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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 339, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 398, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Reproduction Science
  [SJR: 0.711]   [H-I: 78]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-4320
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Characterization of male germ cell markers in canine testis
    • Authors: Won-Young Lee; Ran Lee; Hyun-Jung Park; Jeong Tae Do; Chankyu Park; Jin-Hoi Kim; Hyunjhung Jhun; Ji-Heon Lee; Taiyoung Hur; Hyuk Song
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 182
      Author(s): Won-Young Lee, Ran Lee, Hyun-Jung Park, Jeong Tae Do, Chankyu Park, Jin-Hoi Kim, Hyunjhung Jhun, Ji-Heon Lee, Taiyoung Hur, Hyuk Song
      Spermatogenesis begins at puberty and continues throughout a male’s life. This process is initiated and maintained by spermatogonial stem cells in the seminiferous tubules, and these cells produce haploid spermatozoa. Markers of male germ cells have been fully identified in rodents, including mice and rats, but not in canines. To characterize the canine male germ cells, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed, using prepubertal (1–3-month-old), early pubertal (4-month-old), and postpubertal (7-month-old) dog testes. Expression of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL), synaptonemal complex protein (SCP3), tyrosine-protein kinase Kit (C-kit), and acrosin was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. PGP9.5 and DAZL were detected in spermatogonia and co-localized near the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules. Some SCP3-positive cells expressed PGP9.5 but not C-kit, and most of these cells were located near the basement membrane. C-kit is a marker of differentiated spermatogenic cells. In addition, acrosin was detected in C-kit-positive spematocytes and mature spermatozoa, whereas C-kit was detected in Sertoli cells in all stages of canine testis development. We suggest that male germ cell markers detected in other species are conserved in canines. PGP9.5, DAZL, SCP3, and acrosin expressions were conserved among various species, but C-kit expression varied. This study might facilitate the identification of stage-specific canine germ cell markers and cellular mechanisms of spermatogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T04:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling regelates differentiation of chicken (Gallus
           gallus) embryonic stem cells to male germ cells
    • Authors: Dong Li; Shaoze Cheng; Wenhui Zhang; Man Wang; Changhua Sun; Chen Zhang; Yilin Wang; Jing Jin; Yani Zhang; Bichun Li
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 182
      Author(s): Dong Li, Shaoze Cheng, Wenhui Zhang, Man Wang, Changhua Sun, Chen Zhang, Yilin Wang, Jing Jin, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
      Gli1 is an important signaling molecular in Hedgehog signaling pathway. In our study, we explored the adjustment effect of Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling pathway on chicken male germ cells differentiation based on the transcriptome-wide analyses of chicken ESCs, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and spermatogonia stem cells (SSCs) that were associated with male germ cell differentiation. We screened out Hedgehog signaling pathway and identified 8 candidated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), Wnt3a, Wnt16, Wnt8a, HHIPL1, Gli1, BMP6, BMP7 and TTLL4. These DEGs expression change trend among blastoderm, genital ridge and testes, from which ESCs, PGCs and SSCs were isolated was the same as RNA-Seq data with quantitative RT-PCR evaluation. Based on retinoic acid (RA) induction of ESCs to SSCs in vitro, Gli1 overexpression has the ability to induce ESCs differentiation and SSCs-like cells formation and high expression of related reproductive genes, like Cvh, C-kit, Blamp1, Prmd14, Stra8, Dazl, integrin α6 and integrin β1 and so on in vitro. While RNAi knockdown of Gli1 can protect ESCs from differentiating into SSCs and correspondingly reduce the expression of the associated reproductive gene in vivo and vitro. Immunochemistry results showed that Gli1 overexpression could increase the expression of PGCs markers Cvh and C-kit and SSCs markers integrin α6 and integrin β1 in vivo, while Gli1 knockdown can have the opposite effect in vivo and in vitro. PAS stain and flow cytometry (FCM) evaluation results indicated the quantity of germ cells is decrease or increase with Gli1 knockdown or overexpression. Collectively, these results uncovered a novel function of Gli1 and demonstrated Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling pathway involved in chicken male germ cell differentiation, where it acts as a facilitator.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T04:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Effect of different concentrations of egg yolk and virgin coconut oil in
           Tris-based extenders on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen
    • Authors: A.A. Tarig; H. Wahid; Y. Rosnina; N. Yimer; Y.M. Goh; F.H. Baiee; A.M. Khumran; H. Salman; M. Ebrahimi
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 182
      Author(s): A.A. Tarig, H. Wahid, Y. Rosnina, N. Yimer, Y.M. Goh, F.H. Baiee, A.M. Khumran, H. Salman, M. Ebrahimi
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8% virgin coconut oil (VCO) combined with different percentages of egg yolk in Tris extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen. A total of 24 ejaculates from four bulls were collected using an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 8% VCO in Tris extender which contained different concentrations 0% (control), 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions: one was chilled and stored at 4°C until evaluation after 24, 72, and 144h; the second fraction was processed by chilling for 3h at 4°C to equilibrate, then packaged in 0.25ml straws and frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen at −196°C until evaluation after 7 and 14 days. Both chilled and frozen semen samples were then thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), viability, acrosome integrity, and morphology (eosin–nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)). The results indicate treatments with 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk with 8% VCO had greater sperm quality (P <0.05) as compared with the control. The treatment with 20% egg yolk had the greatest sperm quality (P <0.05) among the treated groups for both chilled and frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, the use of 8% VCO combined with 20% egg yolk in a Tris-based extender enhanced the values for chilled and frozen-thawed quality variables of bull sperm.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T04:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Relationship of antral follicular blood flow velocity to superovulatory
           responses in ewes
    • Authors: M.E.F. Oliveira; P.M. Bartlewski; N. Jankowski; L.C. Padilha-Nakaghi; L.G. Oliveira; S.D. Bicudo; J.F. Fonseca; W.R.R. Vicente
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 182
      Author(s): M.E.F. Oliveira, P.M. Bartlewski, N. Jankowski, L.C. Padilha-Nakaghi, L.G. Oliveira, S.D. Bicudo, J.F. Fonseca, W.R.R. Vicente
      The aim of this study was to examine the association between antral follicular blood flow velocity and the response of ewes to hormonal ovarian superstimulation. Ten Santa Inês ewes were subjected to a short- (7days; Group 1) or long-term (13days; Group 2) progesterone (CIDR®; InterAg, Hamilton, New Zealand) priming, and a superovulatory treatment with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; Folltropin®-V; Bioniche Animal Health, Belleville, ON, Canada), given twice daily for four consecutive days in decreasing doses and initiated four or ten days after CIDR insertion, respectively. Embryos were recovered surgically seven days after the last pFSH dose. From one day prior to until the end of the pFSH regimen (Days −1 to 3), all ewes underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography of ovaries. The number of high-velocity pixels (HVPs; 0.055–0.11m/s or upper 50% of recordable velocities) on Day 1 correlated directly with the number of corpora lutea (CL; r =0.92, P =0.0002) and of viable embryos (r =0.77, P =0.01). Correlations were also recorded between the number of HVPs on Day 3 and the recovery rate (r =−0.69, P =0.03), viability rate (r =−0.64, P =0.05), and percentage of degenerated embryos (r=0.65, P=0.04). The percentage of HVPs relative to the total area of ovarian cross section on Day 1 was correlated with the number of CL (r =0.95, P< 0.001) and of viable embryos (r =0.85, P =0.002). This parameter on Day 3 was also correlated with the recovery rate (r =−0.69, P =0.03). The percentage of HVPs relative to the total Doppler area on Day 0 was correlated with the recovery rate (r =0.72, P =0.02). It can be concluded that sonographic assessment of high-velocity antral follicular blood flow has the makings of a useful non-invasive method to predict the outcome of the superovulatory treatment in ewes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T04:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Chemical sterilisation of animals: A review of the use of zinc- and CaCl2
           based solutions in male and female animals and factors likely to improve
           responses to treatment
    • Authors: John Cavalieri
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 181
      Author(s): John Cavalieri
      Chemical sterilisation can be used as an alternative to surgical castration in some circumstances. This review focuses on responses to treatment with zinc- or CaCl2-based chemosterilants, factors that have affected treatments and their potential use to sterilise female cattle. Successful treatment with a low incidence of adverse side effects in male animals has occurred with the use of zinc gluconate (ZG), neutralised in arginine and a 20% solution of CaCl2 in ethanol. Injection technique plays an important role in success. Less satisfactory results appear to occur following use in animals with relatively larger testes. In animals with relatively small testes adjustment of the dose according to testicular size appears to optimise results. The techniques appear to be most suited to population control strategies in companion animals where low cost treatment of animals in environments where surgical facilities and specialised aftercare are lacking. The need for careful administration and likely slower speed of administration compared to surgical castration are likely to hamper application within the cattle industries. Recently transvaginal, intraovarian administration of CaCl2 in ethanol has been shown to cause complete ovarian atrophy without apparent pain in some heifers, although variable responses were found. Chemical sterilisation can play a role in the sterilisation of animals but careful attention to dose, volume, chemical composition, administration technique are needed to avoid adverse side effects and variability in responses associated with some treatments. Application in female animals requires further study but CaCl2 in ethanol can potentially cause complete ovarian atrophy when administered to heifers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Effect of injectable trace mineral complex supplementation on development
