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Showing 1 - 200 of 3177 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 386, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 384, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 435, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Landscape and Urban Planning
  [SJR: 1.699]   [H-I: 102]   [26 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0169-2046
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Towards an operational methodology to optimize ecosystem services provided
           by urban soils
    • Authors: Blanchart Anne; Séré Geoffroy; Johan Cherel; Gilles Warot; Stas Marie; Consalès Jean Noël; Morel Jean Louis; Schwartz Christophe
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 176
      Author(s): Blanchart Anne, Séré Geoffroy, Johan Cherel, Gilles Warot, Stas Marie, Consalès Jean Noël, Morel Jean Louis, Schwartz Christophe
      Urban soils need to be taken into account by city managers to tackle the major urban environmental issues. As other soils in forest or agricultural environments, urban soils provide a wide range of ecosystem services. However, their contribution remains poorly assessed up to now, and as a result there is a strong lack of consideration by urban planning of the services they provide. Indeed, urban soils are mostly seen as a land surface (land area, two-dimensional system) and if they are characterized, it is almost exclusively for their potential contamination and their geotechnical properties. So, policy makers and planning operators rarely consider soils as a living resource, capable to fulfill essential functions. From the conclusions of previous studies, a selection of ecosystem services provided by soil and adapted to the specificity of urban context is proposed. This paper also aims at proposing the concept of the DESTISOL decision support system for urban planning projects upstream of the planning decisions, illustrated by an application example. It is based on an integrative approach linking soil quality indicators (e.g. physico-chemical and biological characteristics, fertility, pollution), soil functions and soil ecosystem services. The method leads to the semi-quantitative assessment of the level of ecosystem services that are either provided by urban soils or required to fit with the urban design.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2018)
  • Natural capital and the poor in England: Towards an environmental justice
           analysis of ecosystem services in a high income country
    • Authors: Karen Mullin; Gordon Mitchell; N. Rizwan Nawaz; Ruth D. Waters
      Pages: 10 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 176
      Author(s): Karen Mullin, Gordon Mitchell, N. Rizwan Nawaz, Ruth D. Waters
      Poorer communities tend to be located within lower quality natural environments, experiencing greater environmental burdens and fewer environmental amenities. To date, analysis of environmental inequalities has focussed on pollution, with less attention given to natural environment benefits that support human wellbeing. Here, the ecosystem service concept which identifies these benefits, and the natural capital (NC) which provides them, is applied within environmental inequality assessment. For England, 325 local authority districts were classified based on 14 indicators of NC, and the level of deprivation of districts within each class compared. Districts with extensive woodland or agriculture are the least deprived. The most deprived districts tend to be urban areas with lower extent and quality of NC, coastal districts, and rural uplands with extensive coverage of various higher quality NC. These findings demonstrate that the distribution of NC varies by social deprivation, with implications for social inequities and sustainable management of NC. However, whilst higher deprivation is often associated with a lower extent and quality of NC, this pattern is not consistent for all NC types or places. Given the lack of a consistent pattern of inequality nationally, this implies that equitable management of ecosystems should be driven at a local level. To achieve this, the relationship between environmental benefits and deprivation should be assessed at this level and analysis should move beyond NC to address the ecosystem services that flow from it.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2018)
  • Urban hot-tubs: Local urbanization has profound effects on average and
           extreme temperatures in ponds
    • Authors: Kristien I. Brans; Jessie M.T. Engelen; Caroline Souffreau; Luc De Meester
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 176
      Author(s): Kristien I. Brans, Jessie M.T. Engelen, Caroline Souffreau, Luc De Meester
      While urbanization-driven warming (urban heat island effect, UHI) has been extensively studied and demonstrated for air temperature, UHI effects on water temperature of ponds are unknown. We investigated (1) whether the UHI impacts man-made urban ponds and tested whether urban ponds have higher mean, maximum and minimum water temperatures and lower daily water temperature fluctuations than rural ponds, (2) whether this is related to time of the day (day versus night), season, and urbanization scale (3200 versus 50 m radius around the pond), and (3) whether the approximated length of growing season is prolonged in urban ponds. Temperature loggers were placed in 30 ponds in Northern Belgium, spanning a broad range of urbanization. We found strong evidence of urban-driven warming. Mainly local urbanization (50 m radius) drove temperature differences throughout the year and even more so in spring and summer, with mean summer temperatures being up to 3.04 °C higher in urban compared to rural ponds, and maximum summer temperatures on average up to 3.69 °C higher. Strikingly, daily temperature fluctuated around 2 °C more in locally urban ponds compared to rural ponds in summer. Length of the growing season estimates show prolongation with up to 45 days in locally urban compared to rural systems, mainly due to an earlier start. Generally, our results show that UHIs impact water temperature of ponds. This warming can have profound consequences for biota inhabiting these systems, and should therefore be considered in future urban planning to reduce deterioration of these habitats and improve their socio-ecological value.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2018)
  • Factors of spatial distribution of Korean village groves and relevance to
           landscape conservation
    • Authors: GoWoon Kim; Wanmo Kang; Chan Ryul Park; Dowon Lee
      Pages: 30 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 176
      Author(s): GoWoon Kim, Wanmo Kang, Chan Ryul Park, Dowon Lee
      Our study aims to understand the spatial context of community-based landscape systems for conservation planning. To this end, the present study analyzes the factors affecting spatial distribution of Korea’s traditional village groves, which form a distinctive component of Korea’s traditional community-based landscape. Using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling, we identified four strongest contributory factors that affect the current occurrences of village groves. First, the probability of occurrences declined with increasing human population density within a 300 m radius, and, second, it was lower where there was high forest cover (>80%) within a 500 m radius. Third, we found a unimodal pattern for the occurrence probability for precipitation during the coldest quarter with the probability peaking in areas where mean precipitation is 118 mm, while the occurrence probability for mean diurnal temperature range was generally positively correlated. Based on the assumption that spatial analysis could highlight priorities and implications for conservation, our results reveal the importance of understanding the grove landscape as a manifestation of the linkages between nature and humans as well as the importance of modern scientific approaches to manage the spatial elements of traditional landscape systems.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2018)
  • Comparing multi-criteria evaluation and participatory mapping to
           projecting land use
    • Authors: Beni Rohrbach; Patrick Laube; Robert Weibel
      Pages: 38 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 176
      Author(s): Beni Rohrbach, Patrick Laube, Robert Weibel
      Projections pertaining to future land use and land use change may have diverse backgrounds. Often, both local and scientific knowledge encompass important pieces of information for such a projection. Acknowledging the diversity across the two types of knowledge, we investigated their differences and similarities in a twofold case study, conducting a participatory mapping (PM) exercise with local wine growers, as well as a Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) with non-local experts from science, government and industry. Hence, we not only utilised two different knowledge elicitation methods, but also two types of ‘knowledges’. Within a region dominated by vineyards, and with expected land use change, we compared the two results quantitatively, in a participatory evaluation workshop, and with annotations gained through the participatory mapping exercise. Both methods have their merits, with the results from the participatory mapping perceived as being more plausible, and the MCE scoring higher in terms of spatial resolution. Whilst the participatory mapping yields more and better contextualised information, the results from the MCE can be better compared across study areas.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2018)
  • Using social media to understand drivers of urban park visitation in the
           Twin Cities, MN
    • Authors: Marie L. Donahue; Bonnie L. Keeler; Spencer A. Wood; David M. Fisher; Zoé A. Hamstead; Timon McPhearson
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Marie L. Donahue, Bonnie L. Keeler, Spencer A. Wood, David M. Fisher, Zoé A. Hamstead, Timon McPhearson
