain, and cannot provide fundamental support to landscape management. Other than a test of statistical significance, four judgments (median correlation value; temporal variation and statistical scale; threshold; and effects of key variables) are considered “efficient” criteria in this study. Partial correlation and piecewise linear regression are used to focus on the indicators of land cover proportion, biophysical proportion, and mainly area- or shape-related landscape configuration indicators. The results show: (1) land cover proportion can almost substitute for area-related landscape configuration indicators; (2) landscape composition is more efficient than configuration as an indicator because of its relatively stable temporal correlation values at different statistical scales; (3) the evident landscape composition threshold of vegetated land surfaces (50–70% for land cover proportion and 0.2–0.3 for biophysical proportion) is more indicative in application than the linear relationship for unvegetated land surfaces; and (4) landscape metrics are better correlated with LST in high temperature than in low temperature, and urban area weakly influences this correlation (R2 
       
  • Recreational visits to urban parks and factors affecting park visits:
           Evidence from geotagged social media data
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Sai Zhang, Weiqi Zhou Quantifying park use and understanding its driving factors is crucially important for increasing park use and thus human well-being. Previous studies have investigated the effects of different physical and sociocultural factors on park usage using visitor surveys and direct observations of park users, which are usually site specific and time consuming. We quantified and compared the number of visits for different types of parks in Beijing using freely available geotagged check-in data from social media. We investigated how park attributes, park location, park context and public transportation affected the number of park check-in visits, using multiple linear regressions. Despite potential biases in the use of social media data, using a park typology, we found that the number of visits was significantly different among different types of parks. While cultural relics parks and large urban parks had larger numbers of visits, neighborhood parks had higher visitation rates per unit of area. Park size and entrance fees were associated with increased numbers of visits for all types of parks. For parks that mainly serve local residents, the distance to urban center significantly affected park use. The number of bus stops was positively correlated with park visits, suggesting that increased accessibility through public transportation leads to more visits. The results indicated that improving park accessibility via public transportation and planning small, accessible green spaces in residential areas were effective in improving park use.
       
  • The impact of greening schoolyards on the appreciation, and physical,
           cognitive and social-emotional well-being of schoolchildren: A prospective
           intervention study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): J.E. van Dijk-Wesselius, J. Maas, D. Hovinga, M. van Vugt, A.E. van den Berg Greening schoolyards is an initiative to reconnect children with nature and afford meaningful experiences that foster children’s well-being. To strengthen the empirical basis for greening schoolyards, we conducted a longitudinal prospective intervention study with a two-year follow-up, to investigate the impact of greening schoolyards on schoolchildren’s (age 7–11) appreciation of the schoolyard, and their physical, cognitive, and social-emotional well-being. Data were collected amongst nine elementary schools in moderate-to-high-urbanized areas in The Netherlands with approximately 700 children at each measurement. At baseline, all nine schoolyards were paved. Five schools greened their schoolyard between baseline and first-follow-up. Objective measurements included accelero-based measurements of physical activity during recess, attentional tests (Digit Letter Substitution Test, Natu & Argwal, 1995; Sky Search Task, Manly et al., 2001) and a social orientation test (Social Orientation Choice Card, Knight, 1981). Self-report questionnaires included children’s appreciation of the schoolyard (naturalness, likability, attractiveness and perceived restoration), and their social- and emotional well-being (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, van Widenfelt, Goedhart, Treffers & Goodman, 2003; Social Support, RIVM, 2005; Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Varni, Seid & Kurtin, 2001). Multilevel data analyses support our expectation that greening has a positive impact on children’s appreciation of the schoolyard, their attentional restoration after recess and social well-being. Furthermore, our results indicate that greening stimulates physical activity of girls. We found no impact on emotional well-being. These findings provide some support for the relevance of greening schoolyards and may guide further development of schoolyards that facilitate the well-being of schoolchildren.
       