           of ovarian structures and serum copper and zinc concentrations in
           over-conditioned Holstein cows
    • Authors: Juan González-Maldonado; Raymundo Rangel-Santos; Raymundo Rodríguez-de Lara; Oswaldo García-Peña
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 181
      Author(s): Juan González-Maldonado, Raymundo Rangel-Santos, Raymundo Rodríguez-de Lara, Oswaldo García-Peña
      This study evaluated the effect of injecting trace minerals on reproductive performance in over-conditioned Holstein cows before synchronized estrus. Multiparous non-lactating, over-conditioned repeat breeder cows (n=20) were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: 1) control (n = 10), and 2) supplementation with an injectable trace mineral complex 25days before expected synchronized estrus (n = 10). Follicular waves were synchronized by intravaginal insertion of a CIDR for eight days and an intramuscular (i.m.) injection of a GnRH analogue. Estrus was induced at CIDR removal by an i.m. injection of PGF2α. Blood samples were collected before and after synchronized estrus. The response variables were follicle population (FP), diameter of the preovulatory follicle at CIDR removal (DFP0) and at estrus detection (DFP1), time of estrus after CIDR removal (TE), area of corpus luteum (ACL), pregnancy rate and copper and zinc serum concentrations. The statistical analysis of the variables was carried out with SAS. The FP, DFP0, DFP1, TE, ACL and serum concentrations of copper and zinc were not affected by the trace mineral injection (P >0.05). Even though pregnancy rate at 40 (77.78±13.46 vs 44.44±16.56%) and 60days after AI (66.67±15.71 vs 33.33±15.71%) was numerically higher for cows injected with trace minerals than for the control group, the differences were not significant (P >0.05). In conclusion, while follicular and corpus luteum development were not affected by trace mineral injection, it may be a feasible way to increase the pregnancy rate in over-conditioned cows.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Notch signaling pathway promotes the development of ovine ovarian
           follicular granulosa cells
    • Authors: Jiongjie Jing; Xiaolong Jiang; Jianwei Chen; Xiaolei Yao; Miaomiao Zhao; Pengfei Li; Yangyang Pan; Youshe Ren; Wenzhong Liu; Lihua Lyu
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 181
      Author(s): Jiongjie Jing, Xiaolong Jiang, Jianwei Chen, Xiaolei Yao, Miaomiao Zhao, Pengfei Li, Yangyang Pan, Youshe Ren, Wenzhong Liu, Lihua Lyu
      The Notch signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis involved in development of the organs and tissues such as nervous system, cartilage, lungs, kidneys and prostate as well as the ovarian follicles. This study aimed to investigate the mRNA expression and localization of NOTCH2, as the key factor in Notch signaling pathway. This was determined by PCR, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the effects of inhibiting Notch signaling pathway with different concentrations (5μM, 10μM and 20μM) of N-[N-(3, 5-Difuorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), an inhibitor of Notch signaling pathway, on ovine granulosa cells was determined in vitro by detecting estradiol production using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and expressions of the genes related to the cell cycle and apoptosis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). NOTCH2, the key member of Notch signaling pathway, was found in ovine follicles, and the expression of NOTCH2 mRNA was highest in the theca cells of the follicles in medium sizes (3–5mm in diameter) and granulosa cells of the follicles in large sizes (>5mm in diameter). Immunohistochemical results demonstrated that NOTCH2 protein was expressed in granulosa cells of preantral follicles, in both granulosa cells and theca cells of antral follicles. Compared with DAPT-treated groups, the control group had a higher number of granulosa cells (P< 0.05) and a higher estradiol production (P< 0.05). Compared with the control group, the mRNA abundances of HES1, MYC, BAX, BCL2 and CYP19A1 in DAPT-treated groups was lower (P< 0.05), respectively; whereas, the expression of CCND2, CDKN1A and TP53 mRNA showed no remarkable difference compared with control group. Collectively, Notch signaling pathway could be involved in the ovine follicular development by regulating the growth and estradiol production of granulosa cells.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Loss of protein kinase 2 subunit alpha 2 (CK2α’) effect ram sperm
           function after freezing and thawing process
    • Authors: Yuxuan He; Hongyan Li; Ke Wang; Yong Zhang; Xingxu Zhao
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 181
      Author(s): Yuxuan He, Hongyan Li, Ke Wang, Yong Zhang, Xingxu Zhao
      Protein kinase 2 subunit alpha 2 (CK2α’), a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase, is associated with sperm apoptosis. However, the presence of CK2α’ in ram sperm during the freezing-thawing process has not been previously reported. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the effect of cryopreservation on the association between CK2α’ and ram sperm function. Sperm variables, including sperm motility, DNA damage and acrosome integrity, were measured in fresh (F), cooled (CO) and freeze-thawed (FT) sperm. Sperm proteins and total mRNA were extracted form cells of each group, and subjected to western blot and real-time PCR analysis for detection of CK2α’ proteins and relative abundance of mRNA. The distribution pattern of CK2α’ protein in ram sperm was also monitored in each group using an immunofluorescence technique. The results provided evidence that the freeze-thaw process has an impact on ram sperm variables, and the normalized CK2α’ protein and relative abundance of CK2α’ mRNA were both significantly less in FT than F sperm. The amount of CK2α’ in FT extended seminal plasma was increased as compared with F samples. Furthermore, immunofluorescence revealed that CK2α’ was distributed throughout the acrosome of ram sperm. The association of CK2α’ with DNA damage and acrosome integrity was confirmed using Pearson’s linear correlation. In conclusion, the understanding the molecular effects of cryopreservation on CK2α’ in ram sperm could provide insight into methods for improving fertility associated with frozen-thawed ram sperm.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Reproductive parameters of dairy goats after receiving two doses of
           d-cloprostenol at different intervals
    • Authors: A.L.R.S. Maia; F.Z. Brandão; J.M.G. Souza-Fabjan; M.F.A. Balaro; M.E.F. Oliveira; O. Facó; J.F. Fonseca
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 181
      Author(s): A.L.R.S. Maia, F.Z. Brandão, J.M.G. Souza-Fabjan, M.F.A. Balaro, M.E.F. Oliveira, O. Facó, J.F. Fonseca
      This study evaluated the efficiency of two d-cloprostenol injections at different intervals on the reproductive parameters of dairy goats. Trial 1 comprised 54 goats allocated to receive two 37.5μg d-cloprostenol doses at intervals of seven (T7, n=19), 10 (T10, n=18), and 11.5 (T11.5, n=17) days. Trial 2 comprised 62 goats allocated to receive injections at T7 (n=30) and T11.5 (n=32). Ultrasonography was done and blood was collected just before d-cloprostenol injections. After the second dose, goats were artificially inseminated (AI) with frozen-thawed semen at 18–24h (Trial 1) or at 10–24h (adjusted according to the time of estrus onset in Trial 2) after estrus detection. Estrus response rate did not differ (P>0.05) among groups in Trials 1 (T7 =94.7%; T10=88.9%; T11.5 =88.2%) and 2 (T7 =90.0%; T11.5 =96.9). All females showed progesterone concentrations >1ng/mL before both d-cloprostenol injections. The largest follicle diameter present on ovaries was similar (P>0.05) among treatments at the first and second dose. The second largest follicle diameter was superior (P<0.05) to T7 than to T10 and T11.5 goats at first dose only. This possibly resulted in lower interval to estrus (P<0.05) in T7-treated goats than other treated goats in both trials. The conception rate was similar among treatment groups in Trials 1 (T7 =55.6%; T10 =18.8%; T11.5 =26.7%) and 2 (T7 =85.2%; T11.5 =93.6%). The three treatments efficiently synchronized estrus. T7 and T11.5 protocols resulted in high estrus synchrony and conception rates when adjusting the AI time according to interval of estrus.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Effects of grazing tall fescue containing ergot alkaloids on bull sperm
    • Authors: C.R. Burnett; W.C. Bridges; S.L. Pratt
      Pages: 24 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 181
      Author(s): C.R. Burnett, W.C. Bridges, S.L. Pratt
      There are many positive agronomic traits that make tall fescue a desirable forage, however, reduced fertility rates are reported for beef cattle grazing pasture containing the ergot alkaloid-producing endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of consuming tall fescue containing ergot alkaloids on sperm physiology, as measured by survival of sperm following cryopreservation. Yearling Angus bulls (n =25), having passed a breeding soundness exam (BSE), were assigned to one of two treatments accounting for body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS). Bulls were allotted to one of two treatments on day (d) 0, grazing toxic Kentucky 31 (KY31) or a novel endophyte-containing cultivar, Texoma Max Q II (NE; AR584 Ag Research) that does not produce ergot alkaloids, for 112 days. On d 112, all bulls were placed on NE pasture to the end of test (d 168) to evaluate recovery from grazing KY31. Blood, urine, and semen samples were collected every 28 days. Semen collected on d 28, 84, 112, 140, and 168 was extended, frozen, thawed 48h later, and subjected to analyses. There were significant treatment by day interactions for serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations, verifying the effectiveness of treatment (P< 0.05). Serum PRL concentrations were less in the bulls pastured on KY31 compared to NE on d 28, 84, and 112. Urinary alkaloid concentrations were affected by treatment by day interactions, confirming ergot alkaloids were present in animal systems (P< 0.05). Bulls in the NE treatment group had lesser urinary alkaloid concentrations than those pastured on KY31 on d 28, 84, and 112. Post-thaw sperm analyses revealed that the percentage of progressively motile sperm was less in bulls pastured on KY31 when compared to NE (P< 0.05). There were treatment by day interactions for sperm concentration, percent motile sperm, percent motile sperm concentration, and percent progressively motile sperm concentration post-thawing (P< 0.05). The KY31 treatment group had a lesser sperm 1) concentration than the NE group on d 84; 2) percent motility on d 28, 84, and 168; 3) motile concentration on d 28, 84, and 168; and 4) progressively motile concentration on d 28 and 84. Sperm motility was affected post-thawing for at least 56 d following removal from the KY31 pasture.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Effects of natural environment on reproductive histo-morphometric dynamics