      Green space and parks in urban environments provide a range of ecosystem services and public benefits. However, planners and park managers can lack tools and resources to gather local information on how parks are used and what makes them desirable places for recreation and a wide variety of uses. Traditional survey methods to monitor park use and user preferences can be costly, time consuming, and challenging to apply at scale. Here, we overcome this limitation by using geotagged social media data to assess patterns of visitation to urban and peri-urban green space across park systems in the metropolitan area of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. We find that parks with nearby water features, more amenities, greater accessibility from the presence of trails, and that are located within neighborhoods with higher population density, are associated with higher rates of visitation. As cities grow and shifts in demographics occur, more responsive management of public green space will become increasingly important to ensure urban parks provide ecosystem services and meet users’ needs. Using social media data to rapidly assess park use at a lower cost than traditional surveys has the potential to inform public green space management with targeted information on user behavior and values of urban residents.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Assessing the sensitivity of urban ecosystem service maps to input spatial
           data resolution and method choice
    • Authors: Chang Zhao; Heather A. Sander
      Pages: 11 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Chang Zhao, Heather A. Sander
      Ecosystem service (ES) mapping frequently uses secondary data and value-transfer methods to map services over broad extents at coarse resolutions, possibly causing poor prediction accuracy. Although ES map quality has received some recent attention in the literature, little is known about the accuracy of these maps in urban contexts or about the factors that influence this accuracy. To address this issue, we quantitatively compared and validated ES maps in a heterogeneous urban landscape to generate insight into ES map accuracy in these environments. Using aboveground biomass carbon storage as an example, we examined how input data resolution and assessment method affect the accuracy of urban ES maps. Two mapping methods were employed: (1) maps based on ecosystem components involved in carbon storage (trees and lawns) and (2) maps based on land-cover proxies and data at coarse and fine spatial resolutions. We compared carbon storage predicted by these methods to that estimated by using field-collected data to examine the accuracy of predictions and spatial variation therein. Different methods and data produced similar study area-wide estimates; however, the spatial distribution of estimates varied among methods. Estimates using ecosystem components agreed with the actual observations better than the proxy-based estimates, although map accuracy was improved by using higher resolution land-cover data. Thus, when study area-wide estimates suffice for decision making, proxy-based methods and coarse-resolution data should provide adequate assessments. Detailed ecosystem structure and composition data are needed when fine-resolution, spatially-explicit estimates are required.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Willingness to pay for forest restoration as a function of proximity and
    • Authors: Julie M. Mueller; Abraham E. Springer; Ryan E. Lima
      Pages: 23 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Julie M. Mueller, Abraham E. Springer, Ryan E. Lima
      While numerous studies investigate the non-market value of wildfire suppression and ecological restoration, less research exists examining the spatial dimension of Willingness to Pay (WTP) for forest restoration, including distance to restoration and changes in viewshed. We estimate WTP for forest restoration in Flagstaff, AZ, US (pop. 70,000) using dichotomous-choice Contingent Valuation. Flagstaff, AZ is in a high-altitude, arid region in the Southwestern US surrounded by publicly managed forests with views of mountain peaks. Large-scale forest restoration is proposed within proximity to Flagstaff’s city limits. We explicitly model distance to potential treatment area as a determinant of WTP to examine the impact of distance to forest restoration. We further incorporate viewshed into our WTP estimates by controlling for whether a respondent has a mountain peak view. After controlling for viewshed, we find policy-relevant results associated with distance and viewshed. WTP increases as distance to proposed treatment area decreases. However, holding distance constant, respondents with prime mountain peak views are less likely to be WTP for forest restoration. Our results indicate that careful consideration of the complex relationship between distance, viewshed, and WTP is necessary for efficient restoration management decisions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Refining flood estimation in urbanized catchments using landscape metrics
    • Authors: James D. Miller; Tim Brewer
      Pages: 34 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): James D. Miller, Tim Brewer
      Flood estimation methods in ungauged basins rely upon generalized relationships between flows and catchment properties. Generally such catchment properties are based on low-resolution national datasets from low density urbanized basins and do not consider location, connectivity and patch size. Such factors are more routinely represented in landscape metrics employed in ecology, and could be particularly useful for representing the diversity of urban land-use. Here, hydrologically relevant landscape metrics are brought together with refined land-use classes and catchment descriptors routinely applied in UK flood estimation methods to estimate the median annual flood (QMED) in order to evaluate the potential role of such metrics. The results show that using higher resolution geospatial data can improve the representation of the urban environment, having particular effects on the delineation of urban water features and catchment area, but not urban extent. Refinement of landscape metrics based on correlations resulted in 12 metrics and 5 catchment descriptors being tested against observed QMED at 18 sites using a weighted least squares regression. The revised equation showed that certain landscape metrics can better represent the hydrological complexity of an urban catchment in a single distributed numerical form, leading to improved estimates of QMED over non-distributed descriptors, for the selected case-study sites. The ability of landscape metrics to express connectivity and relative size and location of urban development promises significant potential for application in urban flood estimation and catchment-scale hydrological modelling.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Spatial scaling of urban impervious surfaces across evolving landscapes:
           From cities to urban regions
    • Authors: Qun Ma; Jianguo Wu; Chunyang He; Guohua Hu
      Pages: 50 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Qun Ma, Jianguo Wu, Chunyang He, Guohua Hu
      Urban impervious surfaces (UIS) influence the structure and function of urban systems, and are widely considered a key indicator of urban environmental conditions. However, the amount and pattern of UIS both change with spatial scale, which complicates the computation and interpretation of UIS as an indicator. A better understanding of the spatial scaling relations of UIS is needed to resolve this predicament. Thus, the main objective of this study was to explore how UIS would change with increasing spatial extent and population size across urban hierarchical levels, using data from the three largest urban agglomerations in China. In addition, a comparative analysis of six world metropolitan regions was conducted to test the generality of the UIS scaling relations. Scalograms and standardized major axis regression were used to investigate the scaling relations with respect to spatial extent and city size, respectively. Our major findings include: (1) the total amount of UIS increased, whereas the percentage of UIS decreased, in a staircase-like fashion when the spatial extent of analysis expanded from within a local city to the entire urban agglomeration; (2) the spatial scaling of UIS followed a rather consistent and tight power law function within a local city, but became less consistent and less tight beyond a local city; (3) the scaling relations of the total amount of UIS were more consistent than those of the percentage of UIS, and the total amount of UIS scaled more tightly with urban area than with urban population size. These findings shed new light on the scale dependence of UIS, suggesting that a multiscale approach should be adopted for quantifying UIS and for using it as an urban environmental indicator.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Accessibility drives species exposure to recreation in a fragmented urban
           reserve network
    • Authors: Courtney L. Larson; Sarah E. Reed; Adina M. Merenlender; Kevin R. Crooks
      Pages: 62 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Courtney L. Larson, Sarah E. Reed, Adina M. Merenlender, Kevin R. Crooks
      Outdoor recreation is a valuable ecosystem service permitted in most protected areas globally. Land-use planners and managers are often responsible for providing access to natural areas for recreation while avoiding environmental impacts such as declines of threatened species. Since recreation can have harmful effects on biodiversity, reliable information about protected-area visitation patterns is vital for managers. Our goal was to quantify recreational use in a fragmented urban reserve network and identify factors that influenced visitation. We empirically measured visitation rates at 18 reserves in San Diego County, California. Using random forest models, we identified biophysical and socioeconomic factors that influenced spatial variation in visitation rates and made projections to 27 additional reserves, validating with an expert opinion survey. Visitation rates varied widely across the reserve network. Accessibility variables, such as numbers of housing units and parking lots, were key explanatory variables that had positive relationships with visitation rates. To illustrate the applications of our models, we assessed the exposure of 7 species and subspecies of conservation concern to recreation by comparing predicted occurrence to projected visitation intensities. We found that several species and subspecies, including the orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), western spadefoot (Spea hammondii), and the federally-threatened coastal California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica californica), are likely exposed to high levels of recreational activity. Our results can be used to identify species for further research, highlight areas with potential conflict between recreation and conservation objectives, and forecast future changes in visitation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Hydrological balance of paved surfaces in moist mid-latitude climate