  • Research Note: Relationship between childhood nature play and adulthood
           participation in nature-based recreation among urban residents in Tokyo
           area
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Tetsuro Hosaka, Shinya Numata, Koun Sugimoto As urban areas and populations increase rapidly worldwide, experiences of nature play in urban green spaces would be a key for reconnecting people and natural environments. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of childhood nature play on nature-related behavior among adults and its relative importance to sociodemographic factors. We conducted a retrospective questionnaire survey of 1030 adult residents in the Tokyo area, and found that the frequency of childhood play in green spaces was correlated positively with that of nature-based activities from gardening to international nature-based tourism, and even more strongly so than age, gender, and income. Given that participation in nature-based recreational activities reflects people’s interest in and appreciation of nature and can contribute to nature conservation, the creation and effective design of urban green spaces where children can interact with nature will not only improve local environments, but also contribute to global nature conservation.
       
  • Small but powerful: The importance of French community gardens for
           residents
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 180Author(s): Ana Cristina Torres, Anne-Caroline Prévot, Sophie Nadot Community gardens are increasingly implemented in cities and considered in public policies regarding the range of expected benefits they can provide. Much research has indeed emphasized their roles for community gardens members, but little research still concerns residents’ perspectives. In this paper, we explored the importance of these gardens for residents. More specifically, we assessed the knowledge, the perception and the participation of residents in the gardens. We conducted a questionnaire survey in the neighborhood of nine community gardens in Paris, France. We found that less than forty percent out of the 431 respondents know the activities going on in the nearby garden, and that these people were more often already engaged in civic initiatives. However, nearly hundred percent of interviewed people had a good perception of the gardens, based on their role in providing urban green spaces, in promoting contact with people and education. Finally, twenty percent declared frequent participation. Residents’ perceptions and participation in community gardens depended on individuals’ life experiences and involvement in biodiversity and civic initiatives.Our results highlight that city dwellers are aware of the benefits that community gardens can provide to them, to their neighborhood and to the city as a whole. These results confirm that community gardens are extremely important places to consider in urban planning and policy making, as well as in conservation research.
       
  • Up and out: A multifaceted approach to characterizing urbanization in
           Greater Saigon, 2000–2009
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Deborah L. Balk, Son V. Nghiem, Bryan R. Jones, Zhen Liu, Gillian Dunn In this case study of Greater Saigon, two types of satellite data are used to estimate the rate of change in urban spatial expansion, both horizontally and volumetrically (horizontal and vertical components), and integrates them with socioeconomic data to examine the correlates and potential causes of both kinds of change. We employ new data products – the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) derived largely from Landsat and a Dense Sampling Method (DSM) product based on QuikSCAT – in combination with data from the 1999 and 2009 censuses of Vietnam. Unlike past studies, we examine horizontal and volumetric changes in urban form and pay particular attention to the role of migration in locations experiencing those different types of change. We find these two types of urban change occur at different rates and in different localities, with the highest rates of horizontal change occurring to the north of administrative Saigon. In contrast, we find the highest rates of volumetric change in the areas north of the central districts but mostly within administrative Saigon. In-migration is strongly associated with horizontal change, whereas increases in population density appears to drive volumetric change, controlling for other factors. Positive volumetric change is associated with necessary amenities of modern urban living, often in high-rise buildings found in dense population centers like Saigon: the increasing presence in households of computers, air conditioners, piped water, and gas fuel. Use of these new integrated data hold promise to shed new light on both the built-environment and social dimensions of urbanization in low- and middle-income settings.
       
  • Mapping the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation within street
           canyons of Boston using Google Street View panoramas and building height
           model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Xiaojiang Li, Carlo Ratti Studying the solar radiation within street canyons would provide an important reference for increasing human thermal comfort and decreasing the potential health issues caused by too much exposure from sunlight. In this study, we used building height model and publicly accessible Google Street View panoramas to map the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation within street canyons of Boston, Massachusetts. Hemispherical images generated from Google Street View panoramas and building height model together with sun paths in summer and winter were used to estimate the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation within street canyons. Results show that street canyons in the downtown area have shorter sunshine duration and lower solar radiation to the ground compared with other regions of the study area in the whole year. The southwestern part of the study area with the abundance of vegetation canopies has relatively short direct sunshine duration and low solar radiation reaching the ground in summer, and relatively long direct sunshine duration and high solar radiation reaching the ground in winter. This study also shows that it is possible to estimate shading precisely within street canyons for a specific time and date at a specific location. Considering the public accessibility of Google Street View data in cities around the world, this study can be easily deployed in other cities. This study would give a great impetus to all studies relating the solar radiation at street level in future.
       
