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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3157 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3157 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 415, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 404, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 456, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Landscape and Urban Planning
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.124
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 28  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0169-2046
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • Towards multifunctional land use in an agricultural landscape: A trade-off
           and synergy analysis in the Lower Fraser Valley, Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 184Author(s): Anna M. Rallings, Sean M. Smukler, Sarah E. Gergel, Kent Mullinix Hedgerows and riparian buffers in agricultural landscapes can help increase landscape multifunctionality and thereby mitigate conflicts among agricultural production and environmental stewardship objectives. However, the relative merits of conserving versus increasing non-production perennial vegetation (NPPV) are not well understood despite the universal conflicts among such objectives in rapidly urbanizing and intensifying agricultural regions worldwide. Hence, using the most intensive agricultural region of British Columbia, Canada as a case study, we aimed to (i) evaluate the current status of NPPV in terms of carbon stocks and landscape connectivity metrics (ii) compare options for conservation relative to agricultural expansion in terms of maintenance of landscape multifunctionality (iii) identify management options for NPPV that could maximize ecological benefits using a normative scenario analysis. We determined that 83% of the NPPV found on the farmland in our study area is likely susceptible to conversion to expanding agricultural production or urban development. Scenario analysis showed planting hedgerows along all farm parcel boundaries and riparian buffers along all farmscape waterways will not compensate for the loss of multifunctionality from agricultural intensification based on expansion. Conserving or planting hedgerows alone however resulted in a disproportionate increase in connectivity given the relative loss of productive agricultural land. This analysis clearly highlights the potential trade-offs among the indicators evaluated as well as the benefits of intensification on land already in production. In the assessed landscape, protecting existing large patches of NPPV and augmenting the landscape pattern with hedgerows is an effective approach to conflicting objectives and ensuring landscape multifunctionality.
  • Valuing attributes of forest restoration in a semi-arid watershed
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 184Author(s): Julie M. Mueller, Adrienne B. Soder, Abraham E. Springer Approximately 1.5 M residents of the Phoenix metropolitan area rely upon the Salt Verde River watershed in central Arizona, USA, to meet their water demands. However, the health of the semi-arid watershed is at risk. Densely populated forests increase the probability of catastrophic wildfire and threaten the watershed’s integrity. Restoration reduces the risk of catastrophic wildfire and improves the health and productivity of the watershed. While current research indicates public support of watershed restoration, little guidance exists for land managers regarding the relative benefits of restoration projects. We estimate benefits of watershed restoration projects in the Salt-Verde River watershed using a choice experiment. The survey focuses on residents of the Phoenix metropolitan area as beneficiaries of watershed restoration and includes public access, surface water quality, groundwater recharge, critical habitat, and cultural significance as attributes. Willingness to pay estimates are obtained using a Bayesian mixed logit model. Respondents have a positive and statistically significant willingness to pay for all attributes. The highest willingness to pay is a one-time fee of $41.92 for restoration projects that protect critical habitats for endangered and threatened species. Our results also provide one of the first estimates for groundwater recharge as an attribute of watershed restoration. The benefit estimates obtained can directly inform land managers regarding restoration in semi-arid landscapes and assist in clearly delineating difficult to quantify environmental benefits in cost-benefit analyses of proposed future projects.
  • Social impacts of homelessness and long-term occupancy on national forests
           and grasslands: A national study of U.S. Forest Service law enforcement
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 184Author(s): Joshua W.R. Baur, Lee Cerveny Long-term occupancy by homeless individuals in U.S. national forests and grasslands results in persistent management challenges and resource concerns. Management challenges associated with non-recreational campers (homeless long-term occupants) include: maintaining sanitary conditions, public safety, vandalism, and conflict with other forest visitors. These management challenges may already be a substantial concern for district rangers and law enforcement officers (LEOs) in many parts of the U.S. This exploratory study compares the social impacts of various types of non-recreational campers across different forest types in the U.S. In this paper, we compare the prevalence, social impacts, and types of criminal behavior associated with non-recreational campers, along a rural to urban forest continuum. ANOVA analysis reveals that transient retirees are most frequently encountered by law enforcement, with no differences apparent among forest types. Teens and runaways were least often encountered, but this group demonstrated a significant difference in frequency of encounters between rural and urban locations. In terms of conflict, LEOs reported that Forest Service staff are the group most frequently experiencing conflict with non-recreational campers, with no significant differences found among the forest types. With respect to unlawful behavior among the homeless on national forest lands, LEOs reported having to respond to stay violations most often, with no differences found among different forest area types. This paper considers these outcomes and the management challenges they represent.
  • The implications for visual simulation and analysis of temporal variation
           in the visibility of wind turbines
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 184Author(s): Ian D. Bishop The visual impact of wind turbines is a central issue in their public acceptance. New wind farm proposals are commonly subject to visual simulation and visual impact assessment. Guidelines for both these processes are already used in a number of jurisdictions and there is widespread interest in making simulation and impact assessments as meaningful as possible. To a large degree the guidelines for both processes tend to be based on worst-case (full-frontal) conditions. There are two quite good reasons for this. Firstly, the worst-case sets a boundary for visual impact. Secondly, we seldom know enough about how visibility or visual impact changes over time and what ‘typical’ conditions are like – or how the range of conditions is distributed. This paper argues that if we can address this knowledge gap, then we may also be able to take a more nuanced approach to simulation and analysis. It should be possible, using widespread atmospheric visibility data, to determine the temporal distribution of visual impacts at a particular location rather computing a single estimate. It may also be valid to create simulations of both worst-case and more typical conditions. This paper explores the key variables affecting visual impacts – visual magnitude and color difference – and how they may be monitored and analyzed efficiently and effectively. A wind farm in southern Victoria, Australia is used as the case study. Recommendations are made on how the approaches could be used more widely.