           – A review
    • Authors: Anne Timm; Björn Kluge; Gerd Wessolek
      Pages: 80 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Anne Timm, Björn Kluge, Gerd Wessolek
      Growing urbanisation and an increase of paved surfaces lead to drastic changes of the urban hydrological cycle. Pavements are often perceived and modelled as runoff generator that prevents any kind of infiltration and inhibits evaporation. This review takes a closer look at different paving materials and examines their water transport processes and the resulting hydrological balance by collecting and evaluating literature data and descriptions. Hydrological balance and water retention capacities are collected for numerous materials, ranging from asphalt to infiltration-active grass pavers, for moist mid-latitude climate. The assessment demonstrates that evaporation and infiltration from paved surfaces play an important role and often exceed the expected values. This results in a new classification of sealing degrees for rough estimations of the annual hydrological balance of different paving materials. Additionally, common modelling concepts and possible sources for detailed land cover data are introduced and reflected. The review concludes that paving materials are much more active and complex systems than often assumed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • What drives the location choice for water sensitive infrastructure in
           Melbourne, Australia'
    • Authors: Martijn Kuller; Peter M. Bach; Diego Ramirez-Lovering; Ana Deletic
      Pages: 92 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Martijn Kuller, Peter M. Bach, Diego Ramirez-Lovering, Ana Deletic
      Distributed and green urban drainage infrastructure known as Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is increasingly being implemented in cities globally to combat climate change and urbanisation effects. Rigorous consideration of the urban context in terms of biophysical, socio-economic and urban form related factors is crucial for optimal design outcomes. The extent to which the urban context is considered in current planning and decision-making processes remains unclear. This study investigates this relationship between current WSUD infrastructure in Melbourne (Australia) and each of the aforementioned factors for the first time. We obtained and pre-processed one of the most extensive and complete geo-located WSUD asset databases in the world (containing over 2000 WSUD assets), and undertook an evidence-based analysis of WSUD planning outcomes. Relationships were investigated using spatial analysis techniques (e.g. overlaying), as well as a number of statistical methods (e.g. exploratory regression). It was found that biophysical and urban form factors strongly explained variability in WSUD location choice, while socio-economic factors appeared to be overlooked. Our findings imply that the current WSUD planning practices are primarily governed by standard engineering design. Opportunistic WSUD planning leads to unintentional outcomes that fail to capitalise on the full potential of WSUD benefits. Increased investment in asset inventory development and analysis is critical to inform WSUD planning moving forward. Knowledge gained from this and additional studies can further planning through application in planning-support systems, to deal with the complexity and diversity of the broad set of decision criteria.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Who doesn’t visit natural environments for recreation and why: A
           population representative analysis of spatial, individual and temporal
           factors among adults in England
    • Authors: Francesca Boyd; Mathew P. White; Sarah L. Bell; Jim Burt
      Pages: 102 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Francesca Boyd, Mathew P. White, Sarah L. Bell, Jim Burt
      Contact with natural environments may be beneficial for various health and social outcomes but is often lower among groups who could benefit the most. Using data from >60,000 adults in England, we explored the spatial (e.g. amount of local greenspace), individual (e.g. socio-economic status) and temporal (e.g. seasonality) predictors of infrequent contact and the reasons given for it. Replicating earlier, smaller studies, infrequent users were more likely to be; female, older, in poor health, of lower socioeconomic status, of ethnic minority status, live in relatively deprived areas with less neighbourhood greenspace and be further from the coast. Extending previous findings, we also identified regional, seasonal and annual effects. Although response on issues of time availability were important, being ‘not interested’ and ‘no particular reason’ were also common. Identifying the predictors of these justifications (e.g. area deprivation was predictive of ‘not interested’, but individual socioeconomic status was predictive of ‘no particular reason’) sheds light on which demographic groups to engage in specific interventions designed to inspire greater interest in, and contact with, the natural world to offer more inclusive opportunities for positive experiences in nature.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Visits to urban green-space and the countryside associate with different
           components of mental well-being and are better predictors than perceived
           or actual local urbanisation intensity
    • Authors: Deborah F. Coldwell; Karl L. Evans
      Pages: 114 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Deborah F. Coldwell, Karl L. Evans
      Maintaining mental well-being in highly urbanised locations, especially large cities, is challenging but exposure to green-space can promote well-being. We address three poorly resolved questions concerning the relationships between mental health, urbanisation and green-space: i) the relative importance of city size, local intensity of urbanisation and visiting green-space, ii) if visits to urban green-space and the countryside have equivalent associations with well-being, and iii) if biodiversity knowledge moderates relationships between well-being and visiting green-space (such moderation may occur if exposure to biodiversity contributes to relationships between visiting green-space and well-being). We use data from just over 200 respondents recruited in randomised door-to-door surveys across six English cities. We find that visiting green-space increases mental well-being but that city size and the intensity of urbanisation around respondents’ homes have negligible influence. The limited effect of local urbanisation holds when considering the perceived amount of greenery or built-up land rather than objectively quantified indices. More frequent visits to the countryside and urban green-space are positively associated with higher well-being scores, but visits to urban green-space are more strongly associated with lower anxiety, whilst countryside visits associate with higher life satisfaction. Biodiversity knowledge did not consistently moderate relationships between well-being and green-space visit rates. Whilst we use a cross-sectional approach our data suggest that mental well-being can be achieved by residents in highly urbanised locations if they frequently access green-space, but achieving high well-being across all its components requires access to the countryside and not just urban green-space.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Evidence for distance and illuminance thresholds in the effects of
           artificial lighting on bat activity
    • Authors: Clémentine Azam; Isabelle Le Viol; Yves Bas; Georges Zissis; Arthur Vernet; Jean-François Julien; Christian Kerbiriou
      Pages: 123 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Clémentine Azam, Isabelle Le Viol, Yves Bas, Georges Zissis, Arthur Vernet, Jean-François Julien, Christian Kerbiriou
      Light pollution is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide. There is a crucial need to elaborate artificial lighting recommendations to mitigate its impact on wildlife. In the present study, we investigated how streetlight spatial position and light trespass impacted the use of ecological corridors by transiting bats in anthropogenic landscapes. Through a paired, in situ experiment, we estimated how streetlight distance of impact and vertical and horizontal illuminance influenced the transiting activity of 6 species and 2 genera of bats. We selected 27 pairs composed of 1 lit site and 1 control unlit site in areas practicing either part-night or full-night lighting. We recorded bat activity at 0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 m, and measured vertical and horizontal light illuminance at the 5 distance steps (range = 0.1–30.2 lx). While streetlight attraction effect was mostly limited to a 10 m radius for Pipistrellus sp. and Nyctalus sp., streetlight avoidance was detected at up to 25 and 50 m for Myotis sp. and Eptesicus serotinus, respectively. Streetlight effects on Myotis sp. and Nyctalus sp. remained after lamps were turned-off. Illuminance had a negative effect on Myotis sp. below 1 lx, a mixed effect on E. serotinus, and a positive effect on the other species, although a peak of activity was observed between 1 and 5 lx for P. pipistrellus and N. leisleri. We recommend separating streetlights from ecological corridors by at least 50 m and avoiding vertical light trespass beyond 0.1 lx to ensure their use by light-sensitive bats.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Contrasting distributions of urban green infrastructure across social and
           ethno-racial groups
    • Authors: M. Ferguson; H.E. Roberts; R.R.C. McEachan; M. Dallimer
      Pages: 136 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): M. Ferguson, H.E. Roberts, R.R.C. McEachan, M. Dallimer