           of female dromedary camel
    • Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Ali; Anas Sarwar Qureshi; Riaz Hussain; Giorgia Urbinati; Mohammad Zahid Mustafa; Farah Ali; Abdul Manan; Liliane Massaad-Massade
      Pages: 30 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 181
      Author(s): Hafiz Muhammad Ali, Anas Sarwar Qureshi, Riaz Hussain, Giorgia Urbinati, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa, Farah Ali, Abdul Manan, Liliane Massaad-Massade
      Camel shows a seasonal breeding pattern with enhanced reproductive activity during the period of low climatic temperature, high rainfall and better food conditions. Therefore, the study was conducted to explore the underlying seasonal effects on histological dimensions of reproductive tract in adult female one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) kept in the natural environment of Pakistan. A total 25 reproductive tracts were collected during spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons and were analysed for histo-morphometric parameters during different environmental conditions. A significant increase in number (p< 0.05) and size (p< 0.05) of surface with secondary and tertiary ovarian follicles was observed in winter season. The epithelial height (p< 0.05) and luminal diameter (p< 0.05) of infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus of uterine tubes were also significantly increased during winter season. Moreover, significantly increased length (p< 0.05) and circumference (p< 0.05) of uterine cornua, increased number (p< 0.001) and diameter (p< 0.001) of endometrial glands with enlarged surface and glandular epithelia (p< 0.001) were found in winter compared to summer season. Therefore, we concluded that quiescent ovarian follicular and uterine glandular activities are the main reason of camel low breeding during summer season.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Effects of eCG and progesterone on superovulation and embryo production in
           wood bison (Bison bison athabascae)
    • Authors: J. Manuel Palomino; Miriam P. Cervantes; Murray R. Woodbury; Reuben J. Mapletoft; Gregg P. Adams
      Pages: 41 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 181
      Author(s): J. Manuel Palomino, Miriam P. Cervantes, Murray R. Woodbury, Reuben J. Mapletoft, Gregg P. Adams
      Experiments were done to determine if inclusion of eCG and progesterone in the superstimulation protocol will increase the ovarian response and embryo production in wood bison, and to provide preliminary information regarding the effect of season. In Experiment 1 (anovulatory season), bison (n=26) were synchronized by follicular ablation (Day −1) and given FSH on Days 0 and 2, and assigned to 3 groups: Progesterone (Days 0–4), eCG (Day 3), or progesterone+eCG. On Day 5, bison were given hCG and inseminated 12 and 24h later. Ova/embryos were collected 8days after hCG. In Experiment 2 (ovulatory season), bison (n=24) were synchronized and assigned randomly to two groups in which superstimulation was induced with FSH, either with or without eCG, as in Experiment 1. No differences among groups were found in ovarian response or embryo production in either experiment. The follicular count at wave emergence was positively correlated with the number of large follicles at the end of superstimulation in all groups. A significantly greater number of follicles present at wave emergence in the anovulatory vs. ovulatory season was associated with a greater number of CL at the time of embryo collection, but only half the number of freezable embryos. In conclusion, the number of transferable embryos collected (1–2/bison) was higher than in any previous report, but was not attributable to the inclusion of eCG or progesterone in the superovulatory protocol. The apparent effect of season on oocyte competence, and not superovulatory response, is worthy of further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Sperm membrane proteins associated with the boar semen cryopreservation
    • Authors: Daianny B. Guimarães; Tatyane B. Barros; Maurício F. van Tilburg; Jorge A.M. Martins; Arlindo. A. Moura; Frederico B. Moreno; Ana C. Monteiro-Moreira; Renato A. Moreira; Ricardo Toniolli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Daianny B. Guimarães, Tatyane B. Barros, Maurício F. van Tilburg, Jorge A.M. Martins, Arlindo. A. Moura, Frederico B. Moreno, Ana C. Monteiro-Moreira, Renato A. Moreira, Ricardo Toniolli
      This study aimed to define sperm membrane protein markers of semen freezability of boars with the aid of a proteomic approach. Semen from fourteen adult boars were subjected to slow freezing and rapid thawing. After thawing, sperm vigor and motility were analyzed, and based on these results, animals were separated into two groups: good (GFEs) and poor freezability (PFEs). Sperm membrane proteins were extracted and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Stained gels were analyzed by computerized resources to indicate differentially expressed protein spots, that were identified by mass spectrometry. Six animals showed good freezability with average sperm vigor and motility of 2.2±0.8 and 41.8±22.9, respectively, whereas eight boars showed poor freezability, with 1.9±0.6 and 26.8±17.5 of sperm vigor sperm motility, respectively. An average of 263±62.2 spots per gel and 234.2±54.6 of spots consistently present in all gels were detected. The intensities of five spots were significantly different between groups. Fc fragment of IgG binding protein and lactadherin were more intense in the PFE group, while Arylsulfatase A and F-actin capping protein subunit alpha 1 were more expressed in the GEF group. Based on their functions and interactions with other proteins, we conclude that these four sperm membrane proteins may act as potential markers of boar semen freezability.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.06.005
  • Ovum pick-up interval in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) managed under wetland
           conditions in Argentina: effect on follicular population, oocyte recovery,
           and in vitro embryo development
    • Authors: J. Konrad; G. Clerico; M.J. Garrido; G. Taminelli; M. Yuponi; R. Yuponi; G. Crudeli; M. Sansinena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J. Konrad, G. Clerico, M.J. Garrido, G. Taminelli, M. Yuponi, R. Yuponi, G. Crudeli, M. Sansinena
      The excellent adaptation of water buffalo (Bubalis bubalis) to swampy environments means that animals are frequently managed in areas with restricted access for reproductive procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ovum pick-up (OPU) interval on follicular population, oocyte recovery, oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production. Twelve Murrah buffaloes were subjected to two consecutive dominant follicle reductions, and randomly assigned to either 7-day (n=6) or 14-day (n=6) OPU interval groups. Although there was no significant difference in the average number of small (<3mm) and large (>8mm) diameter follicles available per OPU, a higher proportion of medium-sized follicles (3–8mm) were observed in the 14-day interval group (5.129 vs 3.267; p<0.05). The number of recovered oocytes per donor was also significantly higher (4.51 vs. 2.8; p<0.05) in the 14-day interval group, although this was attributed to an increase in the proportion of lower quality oocytes (grades III and IV). After in vitro fertilization, embryo developmental competence from grade I and II oocytes was superior to that from grade III and IV oocytes, irrespective of OPU interval group. There was no significant difference in the proportion of grade I and II oocytes cleaved after sperm co-incubation; however, there was a higher proportion of blastocysts produced in 14-day interval group (28 vs. 6%, p<0.05). No blastocysts were produced from grade III and IV oocytes. This study indicates it is possible to use a 14-day interval for oocyte collection in water buffalo; this approach could be considered as an alternative when access to animals is restricted.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T05:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.06.004
  • Protocols for sperm cryopreservation in the domestic cat: a review
    • Authors: K. Buranaamnuay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): K. Buranaamnuay
      The main objectives of sperm cryopreservation in domestic cats are to preserve these gametes for future use, especially in valuable domestic cat breeds and to use knowledge-gained for developing sperm preservation techniques in wild felids that are threatened with extinction. To achieve acceptable quality of post-thaw sperm and results after insemination, sperm samples must be properly handled, cryopreserved and thawed by using appropriate protocols. In this paper, cryopreservation protocols of domestic cat sperm that have been reported previously are described. The subtopics include sources of sperm, freezing extenders, methods of sperm dilution, freezing storage vessels, methods of sperm cryopreservation, thawing temperature, and thawing extenders. In addition, comparisons of sperm quality results for different treatments within the same studies and between different studies are also presented.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T04:37:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.06.002
  • Yucca schidigera can promote rabbit growth, fecundity, affect the release
           of hormones in vivo and in vitro, induce pathological changes in liver,
           and reduce ovarian resistance to benzene
    • Authors: Martina Földešiová; Andrej Baláži; Ľubica Chrastinová; Juraj Pivko; Jan Kotwica; Abdel Halim Harrath; Peter Chrenek; Alexander V. Sirotkin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Martina Földešiová, Andrej Baláži, Ľubica Chrastinová, Juraj Pivko, Jan Kotwica, Abdel Halim Harrath, Peter Chrenek, Alexander V. Sirotkin