  • Increasing local biodiversity in urban environments: Community development
           in semi-natural species-rich forb vegetation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 184Author(s): Mona Chor Bjørn, Jacob Weiner, Johannes Kollmann, Marian Ørgaard There is much interest in supporting biodiversity through eye-catching low maintenance requiring herbaceous vegetation types in urban environments. Community development of forb vegetation is not well understood, and experimental studies investigating the potentials and limitations of establishing such vegetation are needed. We performed a field experiment including three mixtures of 19 forb species (three annuals, three biennials, 13 perennials) and analysed the development of the community over 3 years. In spring 2010 a total of 3630 seedling plug plants were transplanted in a randomized block experiment with 30 plots; non-planted control plots were monitored as reference. Management was limited to removal of dead plant material in February. We documented transplant survivorship, gap colonisation and soil seed bank composition. Standing biomass was harvested in a subset of plots in August 2012, and in all plots in July 2013. After four growing seasons, 1592 transplants were still alive. Fifteen experimental species had spread to gaps, but grasses, Achillea millefolium and Trifolium pratense var. sativum were the most frequent gap-colonizers. On average, biomass of non-experimental species contributed only 11% to the total aboveground biomass in treatment mixtures after four growing seasons. The initial proportions of species (annuals vs perennials) had no significant effect on the community's resistance to colonisation by non-experimental species. Biomass of non-experimental species was negatively correlated to transplant survival. Thus, high plant density increases resistance to invasion, but long-term persistence of forb vegetation is species-specific. In practice some disturbance is necessary to facilitate regeneration of desirable forbs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • How suitable is entropy as a measure of urban sprawl'
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 184Author(s): Naghmeh Nazarnia, Christopher Harding, Jochen A.G. Jaeger Urban sprawl has found widespread attention among scholars, planners, and policy makers. It has been defined and measured in various ways, and there is still no general agreement on how to measure and control urban sprawl and how to prevent its many harmful effects on the natural environment and its negative socio-economic consequences. Entropy has been one of the most often used metrics for the measurement of urban sprawl. However, its suitability in terms of requirements for measuring urban sprawl has not yet been examined systematically. Therefore, our study examines the behavior and suitability of entropy as a measure of urban sprawl by applying it to seven simple model landscapes and six real-world case studies. We also investigate the influence of the choice of the city center and associated translocation of zones and assess entropy with regard to 13 suitability criteria for measures of urban sprawl. Our results show that entropy is, in many cases, not sensitive to important differences between spatial patterns of built-up areas that represent different levels of urban sprawl, e.g., dispersed vs. compact spatial arrangement of built-up areas. In addition, the value of entropy is strongly affected by changes in the choice of zones within a landscape. Finally, entropy does not meet several important suitability criteria for measuring urban sprawl; it only meets 5 out of 13 suitability criteria. We conclude that entropy is not suitable as a measure of urban sprawl. More suitable metrics of urban sprawl are available that should be used instead.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • The “Green Belt Berlin”: Establishing a greenway where the Berlin Wall
           once stood by integrating ecological, social and cultural approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 184Author(s): Ingo Kowarik Urban greenways benefit urban dwellers by providing multiple ecosystem services and by supporting biodiversity conservation in cities. Increasing competition for open space in growing cities, however, often hinders the establishment of greenways in those places where social demands for related services are highest. In the wake of the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, a new greenway, the “Green Belt Berlin,” is being established within the former border zone, which now links Berlin’s core with the rural hinterland. An analysis of the planning approaches and principles that directed the implementation of the greenway and the transformation of vacant urban land into new parks revealed ways to (i) extend urban green infrastructure in times and places of political transformation; (ii) justify new greenspace by combining multiple ecological, social, and cultural goals within overarching planning programs; (iii) conserve and stage remnants of the Berlin Wall, allowing the greenway to become part of a decentralized memorial landscape; (iv) work with novel ecosystems and wild urban nature by integrating ecology with urban planning and design; and (v) use design interventions to create “orderly frames.” Spatial analyses indicate that the new greenway may reduce environmental inequity in Berlin as it largely intersects neighborhoods where disadvantaged status coincides with poor access to urban greenspace. This case study thus demonstrates opportunities to strengthen the urban green infrastructure of growing cities through integrative planning approaches.
  • Understanding the local impact of urban park plans and park typology on
           housing price: A case study of the Busan metropolitan region, Korea
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 184Author(s): Hyun-Soo Kim, Go-Eun Lee, Jae-Song Lee, Yeol Choi The valuation of urban parks using hedonic pricing has been thoroughly documented in a number of studies set in many cities. Just as the value of existing parks can be estimated by investigating the relationship between housing prices and parks, the value of future parks can also be estimated using this approach. This study recognized that a series of planning processes and land use transitions to create urban parks not only influences the perceptions of real estate buyers but also the quality of the local environment. From the apartment sales data for the Busan metropolitan region of Korea, data on 11,498 sales of apartments within walking distance to planned parks (as well as existing parks) were collected. These data were applied in an analysis comprising three categories describing different planning contexts for the parks: “comprehensive plans,” “implementation plans,” and “completed parks.” A set of explanatory variables representing housing, park, and neighborhood characteristics was selected, with additional remarks regarding the planning specifications that might influence apartment buyers’ perceptions, such as the park type and the age of a plan, as defined in the official plans of the city. The results showed that smaller park types in residential settings were preferred throughout the processes of park planning, while all types were preferred once the processes were completed. The preference in park types is likely associated with the quality of the planning guidelines as well as the size of the project and the duration of planning.
  • Does converting abandoned railways to greenways impact neighboring housing
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Youngre Noh This research examines the housing market before and after abandoned railways are converted into greenways. Two different hedonic pricing models are employed to analyze changes in the impact and trend of the change—spatial regressions for before and after the conversion and the Adjusted Interrupted Time Series-Difference in Differences (AITS-DID) model. Analyzing 2005–2012 single-family home sale transactions in the City of Whittier, California the results show that converting the abandoned railway into a greenway increases property values. Upon the completion of the greenway, the positive association with the greenway proximity increased in both models. The premium also exists in the pre-conversion period. The sellers’ and buyers’ expectation of the greenway being an amenity factored into the housing market even during the construction of the greenway. After the conversion, properties near the greenway experienced a negative trend in their value.
  • How current lawn attributes affect choices concerning water conserving
           lawn options: An individualized choice experiment in Kelowna, British
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Steven A. Conrad, Joel Pipher, Wolfgang Haider This paper contributes to the study of water use and policies governing land use in residential landscapes. We employed a discrete choice experiment to examine the effect existing lawn attributes have on stated preferences of residents of detached homes in the City of Kelowna, British Columbia, for four approaches to reducing the irrigation requirements for their residential lawns: restrictions on lawn sizes; the use of drought-tolerant turfgrass; restrictions on outdoor irrigation; and subsidies for removing or replacing lawns. Each respondent’s current lawn (i.e., the status quo) was included as a possible choice in the choice sets, and the attributes of the current lawn were used in constructing the alternatives. Part-worth utilities for a conditional logit and mixed logit model with these status quo predictors were used to analyze the choice data and provide estimates for lawn choices. Results show that status quo conditions contribute to the estimation of utility coefficients for lawn features and lawn choices. Irrigation watering costs and low levels of subsidies to encourage lawn replacement were found to only marginally influence residents’ landscaping decisions. Contrastingly, status quo factors representing the current fraction of turfgrass in the homeowner’s total landscape was the strongest motivating factor driving residents’ lawn choices. Residents with larger proportions of turfgrass were more likely to choose landscaping changes that featured smaller percentages of lawns. Another significant status quo factor in residents’ lawn choices was turfgrass variety, where residents with traditional varieties of turfgrass were more likely to choose landscaping options with water conserving lawns.