  • Urban green infrastructure and ecosystem services in sub-Saharan Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Marié J. du Toit, Sarel S. Cilliers, Martin Dallimer, Mark Goddard, Solène Guenat, Susanna F. Cornelius Africa is urbanizing at an astonishing rate. To meet many of the Sustainable Development Goals there will be a requirement for cities in sub-Saharan Africa to plan for, and manage, the rapid rise in the urban population. Green infrastructure has the potential to provide multiple ecosystem services to benefit the urban population. The general objective of this review is to consolidate research undertaken on urban green infrastructure and the associated ecosystem services in sub-Saharan African cities. The 68 reviewed papers spanned 20 countries and included 74 urban areas. However, only 38% of sub-Saharan countries had any research carried out in them. The most represented ecosystem services were regulating and provisioning, with supporting services getting the least attention. Overall there was a lack of in-depth studies on all ecosystem services, especially supporting and cultural services. Seven overarching categories of barriers and challenges to the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services emerged from the reviewed papers, namely: (i) socio-cultural values, traditions and perceptions; (ii) lack of capacity; (iii) governance, urban planning and social inequality; (iv) lack of data and/or case studies; (v) ecosystem disservices; (vi) spatial trade-offs and conflicts; (vii) climate change. These barriers we identified will need to be addressed if the future, long-term sustainable provision of ecosystem services in sub-Saharan African cities is to be assured.
       
  • Using annual Landsat imagery to identify harvesting over a range of
           intensities for non-industrial family forests
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): R. Tortini, A.L. Mayer, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, M.A. Wulder The monitoring of forested landscapes dominated by many small private forest owners is difficult or not possible without spatially explicit and up-to-date information on land cover change. Analysis of time series multispectral data from the Landsat series of satellites have the spatial and temporal characteristics required to detect sub-hectare and non-stand replacing harvest events over large areas. We identified harvests that occurred in six western upper Michigan counties from 1985 to 2011 using Landsat best available pixel (BAP) image composites and the Composite2Change (C2C) approach. We detected a total of 7071 harvesting events with size ranging from 0.5 to 171.36 ha and average size of 6.42 ha, and analyzed their temporal trajectory. To gain confidence in our harvest mapping, we compared our findings to the overlapping decade of Global Forest Watch (GFW) data. Agreement between the datasets was high, with 94.24% of the C2C and GFW harvest pixels identified with the same change year and improving to 98.74% within ±1 year. This automated harvest detection system, which can capture small and otherwise missed harvests, is valuable to natural resource agencies responsible for monitoring and compliance with regulations over large areas, and researchers requiring estimates of harvest levels and the nature of forest cover status and trends on family forests.
       
  • The landscape context of family forests in the United States:
           Anthropogenic interfaces and forest fragmentation from 2001 to 2011
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Kurt Riitters, Jennifer Costanza The capacity of family owned forests to sustain ecological goods and services depends on the landscape context within which that forest occurs. For example, the expansion of a nearby urban area results in the loss of adjacent forest, which threatens the ability of the family forest to sustain interior forest habitat. Our objective was to assess the status and change of the landscape context of family forests across the conterminous United States, as measured by interior forest status and anthropogenic (urban and agricultural) interface zones. We combined circa 2005 forest inventory data with land cover maps from 2001 and 2011 to evaluate changes in the vicinity of 132,497 inventory locations. We compared family forests to nonfamily private and public forests, and evaluated regional conservation opportunities for family forests. Between 2001 and 2011, 1.5% of family forest area experienced a change of anthropogenic interface zone, and 46% was in an interface zone by 2011. During that same time, there was a net decrease of 9.7% of family owned interior forest area, such that 27% of family forest was interior forest by 2011. The rates of forest fragmentation and occurrence in anthropogenic interface zones were higher for family and nonfamily private forests than for public forest, yet family forests contained 31% of the extant interior forest area. The geography of landscape patterns suggested where aggregate actions by family forest owners may have relatively large regional effects upon extant interior forest conditions.
       