      This study evaluated the effect of Yucca schidigera (YS) extract on the physiological, reproductive, and endocrine indexes of New Zealand White rabbit does. Six-week-old rabbit does were fed a standard diet (control group) or a diet enriched with 5 or 20g of Y powder extract per 100-kg feed mixture for 350 days. The does were artificially inseminated after induction of superovulation. Weight gain; conception and kindling rate; viability of pups and mothers; histopathological state of liver and muscle; plasma levels of progesterone (P4), oxytocin (OT), and prostaglandin F (PGF); and the release of P4, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), OT, and PGF by isolated ovarian fragments and their response to the addition of benzene were analyzed. YS extract supplementation promoted weight gain and induced histopathological changes in the liver (creased vacuolization and occurrence of fuchsinophile inclusions in hepatocytes, liver fibrosis, hyperemia, occurrence of Kupffer cells, signs of necrosis and inflammation). YS consumption was not associated with changes in muscle (occurrence of fuchsinophile inclusions and signs of atrophy, interstitial edema, and inflammation), although Y2 increased muscle vascularization. YS supplementation increased conception and kindling rates but did not affect viability of pups or adult animals. Moreover, it enhanced plasma OT and PGF levels; plasma P4 concentration was increased by low-dose YS, but decreased by high-dose YS. Cultured ovarian fragments isolated from YS-fed does released more P4 and PGF and less IGF-I than ovarian fragments of control animals. However, YS supplementation did not affect ovarian OT release. Benzene alone did not influence the release of hormones by ovaries of control does. YS supplementation induced the inhibitory effect of benzene on the release of PGF, but not on other ovarian hormones. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation of YS extract can stimulate rabbit performance (growth and fecundity), which may be due to the promotion of P4, OT, and PGF release. It could, however, induce some pathological changes in the liver and reduce resistance of ovaries to the environmental contaminant benzene.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T04:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.06.001
  • Multiple paternity in the cultured yellow pond turtles (Mauremys mutica)
    • Authors: Xin-cheng Zhang; Jian Zhao; Wei Li; Cheng-qing Wei; Xin-ping Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Xin-cheng Zhang, Jian Zhao, Wei Li, Cheng-qing Wei, Xin-ping Zhu
      As a result of hunting and habitat loss, wild populations of the yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica, are decreasing. The International Union for Conservation of Nature considers M. mutica to be an endangered species. All studied freshwater turtles have polyandrous mating with multiple paternity. To survey the mating strategies of M. mutica, 1year’s genetic data of parents and all offspring in an artificially captive population were analyzed. Two groups of multiplex PCR containing 16 microsatellite loci were used to analyze the paternity of 302 hatchlings from 132 parents and from 159 clutches. The genetic data indicated that multiple paternity is rare in M. mutica, occurring in only seven of 138 clutches. Although the frequency of multiple paternity was only 5.07%, results of the present research indicate that M. mutica has a polyandrous mating system. In the breeding season, the successive clutches of 34 females each had the same paternity as the previous clutches. It was observed that four males (f85, f58, f87, and f76) had more than 20 offspring each, totaling 99 and representing 32.78% of all offspring. This finding implies that paternity is competitive in this artificially captive population and might bias the genetic diversity of the offspring.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T04:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.06.003
  • Heat and Chemical Treatments in Adult Cyprinus carpio (Pisces
           Cypriniformes) Rapidly Produce Sterile Gonads
    • Authors: Sullip Kumar Majhi; Avinash Rambhau Rasal; Basdeo Kushwaha; Sudhir Raizada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Sullip Kumar Majhi, Avinash Rambhau Rasal, Basdeo Kushwaha, Sudhir Raizada
      Several options have been proposed for eradication of germ cells (GCs) in mammals such as treatment with cytotoxic drugs, irradiation, cold ischemia and hyperthermic treatment. Some of these methods have been also tried in fish but conditions for complete sterilization of gonads have not been established. Here, we report the production of sterile adult common carp Cyprinus carpio in 10 weeks by the heat and chemical treatments. The cytotoxic drug busulfan (40mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into the animals at 2-week intervals (5 doses in total), and they were maintained in water at 38°C between Weeks 1 and 10. The effectiveness of the treatments was assessed using gonadal index, histology, and vasa gene expression. At the end of Week 10, very severe gonadal degeneration was observed in fish treated with the heat–chemical combination, and 100% of male and female fish were devoid of endogenous GCs. The average levels of vasa transcript were 0.01±0.005 and 0.02±0.016 for males and females, respectively. By contrast, high temperature alone caused minor gonadal degeneration and the gene transcript were 0.59±0.131 for male and 0.62±0.13 for female. In Week 20, after the recovery period of 10 weeks at 25°C, the gonadal germ cell did not recover from the sterile condition in any of the sampled individuals. The change in colouration of gonads was an additional useful index of the degree of gonadal sterility.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:29:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.015
  • The expression of progesterone receptor coregulators mRNA and protein in
           corpus luteum and endometrium of cows during the estrous cycle
    • Authors: R Rekawiecki; M.K. Kowalik; J. Kotwica
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): R Rekawiecki, M.K. Kowalik, J. Kotwica
      The aim of this study was to examine whether changes in the mRNA and protein expression of the progesterone receptor (PGR) coactivator P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and the corepressor Nuclear Receptor Corepressor 1 (NCOR1) may participate in the regulation of PGR function during the estrous cycle in corpus luteum (CL) and endometrium and thus modulate the effect of progesterone (P4) within the reproductive system. The experimental material included CL and endometrial tissues from cows on days 2-5, 6-10, 11-16, and 17-20 of the estrous cycle. The mRNA expression of PCAF and NCOR1 was determined by means of real-time PCR, and protein levels were determined using western blotting. The highest mRNA and protein expression for PCAF (P < 0.01) and NCOR1 (P < 0.01) was found on days 6-16 in CL, whereas mRNA and protein expression for PCAF in endometrium was the highest on days 1-10 (P < 0.05), but for NCOR1 it was the highest on days 2-5 (P < 0.05) and decreased thereafter. Significant correlations were found between PCAF and NCOR1 mRNA and protein in CL and endometrium, between PCAF mRNA or protein and P4 levels only in CL, and between NCOR1 protein and P4 levels in endometrium only. Correlations between PCAF and NCOR1 mRNA and PCAF and NCOR1 protein were also found. These data suggest that the variable expression of these coregulators in CL and endometrium during the estrous cycle may depend on the influence of P4, and in these tissues both coregulators may compete for binding to the PGR.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T04:29:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.011
  • Impact of different dilution techniques on boar sperm quality and sperm
           distribution of the extended ejaculate
    • Authors: M. Schulze; C. Ammon; J. Schaefer; A.-M. Luther; M. Jung; D. Waberski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): M. Schulze, C. Ammon, J. Schaefer, A.-M. Luther, M. Jung, D. Waberski
      The dilution of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the production of liquid-preserved boar semen. For a long time, it has been recommended to add the extender to the ejaculate. The aim of the present study was to first compare the effect of the position (‘center’ vs. ‘wall’) where the extender is added to the semen-mixing cylinder (height 32.5cm; diameter 12.7cm) using an automatic dispenser (n=11). In experiment 2 (n=30), we analyzed the two main dilution methods (extender to the semen (‘control’) vs. ‘reverse’). Experiment 3 was carried out to study the dilution effect on kinematics. In Experiments 1 and 2, the sperm distribution 10min after the dilution and the sperm quality parameters during long-term storage (d1, d3, d5, and d7) were evaluated. In Experiment 3, sperm quality was assessed during short-term storage at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 60min after semen dilution (‘control’ vs. ‘reverse’; n=6). There were no significant differences (P> 0.05) between the treatments in the specific response to bicarbonate, mitochondrial activity, membrane status, thermo-resistance or sperm motility immediately after dilution or long-term storage. The sperm distribution was significantly (P =0.029) affected by the dilution method in Experiment 2. In summary, treatment with the extender first, which is used by only a few European boar studs, leads to comparable results in sperm quality during storage and better results in sperm distribution after dilution. This procedure is also less time consuming, less foam formation occurs during the semen dilution and the procedure is more hygienic.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T04:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.013
  • Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from locally-adapted “Curraleiro
           Pé-Duro bulls” (Bos taurus): identifying biomarkers involved in sperm
           physiology in endangered animals for conservation of biodiversity
    • Authors: E.B. Menezes; Oliveira; M.F.van Tilburg; E.A. Barbosa; N.V. Nascimento; A.L.M.C.S. Velho; F.B. Moreno; R.A. Moreira; A.C.O. Monteiro-Moreira; G.M.C. Carvalho; A.F. Ramos; T. Pechan; E. Memili; A.A. Moura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): E.B. Menezes, Oliveira, M.F.van Tilburg, E.A. Barbosa, N.V. Nascimento, A.L.M.C.S. Velho, F.B. Moreno, R.A. Moreira, A.C.O. Monteiro-Moreira, G.M.C. Carvalho, A.F. Ramos, T. Pechan, E. Memili, A.A. Moura
      The present study was aimed at evaluating the seminal plasma proteins and sperm parameters of Curraleiro Pé-Duro bulls. Semen was collected from 10 bulls by electroejaculation, and sperm parameters were evaluated in fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Seminal plasma proteins were analyzed by 2-D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrophotometry. Tools in computational biology were used to generate bioinformatic knowledge and evaluate gene ontology, protein-protein interactions, phylogenetic trees and multiple sequence alignments. Sperm motility in fresh and frozen-thawed semen was 78.8±1.8% and 21.2±1.6%, respectively. Pearson’s correlations were evaluated (p<0.05). Sperm motility and vigor in fresh semen were correlated with clusterin, TIMP2 and cathepsin S (r=0.64–0.71) and sperm defects were related to inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase and BSP 5 (r=0.78–0.80). Clusterin, BSP 5, alpha-enolase, creatine kinase M-type, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, BSP 3, albumin, and 5′-nucleotidase and legumain were correlated with acrosome intact live sperm (r=0.80–0.64). Associations were detected between sperm vigor and spermadhesin 1 (r=−0.89), and between sperm defects in fresh semen and spermadhesin 1 and clusterin (r=−0.81). Sperm motility in frozen-thawed semen was associated with BSP 1, spermadhesin 1, clusterin and spermadhesin Z13 (r=0.64–0.85). The percent of motile sperm after freeze-thawing was negatively correlated (r=−0.64) with the amount of spermadhesin 1 in the seminal plasma. Based on in silico analysis, TIMP2 interacted with BSP1, BSP3, BSP5 and metalloproteinases. Molecular functions of proteins associated with sperm parameters were binding, catalytic activity and enzymatic regulation. Amino acid sequences of spermadhesin 1 and BSP 1 from Bos taurus, and other domestic species were similar. Phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that clusterin from Bos taurus was related to Ovis aries and domains of clusterin, spermadhesin 1, BSP 1 and inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase were conserved as well. In summary, specific seminal proteins are associated with sperm parameters of locally-adapted bulls. Use of the endangered mammalian as a model may assist in understanding aspects of evolutionary adaptations and could improve assisted reproductive biotechnologies.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T04:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.014
  • Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, reduces post-peak age-related
           regression of rooster reproductive performance
    • Authors: Emad Abdulgabbar; Ali Mahdi Zhandi Armin Towhidi Mojtaba Zaghari Mahdi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Emad Abdulgabbar Ali, Mahdi Zhandi, Armin Towhidi, Mojtaba Zaghari, Mahdi Ansari, Mojtaba Najafi, Hamid Deldar
      This study was designed to evaluate orally administrated Letrozole (Lz) on reproductive performance, plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations and relative abundance of mRNA of GnRH, FSH and LH in roosters. Ross 308 roosters (n =32) that were 40-weeks of age were individually housed and received a basal standard diet supplemented different amounts of capsulated Lz [0 (Lz-0), 0.5 (Lz-0.5), 1 (Lz-1) or 1.5 (Lz-1.5), mg Lz/bird/day] for 12 weeks. Sperm quality variables and plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations were assessed from the first to the tenth week of the treatment period. Semen samples from the 11th to 12th week were used for artificial insemination and eggs were collected and allotted to assess fertility and hatchability rates. Relative abundance of hypothalamic and pituitary GnRH, LH and FSH mRNA was evaluated at the end of 12th week. The results indicated that total and forward sperm motility as well as egg hatchability rate were greater in the Lz-0.5 group. Greater sperm concentrations, ejaculate volume, sperm plasma membrane integrity, testis index and fertility rates were recorded for both Lz-0.5 and Lz-1 groups compared with the Lz-0 group (P< 0.05). Body weight, percentage of sperm abnormalities, and sperm plasma membrane functionality were not affected by treatment. Testosterone and estradiol concentrations were negatively related with greater testosterone concentrations in the Lz-1.5 group which had lesser estradiol concentrations. Relative mRNA transcript abundance for GnRH, LH and FSH was Lz dose responsive being greater in the treated groups; however, this trend plateaued for GnRH and for the relative abundance of both LH and FSH mRNA was less in the Lz-1.5 group than the other treatment groups. It is concluded that Lz may be an effective treatment to improve age related post-peak reproductive performance of roosters.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T18:52:17Z
  • Response to gonadotrophins differs for gilts from female- and male-biased
    • Authors: Jemma Seyfang; C.R. Ralph; A.J. Tilbrook; R.N. Kirkwood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Jemma Seyfang, C.R. Ralph, A.J. Tilbrook, R.N. Kirkwood
      In several species, females masculinised by abnormal androgen exposure in utero have poor reproductive performance and gilts born into litters with a male bias are likely exposed to greater androgen concentrations prenatally than gilts born into female-biased litters. At 24h of age, piglet plasma testosterone concentrations in gilts from male-biased litters (>60% male; n=22) or female-biased litters (>60% female; n=27) were not different. At 18 wks of age, all gilts received an injection of 400IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin plus 200IU human chorionic gonadotrophin to stimulate oestrus. Two weeks after the injection gilts were slaughtered and ovaries collected for determination of numbers of corpora lutea (CL). Compared to gilts from female-biased litters, gilts from male-biased litters were more likely to ovulate (86.0% vs 59.5%, P=0.047) and had more CL (13.1±1.5 vs 7.2±1.7, P=0.015). The present data indicate an effect of birth litter sex-bias on pre-pubertal physiological development, possibly involving organisational effects at the ovarian cellular level impacting on future ovarian function. Potential impacts on subsequent fertility remain to be determined.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T18:52:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.012
  • Effect of reduced glutathione supplementation in semen extender on
           tyrosine phosphorylation and apoptosis like changes in frozen thawed
           Hariana bull spermatozoa
    • Authors: Nadeem Shah; Vijay Singh; Hanuman Prasad Yadav; Meena Verma; Dharmendra Singh Chauhan; Atul Saxena; Sarvajeet Yadav; Dilip Kumar Swain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Nadeem Shah, Vijay Singh, Hanuman Prasad Yadav, Meena Verma, Dharmendra Singh Chauhan, Atul Saxena, Sarvajeet Yadav, Dilip Kumar Swain
      To provide new insights into the mechanisms through which reduced glutathione (GSH) is able to protect spermatozoa, we tested the hypothesis that cryocapacitation and apoptosis like changes can contribute to the negative effect of freezing and thawing on bull spermatozoa, and that GSH prevent this damage. Having known protective effects of GSH in terms of a potent antioxidant, we evaluated capacitation, tyrosine phosphorylation and apoptosis like changes in bull spermatozoa after freezing and thawing in egg yolk tris glycerol extender containing (0.5m M-GSH-T1 & 1mM GSH-T2) and without GSH serving as the control (C). Forty ejaculates were collected from four Hariana bulls and were pooled due to non significant variations among the bull ejaculates for the evaluation of sperm attributes. Capacitation like changes, tyrosine phosphorylation, localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, apoptosis like changes in terms of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and DNA fragmentation after final dilution, 4h of equilibration at 4°C and 24h after freezing and thawing were evaluated. GSH supplementation at 0.5mM showed significant reduction in B- and AR- pattern spermatozoa during all stages of semen freezing and thawing. Immunoblot revealed six proteins which were tyrosine phosphorylated and protein of 30 and 75kDa (p30, p75) were the major tyrosine phosphorylted proteins. On further analysis, the p30 showed differential variation in intensity in all the three groups after freezing and thawing. Positive immune reactivity for tyrosine phosphorylated proteins was found in neck, middle piece and post-acrosomal regions of spermatozoa. Addition of 0.5mM GSH decreased percentage of spermatozoa showing fragmented DNA and increased the percentage of spermatozoa having high transmembrane mitochondrial potential (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that GSH favours survival of bull spermatozoa by interfering with apoptotic and cryocapacitation pathways, and thereby protects the spermatozoa from deleterious effects of cryopreservation. The findings of the study indicated that GSH at 0.5mM can be effectively used as an additive in bull semen extender for freezing and thawing.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T18:46:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.006
  • Echography of clinically relevant disorders in the genital tract of female
           dromedary camels
    • Authors: Ahmed Ali; Derar Derar; Ali Alsamri; Fahd Al Sobayil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Ahmed Ali, Derar Derar, Ali Alsamri, Fahd Al Sobayil
      The aim of this study was to characterize the clinically relevant genital tract disorders of dromedary camels. Reproductive tract examinations were performed via transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and vaginal exploration. The ultrasonic appearance of the reproductive pathology was described and compared with its morphology at laparotomy, after surgical removal, during postmortem examination or upon slaughter. Diagnosis was also confirmed by histopathology. The most frequently encountered follicular structures were larger than typical follicles (56/338, 16.6%) having three echo textures: 1) thin walls and clear hyperechogenic content (11.6%); 2) thick walls and few fibrous trabeculae (33.7%); and 3) thick walls and many echogenic transecting fibrinous strands (54.7%). Corpora lutea with non-echoic central cavity (5/31, 16.1%) were greater in diameter than those with no cavity (26/31, 83.9%) (P =0.03). A granulosa cell tumor (1/338, 0.3%) was multilocular and honeycombed in shape. Presence of a large, well-demarcated, hypoechogenic sac lateral to or beneath the uterine horn encasing the ovary was diagnostic for ovarian hydrobursitis (102/338, 30.2%). Hydrosalpinx and pyosalpinx (6/338, 1.8%) were beaded in appearance, with the ovary located outside these structures. Clinical endometritis/cervicitis (122, 36.1%) was characterized by changes in the homogeneity in about half of the cases. A greatly dilated uterus with clear, hypoechogenic or echogenic contents with signs of hydrometra and pyometra, respectively, was another categorization of a reproductive pathology (24/338, 7.1%). Highly reflective, linear structures were observed in cases with intrauterine fetal bone retention (1/338, 0.3%). In conclusion, reproductive pathologies in dromedary camels can be efficiently imaged by use of ultrasonic technologies, thus familiarizing the practitioner with these disorders and facilitating application of these technologies so that suitable treatment can occur is important in managing reproduction of dromedary camels.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T18:46:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.007
  • Reproductive dysfunction in females of endangered golden mahseer (Tor
           putitora) in captivity
    • Authors: M.S. Akhtar; A. Ciji; D. Sarma; M. Rajesh; B.S. Kamalam; P. Sharma; A.K. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): M.S. Akhtar, A. Ciji, D. Sarma, M. Rajesh, B.S. Kamalam, P. Sharma, A.K. Singh