  • A GIS and object based image analysis approach to mapping the greenspace
           composition of domestic gardens in Leicester, UK
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Fraser Baker, Claire Smith Greenspace provides a range of environmental benefits for urban residents, and is considered an important resource in urban development strategies. However, city-wide greenspace benefit modelling approaches often overestimate greenspace within garden areas, or even omit gardens from such analysis. As combined garden areal extents are significant for UK urban areas, improved estimations of garden greenspace abundance are required to improve urban greenspace analysis. This study investigates the methodological implications of a GIS and Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) remote sensing approach with very high resolution Worldview-2 imagery for classifying UK urban garden surfaces. Gardens for an approximate 7 km2 study area of the city of Leicester, UK were classified with an overall accuracy ∼86%. The study demonstrates the applicability of GIS and OBIA analysis for mapping UK urban garden surfaces, with the methodology detailed here useful as a framework for further UK garden studies. Improvements to the current methodology are also considered in lieu of data and methodological limitations. In addition, the resulting garden surface dataset was analysed to examine associations of garden greenspace proportions with physical garden characteristics. Low greenspace proportions are found to be particularly prevalent for Victorian Terraced housing types in the study area; with greenspace proportions also generally associated positively with garden areal extents. Identification of potential predictive characteristics for garden greenspace abundance may prove useful as proxy information for urban greenspace analysis in other UK urban areas.
  • Urban form and composition of street canyons: A human-centric big data and
           deep learning approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Ariane Middel, Jonas Lukasczyk, Sophie Zakrzewski, Michael Arnold, Ross Maciejewski Various research applications require detailed metrics to describe the form and composition of cities at fine scales, but the parameter computation remains a challenge due to limited data availability, quality, and processing capabilities. We developed an innovative big data approach to derive street-level morphology and urban feature composition as experienced by a pedestrian from Google Street View (GSV) imagery. We employed a scalable deep learning framework to segment 90-degree field of view GSV image cubes into six classes: sky, trees, buildings, impervious surfaces, pervious surfaces, and non-permanent objects. We increased the classification accuracy by differentiating between three view directions (lateral, down, and up) and by introducing a void class as training label. To model the urban environment as perceived by a pedestrian in a street canyon, we projected the segmented image cubes onto spheres and evaluated the fraction of each surface class on the sphere. To demonstrate the application of our approach, we analyzed the urban form and composition of Philadelphia County and three Philadelphia neighborhoods (suburb, center city, lower income neighborhood) using stacked area graphs. Our method is fully scalable to other geographic locations and constitutes an important step towards building a global morphological database to describe the form and composition of cities from a human-centric perspective.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • The role of fire on wolf distribution and breeding-site selection:
           Insights from a generalist carnivore occurring in a fire-prone landscape
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): S. Lino, N. Sillero, J. Torres, X. Santos, F. Álvares Wildfires are a main driver of habitat disturbance, influencing landscape structure and resource availability. Large carnivores are expected to experience strong effects as recently burned areas influence prey availability and suitable conditions for refuge and breeding. However, there are substantial knowledge gaps regarding the interplay between fire and landscape attributes affecting large carnivore occurrence. In this work, we aim to assess the effects of fire in relation to human density, elevation, and land cover in determining wolf (Canis lupus) occurrence at two spatial scales. A regional scale considering temporal shifts in wolf distribution at country level (Portugal) and a local scale considering breeding-site selection and reuse from 11 packs. We hypothesized that fire disturbance in a human-dominated landscape is a significant factor influencing wolf occurrence. Our results showed that wolves persisted in areas with higher altitudes, lower forest cover and intensive fire regimes. Breeding-sites were located at higher altitudes, in land covers less prone to human activity and disturbance, but subjected to a higher burnt extent, although with no significant association between breeding-site displacement and fire occurrence. The multiple-scale approach demonstrated wolves’ remarkable resilience to fire, persisting and breeding in a human-dominated landscape under intensive fire regimes. However, burnt landscapes may induce higher exposure to human disturbance and persecution due to limited refuge conditions. This study provides valuable insights on the role of fire in the persistence and habitat selection of a large carnivore, an issue with relevant management implications in fire-prone landscapes, predicted to become a common scenario worldwide.
  • The contribution of key observation point evaluation to a scientifically
           rigorous approach to visual impact assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): James F. Palmer This study introduces scientifically rigorous methods to visual impact assessment. Images of the existing condition are edited to simulate two alternatives at 22 key observation points (KOPs) along a proposed transmission line. Scenic value and visual contrast are assessed from the images by six independent evaluators. Photo validity and rating reliability are evaluated, and found acceptable. Procedures to measure cumulative and incremental visual impacts in a view are demonstrated. Both mean ratings and effect size are used to interpret the severity of visual impacts. The cumulative impact measured by contrast ratings is unreasonably adverse at many KOPs. The incremental visual impact measured by contrast ratings is less severe than the existing transmission line’s visual impact, but still unreasonable at many KOPs. The incremental impact determined by the change in scenic value is less severe than indicated by visual contrast, but still identifies many unreasonable impacts. Burial of 84 km of the transmission line results in an improvement at the affected KOPs but unreasonable impacts remain at other locations. The exigencies of professional practice limit the number of evaluators—however, scientific rigor requires a greater number of evaluators to establish mean ratings with reasonable levels of confidence. It is proposed that this may be an opportunity to involve the public. This is the first-time effect size has been used to interpret contrast ratings, and additional reports on its effectiveness are needed. It is hoped that professionals conducting visual impact assessments will employ these procedures and report them publicly.
  • Butterfly diversity along the urbanization gradient in a densely-built
           Mediterranean city: Land cover is more decisive than resources in
           structuring communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Olga Tzortzakaki, Vassiliki Kati, Maria Panitsa, Evangelos Tzanatos, Sinos Giokas Urbanization induces rapid landscape and habitat modifications leading to alterations in species distribution patterns and biodiversity loss. As pollinating insects such as butterflies are particularly susceptible to urbanization, it is important to pinpoint the factors that could enhance their diversity in the urban areas in order to design adequate management and conservation actions. Our study aims to investigate the influence of land cover and local habitat characteristics on the butterfly diversity patterns and community structure in a densely built city in the eastern Mediterranean region. We carried out butterfly surveys (line transects) in 45 randomly selected sites, distributed along an urbanization gradient. In each site, we assessed the surrounding landscape by measuring the land cover in a 200-m buffer zone, and the local habitat by estimating the available plant resources along each transect. Overall, 1805 individuals belonging to 41 butterfly species were recorded. Land cover was found to have the strongest influence on butterfly species richness, abundance and community structure. Although plant resources were sufficiently available within the whole study area, the butterfly community was significantly poorer in the more urbanized areas, indicating the potential role of habitat fragmentation and patch isolation. In contrast, butterfly diversity was significantly higher in the peri-urban area, underlying its conservation value for butterflies in the urban landscape. We attribute these findings to the degradation of the more urbanized areas due to long-term inadequate planning and the disorganized expansion of the city.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Evaluating climate change adaptation strategies and scenarios of enhanced
           vertical and horizontal compactness at urban scale (a case study for
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Matthias Straka, Sahar Sodoudi This study evaluates the effectiveness of climate change adaptation strategies in Berlin, Germany, on a summer day by using the urban climate model MUKLIMO_3. White coating, green roofs and a combination of both are analysed regarding their cooling ability on the 2 m-temperature. Additionally, horizontal and vertical compactness are evaluated in terms of their respective impact on the micro climate. An enhanced albedo of the urban surfaces leads to the highest cooling ability with a significant daily average cooling of 0.2 K per 0.1 increase of albedo, while green roofs have only a small cooling effect at pedestrian level. An increased vertical compactness has a cooling ability due to the higher amount of shading, enhanced horizontal compactness shows a negative impact on the micro climate due to the raised percentage of sealed surfaces and the additional urban structures that can emit additional heat during the night. All strategies show a higher effect on the daytime and a smaller influence on the nocturnal temperature.