      Links between urban green infrastructure (UGI) and public health benefits are becoming well established. Despite this, how UGI is distributed varies widely. Although not a universal finding, sectors of society that are disadvantaged often suffer from poor provision, something which might be due to which UGI are examined. We assess the distribution of street trees and public greenspaces (two types of publicly-owned and accessible UGI) across the city of Bradford, UK which is characterised by high levels of inequality and variation in ethno-racial background. We do this through statistical and spatial analyses. Street tree density was distributed unevenly and was highest in neighbourhoods with a high proportion of Asian/Asian British residents and with lower socio-economic status. Conversely, neighbourhoods with better access to public greenspaces were characterised by high income and/or a high proportion of White households. While the quality of public greenspace was spatially clustered, there were only limited spatial associations with ethno-racial group or socio-economic status. Population density was a key determinant of the distribution of UGI, suggesting understanding UGI distributions should also focus on urban form. Nevertheless, within the same city we show that equitable distribution of UGI differs according to the form and characteristics of UGI. To fully realise the public health benefits of UGI, it is necessary to map provision and understand the causal drivers of unequal distributions. This would facilitate interventions that promote equitable distributions of UGI based on the needs of the target populations.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Mapping recreation as an ecosystem service: Considering scale,
           interregional differences and the influence of physical attributes
    • Authors: Samantha S.K. Scholte; Michiel Daams; Hans Farjon; Frans J. Sijtsma; Astrid J.A. van Teeffelen; Peter H. Verburg
      Pages: 149 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Samantha S.K. Scholte, Michiel Daams, Hans Farjon, Frans J. Sijtsma, Astrid J.A. van Teeffelen, Peter H. Verburg
      Methods to map nature-based recreation are increasingly used, especially in ecosystem services research and practice. Researchers that map nature-based recreation beyond local scales, however, have relied much on physical attributes, e.g. land cover and topography. In such instances the recreational potential of land is modeled based on expert judgement and not on public preferences. Participatory mapping data is based on public preferences and as such can be used to improve proxy-based methods to map the recreational potential of land. In this paper, we use data from an online mapping survey (the Hotspotmonitor/Greenmapper) to spatially analyze the recreational potential of land. We employed point pattern analyses to 1) investigate which physical attributes contribute to the recreational potential of land, at both a regional and a national scale, and 2) how preferences for such attributes differ between respondents from distinct geographical regions. We find that interregional differences, whereas prominent at the regional scale, are small at national scale, suggesting there is a shared understanding of what places are ‘hotspots’ for recreation within the Netherlands. These hotspots, however, are difficult to map using physical attributes alone. Discussing these discrepancies, our paper provides insights that contribute to a better understanding and mapping of the recreational potential of land.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Diverging perceptions by social groups on cultural ecosystem services
           provided by urban green
    • Authors: Maraja Riechers; Jan Barkmann; Teja Tscharntke
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Maraja Riechers, Jan Barkmann, Teja Tscharntke
      Global environmental and social changes will have great impact on the development of cities in the coming decades. Impacts of climate change, demographic shifts and conservation of biodiversity should be incorporated into urban green space planning to balance for the increasing development pressure of cities. Urban green spaces provide multiple ecosystem service benefits to diverse social groups. In this paper, we analyzed inhabitant perceptions of cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green spaces in the city of Berlin based on a face-to-face questionnaire (n = 558). As analysis tool, we used proportionate cluster sampling and focused on non-monetary statements on the perceived importance of a broad spectrum of cultural ecosystem services. Results show that cultural ecosystem services can be perceived through bundles and that those bundles may have negative influence on each other. The perceived importance of cultural ecosystem services was influenced by spatial and social factors: Older inhabitants living in periurban areas preferred cultural ecosystem services related to nature experiences. Younger inner city dwellers tended to prefer cultural ecosystem services facilitating social interactions. Those diverging perceptions should to be taken into account through urban development strategies to create a socially just and sustainable city planning in the face of global environmental changes. The ecosystem service framework can be one tool to facilitate a more participatory planning process to find solutions for urban sustainability challenges.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Investigating sense of place as a cultural ecosystem service in different
           landscapes through the lens of language
    • Authors: Flurina M. Wartmann; Ross S. Purves
      Pages: 169 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Flurina M. Wartmann, Ross S. Purves
      The concept of ecosystem services is increasingly important for measuring both tangible and intangible benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems. Much research on ecosystem services focused on more tangible services. Intangible cultural ecosystem services, such as sense of place, are often neglected, but in the context of highly populated, increasingly urbanized countries, maintenance of cultural ecosystem services is an important policy objective. One of the challenges of integrating sense of place into the framework of ecosystem services is that it is not linked to abstract notions of ecosystems, but tied to perceived landscape features such as mountains, or rivers. In this study, we used free listings and interviews with visitors to investigate perceived landscape features and sense of place through the lens of language in five different landscape types in Switzerland. Within each landscape type, we selected two study sites to quantitatively and qualitatively compare landscape descriptions. Using text processing, we show that terms for landscape features were more similar within the same landscape type, suggesting that people perceive differences between these landscapes that they express in language. However, in general, elicited concepts related to sense of place were similar across landscape types. Thus, our results show that we can use free-listing descriptions to distinguish landscape types, but we found limited differences in the language used to describe sense of place. Our findings offer insights into exploring sense of place in different landscapes and contribute to ongoing efforts for refining the definitions and standardizing assessments of cultural ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Constructed soils for mitigating lead (Pb) exposure and promoting urban
           community gardening: The New York City Clean Soil Bank pilot study
    • Authors: Sara Perl Egendorf; Zhongqi Cheng; Maha Deeb; Victor Flores; Anna Paltseva; Daniel Walsh; Peter Groffman; Howard W. Mielke
      Pages: 184 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Sara Perl Egendorf, Zhongqi Cheng, Maha Deeb, Victor Flores, Anna Paltseva, Daniel Walsh, Peter Groffman, Howard W. Mielke
      Gardening provides a wide range of benefits to urban residents but may also increase risks of exposure to contaminants in soils. Here we evaluate the use of clean excavated glacial sediments and locally produced compost, to create soils for urban gardens in New York City, NY, USA. The objectives of this study are to examine contaminants in compost and manufactured soil, assess safety of produce, and evaluate the agronomic value of soil mixes with different ratios of sediment and compost. Methods of analysis include quantifying metal/metalloid concentrations in sediments, composts, and plant tissues, soil agronomic parameters (pH, salinity, organic matter, total nitrogen, total carbon), and crop yield. Contaminant levels in sediments from the New York City Clean Soil Bank (CSB) (<10 mg Pb kg−1) were far below background levels of soils in two selected gardens (66 and 1025 mg Pb kg−1), while available composts had highly variable levels of contamination (10–232 mg Pb kg−1). A relatively clean compost was used for this study (19 mg Pb kg−1). Metal/metalloid levels did not increase in constructed soils during the 1-year pilot study period, and crops were well below EU safety standards of 0.1 and 0.3 mg Pb kg−1 for fruits and leafy greens, even when surrounded by contaminated soils. Sediment/compost mixtures produced yields comparable to control plots. Results suggest that CSB sediments have high potential to serve as manufactured topsoil. Creating these soil mixtures diverts materials from expensive waste disposal, reduces contamination risks for urban residents, and promotes the myriad benefits of urban agriculture and community gardening.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • How do sociocultural factors shape rural landowner responses to the
           prospect of perennial bioenergy crops'
    • Authors: Weston M. Eaton; Morey Burnham; C. Clare Hinrichs; Theresa Selfa; Sheng Yang
      Pages: 195 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 175
      Author(s): Weston M. Eaton, Morey Burnham, C. Clare Hinrichs, Theresa Selfa, Sheng Yang
      Renewable energy transitions in the U.S. have included growing interest in promoting perennial bioenergy crop production within different rural landscapes. However, landowners’ receptivity to such land use and development in mixed-use landscapes is not well understood. Previous research has shown that economic motivations and market factors contribute to farmer decision-making about growing energy crops in working landscapes, while research on public responses to renewable energy technologies has found that sense of place and symbolic meanings regarding land, nature, and technologies are influential. The goal of this study is to integrate these strands of research to examine the influence of sociocultural factors on both landowners’ general support for local bioenergy crop production and their willingness to participate directly by growing dedicated energy crops in mixed-use landscapes. The study draws on a survey completed by 908 landowners and farmers in rural New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Seeing bioenergy as a broadly progressive technology significantly increased the likelihood of support for local bioenergy crop production, as did having a college degree and larger landholdings, while sense of place factors were not significant. Seeing bioenergy as a progressive technology also significantly increased the likelihood of being willing to grow bioenergy crops on one’s own land, as did having a college degree, knowledge about switchgrass, having idle land, as well as concerns about bioenergy markets. This study demonstrates that in addition to other variables, sociocultural factors influence both support for local bioenergy crop production and landowner willingness to grow bioenergy crops on their own land.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2018)