  • Climate change and declining levels of green structures: Life in informal
           settlements of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Manoj Roy, Riziki Shemdoe, David Hulme, Nicholaus Mwageni, Alex Gough Impacts of climate change are often acute for those who live in informal settlements, the places where poverty, inequality and deprivation are concentrated in cities across the developing world. To broaden the strategies to address this issue, many cities are now embracing ecosystem-based adaptation and resilience. But, in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) the approach is yet to make much headway. This paper examines how climate change impacts on poor urban people via one component of urban ecosystem − urban green structures (UGS) − in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It examines: the UGS of importance to the city's informal dwellers and the range of derived services; changes over time to these UGS and derived services; and emerging adaptation practices. Using qualitative methods, the study has three key findings. First, cultural ecosystem services are of greatest importance to informal dwellers, although they do harness a range of other services. Second, the city's UGS have undergone dramatic changes due to both climatic and non-climatic factors. This has resulted in a gradual decline in the quantity and quality of UGS-derived services for the urban poor. Third, in responding to these changes, informal settlement dwellers have relied mostly on their personal, and sometimes on their collective, resources and capabilities. There are some innovative practices that draw on external institutions, but access to external support for informal communities has remained consistently low. City authorities should approach and plan greening ‘for’ (not ‘in’) informal settlements as a targeted environmental improvement endeavour – referred to here as ‘creative urban planning’.
       
  • Social drivers of rural forest dynamics: A multi-scale approach combining
           ethnography, geomatic and mental model analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Julien Blanco, Anne Sourdril, Marc Deconchat, Sylvie Ladet, Emilie Andrieu Farm forests and trees outside forests (i.e., ‘rural forests’) are key components for the sustainability of agricultural landscapes. Farmers are the main managers of rural forests and their practices vary according to a range of individual and collective factors. This diversity in management practices challenges the understanding of landscape patterns and dynamics, in particular at local and regional scales. In this study, we combined forest mapping over 150 years, ethnographic investigations and mental models to investigate the social drivers of rural forests in a French case study. Results showed a stability of woodlands and groves, favored by the social organization system, i.e., a self-reliance and house-centered system. Recent tree encroachment in abandoned lands – caused by rural exodus and the intensification of agriculture – resulted in a spread of woodlands. In addition, a shift from family-based to market-oriented woodland management was observed, contributing to the homogenization of forest management practices. Hedgerows declined but with contrasted trends according to their location and adjacent land uses: in-farm hedgerows that obstructed mechanization declined, whereas boundary hedgerows that assisted in the maintenance of farmers’ estates were reinforced. Scattered trees were considered of little interest by farmers and declined. This study achieved an understanding of rural forest patterns and underlying social drivers. Mental models provided a basis for exploring the tradeoffs between ecosystem services and disservices operated by farmers. They also revealed differences between scientific and farmer classifications of trees outside forests. Mental models constitute a promising tool for reinforcing bonds between the social and natural sciences.
       
  • Cross-boundary cooperation for landscape management: Collective action and
           social exchange among individual private forest landowners
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Alexandra Paige Fischer, Andrew Klooster, Lora Cirhigiri The landscape is an ideal spatial extent for managing forests because many ecological processes and disturbances occur on such scales. Moreover, landscape-level decision-making processes can improve the efficiency of forest management, as when many owners of small parcels increase the economy of scale of their operations by jointly hiring labor or selling products. Despite the potential benefits of managing at the landscape level, cooperation on management activities across property boundaries is rare among private landowners and poorly understood. We used a comparative case study approach to explain cooperative management among eight sets of individual private forest landowners in the Pacific Northwest and Upper Midwest, USA. We characterized how private forest owners cooperated on management and the outcomes they associated with cooperating, and we identified factors that influenced cooperation. We investigated whether cooperative management among private landowners may be constrained by social risks and whether formal institutions may be needed to facilitate cooperation. In the cases we investigated, owners jointly planned and implemented integrated management decisions on their collective forest properties. They perceived a number of beneficial social and ecological outcomes of cooperation. The key factors that fostered the emergence and continuity of cooperative management included shared concern, especially about risks to their properties and the health of their forests; pre-existing networks; trust; external expertise and resources; local leadership; and formal institutions. These factors are consistent with collective action and social exchange theory. Our findings shed light on social conditions that foster cooperative landscape management.
       
 
 
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