  • Moving through the matrix: Promoting permeability for large carnivores in
           a human-dominated landscape
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Justine A. Smith, Timothy P. Duane, Christopher C. Wilmers Landscape connectivity for wildlife populations is declining globally due to increasing development and habitat fragmentation. However, outside of full protection of undeveloped wildlife corridors, conservation planners have limited tools to identify the appropriate level of densification such that landscape permeability for wildlife is maintained. Here we sought to determine the development characteristics that contribute to movement potential in an exurban landscape for a large carnivore, the puma. We first fit a piecewise step-selection function from movement paths from 28 male pumas to identify threshold levels of development that produce barriers to movement. We then applied this threshold to projected housing densities of existing parcels under a full General Plan buildout scenario in Santa Cruz County to illustrate how parcels at risk of increasing above the puma movement threshold can be identified. Finally, we tested the relative importance of characteristics associated with parcels and the surrounding area on relative puma movement. We found that pumas exhibit avoidance of housing density that saturates at a threshold, and that puma utilization of parcels at risk of densification above this threshold is predicted by parcel area and the housing density and area of surrounding parcels. Our work suggests that maintaining permeability in developing landscapes is likely contingent on preventing densification and parcel subdivision in exurban areas. We discuss how our findings and approach can be used by conservation planners to promote landscape permeability in already partially developed landscapes.
  • Environmental and social dimensions of community gardens in East Harlem
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Nada Petrovic, Troy Simpson, Ben Orlove, Brian Dowd-Uribe Community gardens are popular in the United States and around the world as a strategy to meet environmental and social goals in urban areas. They have been studied in a variety of contexts including food production, social activities, and urban green infrastructure. This study examines 35 community gardens in East Harlem, New York City, through environmental inventories and semi-structured interviews with gardeners (N = 54). Our study focuses on two topics: (a) key characteristics of the community gardens and perceptions among their members, and (b) associations between environmental and social elements of gardens, and place attachment of gardeners to the gardens. The 35 gardens in this study offer residents an estimated 18,000 square meters of community garden space, approximately half of which is green space. The gardeners show deep attachment to their gardens, as a large majority indicated that the gardens are highly significant to them, increase their neighborhood pride, and reduce stated likelihood of moving. Place attachment is positively correlated with knowing other gardeners and perceiving garden governance as democratic. Attachment is also correlated with a preference for garden produce over store produce and the amount of hardscape in the gardens. Although growing vegetables is meaningful to gardeners, the experience of growing food appears to be more important than the quantity grown. Policy considerations related to simultaneously supporting ecosystem services and social dynamics associated with the gardens are discussed.
  • Influence of urban form on the cooling effect of a small urban river
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Chae Yeon Park, Dong Kun Lee, Takashi Asawa, Akinobu Murakami, Ho Gul Kim, Myung Kyoon Lee, Ho Sang Lee Urban warming due to increased urbanization is becoming a serious environmental problem, requiring urban planners to consider heat mitigation strategies that reduce urban air temperature. Urban rivers play an important role in reducing urban heat through evaporation and transfer of sensible heat, known as the river cooling effect (RCE). We used detailed field measurements to calculate the river cooling intensity (RCI) and river cooling distance (RCD) for the Cheonggye River in Seoul, Korea in order to determine the relationship between RCE and urban form at different times of day during summer. Our results showed that the Cheonggye River had a mean RCI of 0.46 °C and a mean RCD of 32.7 m at 2 p.m. and a mean RCI of 0.37 °C and a mean RCD of 37.2 m at 10 p.m. Spatial variations in RCE were negatively correlated with street width and mean building height at 2 p.m., indicating that narrower streets and lower buildings would improve the RCE. In addition, temporal variations in RCE were related to changes wind speed at similar humidity levels. Our results show that the urban form surrounding a river can affect the local RCE, suggesting that landscape and urban planners should consider urban form as a variable affecting urban heat and RCE.
  • Accounting for artificial light impact on bat activity for a
           biodiversity-friendly urban planning
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): J. Pauwels, I. Le Viol, C. Azam, N. Valet, J.-F. Julien, Y. Bas, C. Lemarchand, A. Sanchez de Miguel, C. Kerbiriou Light pollution constitutes a major threat to biodiversity by decreasing habitat quality and landscape connectivity for nocturnal species. While there is an increasing consideration of biodiversity in urban management policies, the impact of artificial light is poorly accounted for. This is in a large part due to the lack of quantitative information and relevant guidelines to limit its negative effects. Here we compared the potential of two sources of information on light pollution, remote sensing (nocturnal picture taken from the International Space Station ISS) and ground-based (location of streetlights) data, to measure its impact on bats. Our aims were to (i) evaluate how light pollution affected Pipistrellus pipistrellus activity at the city scale, (ii) determine which source of information was the most relevant to measure light pollution’s effect and (iii) define a reproducible methodology applicable in land management to account for biodiversity in lighting planning. We used citizen science data to model the activity of P. pipistrellus, a species considered light tolerant, within three cities of France while accounting for artificial light through a variable based on either source of information. We showed that at the city scale, P. pipistrellus activity is negatively impacted by light pollution irrespective of the light variable used. This detrimental effect was better described by variables based on ISS pictures than on streetlights location. Our methodology can be easily reproduced and used in urban planning to help take the impact of light pollution into consideration and promote a biodiversity-friendly management of artificial light.
  • Characterizing behavioral adaptation to climate change in temperate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Alexandra Paige Fischer The potential impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems are well recognized, and a wide variety of adaptation measures have been proposed. However, little is known about whether and how adaptation is occurring among people in these ecosystems. Understanding adaptation at the level of individuals, including members of households and extended families, is especially important because it is the level at which people most directly experience climate change impacts and engage in behavioral change. I offer a framework for characterizing the responses of individual landowners to climate change impacts in terms of adaptation behavior, and distinguishing adaptation from coping. The framework expands existing typologies of adaptation behavior to include a hierarchy of three analytical units of behavior: activities, practices, and strategies. I illustrate the framework by applying it to landowners’ responses to climate change impacts in temperate forests, a biome that is undergoing dramatic change. Individuals own and rely on large proportions of land in many temperate forest countries and are therefore exposed and sensitive to climate change impacts. Through management, they also influence how forests and their own well-being are affected by climate change. By improving characterizations of behavioral responses to climate change, the framework I propose can help researchers and practitioners evaluate progress toward adaptation with greater rigor.