  • Urban greenspace is associated with reduced psychological stress among
           adolescents: A Geographic Ecological Momentary Assessment (GEMA) analysis
           of activity space
    • Authors: Jeremy Mennis; Michael Mason; Andreea Ambrus
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 174
      Author(s): Jeremy Mennis, Michael Mason, Andreea Ambrus
      This study investigates the momentary association between urban greenspace, captured using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat imagery, and psychological stress, captured using Geographic Ecological Momentary Assessment (GEMA), in the activity spaces of a sample of primarily African American adolescents residing in Richmond, Virginia. We employ generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate the effect of exposure to urban greenspace on stress and test for moderation by sex, emotional dysregulation, season, neighborhood disadvantage, and whether the observation occurs at home or elsewhere. Results indicate that urban greenspace is associated with lower stress when subjects are away from home, which we speculate is due to the properties of stress reduction and attention restoration associated with exposure to natural areas, and to the primacy of other family dynamics mechanisms of stress within the home. Subjects may also seek out urban greenspaces at times of lower stress or explicitly for purposes of stress reduction. The greenspace-stress association away from home did not differ by sex, emotional dysregulation, neighborhood disadvantage, or season, the latter of which suggests that the observed greenspace-stress relationship is associated with being in a natural environment rather than strictly exposure to abundant green vegetation. Given the association of urban greenspace with lower stress found here and in other studies, future research should address the mediated pathways between greenspace, stress, and stress-related negative health outcomes for different population subgroups as a means toward understanding and addressing health disparities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2018)
  • Options for reducing house-losses during wildfires without clearing trees
           and shrubs
    • Authors: Philip Gibbons; A. Malcolm Gill; Nicholas Shore; Max A. Moritz; Stephen Dovers; Geoffrey J. Cary
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 174
      Author(s): Philip Gibbons, A. Malcolm Gill, Nicholas Shore, Max A. Moritz, Stephen Dovers, Geoffrey J. Cary
      Removing vegetation close to houses is at the forefront of advice provided to home owners by fire management agencies. However, widespread clearing of trees and shrubs near houses impacts aesthetics, privacy, biodiversity, energy consumption and property values. Thus, stakeholders may oppose this practice. Regulators and property owners therefore require options for vegetation management that reduce risk to houses during wildfires without complete removal of trees and shrubs. Using data from 499 houses impacted by wildfires, we tested three hypotheses: (1) maintaining ‘green’ vegetation affords houses additional protection during wildfires; (2) risk posed by trees and shrubs near houses is reduced where they are arranged as many discrete patches; and (3) trees and shrubs retained in the upwind direction from which wildfires arrive represent greater risk to houses than trees and shrubs retained in the downwind direction. We found empirical support for each hypothesis. Increasing the mean Normalised Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI) (a measure of “greenness”) of vegetation near houses had the same effect on reducing house losses as removing some trees and shrubs. Trees and shrubs within 40 m of houses arranged as many discrete patches posed less risk than the same cover of trees and shrubs arranged as few discrete patches. Trees and shrubs retained downwind from houses represented less risk than trees and shrubs retained upwind. Our findings represent options for regulators or home owners seeking to balance risk posed by wildfires with benefits associated with retaining trees and shrubs near houses.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2018)
  • Neighbourhood greenspace is related to physical activity in England, but
           only for dog owners
    • Authors: Mathew P. White; Lewis R. Elliott; Benedict W. Wheeler; Lora E. Fleming
      Pages: 18 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 174
      Author(s): Mathew P. White, Lewis R. Elliott, Benedict W. Wheeler, Lora E. Fleming
      Evidence supporting a positive association between neighbourhood greenspace and physical activity is equivocal. Using data from a large, nationally representative survey in England (n = 280,790), we found that while a positive relationship between the amount of neighbourhood greenspace and the odds of achieving recommended weekly physical activity existed for dog owners, no relationship was found for non-dog owners. The findings highlight the importance of neighbourhood greenspaces for supporting physical activity through dog walking in the UK context, but also raise the issue of how to encourage non-dog owners to use greenspaces in health-promoting ways. The results may also help to explain previously mixed findings in the international evidence base, and emphasise the need to adequately account for dog-ownership in future research exploring the relationship between greenspaces and physical activity.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2018)
  • Modeling transpiration and leaf temperature of urban trees – A case
    • Authors: Helge Simon; Jenny Lindén; David Hoffmann; Peter Braun; Michael Bruse; Jan Esper
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 174
      Author(s): Helge Simon, Jenny Lindén, David Hoffmann, Peter Braun, Michael Bruse, Jan Esper
      Increasing vegetation cover in cities is a key approach to mitigating urban heat excess. However, both the effect of vegetation on microclimate and the plants’ vitality need to be assessed to support and quantify the effects of such strategies. One way to assess the interactions between vegetation and the urban environment is through microclimate models that can simulate the effects of vegetation onto the urban microclimate as well as effects of urban environments onto vegetation. To provide reliable estimates microclimate models need to be parameterized based on empirically obtained data. In this paper we compare modeled transpiration rates and leaf temperatures of a leading microclimate model, ENVI-met V4, with in-situ measured stem sap flow and leaf temperatures of two different trees in an urban courtyard. The vegetation model of ENVI-met is evaluated considering four synoptic situations including varying cloud covers ranging from fully cloudy to clear sky. The comparison of simulation results with empirical data reveals a high agreement. The model is capable of capturing the magnitude as well as short-term variations in transpiration caused by microclimatic changes. However, substantial deviations were found in situations with low photosynthetic active radiation. Modeled and observed diurnal tree transpiration and leaf temperature showed good agreement. These findings indicate that ENVI-met is capable of simulating transpiration rates and leaf temperatures of trees in complex urban environments.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2018)
  • Spatial alternatives for Green Infrastructure planning across the EU: An
           ecosystem service perspective
    • Authors: Sara Vallecillo; Chiara Polce; Ana Barbosa; Carolina Perpiña Castillo; Ine Vandecasteele; Graciela M. Rusch; Joachim Maes
      Pages: 41 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 174
      Author(s): Sara Vallecillo, Chiara Polce, Ana Barbosa, Carolina Perpiña Castillo, Ine Vandecasteele, Graciela M. Rusch, Joachim Maes
      Target 2 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 aims at the deployment of Green Infrastructure (GI) and the restoration of at least 15% of degraded ecosystems. We assess different alternatives for the spatial planning of GI and ecosystem restoration across the European Union by using spatial conservation prioritization tools. We compared three different scenarios for the identification of priority areas in which the ecosystem service potential, beneficiaries (i.e. people) and ecosystem condition play different roles. As an example of GI restoration, we also assessed the cost-effectiveness of removal of invasive alien species in the areas prioritized under each scenario. The comparative assessment of the spatial alternatives for GI shows synergies and conflicts. We found that GI could be efficiently established close to densely populated areas, since high multi-functionality is delivered in these locations (close to human settlements). However, restoration costs, such as the removal of invasive alien species, were higher in such areas given the influence of urban pressures. We also found that GI prioritized in areas under poor ecosystem condition would require a larger spatial extent of implementation, due to a lower ecosystem service potential per unit area. Given the scarcity of resources for investment in GI and ecosystem restoration, win-win situations should be identified where GI designation can deliver several policy objectives simultaneously. The prioritization framework we have presented here could also be applied at the country or regional level to support local planning.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2018)
  • Cross-generational decline in childhood experiences of neighborhood
           flowering plants in Japan
    • Authors: Masashi Soga; Kevin J. Gaston; Takahiro Kubo
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 174
      Author(s): Masashi Soga, Kevin J. Gaston, Takahiro Kubo