      The present study was undertaken to gain insight on the physiological basis underlying the constraints in attaining maturity of endangered golden mahseer (Tor putitora) in captivity. Selected hormone levels and stress biomarkers were analysed in wild and captive reared brooders to address the above objectives. As compared to their captive counterparts, plasma 17β-estradiol was significantly (p<0.05) higher in wild caught females. A concurrent trend was observed for plasma vitellogenin, aromatase, 17α, 20β-dihydroxy progesterone (17α, 20β DHP), luteinizing hormone (LH) and11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) indicating a weak hormone response in captive females that potentially hindered maturity. To the contrary, the plasma11-KT levels were not significantly different between wild and captive males. Plasma 17α, 20β DHP level was found significantly (p<0.05) higher in wild caught females compared to females reared in captivity. However, both males of wild and captivity registered significantly higher 17α, 20β DHP than captive females. Plasma 11-KT level was significantly higher in males compared to females. However, the captive females had higher level of 11-KT than captive males. Stress biomarkers viz., cortisol, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also estimated both in wild and captive brooders. There was no significant difference in plasma cortisol levels of wild and captive reared brooders. However, plasma GPx and SOD activity were significantly higher in captive reared T. putitora as compared to wild brooders counterpart manifesting prevailing oxidative stress in captivity. Overall results showed endocrine and stress differences between wild and captive reared brood fishes during early spawning period which highlighted the endocrine failure of female reproductive maturity in captivity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T18:46:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.004
  • A simple, field-friendly technique for cryopreserving semen from Asian
           elephants (Elephas maximus)
    • Authors: Danielle M. Arnold; Charlie Gray; Terri L. Roth; Sebastian Mitchell; Laura H. Graham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Danielle M. Arnold, Charlie Gray, Terri L. Roth, Sebastian Mitchell, Laura H. Graham
      The specific objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of manual seeding, differing freeze and thaw rates as well as storage for 24h at 4°C prior to cryopreservation on post-thaw sperm quality in Asian elephants. Extended semen was cooled in an equitainer to 4°C, frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour at various rates with and without manual seeding or in a dry shipper and thawed at 37, 50 and 75°C. There was a significant effect of freeze rate on post-thaw motility (P<0.0001) and acrosomal integrity (P<0.005). The faster freeze rates in the dry shipper and at 1cm or 2cm above liquid nitrogen consistently provided better cryopreservation than slower freezing rates. Thaw temperature had no effect on post-thaw semen quality but there was an interaction between freeze and thaw rates with higher thaw rates resulting in superior post-thaw semen quality in straws frozen at fast rates. Storage of samples prior to freezing had a detrimental effect on post-thaw semen quality. In summary, our results indicate cooling extended semen in an equitainer and cryopreserving it by placing straws directly in a dry shipper is a simple technique for effectively cryopreserving Asian elephant semen in the field or zoo.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T18:46:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.003
  • Impact of days in milk at the initiation of ovulation synchronization
           protocols on the efficiency of first AI in multiparous Holstein cows
    • Authors: Mahmoud S. El-Tarabany
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Mahmoud S. El-Tarabany
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of days in milk (DIM) at initiation of ovulation synchronization protocols [spontaneous estrus (n=899), Presynch (n=1277), and CIDRsynch (n=978)] on fertility indices of the first AI in multiparous Holstein cows. The days from calving to the initiation of timed-AI (TAI) were categorized into: <50days (D1), 51–65days (D2) and 66–80days (D3). Pregnancy rate (P/AI at day 75) of cows at D2 period was significantly greater than that in the D1 period [OR (odds ratio)=1.26; P =0.050). Additionally, embryonic loss rate was significantly reduced in D2 and D3 groups compared to the reference group (OR=0.68 and 0.63; P =0.012 and 0.001, respectively). Conception (P/AI at day 28) and pregnancy rates in the Presynch group were significantly increased from 26.5 and 19.3% at D1 period to 35.9 and 28.9% at D2, respectively (OR=1.59 and 1.72; P =0.009 and 0.001, respectively). In contrast, conception and pregnancy rates using the CIDRsynch protocol did not differ at the different DIM at the initiation of TAI. The results of the Cox regression model reported significant associations for parity and season of calving with the hazard of embryonic loss (P =0.029 and 0.036, respectively). The current results suggest that using the Presynch regimen may achieve satisfactory conception and pregnancy rates at 51–65days in milk; however, the use of CIDRsynch regimen may provide a stable and homogenous conception and pregnancy rates at the different DIM at initiation of TAI.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.005
  • Direct effect of curcumin on porcine ovarian cell functions
    • Authors: Attila Kádasi; Nora Maruniaková; Aneta Štochmaľová; Miroslav Bauer; Roland Grossmann; Abdel Halim Harrath; Adriana Kolesárová; Alexander V. Sirotkin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Attila Kádasi, Nora Maruniaková, Aneta Štochmaľová, Miroslav Bauer, Roland Grossmann, Abdel Halim Harrath, Adriana Kolesárová, Alexander V. Sirotkin
      Curcuma longa Linn (L.) is a plant widely used in cooking (in curry powder a.o.) and in folk medicine, but its action on reproductive processes and its possible mechanisms of action remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to examine the direct effects of curcumin, the major Curcuma longa L. molecule, on basic ovarian cell functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, viability and steroidogenesis. Porcine ovarian granulosa cells were cultured with and without curcumin (at doses of 0, 1, 10 and 100μg/ml of medium). Markers of proliferation (accumulation of PCNA) and apoptosis (accumulation of bax) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry. The expression of mRNA for PCNA and bax was detected by RT-PCR. Cell viability was detected by trypan blue exclusion test. Release of steroid hormones (progesterone and testosterone) was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). It was observed that addition of curcumin reduced ovarian cell proliferation (expression of both PCNA and its mRNA), promoted apoptosis (accumulation of both bax and its mRNA), reduced cell viability, and stimulated both progesterone and testosterone release. These observations demonstrate the direct suppressive effect of Curcuma longa L./curcumin on female gonads via multiple mechanisms of action − suppression of ovarian cell proliferation and viability, promotion of their apoptosis (at the level of mRNA transcription and subsequent accumulation of promoters of genes regulating these activities) and release of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic progesterone and androgen. The potential anti-gonadal action of curcumin should be taken into account by consumers of Curcuma longa L.-containing products.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T18:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.05.001
  • Sperm sexing in Nili-Ravi buffalo through modified swim up: validation
           using SYBR® green real-time PCR
    • Authors: Asma-ul-Husna; Muhammad Amjad Awan; Abid Mehmood; Tasawar Sultana; Qaisar Shahzad; Muhammad Sajjad Ansari; Bushra Allah Rakha; S.M. Saqlan Naqvi; Shamim Akhter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Asma-ul-Husna, Muhammad Amjad Awan, Abid Mehmood, Tasawar Sultana, Qaisar Shahzad, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari, Bushra Allah Rakha, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi, Shamim Akhter
      Sperm sexing through flow-sorting technology is relatively expensive, requires considerable technical support and is actually not practicable in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of producing enriched pools of X or Y chromosome-bearing sperm by a modified swim-up method. For this purpose semen was collected from five mature Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls for a period of six weeks. The qualifying ejaculates were divided into two aliquots for further processing through modified swim-up or control (untreated). After processing, semen was cryopreserved in tris citric acid extender using standard techniques. Semen quality was assessed at pre dilution, post dilution and post thawing. Validation of technique was done by using SYBR® green real time PCR using two sets of primers, PLP and SRY for X and Y chromosome of buffalo genes, respectively. Sperm recovery rates, pre freeze and post thaw sperm quality were found significantly higher in X chromosome bearing sperm fraction than Y chromosome bearing fraction and control. Mean fold relative expression of X bearing sperm was significantly higher (4-5 fold) in X chromosome bearing fraction of supernatant than Y chromosome bearing fraction (0.06 fold), similarly mean fold relative expression of Y chromosome bearing sperm was significantly higher in Y chromosome bearing fraction (4 fold) of supernatant than X chromosome bearing fraction (0.15 fold) compared to control (1.00). In conclusion, a modified swim up method proved to be an effective method for Nili-Ravi buffalo sperm sexing as validated by real time PCR.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T18:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.011
  • Expression of TNF-α system members in bovine ovarian follicles and the
           effects of TNF-α or dexamethasone on preantral follicle survival,
           development and ultrastructure in vitro
    • Authors: A.W.B. Silva; R.P. Ribeiro; V.G. Menezes; R.S. Barberino; J.R.S. Passos; A.M.P. Dau; J.J.N. Costa; L.R.F. Melo; F.T.G. Bezerra; M.A.M. Donato; C.A. Peixoto; M.H.T. Matos; P.B.D Gonçalves; R. van den Hurk; J.R.V. Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A.W.B. Silva, R.P. Ribeiro, V.G. Menezes, R.S. Barberino, J.R.S. Passos, A.M.P. Dau, J.J.N. Costa, L.R.F. Melo, F.T.G. Bezerra, M.A.M. Donato, C.A. Peixoto, M.H.T. Matos, P.B.D Gonçalves, R. van den Hurk, J.R.V. Silva