  • Using plan and ordinance quality to evaluate the implementation of
           riparian buffer policies
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 183Author(s): Danielle Spurlock Comprehensive plans, development management ordinances, and approved development applications help shape the landscape features that affect water resources. The translation of a plan and ordinances into action, however, cannot be assumed. This paper examines riparian buffers, a prominent stormwater control measure. The central research question is: Does the quality of policy inputs help explain the amount of tree cover and impervious surface within riparian buffers' Data come from a cross-sectional study of 178 development applications sampled from 14 jurisdictions in two watersheds in North Carolina and Maryland. Research methods include 1) the content analysis of policy inputs including plans, ordinances, and development applications, 2) tree cover and impervious surface calculations within riparian buffers using 1 m high-resolution land classification maps, and 3) logistic regressions to test the relationships among these variables and community and site-specific variables. The likelihood of a buffer contained 75% or more tree cover increased with higher plan and ordinance quality scores and decreased for developments with more lots. The likelihood of a development’s buffer contained 5% or more impervious surface increased with higher growth rate, higher population density, and in developments containing more lots. Results suggest jurisdictions could include more of the goals, fact base, and policies the water resource protection literature associate with watershed protection and optimal riparian buffer functioning. Findings could also inform outreach during the permitting process and help practitioners create monitoring and restoration programs targeted at developments where impervious surface encroachment is more likely to occur.
  • Perspectives of resource management professionals on the future of New
           England’s landscape: Challenges, barriers, and opportunities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Marissa F. McBride, Matthew J. Duveneck, Kathleen F. Lambert, Kathleen A. Theoharides, Jonathan R. Thompson New England is a predominately forested landscape in which 80% of the forest is privately owned and patterns of land use are the result of diverse landowners acting individually in response to shifting social and economic conditions. In aggregate, perspectives of regional stakeholders can help to inform the challenges and opportunities related to achieving sustainable land-use at the landscape scale in regions like New England. We conducted structured interviews with stakeholders—largely resource management professionals—working in fields related to land-use management (n = 57) to elicit their perspectives on the future of New England’s landscape. The responses were analysed using qualitative content analysis and coded in terms of perceived challenges and opportunities for promoting sustainable land-use trajectories amidst conflicting priorities. The stakeholders overwhelmingly viewed ecological and social issues as interconnected rather than as distinct systems. They perceive the central challenges to sustainability to be: lack of funding and government support, increased development pressures, changing landowner demographics, and the difficulty of accounting for aggregate impacts in a dispersed planning context. The reduced ability of landowners to derive market values from their land was an overarching concern, with parcelization, fragmentation, and poorly planned development viewed as having a disproportionate impact on the character of the land and the potential to exacerbate the negative impacts of other drivers such as climate change. Perceived opportunities for promoting sustainable futures include improving the liveability of urban areas and quality of urban planning to encourage more compact forms of development, and realigning monetary incentives to recognize the collective benefits that forested landowners provide.
  • Family forest owners and landscape-scale interactions: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Audrey L. Mayer Forested landscapes around the world are owned, governed, and managed by many small owners and collectives. The management decisions that these owners and collectives make aggregate into measurable impacts on forest cover, fragmentation, carbon storage, biodiversity, and on the ecosystem services these forests provide to owners and broader society. Conversely, large scale processes such as climate change, globalization of markets, changes to laws regarding land tenure and access, and labor migration and remittances dramatically affect individual forest owners and the activities they are able to do on their land. Using NVivo 11.0, I coded and analyzed 456 papers describing research in the intersection of private or communal owners, forests, and landscape-scale impacts or influences. This analysis identified several prominent themes. Forested landscapes are increasingly split into smaller managed segments among more owners, in some cases facilitating deforestation. Global-scale processes such as labor migration and globalized forest product systems influence management decisions of family forest owners in most countries, particularly the choice of growing exotic species plantations and converting forests to cash crops. Programs and policies aimed at family and communal forest owners can be better targeted to incentivize these owners to protect and enhance forest benefits for broader society, and to better support owners’ adaptations to climate change, invasive species, biodiversity loss, and population demographics. Forest-based tourism and non-timber forest products are important but undervalued incentives for forest conservation. Given the large proportion of forests owned and managed by smallholders, landscape-scale planning and conservation goals cannot be met without engaging these forest owners.
  • Spatial analysis of family forest landownership in the southern United
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Neelam C. Poudyal, Brett J. Butler, Donald G. Hodges Family forest landowners in the United States have diverse ownership and management objectives. Assessing and monitoring regional patterns and trends in landowner motivations and management behavior may aid in understanding the conservation and economic implications of social change. This paper presents a regional analysis of family forest landowners in the southern United States by combining a GIS-based exploratory data analysis with spatially explicit information on landowner motivations and management behavior data obtained from the U.S. Forest Service National Woodland Owners Survey (NWOS). Results reveal that spatial autocorrelation was present in motivations reflecting tangible and pecuniary benefits (e.g. timber, investment, hunting), but not in motivations reflecting intangible and non-pecuniary benefits (e.g. privacy, beauty). Statistically significant clusters of landowners with similar motivations and management behaviors (i.e., hotspots/coldspots) were identified using local indicators of spatial association and visualized in a series of maps to discuss their policy and management implications. The findings are useful in understanding regional variations as well as concentrations in landownership motivation, management activities, and will guide stakeholders in locating areas of interest for conservation planning, strategic marketing, and education and outreach.
  • From walking buffers to active places: An activity-based approach to
           measure human-scale urban form
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): JieLan Xu Urban form measures have been increasingly used in multidisciplinary research, yet few studies have conceptualized different meanings of human-scale urban form for various population groups. This study proposes an activity-based approach that builds direct links between urban form measures and travel-activity patterns of various population groups. With a case study on older adults' walking activity in Toronto, this study maps potential activity spaces for each population group, and measures the potential of social interaction at a land-parcel level. Based on a population-representative survey data and an open source routing algorithm, this study provides an exploratory method to conceptualize and measure human-scale urban form for different population groups. Further, this method helps to understand the non-linear relationships between conventional urban form measures and travel-activity patterns, and to inform planning interventions on urban form features that are particularly important for a specific population group.
  • Measuring daily accessed street greenery: A human-scale approach for
           informing better urban planning practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Yu Ye, Daniel Richards, Yi Lu, Xiaoping Song, Yu Zhuang, Wei Zeng, Teng Zhong The public benefits of visible street greenery have been well recognised in a growing literature. Nevertheless, this issue was rare to be included into urban greenery and planning practices. As a response to this situation, we proposed an actionable approach for quantifying the daily exposure of urban residents to eye-level street greenery by integrating high resolution measurements on both greenery and accessibility. Google Street View (GSV) images in Singapore were collected and extracted through machine learning algorithms to achieve an accurate measurement on visible greenery. Street networks collected from Open Street Map (OSM) were analysed through spatial design network analysis (sDNA) to quantify the accessibility value of each street. The integration of street greenery and accessibility helps to measure greenery from a human-centred perspective, and it provides a decision-support tool for urban planners to highlight areas with prioritisation for planning interventions. Moreover, the performance between GSV-based street greenery and the urban green cover mapped by remote sensing was compared to justify the contribution of this new measurement. It suggested there was a mismatch between these two measurements, i.e., existing top-down viewpoint through satellites might not be equivalent to the benefits enjoyed by city residents. In short, this analytical approach contributes to a growing trend in integrating large, freely-available datasets with machine learning to inform planners, and it makes a step forward for urban planning practices through focusing on the human-scale measurement of accessed street greenery.