      People are becoming less likely to experience nature, as we become an increasingly urban society. This progressive disengagement of humans from the natural world, “extinction of experience”, has been viewed both as a key public health issue and one of the most fundamental obstacles to halting global environmental degradation. However, while the existence and significance of the phenomenon are generally agreed upon, it remains surprisingly poorly documented, particularly at large scales and over the longer-term. Here, we report the findings from a web-based questionnaire survey (n = 1147) to assess the extent of people’s childhood experiences with neighborhood flowering, plants, one of the most popular and visible group of organisms, in Japan. Results showed that people’s levels of childhood experiences with neighborhood flowering plants were positively related to their age: older participants, compared to younger ones, reported higher frequencies of childhood experiences with neighborhood flowering plants. The reported number of neighborhood flowering plant species that participants have directly experienced during childhood was also higher for older participants. Among the 21 flowering plant species we investigated, age-related decline in direct experiences during childhood was observed for 9 species, particularly for those that depend on grasslands (an ecosystem that has been in dramatic decline over the last few decades). Participants’ age and childhood environment (urban vs. rural settings) also had significant effects on their levels of childhood nature experiences. Overall, our results suggest that children’s direct connection to neighborhood biodiversity is indeed progressively dwindling, which can have serious implications for public health and biodiversity conservation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2018)
  • The varying driving forces of urban expansion in China: Insights from a
           spatial-temporal analysis
    • Authors: Guangdong Li; Siao Sun; Chuanglin Fang
      Pages: 63 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 174
      Author(s): Guangdong Li, Siao Sun, Chuanglin Fang
      Identifying the driving mechanisms and forces of urban expansion is an important step toward better understanding of the spatial pattern, process, and consequences of urban expansion, which is essential for making effective urban growth planning and policies. Despite many previous studies devoted to investigating urban expansion patterns and mechanisms, the spatial-temporal dynamics of driving forces and their regional differences have not been well-documented. This study examines drivers of urban expansion and their effects across different regions in China in different periods. A spatial Probit model is employed, with data selected based on a national-level sampling strategy, to model urban expansion probability from a spatially explicit perspective. Results indicate that multiple factors including socioeconomic, physical, proximity, accessibility, and neighborhood factors have driven urban expansion in China. Driving factors for urban expansion vary between national and regional levels, suggesting that analyses on different spatial scales are necessary. The dynamics and driving forces of urban expansion in China have been spatial heterogeneous. Furthermore, driving forces have trended toward more diversity over time, and the constraining effects of natural conditions on urban expansion have gradually decayed. These findings aid in gaining a better understanding of the urban expansion process in China, which will in turn benefit urban planning and management across different regions. Lastly, important policy implications are inferred.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2018)
  • Vision, voice, and the community landscape: The Missouri Place Stories
           pilot project
    • Authors: Maris Boyd Gillette; Andrew Hurley
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): Maris Boyd Gillette, Andrew Hurley
      Authorized discourses of landscape value omit key qualities that make places valuable to the people who inhabit them. Here we present a community-based research initiative in which residents of two urban St Louis neighborhoods identified meaningful sites and sights in their locale. Using photographs and narration, they traced the contours of a “community landscape” characterized by heterogeneity, social relationships, creative practice, and a communalist model of human-nature relations. Inventoried, archived, and located on a digital mapping tool, their vision serves as a resource for neighborhood identity and collective decision-making. The insights produced by this type of project could productively inform urban planning and land management, and empower residents to decide what merits protection, reproduction, or alteration in the places where they live.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • Preference heterogeneity and scale heterogeneity in urban river
           restoration: A comparative study between Brussels and Guangzhou using
           discrete choice experiments
    • Authors: Wendy Y. Chen; Junyi Hua; Inge Liekens; Steven Broekx
      Pages: 9 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): Wendy Y. Chen, Junyi Hua, Inge Liekens, Steven Broekx
      The discrete choice experiment approach has been widely applied in developed nations to examine individual preferences and associated heterogeneity regarding the provision of ecosystem services, and thereby a wealth of empirical evidence has been generated. Knowledge about how to inform and benefit the DCE studies in developing countries remains limited due to a lack of direct cross-country comparisons between developed and transitional nations. Using two duplicate DCE surveys executed in Brussels (the capital city of Belgium) and Guangzhou (the capital city of Guangdong province in southern China), where local municipal governments are intending to restore heavily modified and polluted river stretches in densely-populated urban settings, this study provides an in-depth analysis and comparison between two groups of respondents’ preferences and influencing factors. The DCE data are analyzed using an advanced generalized multinomial logit model with attribute interactions to explore and account for observed preference heterogeneity and unobserved scale heterogeneity simultaneously, and also latent class models to highlight the presence of divergent preferences within the sample and construct the linkage between preference heterogeneity and individual characteristics, including respondents’ perceptions of urban river’s ecosystem services and socio-economic characteristics. While fairly similar preference heterogeneity regarding various attributes are found between respondents from the two cities, there exists a highly significant scale heterogeneity and hence a large degree of uncertainty amongst Guangzhou respondents when making their choice decisions in a DCE exercise. Another significant finding shared by respondents from the two cities is that those who could not appreciate urban river’s ecosystem services adequately were not in favor of moving away from the status quo. Contributing to the growing literature that recognizes and explores residents’ preference heterogeneity, as well as the scale heterogeneity in environmental and ecological goods, this comparative study provides information for policy-makers and practitioners for optimizing strategies to restore impaired urban river ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • Ecosystem services management: An evaluation of green adaptations for
           urban development in Dhaka, Bangladesh
    • Authors: Naeema Jihan Zinia; Paul McShane
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): Naeema Jihan Zinia, Paul McShane
      We evaluated green adaptation strategies (parks, gardens, green roof, rainwater harvest, green façades/wall, porous pavement, and green and blue belts) in the context of urban development and potential climate change impacts for the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Our review of relevant literature revealed substantial environmental (cooler and cleaner environment), economic (reduced energy demand, avoided cost of drainage maintenance, increased land values) and social (higher social interaction, improved mental and physical health) benefits arising from the maintenance and development of ecosystem services in major cities. Our evaluation of green adaptation strategies was undertaken with household surveys in three wards of Dhaka, expert interviews, and our personal experiences. Rooftop gardens/agriculture had very high social acceptance (85%) and economic feasibility and was commonly practiced in Dhaka, particularly among house owners. Pocket park, green roof, rainwater harvest, green façades/wall, porous pavement, and community garden were all considered to be highly feasible for implementation with collective efforts but had lower social acceptance. Many respondents were unwilling to pay for green adaptation strategies even knowing their benefits. Our research revealed that successful implementation of beneficial green adaptation will require public participation at all stages supported through awareness raising campaigns. Enforcement of laws and strong commitment from the government was also considered to be beneficial. However, more transparent cost-benefit analyses promoting the conservation of ecosystem services is required, particularly for resource-poor Dhaka. Green adaptations make cities more resilient to pressures from demographic change and climate change increasingly relevant in the developing world.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • Moving beyond the neighborhood: Daily exposure to nature and
           adolescents’ mood
    • Authors: Dongying Li; Brian Deal; Xiaolu Zhou; Marcus Slavenas; William C. Sullivan
      Pages: 33 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): Dongying Li, Brian Deal, Xiaolu Zhou, Marcus Slavenas, William C. Sullivan