      This study was conducted to detect the protein expression of TNF-α system members (TNF-α/TNFR1/TNFR2) in bovine ovarian follicles and to evaluate the effects of TNF-α or dexamethasone on the survival and growth of primordial follicles in vitro, as well as on gene expression in cultured ovarian tissue. It was hypothesized that TNF-α induces follicular atresia in ovarian tissues cultured in vitro, and that dexamethasone suppresses the production of endogenous TNF-α, which can improve follicle viability in vitro. Ovarian fragments were cultured for 6days in α-MEM+ supplemented with TNF-α (0, 1, 10, 100 or 200ng/mL) or dexamethasone (0, 1, 10, 100 or 200ng/mL). After culture, the expression of mRNAs for BCL-2, BAX, P53, TNF-α, and CASP3 and CASP6 were evaluated. Immunohistochemical results showed that the TNF-α system members, were detected in bovine preantral and antral follicles. After 6 days, the TNF-α (10ng/ml) treatment reduced the percentage of normal preantral follicles and increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in cultured tissue. Dexamethasone (10ng/mL) during 6days of culture did maintain the percentage of normal follicles and the ultrastructure of follicles, while the presence of TNF-α or dexamethasone did not influence primordial follicle activation. However, TNF-α or dexamethasone had no effect on the levels of mRNA for P53, BCL-2, BAX and CASP6, in cultured tissues, but the presence of dexamethasone reduced the levels of CASP3 compared to ovarian slices cultured in control medium (α-MEM+). In conclusion, proteins of the TNF-α system are expressed at different bovine follicle stages. The addition of TNF-α in culture reduces follicle survival and increases the number of apoptotic cells in ovarian tissue, while the presence of dexamethasone maintains follicle ultrastructure in cultured tissue.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T18:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.010
  • Effect of sexual excitation on testosterone and nitric oxide levels of
           water buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) with different categories of sexual
           behavior and their correlation with each other
    • Authors: Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum; Islam M. Saadeldin; Hany A. Zaher; Sawsan A.M. Alsharifi; Abdullah N. Alowaimer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum, Islam M. Saadeldin, Hany A. Zaher, Sawsan A.M. Alsharifi, Abdullah N. Alowaimer
      We studied the effect of sexual excitation on serum testosterone and nitric oxide (NO) levels in water buffalo bulls with different categories of sexual behavior and their correlation with each other. Buffalo bulls were classified according to their sexual behavior (including reaction time, sexual aggressiveness and mating ability): acceptable (good to excellent) (n =5), fair (n =5), and unacceptable (poor) (n =5) sexual behavior. Blood samples were collected from all animals immediately before and after sexual teasing and/or mounting to estimate the testosterone and NO levels using a commercial radioimmunoassay kit and Griess reaction test, respectively. Comparisons among groups were evaluated using a mixed-design analysis of variance. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationship between testosterone and NO levels before and after sexual excitation besides sexual behavior. The level of testosterone before sexual excitation was higher (p ≤0.05) in bulls with acceptable and fair sexual behavior than in bulls with unacceptable sexual behavior (0.86±0.01, 0.69±0.02, and 0.29±0.02ng/mL, respectively). The level of NO was higher (p ≤0.05) in bulls with acceptable and fair sexual behavior than in bulls with unacceptable sexual behavior (8.00±0.03, 7.66±0.19, and 6.29±0.33μM, respectively). Sexual excitation significantly (p <0.05) increase testosterone and NO levels in bulls with acceptable (1.45±0.01ng/mL and 19.04±0.32μM, respectively) or fair (0.92±0.02ng/mL and 14.95±0.34μM, respectively) sexual behavior, but not in bulls with unacceptable sexual behavior. The unacceptable sexual behavior bulls had significantly lower testosterone and NO levels than the other bulls. There was a strong correlation and association between serum testosterone and NO levels besides sexual behavior of buffalo bulls. In conclusion, the alteration in the testosterone and NO levels after sexual excitation depends on the sexual behavior category of buffalo-bull. Testosterone and NO can be used to create a sexual behavior score. The testosterone and NO levels of can be predicted via evaluation of sexual behavior of buffalo bull.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T18:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.003
  • Effects of leptin administration on development, vascularization and
           function of Corpus luteum in alpacas submitted to pre-ovulatory fasting
    • Authors: María Cecilia Norambuena; Francisca Hernández; Jonathan Maureira; Carolina Rubilar; Jorge Alfaro; Gonzalo Silva; Mauricio Silva; César Ulloa-Leal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): María Cecilia Norambuena, Francisca Hernández, Jonathan Maureira, Carolina Rubilar, Jorge Alfaro, Gonzalo Silva, Mauricio Silva, César Ulloa-Leal
      The objective of this study was to determine the effect of leptin administration on the development, vascularization and function of Corpus luteum (CL) in alpacas submitted to pre-ovulatory fasting. Fourteen alpacas were kept in fasting conditions for 72h and received five doses of o-leptin (2μg/kg e.v.; Leptin group) or saline (Control group) every 12h. Ovulation was induced with a GnRH dose (Day 0). The ovaries were examined every other day by trans-rectal ultrasonography (7.5MHz; mode B and power Doppler) from Day 0 to 13 to determine the pre-ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation, and then to monitor CL diameter and vascularization until the regression phase. Serial blood samples were taken after GnRH treatment to determine plasma LH concentration; and every other day from Days 1 to 13 to determine plasma progesterone and leptin concentrations. The pre-ovulatory follicle and CL diameter, LH, progesterone and leptin plasma concentrations were not affected by treatment (P >0.05). The vascularization area of the CL was, nevertheless, affected by the treatment (P <0.01) with significant differences between groups at Days 3, 7 and 9 (P <0.05). The Leptin group had a larger maximum vascularization area (0.67±0.1 compared with 0.35±0.1cm2; P <0.05). In addition, there was a positive correlation between CL vascularization, CL diameter and plasma progesterone. The exogenous administration of leptin during pre-ovulatory fasting increased the vascularization of the CL in alpacas in vivo.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T18:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.006
  • Storage temperature and sucrose concentrations affect ram sperm quality
           after vitrification
    • Authors: A. Arando; A. Gonzalez; J.V. Delgado; F.A. Arrebola; C.C. Perez-Marín
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A. Arando, A. Gonzalez, J.V. Delgado, F.A. Arrebola, C.C. Perez-Marín
      The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of ram spermatozoa subjected to varying concentrations of sucrose, and the influence of storage temperature (22°C or 5°C) prior to vitrification. Ejaculated semen was diluted in TCFEY (tris-citric acid-fructose 20% egg yolk), and two aliquots were prepared at a final concentration of 100×106 spz/ml, one maintained at room temperature (22°C) and the other at 5°C. In the first experiment, the toxicity of sucrose diluents on the sperm was analysed; sperm samples at different temperatures were diluted (1:2) in TCF-BSA 2% (control) or in the same extender supplemented with various sucrose concentrations (0.4M, 0.6M and 0.8M). The effects of vitrification were studied in the second experiment, where sperm samples were mixed with different concentrations of cryoprotectants (sucrose) and vitrified by being plunged directly into liquid nitrogen. In both experiments, the sperm quality was assessed by measuring motility, morphology, membrane functionality (HOST), viability, acrosome integrity and DNA fragmentation. The toxicity test revealed significant differences (p≤0.05) when different sucrose concentrations were used; lower total and progressive motility, normal morphology and membrane functionality were noted when sucrose concentration was higher, compared to the control treatment. Samples maintained at room temperature showed significantly (p≤0.05) higher viability than samples stored at 5°C. In contrast, although the quality of vitrified sperm was drastically decreased in comparison with fresh sperm, sucrose was associated with greater total motility, viability and membrane functionality. This improvement was closely linked to the temperature at which the sperm had been previously maintained, showing higher values when sperm was stored at 5°C. The main conclusions to be drawn from the study are therefore that sucrose shows promising potential as a cryoprotectant, and storing samples at 5°C is linked to improved sperm quality following vitrification.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T18:08:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.008
  • Description of the composition of fatty acids and lipids in the breeders
           muscle, oocytes and in the embryonic development of Brycon orthotaenia
           (Günther, 1864)
    • Authors: Edenilce de Fatima Ferreira Martins; Larisa Magnone; Martin Bessonart; Deliane Cristina Costa; José Cláudio Epaminondas dos Santos; Nilo Bazolli; Cintia Labussière Nakayama; Ronald Kennedy Luz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Edenilce de Fatima Ferreira Martins, Larisa Magnone, Martin Bessonart, Deliane Cristina Costa, José Cláudio Epaminondas dos Santos, Nilo Bazolli, Cintia Labussière Nakayama, Ronald Kennedy Luz
      The objective of this work was to evaluate the fatty acid and lipid composition of oocytes, newly hatched larvae (NHL), first feeding larvae (FFL) and muscle tissue of female Brycon orthotaenia broodstock. Total and polar lipid was significantly (P <0.05) abundant in oocytes and larvae in different stages of development. The lowest content (P <0.05) of total lipids was found in the muscles, whereas total lipid content of oocytes, NHL and FFL did not show any significant difference. Polar lipid content was different (P <0.05) between NHL and FFL. For the neutral the lowest values of C18:2n 6 occurred during the initial feeding period, whilst C20:4n 6 (AA) exhibited the highest percentage in FFL (P <0.05). C22:6n 3 (DHA) was highest (P <0.05) in FFL. The neutral lipid n-9 and n-6 was highest in muscle of females. The n-3HUFA was highest in NHL and in FFL, n-6HUFA was highest in FFL (P<0.05). The ratios of DHA/EPA were higher (P<0.05) in oocytes and FFL. In fatty acids of polar lipids, C20:5n 3 (EPA) did not show differences (P>0.05) between stages. C18:3n 3 was highest (P <0.05) in NHL and FFL. C20:4n 6 (AA) and C22:6n 3 (DHA) showed the highest percentages during the larval stages. The fatty acids n-3 series was significantly higher (P <0.05) in FFL. The n-6HUFA was highest during development larval (P <0.05). The increases DHA reflects the ability of the species to elongate and desaturate to obtain n-3HUFA from 18:3n 3, shows the importance of this fatty acid during early development.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T14:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.005
  • Mastitis outcomes on pre-ovulatory follicle diameter, estradiol
           concentrations, subsequent luteal profiles and conception rate in
    • Authors: Mohamed Mohsen Mansour; Moustafa M. Zeitoun; Fekry M. Hussein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Mohamed Mohsen Mansour, Moustafa M. Zeitoun, Fekry M. Hussein

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T14:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.004
  • Seminal plasma removal by density-gradient centrifugation is superior for