  • Mapping the socio-ecology of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP) extraction
           in the Brazilian Amazon: The case of açaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart) in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): E. Lopes, B. Soares-Filho, F. Souza, R. Rajão, F. Merry, S. Carvalho Ribeiro Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) contribute to the livelihoods of more than 6 million households in the Brazilian Amazon. Of the three most important NTFPs in the Brazilian Amazon – rubber, Brazil nut, and açaí – the latter is the least known, but the one with the most potential and fastest growing markets. Here we map the socioecology of açaí extractive systems in the Western Amazon state of Acre, Brazil. We interviewed 49 extractivists in settlements and in the emblematic Extractivist Reserve Chico Mendes (RCM) to model ecology (tree density, productivity) and production chain of açaí (prices, costs and net revenues) for an area of 164,000 km2. We estimate a potential annual production of 850 thousand tons for the entire Acre State, which could generate net revenues of US$ 71 million/yr. This is well above the average production of 136 thousand tonnes (over the last 25 years). Net revenues average US$ 57 ha−1.yr−1, with açaí contributing, on average, to 17% of the annual household income. In two case studies, we found a diversity of livelihoods comprising agriculture, NTFP collection, and livestock rearing that were grouped in two broad types of extractivist livelihoods: “old” and “new” settlers. Our results suggest that old settlers tend to focus on cattle ranching as their main economic activity, even inside extractive reserves (RESEX). The shift from extractivist activities to cattle ranching undermines the conservation role of this type of protected area. We conclude that without significant financial support in the forms of subsidies and other development programs NTFPs will continue to struggle against the economics of cattle ranching.
  • Family-forest owner decisions, landscape context, and landscape change
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Kathleen P. Bell, Marla Markowski-Lindsay, Paul Catanzaro, Jessica Leahy We examined broad-scale patterns in family forest owners’ decisions to use estate planning and conservation tools, and participate in preferential tax programs in eight forested landscapes of the United States. We focused our analyses on patterns across regions and states, and scrutinized the impacts of adding regional and state fixed effects to discrete choice models of owner behaviors. We used chi-square testing and binary discrete choice models to analyze mail-survey responses collected from landowners. Our exploratory research revealed distinct broad-scale patterns by owner decision, with the strongest evidence of state and regional variation in owner participation in preferential tax programs and some evidence of such variation in decisions to use wills and trusts. In contrast, we detected no such differences when examining decision-making about conservation easements across regions or states. Our findings in support of state and regional effects suggest forested landscape contexts beyond owner and parcel characteristics matter and could potentially drive differences in behaviors and forest outcomes. Measures of regional and state fixed effects can provide useful information about contextual differences across forested landscapes, such as differences in public programs and engagement aimed at owners. They can also inform the appropriateness of transferring insights across landscapes. Building on these findings, we share guidance for future data collection and research, including how improved monitoring and greater consideration of contextual factors beyond individual and ownership characteristics could enhance understanding of family forest owner decision-making and landscape change.
  • Measuring visual quality of street space and its temporal variation:
           Methodology and its application in the Hutong area in Beijing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Jingxian Tang, Ying Long Although it is widely known that quality of street space plays a vital role in promoting urban vibrancy, there is still no consensus on how to quantitatively measure it for a large scale. Recent emerging dataset Street View Picture has revealed the possibility to overcome the previous limit, thus bringing forward a research paradigm shift. Taking this advantage, this paper explores a new approach for visual quality evaluation and variation identification of street space for a large area. Hutongs, which typically represent for historical street space in Beijing, are selected for empirical study. In the experimental part, we capture multi-years Tencent Street View Picture covering all the Hutongs, and conduct both physical and perceived visual quality evaluation. The physical visual quality of street space is achieved automatically by combining 3-dimensional composition calculation of greenery, openness, enclosure using machine-learning segmentation method SegNet, and 2-dimensional analysis of street wall continuity and cross-sectional proportion; perceived visual quality of street space is evaluated by stay willingness scoring from five aspects. The variation of quality is evaluated based on the identified physical space variations. The result indicates that visual quality of Hutongs are not satisfied, while some regeneration projects in the historical protection block is better. Most Hutongs are in shortage of visual green, relative more continuous but with low cross-sectional ratio. Hutongs near main road witness an increasing trend of motorization. The difference between physical and perceived quality indicates the feasibility and limitation of the auto-calculation method. In the most recent 3–4 years, less than 2.5% Hutongs are improved, which are mainly slow beautification.
  • From “red” to green' A look into the evolution of green spaces in
           a post-socialist city
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Denisa L. Badiu, Diana A. Onose, Mihai R. Niță, Raffaele Lafortezza Promoting green infrastructure and other nature-based solutions in urban environments is considered an effective approach to achieve resilience and meet sustainability goals. Countries with a post-Socialist history are still struggling to increase the amount of green spaces in cities. Bucharest is an example of a city that has undergone considerable transformation during the Socialist period (1948–1990) and after. Back then the drivers of urban transformation were mainly related to public land management, whereas after the fall of the Socialist regime private development prevailed. Our study aims to analyze the shift in the amount and distribution of green spaces in Bucharest as a consequence of the transition from a centralized planning system to a market-based system. We used historical maps and aerial images to determine spatial-temporal changes in the structure of Bucharest‘s urban parks and their surrounding areas. To determine the influence of planning approaches on green spaces, we analyzed the legislative framework from the Socialist period (labeled as “red”) and post-Socialist period. Our results showed that the fall of the Socialist regime represented an important institutional change affecting urban green spaces. There was a major increase in the surface and number of green spaces during the Socialist period and a decrease afterwards as a consequence of a weak legislative framework, restitution of lands and ownership conflicts. Our findings provide valuable knowledge on the evolutionary urban processes and sustainability approaches of the post-Socialist period in Romania and important insights for improving planning efforts and maximizing ecosystem services in cities.
  • A Bayesian approach to mapping the uncertainties of global urban lands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Zutao Ouyang, Peilei Fan, Jiquan Chen, Raffaele Lafortezza, Joseph P. Messina, Vincenzo Giannico, Ranjeet John Global distribution of urban lands is one of the essential pieces of information necessary for urban planning. However, large disagreement exists among different products and the uncertainty remains difficult to quantify. We applied a Bayesian approach to map the uncertainties of global urban lands. We demonstrated the approach by producing a hybrid global urban land map that synthesized five different urban land maps in ca. 2000 at 1-km resolution. The resulting hybrid map is a posterior probability map with pixel values suggesting the probability of being urban land, which is validated by 30-m higher resolution references. We also quantified the minimum and maximum urban areas in 2000 for each country/continent based on subjective probability thresholds (i.e., 0.9 and 0.1) on our hybrid urban map. Globally, we estimated that the urban land area was between 377,000 and 533,000 km2 in 2000. The credible interval of minimum/maximum urban area can help guide future studies in estimating urban areas. In addition to providing uncertainty information, the hybrid map also achieves higher accuracy than individual maps when it is converted into a binary urban/non-urban map using a probability threshold of 0.5. This new method has the ability to further integrate discrete site/location-based data, local, regional, and global urban land maps. As more data is sequentially integrated, the accuracy is expected to improve. Therefore, our hybrid map should not be regarded as a final product, but a new prior product for future synthesis and integration toward a “big data” solution.