      A growing body of literature has explored the psychological benefits associated with contact with nature. Many studies have employed experimental designs that compared various levels of nature exposure, or have used exogenous neighborhood-based measures of nature. The exact places where adolescents visit, as well as their street-level experiences with nature, remain unexplored. As a result, we know very little about the extent to which adolescents' actual exposure to nature is related to their moods. In this study, we examined the daily activities and moods of 155 adolescents from central Illinois to understand the association between exposure to varying concentrations of nature and adolescents' mood. Each participant wore a Global Positioning System (GPS) device for four consecutive days and completed an adapted Profile of Mood States questionnaire at the end of each day. We calculated the concentration of nature participants were exposed to by assessing the Google Street View images at the locations they visited throughout each day. Multi-level modeling analysis revealed significant associations between the concentration of nature and daily mood in participating adolescents, even after controlling for intra-individual and inter-individual level confounding variables. This relationship did not vary by demographic or socio-economic background. We discuss the implications for greening urban public space and resurrecting time for adolescents to engage in unstructured activities. The methods used in this study—combining GPS tracking and environmental exposure assessment—can be applied to a variety of research studies regarding human-landscape relationships.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • The importance of land governance for biodiversity conservation in an era
           of global urban expansion
    • Authors: Chun-Wei Huang; Robert I. McDonald; Karen C. Seto
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): Chun-Wei Huang, Robert I. McDonald, Karen C. Seto
      Mitigating the effects of urban expansion on habitat with high conservation value depends largely on national and sub-national governance that can effectively shape urban growth. This paper is the first study to map urban-caused biodiversity decline and governance. The central goal of this paper is to identify where and how weak governance and future urban expansion may combine to lead to the decline of biodiversity. We identify four categories of countries based on the level of biodiversity impact from urban expansion and governance capacity, as expressed in the Worldwide Governance Indicators. We review the literature of case studies to understand how governance capacity modulates the impact of urban expansion on biodiversity. Our results show that if predicted urban expansion continues, by 2030, more than two-thirds of all species impacted by urban expansion will occur in countries with low levels of political stability or regulatory quality, two factors which were identified as most important in the ability of land governance to mitigate urban threats on biodiversity. Our results suggest that land-use planning cannot be the sole solution for preventing urban-caused global biodiversity decline, but rather that different categories of countries need contrasting conservation strategies. Countries that have high potential biodiversity impact and low land governance capacity require short-term conservation strategies which facilitate public participation, as well as international aid and development to increase governance capacity. Furthermore, enhanced coordination across different decision-making levels is important so that strategies at a single scale do not counterbalance efforts at other levels.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • How did urban polycentricity and dispersion affect economic
           productivity' A case study of 306 Chinese cities
    • Authors: Yingcheng Li; Xingjian Liu
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): Yingcheng Li, Xingjian Liu
      This article aims to assess the impacts of urban spatial structure on economic productivity. Drawing upon detailed gridded population data of 306 Chinese cities at the prefecture level and above, we identify their urban (sub)centers through exploratory spatial data analysis, construct indicators to measure their degrees of polycentricity and dispersion, and model the impacts of spatial structure on urban productivity. A regression analysis reveals that economic productivity is significantly associated with urban spatial structure. Conditioning on other factors, higher degrees of dispersion are associated with lower level of urban productivity whereas the effects of polycentricity depend on urban population density. Less densely populated cities are likely to have higher productivity levels when they are more monocentric, while urban productivity of cities with high population density tend to benefit from a more polycentric structure. The paper concludes with spatial planning implications.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • A distributed modelling approach to assess the use of Blue and Green
           Infrastructures to fulfil stormwater management requirements
    • Authors: P.-A. Versini; N. Kotelnikova; A. Poulhes; I. Tchiguirinskaia; D. Schertzer; F. Leurent
      Pages: 60 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): P.-A. Versini, N. Kotelnikova, A. Poulhes, I. Tchiguirinskaia, D. Schertzer, F. Leurent
      Blue and Green Infrastructures (B&GI) are nature-based solutions considered as particularly efficient to reduce the potential impact of new and existing developments with respect to stormwater issues. In order to assess their performance at some large scales compatible with urban projects, adapted distributed rainfall-runoff models are required. The latest advancements of the Multi-Hydro platform have made possible the representation of such B&GI. Applied in a virtual new urban development project located in the Paris region, Multi-Hydro has been used to simulate the impact of B&GI implementation, and their ability to fulfil regulation rules authorizing the connexion to the sewer network. The results show that a combination of several B&GI, if they are widely implemented, could represent an efficient tool to meet regulations at the parcel scale, as they can reduce runoff volume about 90%.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • Participatory soundscape sensing
    • Authors: Chunming Li; Yin Liu; Muki Haklay
      Pages: 64 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): Chunming Li, Yin Liu, Muki Haklay
      Soundscape research offers new ways to explore the acoustic environment and potentially address challenges. A comprehensive understanding of soundscape characteristics and quality requires efficient data collection and analysis methods. This paper describes Participatory Soundscape Sensing (PSS), a worldwide soundscape investigation and evaluation project. We describe the calibration method for sound pressure levels (SPL) measured by mobile phone, analyze the PSS’s data temporal-spatial distribution characteristics, and discuss the impact of the participants’ age and gender on the data quality. Furthermore, we analyze the sound comfort level relationships with each class of land use, sound sources, subjective evaluation, sound level, sound harmoniousness, gender, and age using over a year of shared data. The results suggest that PSS has distinct advantages in enhancing the amount and coverage of soundscape data. The PSS data distribution is closely related to the temporal pattern of the human work-rest schedule, population density, and the level of cyber-infrastructure. Adults (19–40 years old) are higher-quality data providers, and women exhibit better performance with respect to data integrity than men. Increasing the proportion of natural source sounds and reducing the proportion of human-made sources of sound is expected to enhance the sound comfort level. A higher proportion of sound harmoniousness leads to higher sound comfort, and the higher proportion of subjective evaluation sound level does not lead to decreased sound comfort. We suggest that the crowdsourcing data with participatory sensing will provide a new perspective in soundscape investigation, evaluation, and planning.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • Pigs in space: An agent-based model of wild boar (Sus scrofa) movement
           into cities
    • Authors: Marina Toger; Itzhak Benenson; Yuqi Wang; Daniel Czamanski; Dan Malkinson
      Pages: 70 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): Marina Toger, Itzhak Benenson, Yuqi Wang, Daniel Czamanski, Dan Malkinson
      Last decades saw a dramatic increase in wildlife populations within urban areas. Policymakers seek to minimize human-wildlife conflicts resulting from overabundance of species, such as wild boars (Sus scrofa). To this end, there is a need to understand the drivers governing infiltration of wildlife into cities. In this paper we study the availability and distribution of food resources in urban areas as driver of wild boar movement patterns. Based on the optimal foraging theory, we utilize an agent-based simulation model to investigate the ever-growing infiltration of wild boars into some cities. We apply the model to an artificial city that mimics the landscape of the city of Haifa. Manipulating food availability and relative resistance costs of different land-covers we demonstrate that infiltration of boars depends on population size of wild boars and on the amount and spatial distribution of attractors (e.g., food). Model outputs for likely sets of parameters demonstrate good correspondence to the reports of boar observations within the city of Haifa, Israel, where the porosity of the urban fabric and the connectivity of open space patches provide a trail network that makes food throughout the city accessible at a relatively low search-cost. Our results indicate that land cover and food patterns determine critically boars’ foraging movement and infiltration into the city. The proposed modeling framework provides a tool to investigate wildlife management policies that aim at reducing people-wildlife conflicts in cities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:21:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • How do planners deal with barriers to climate change adaptation' A
           case study in Queensland, Australia
    • Authors: Lachlan McClure; Douglas Baker
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 173
      Author(s): Lachlan McClure, Douglas Baker
      Spatial planning at the local government level has a widely recognized role and responsibility to address the impacts of climate change. However, there are significant barriers to climate change adaptation and planning institutions and professionals are at the forefront of confronting these obstacles. This research documents how planners have responded to barriers to climate change adaptation at a professional level. The focus of this research is on the conditions of uncertainty and volatility of institutional policy frameworks for climate change adaptation; and the low prioritization of climate change adaptation among competing institutional objectives. The paper investigates how planners respond to these conditions and the resulting impact of their decisions on local level climate change adaptation. We report on a case study of the experiences and perspectives of local planners across Queensland, Australia. The contribution of this research is to document how planners respond to conflicts between institutional constraints and professional responsibilities for climate change adaptation. The case study identifies strategies that were employed by planning professionals to overcome common institutional barriers to climate change adaptation. Planners responded to problematic conditions by engaging alternative authorities, identifying substitute rationales, employing existing mechanisms, altering the framing of terminology and establishing regional coordination forums. These strategies provide options for professionals to overcome the barriers to climate change adaptation within their work and political environments.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2018)
  • A manifold learning approach to urban land cover classification with
           optical and radar data
    • Authors: Hongsheng Zhang; Jiang Li; Ting Wang; Hui Lin; Zezhong Zheng; Yu Li; Yufeng Lu
      Pages: 11 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 172
      Author(s): Hongsheng Zhang, Jiang Li, Ting Wang, Hui Lin, Zezhong Zheng, Yu Li, Yufeng Lu
      Urban land covers (ULC) are essential data for numerous studies of urban landscape ecology performed on various scales. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to obtain accurate and timely ULC information. This study presents a methodological framework for fusing optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data at the pixel level with manifolds to improve ULC classification. Three typical manifold learning models, namely, ISOMAP, Local Linear Embedding (LLE) and principle component analysis (PCA), were employed, and their results were compared. SPOT-5 data were used as optical data to be fused with three different SAR datasets. Experimental results showed that 1) the most useful information of the optical and SAR data were included in the manifolds with intrinsic dimensionality, while various ULC classes were distributed differently throughout the feature spaces of manifolds derived from different learning methods; 2) in certain cases, ISOMAP performed comparably to PCA, but PCA generally performed the best out of all the study cases, yielding the best producer's and user's accuracy of all ULC classes and requiring the least amount of time to build the machine learning models; and 3) the LLE-derived manifolds yielded the lowest accuracy, primarily by confusing bare soils with dark impervious surfaces and vegetation. These results indicate the effectiveness of the new manifold technology to fuse optical and SAR data at the pixel level for improving ULC classification, which can be applied in practice to support the accurate analysis of urban landscape.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2018)
  • Comment on “Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to
           analyze brain region activity when viewing landscapes”
    • Authors: Adam C. Roberts; George I. Christopoulos
      Pages: 25 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 172
      Author(s): Adam C. Roberts, George I. Christopoulos
      Modern neuroscience methods, such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), offer the unparalleled opportunity to monitor the human brain in vivo − a revolution that has had a tremendous impact on many disciplines (economics, culture, health). Thus, the paper by Tang et al. (2017) is an exciting epistemological step introducing this technology and the possibilities for those studying the health effects of landscapes. Yet, as in similar interdisciplinary efforts there are always risks: questions are very general or results are misinterpreted. The present commentary aims, using examples and a simple but rigorous language, to help the audience of Landscape and Urban Planning understand the basic principles of fMRI and neuroscience methods We end up with a call to landscape researchers and others studying how environments can affect people’s mental health and well-being to boldly be involved in this exciting interdisciplinary effort to help neuroscientists understand how the brain works.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2018)
  • The landscape context of family forests in the United States:
           Anthropogenic interfaces and forest fragmentation from 2001 to 2011
    • Authors: Kurt Riitters; Jennifer Costanza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning
      Author(s): Kurt Riitters, Jennifer Costanza
      The capacity of family owned forests to sustain ecological goods and services depends on the landscape context within which that forest occurs. For example, the expansion of a nearby urban area results in the loss of adjacent forest, which threatens the ability of the family forest to sustain interior forest habitat. Our objective was to assess the status and change of the landscape context of family forests across the conterminous United States, as measured by interior forest status and anthropogenic (urban and agricultural) interface zones. We combined circa 2005 forest inventory data with land cover maps from 2001 and 2011 to evaluate changes in the vicinity of 132,497 inventory locations. We compared family forests to nonfamily private and public forests, and evaluated regional conservation opportunities for family forests. Between 2001 and 2011, 1.5% of family forest area experienced a change of anthropogenic interface zone, and 46% was in an interface zone by 2011. During that same time, there was a net decrease of 9.7% of family owned interior forest area, such that 27% of family forest was interior forest by 2011. The rates of forest fragmentation and occurrence in anthropogenic interface zones were higher for family and nonfamily private forests than for public forest, yet family forests contained 31% of the extant interior forest area. The geography of landscape patterns suggested where aggregate actions by family forest owners may have relatively large regional effects upon extant interior forest conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.04.001
  • Climate change and declining levels of green structures: Life in informal
           settlements of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    • Authors: Manoj Roy; Riziki Shemdoe; David Hulme; Nicholaus Mwageni; Alex Gough
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning
      Author(s): Manoj Roy, Riziki Shemdoe, David Hulme, Nicholaus Mwageni, Alex Gough
      Impacts of climate change are often acute for those who live in informal settlements, the places where poverty, inequality and deprivation are concentrated in cities across the developing world. To broaden the strategies to address this issue, many cities are now embracing ecosystem-based adaptation and resilience. But, in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) the approach is yet to make much headway. This paper examines how climate change impacts on poor urban people via one component of urban ecosystem − urban green structures (UGS) − in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It examines: the UGS of importance to the city's informal dwellers and the range of derived services; changes over time to these UGS and derived services; and emerging adaptation practices. Using qualitative methods, the study has three key findings. First, cultural ecosystem services are of greatest importance to informal dwellers, although they do harness a range of other services. Second, the city's UGS have undergone dramatic changes due to both climatic and non-climatic factors. This has resulted in a gradual decline in the quantity and quality of UGS-derived services for the urban poor. Third, in responding to these changes, informal settlement dwellers have relied mostly on their personal, and sometimes on their collective, resources and capabilities. There are some innovative practices that draw on external institutions, but access to external support for informal communities has remained consistently low. City authorities should approach and plan greening ‘for’ (not ‘in’) informal settlements as a targeted environmental improvement endeavour – referred to here as ‘creative urban planning’.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T04:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.11.011
  • Perceived species-richness in urban green spaces: Cues, accuracy and
           well-being impacts
    • Authors: Georgina E Southon; Anna Jorgensen; Nigel Dunnett; Helen Hoyle; Karl L Evans
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 172
      Author(s): Georgina E Southon, Anna Jorgensen, Nigel Dunnett, Helen Hoyle, Karl L Evans
      Evidence that urban green-space promotes health and well-being of urban residents is increasing. The role of biodiversity is unclear: perceived biodiversity may be important, but how accurately it is perceived and the factors influencing this accuracy are poorly understood. We use experimental perennial urban meadows in southern England to investigate the impact of creating biodiverse habitats on green-space users’ i) physical and mental health, psychological well-being, ii) factors moderating health and well-being outcomes (site satisfaction and nature connectedness), and iii) perceived biodiversity. We explore whether ‘nature dose’ (time spent at a site) influences these relationships. We then assess whether green-space users can estimate botanical diversity accurately across meadow treatments differing in plant species richness and vegetation structure, and determine the environmental cues and personal characteristics associated with these estimates. Sites with experimental meadows did not increase respondents’ perceptions of site level biodiversity, their self-rated physical and mental health or psychological well-being relative to control sites lacking meadows. However, there were significant associations between perceived site level biodiversity per se, and site satisfaction and feeling connected to nature. Moreover, we observed a positive association between nature dose and self-estimated mental health. We found that actual and perceived botanical richness in individual meadow plots were strongly positively correlated. Perceived richness was positively associated with vegetation height, evenness, and colourfulness suggesting that these are cues for estimating species richness. The accuracy of estimates varied, but respondents with higher levels of eco-centricity were more accurate than people who were less connected to nature.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:14:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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