  • Using Google Street View to investigate the association between street
           greenery and physical activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Yi Lu Urban greenspaces have been demonstrated to have associations with physical activity and health. Yet empirical studies have almost exclusively focused on parks rather than street, although streets are among the most popular venues for physical activity and street greenery is an indispensable component of urban greenspaces. Even fewer greenspace-physical activity studies have objectively assessed eye-level street greenery. By using free Google Street View images, this study assessed both the quantity and quality of street greenery and associated them with the recreational physical activity occurring in green outdoor environments of 1390 participants in 24 housing estates in Hong Kong. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and other built environment factors, multilevel regression models revealed that the quality and quantity of street greenery were positively linked to recreational physical activity. Our finding is important for interpretations of the operational mechanisms between street greenery and health benefits because it demonstrates that physical activity is an intermediate health-related outcome. The findings also reveal the influences of eye-level street greenery on residents’ physical activity levels and hence contribute to the development and implementation of healthy cities to stimulate physical activity.
  • The urban matrix matters: Quantifying the effects of surrounding urban
           vegetation on natural habitat remnants in Santiago de Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Ignacio C. Fernández, Jianguo Wu, Javier A. Simonetti Urbanization destroys and fragments natural habitats, resulting in a system of natural remnants embedded in an urban matrix. Urban natural remnants (UNRs) can provide multiple ecosystem services for urban areas. Nevertheless, the long-term provision of ecosystem services by UNRs depends on their capacity to retain the ecosystem processes supporting the services. As vegetation from the urban matrix could play a key role in remnants ecological dynamics, understanding the effect of surrounding urban vegetation on UNRs ecosystem processes is fundamental for sustainable urban planning. In this work, we used a multi-temporal and -spatial scale approach to evaluate the role that vegetation patterns (i.e. composition and configuration) of the urban matrix have played on ecosystem processes (i.e. primary productivity) of 10 UNRs located in the city of Santiago (Chile). Using a set of six remote sensing-derived vegetation indices (years 1985–2010), we analyzed how temporal changes in primary productivity of UNRs were related to changes in vegetation patterns of the surrounding urban matrix, and assessed the potential role of the matrix’s socioeconomic level on these results. Our results show that productivity decreased in all UNRs and that this productivity loss was spatially correlated with the changes in vegetation cover of the surrounding urban matrix. UNR productivity was more strongly correlated with matrix composition than matrix configuration. Correlation strength between matrix composition and UNR productivity increased in time and decreased with distance from the edge of UNRs inward, suggesting that the effects of matrix vegetation on the ecological processes within UNRs are both time- and location-dependent. The socioeconomic level of the matrix showed a positive association with the vegetation cover of the matrix, but did not have a statistically significant correlation with UNR primary productivity. Results from our work demonstrate that the changes in urban matrix vegetation induced by urbanization may have strong impacts on the ecological processes that underpin the provision of ecosystem services by UNRs. If planners ought to increase the provision of ecosystem services by these UNRs, the strategies should not only focus on managing vegetation within UNRs, but also on properly planning vegetation in the surrounding urban matrix.
  • Local policy and landowner attitudes: A case study of forest fragmentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Anna L. Haines, Aaron W. Thompson, Daniel McFarlane, Anthony K. Sharp Wisconsin is known for its extensive forest resources and its attraction to visitors and permanent and seasonal homeowners. Development, due to this attraction, within the state’s private forestland has been a growing phenomenon for many years and communities are struggling to implement tools to reduce its negative impact. One group of tools is local land use policies, but many communities are not equipped to regulate more than the basics, such as minimum lot size, and it is not clear that moving beyond the basics would conserve future forest resources or whether or not private landowners would find more restrictive land use policies acceptable. In this paper, we conduct a case study of northern Wisconsin by analyzing two dimensions: the possible effect of local land use policy on forest fragmentation and landowner attitudes to policy. The purpose is to uncover whether conventional or density-based zoning conserves more forestland and which policies local landowners would support. We find that, one, density-based zoning can conserve more total and core forest than conventional zoning. Two, when landowners view a particular scenario as a severe threat, they are more inclined to support some forms of land use regulation over others. These findings indicate that local governments can open up a dialogue for more restrictive local land use policies for conserving forest and limiting forest fragmentation, if landowners understand the impact among various alternatives.
  • Measuring security in the built environment: Evaluating urban
           vulnerability in a human-scale urban form
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Dalit Shach-Pinsly Designing secured urban spaces is one of the main ambitions of urban planners during the planning and design process. People usually travel by foot through safe routes and urban spaces in the built environment as they are perceived as safe areas, such as: lighted paths, walking on the livable side of a sidewalk instead of walking beside a sealed façade, or away from unsecured building entrances. The way people use and interact in their built environment involves their cognitive perception, which depends upon the urban fabric details. Therefore, planners and decision makers aimed in understanding the way the components of the built environment affect unsecured environments so as to assess the risks before design decisions are made. However, they lack new approaches and models with which to evaluate a qualitative sense of security that is understandable on a human-scale in the built environment. This research deals with this gap in information and measures one unmeasurable qualitative aspect of the built environment, the sense of security, in quantitative terms based on a geo-spatial system, and then relate it to human-scale urban form. The Security Rating Index (SRI) establishes a GIS-based, quantifiable system to identify and rate insecure urban spaces to be used by urban planners and city decision makers to evaluate and improve urban resilience. The system is based on measurements of urban elements that influence the sense of security in the built environment, and can be used to identify characteristics and hot spots of unsecured spaces in a city. The SRI is demonstrated on several case studies on different scales.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Up and out: A multifaceted approach to characterizing urbanization in
           Greater Saigon, 2000–2009
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Deborah L. Balk, Son V. Nghiem, Bryan R. Jones, Zhen Liu, Gillian Dunn In this case study of Greater Saigon, two types of satellite data are used to estimate the rate of change in urban spatial expansion, both horizontally and volumetrically (horizontal and vertical components), and integrates them with socioeconomic data to examine the correlates and potential causes of both kinds of change. We employ new data products – the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) derived largely from Landsat and a Dense Sampling Method (DSM) product based on QuikSCAT – in combination with data from the 1999 and 2009 censuses of Vietnam. Unlike past studies, we examine horizontal and volumetric changes in urban form and pay particular attention to the role of migration in locations experiencing those different types of change. We find these two types of urban change occur at different rates and in different localities, with the highest rates of horizontal change occurring to the north of administrative Saigon. In contrast, we find the highest rates of volumetric change in the areas north of the central districts but mostly within administrative Saigon. In-migration is strongly associated with horizontal change, whereas increases in population density appears to drive volumetric change, controlling for other factors. Positive volumetric change is associated with necessary amenities of modern urban living, often in high-rise buildings found in dense population centers like Saigon: the increasing presence in households of computers, air conditioners, piped water, and gas fuel. Use of these new integrated data hold promise to shed new light on both the built-environment and social dimensions of urbanization in low- and middle-income settings.
  • Mapping the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation within street
           canyons of Boston using Google Street View panoramas and building height
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Xiaojiang Li, Carlo Ratti Studying the solar radiation within street canyons would provide an important reference for increasing human thermal comfort and decreasing the potential health issues caused by too much exposure from sunlight. In this study, we used building height model and publicly accessible Google Street View panoramas to map the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation within street canyons of Boston, Massachusetts. Hemispherical images generated from Google Street View panoramas and building height model together with sun paths in summer and winter were used to estimate the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation within street canyons. Results show that street canyons in the downtown area have shorter sunshine duration and lower solar radiation to the ground compared with other regions of the study area in the whole year. The southwestern part of the study area with the abundance of vegetation canopies has relatively short direct sunshine duration and low solar radiation reaching the ground in summer, and relatively long direct sunshine duration and high solar radiation reaching the ground in winter. This study also shows that it is possible to estimate shading precisely within street canyons for a specific time and date at a specific location. Considering the public accessibility of Google Street View data in cities around the world, this study can be easily deployed in other cities. This study would give a great impetus to all studies relating the solar radiation at street level in future.
  • Using annual Landsat imagery to identify harvesting over a range of
           intensities for non-industrial family forests
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): R. Tortini, A.L. Mayer, T. Hermosilla, N.C. Coops, M.A. Wulder The monitoring of forested landscapes dominated by many small private forest owners is difficult or not possible without spatially explicit and up-to-date information on land cover change. Analysis of time series multispectral data from the Landsat series of satellites have the spatial and temporal characteristics required to detect sub-hectare and non-stand replacing harvest events over large areas. We identified harvests that occurred in six western upper Michigan counties from 1985 to 2011 using Landsat best available pixel (BAP) image composites and the Composite2Change (C2C) approach. We detected a total of 7071 harvesting events with size ranging from 0.5 to 171.36 ha and average size of 6.42 ha, and analyzed their temporal trajectory. To gain confidence in our harvest mapping, we compared our findings to the overlapping decade of Global Forest Watch (GFW) data. Agreement between the datasets was high, with 94.24% of the C2C and GFW harvest pixels identified with the same change year and improving to 98.74% within ±1 year. This automated harvest detection system, which can capture small and otherwise missed harvests, is valuable to natural resource agencies responsible for monitoring and compliance with regulations over large areas, and researchers requiring estimates of harvest levels and the nature of forest cover status and trends on family forests.
  • The landscape context of family forests in the United States:
           Anthropogenic interfaces and forest fragmentation from 2001 to 2011
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Kurt Riitters, Jennifer Costanza The capacity of family owned forests to sustain ecological goods and services depends on the landscape context within which that forest occurs. For example, the expansion of a nearby urban area results in the loss of adjacent forest, which threatens the ability of the family forest to sustain interior forest habitat. Our objective was to assess the status and change of the landscape context of family forests across the conterminous United States, as measured by interior forest status and anthropogenic (urban and agricultural) interface zones. We combined circa 2005 forest inventory data with land cover maps from 2001 and 2011 to evaluate changes in the vicinity of 132,497 inventory locations. We compared family forests to nonfamily private and public forests, and evaluated regional conservation opportunities for family forests. Between 2001 and 2011, 1.5% of family forest area experienced a change of anthropogenic interface zone, and 46% was in an interface zone by 2011. During that same time, there was a net decrease of 9.7% of family owned interior forest area, such that 27% of family forest was interior forest by 2011. The rates of forest fragmentation and occurrence in anthropogenic interface zones were higher for family and nonfamily private forests than for public forest, yet family forests contained 31% of the extant interior forest area. The geography of landscape patterns suggested where aggregate actions by family forest owners may have relatively large regional effects upon extant interior forest conditions.
  • Social drivers of rural forest dynamics: A multi-scale approach combining
           ethnography, geomatic and mental model analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Julien Blanco, Anne Sourdril, Marc Deconchat, Sylvie Ladet, Emilie Andrieu Farm forests and trees outside forests (i.e., ‘rural forests’) are key components for the sustainability of agricultural landscapes. Farmers are the main managers of rural forests and their practices vary according to a range of individual and collective factors. This diversity in management practices challenges the understanding of landscape patterns and dynamics, in particular at local and regional scales. In this study, we combined forest mapping over 150 years, ethnographic investigations and mental models to investigate the social drivers of rural forests in a French case study. Results showed a stability of woodlands and groves, favored by the social organization system, i.e., a self-reliance and house-centered system. Recent tree encroachment in abandoned lands – caused by rural exodus and the intensification of agriculture – resulted in a spread of woodlands. In addition, a shift from family-based to market-oriented woodland management was observed, contributing to the homogenization of forest management practices. Hedgerows declined but with contrasted trends according to their location and adjacent land uses: in-farm hedgerows that obstructed mechanization declined, whereas boundary hedgerows that assisted in the maintenance of farmers’ estates were reinforced. Scattered trees were considered of little interest by farmers and declined. This study achieved an understanding of rural forest patterns and underlying social drivers. Mental models provided a basis for exploring the tradeoffs between ecosystem services and disservices operated by farmers. They also revealed differences between scientific and farmer classifications of trees outside forests. Mental models constitute a promising tool for reinforcing bonds between the social and natural sciences.
  • Cross-boundary cooperation for landscape management: Collective action and
           social exchange among individual private forest landowners
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018Source: Landscape and Urban PlanningAuthor(s): Alexandra Paige Fischer, Andrew Klooster, Lora Cirhigiri The landscape is an ideal spatial extent for managing forests because many ecological processes and disturbances occur on such scales. Moreover, landscape-level decision-making processes can improve the efficiency of forest management, as when many owners of small parcels increase the economy of scale of their operations by jointly hiring labor or selling products. Despite the potential benefits of managing at the landscape level, cooperation on management activities across property boundaries is rare among private landowners and poorly understood. We used a comparative case study approach to explain cooperative management among eight sets of individual private forest landowners in the Pacific Northwest and Upper Midwest, USA. We characterized how private forest owners cooperated on management and the outcomes they associated with cooperating, and we identified factors that influenced cooperation. We investigated whether cooperative management among private landowners may be constrained by social risks and whether formal institutions may be needed to facilitate cooperation. In the cases we investigated, owners jointly planned and implemented integrated management decisions on their collective forest properties. They perceived a number of beneficial social and ecological outcomes of cooperation. The key factors that fostered the emergence and continuity of cooperative management included shared concern, especially about risks to their properties and the health of their forests; pre-existing networks; trust; external expertise and resources; local leadership; and formal institutions. These factors are consistent with collective action and social exchange theory. Our findings shed light on social conditions that foster cooperative landscape management.
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