           goat sperm preservation compared with classical sperm washing
    • Authors: J. Santiago-Moreno; M.C. Esteso; C. Castaño; A. Toledano-Díaz; J.A. Delgadillo; A. López-Sebastián
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J. Santiago-Moreno, M.C. Esteso, C. Castaño, A. Toledano-Díaz, J.A. Delgadillo, A. López-Sebastián
      Seminal plasma removal is routine in goat sperm cryopreservation protocols. The classical washing procedure designed to accomplish this usually leaves the pellet resulting from use of this procedure contaminated with dead sperm, debris, and cells other than sperm. This contamination negatively affects viability of sperm after cryopreservation. The present research was conducted to compare the effect on chilled and frozen-thawed goat sperm of the classical washing method to that of a selective washing method involving density gradient centrifugation (DGC). In the first experiment, sperm variables were measured in freshly collected sperm, and again after its washing with both methods and chilling at 5°C for 0, 3, 24, 48, 72 or 96h. The DGC-washed sperm had greater (P< 0.01) straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP) and progression ratio values at all chilling times. The amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) was, however, less (P< 0.001) in the DGC-washed sperm at all chilling times. There was a negative correlation (P< 0.05) between ALH and VSL. In the second experiment involving the freezing-thawing of sperm washed by using either method, aliquots were post-wash diluted with a Tris-citric acid/glucose/egg yolk/glycerol-based medium and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 5 days. After thawing, neither the VCL, VSL nor VAP of the DGC-washed samples were affected, whereas the traditionally washed samples had less motility. In conclusion, the use of DGC was associated with enhanced sperm motility variables after chilling and freezing-thawing. This procedure would, therefore, be a useful means of removing seminal plasma from goat semen and obtaining greater quality sperm for insemination purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T14:04:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.002
  • The myometrial contractility during late pregnancy in dairy cows, in vitro
    • Authors: L. Górriz-Martín; S.E. Ulbrich; M. Schmicke; G. Hirsbrunner; C. Keller; N. Yücesoy; C. Pfarrer; H. Bollwein; M. Heppelmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): L. Górriz-Martín, S.E. Ulbrich, M. Schmicke, G. Hirsbrunner, C. Keller, N. Yücesoy, C. Pfarrer, H. Bollwein, M. Heppelmann
      This study aimed to investigate the in vitro contractility of the myometrium and its relationship to the blood concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2β), progesterone (P4), 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α (PGFM) and ionised calcium (Ca2+) prior to tissue harvest in 12 healthy Holstein-Friesian cows in late pregnancy. Three circular (CM) and 3 longitudinal myometrial (LM) strips were dissected during a caesarean section and mounted in an organ bath containing modified Krebs solution (KS). The spontaneous contractility was recorded during five 30-min time periods (T1 to T5), after which the strips were exposed to increasing concentrations of oxytocin (OT; 10−10-10−7M), a natural PGF2α-analogue (PGF; 10−7-10−4M) and KS (Cont) for four 30-min time periods (T6 to T9). The variables area under the curve (AUC), mean (MA) and maximal amplitude (maxA) were calculated for each T. The blood P4, E2ß, Ca2+ and PGFM values averaged 4.0±1.7 ng/mL, 482.3±63.7 pg/mL, 0.8±0.3 mmol/L and 125.3±63.7 pg/mL. The LM strips had greater AUC, MA, and maxA than CM, and OT caused greater AUC and MA in both muscle layers than PGF or control treatment (OT>PGF>Cont). Estradiol-17β correlated with AUC and MA of LM at T1 to T5 (r=0.69; P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, LM and CM strips have different contractile performance but show enhanced activity when stimulated with OT and less activity after PGF stimulation if compared with Cont. Blood concentrations of E2β may be useful as an indicator of uterine contractile performance in late pregnant cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T14:04:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.001
  • Heifers express G-protein coupled receptor 61 in anterior pituitary
           gonadotrophs in stage-dependent manner
    • Authors: Kiran Pandey; Onalenna Kereilwe; Vitaliano Borromeo; Hiroya Kadokawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Kiran Pandey, Onalenna Kereilwe, Vitaliano Borromeo, Hiroya Kadokawa
      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) colocalize with insulin and glucocorticoid receptors in lipid rafts of the gonadotroph plasma membrane, where they facilitate downstream signaling. We recently found that orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)61 is expressed in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers, leading us to speculate that GPR61 colocalizes with GnRHR in the plasma membrane of gonadotroph and is expressed at specific times of the reproductive cycle. To test this hypothesis, we examined the coexpression of GnRHR, GPR61, and either luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit in AP tissue and cultured AP cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. GPR61 was detected in gonadotrophs, with a majority of them being colocalized with GnRHR and the remainder present at other parts of the cell surface or in the cytoplasm. We obtained a strong positive overlap coefficient (0.71±0.01) between GPR61 and GnRHR on the cell-surface of cultured GnRHR-positive AP cells. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses found that expression was lower (P <0.05) in AP tissues during early luteal phase as compared to pre-ovulation or mid- or late luteal phases. Additionally, the 5ꞌ-flanking region of the GPR61 gene contained several sites with response elements similar to those of estrogen or progesterone. These data suggested that GPR61 colocalizes with GnRHR in the plasma membrane of gonadotrophs, and its expression changes stage-dependently in the bovine anterior pituitary gland.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.020
  • Comparison between two estradiol-progesterone based protocols for timed
           artificial insemination in blocks in lactating Nelore cows
    • Authors: L.F.M. Pfeifer; N.A. Castro; P.M.A. Neves; J.P. Cestaro; A. Schneider
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): L.F.M. Pfeifer, N.A. Castro, P.M.A. Neves, J.P. Cestaro, A. Schneider
      The aim of this study was to compare the use of artificial insemination in time blocks (Artificial Insemination Blocks, AIB) using an 8 and 9 d estradiol-progesterone based protocol. In this experiment, lactating Nelore cows (n =253) were subjected to two estradiol-progesterone based TAI protocols. On the morning of Day 10 (8d group, n =124) or Day 11 (9d group, n =129), cows were examined by ultrasonography to evaluate the diameter of the preovulatory follicle and were inseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the pre-ovulatory follicle (POF): Block 0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0h after conventional TAI), Block 1 (POF 13.0 to 14.9mm, TAI 6h later), Block 2 (POF 10.1 to 12.9mm, TAI 24h later), and Block 3 (POF≤10.0mm, TAI 30h later). The pregnancy per AI (P/AI) did not differ between 8d and 9d groups (P > 0.05). Considering only multiparous cows, however, P/AI tended to be greater in the 8d (64.1%) than in the 9d group (49.3%; P =0.08). Cows from the 9d group tended to have a larger POF than cows from the 8d group (P =0.07). In conclusion, these results provide evidence that there is no difference between 8d or 9d protocols when using the AIB technique. Use of the 8d estradiol-progesterone based protocol, however, tended to increase pregnancy in multiparous cows.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.025
  • Postnatal developmental of Neuromedin S and its receptor in the male
           Xiaomeishan pig reproductive axis
    • Authors: Zhiyu Ma; Yangyang Zhao; Yuan Yao; Zhihai Lei; Mengmeng Jin; Xiang Li; Cuicui Jia; Zheng Zhang; Xiaoliang Li; Juan Su
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Zhiyu Ma, Yangyang Zhao, Yuan Yao, Zhihai Lei, Mengmeng Jin, Xiang Li, Cuicui Jia, Zheng Zhang, Xiaoliang Li, Juan Su
      Neuromedin S (NMS) has been identified as an endogenous ligand for FM-3/GPR66 and FM-4/TGR-1 which are NMU receptors NMUR1 and NMUR2, respectively. The NMS molecule is present in some peripheral tissues and the central nervous system (CNS), and it had been documented that NMS has fundamental and important roles in multiple physiological functions and processes such as circadian rhythm, energy balance, feeding behavior, stress responses and reproduction. The possible role of NMS in sexual development postnatally, however, is still obscure. This study aims to determine the change of NMS and its receptor gene expression in the reproductive axis of male Xiaomeishan pigs, postnatally. Firstly, the cDNA of the NMS and its receptors was cloned and sequenced. The results showed that there was a lack of 12 amino acids in the C-terminal of the male Xiaomeishan pig NMS amino-acid sequences compared with other animal species, but the main protein structure of prepro-NMS was high in homology. In addition, the nucleotide sequence and amino acids of the male Xiaomeishan pig’s NMUR1 and NMUR2 had high homology. The NMS and NMUR2 mRNA in the male Xiaomeishan pig was detected in the reproductive axis at postnatal development stages, including postnatal day 3, 30, 60, 90 and 120, using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that there were developmental changes in NMS and NMUR2 in the reproductive axis of the male Xiaomeishan pigs, postnatally, which suggested that NMS and NMUR2 might have a role in the development of the boar reproductive axis, but its regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.023
  • Reproductive parameters of critically endangered European mink (Mustela
           lutreola) in captivity
    • Authors: Kairi Kiik; Tiit Maran; Kristel Nemvalts; Siiri-Lii Sandre; Toomas Tammaru
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Kairi Kiik, Tiit Maran, Kristel Nemvalts, Siiri-Lii Sandre, Toomas Tammaru
      Founding captive populations is often the last chance for saving endangered species from extinction. Ensuring successful reproduction is typically most critical for the maintenance of captive populations, with purposeful selection of individuals for breeding being one of the crucial aspects. Comparable cross-species data on the determinants of reproduction success are most useful for solving problems in captive species programs. In the present study, we provide an overview of a 20-year captive breeding program of the critically endangered European mink. The mating season starts in March, reaching its peak in the middle of April. The average gestation length was 43.8days (mode 43), the mean litter size being 4.4 (mode 4). Litter size and cub survival were negatively correlated with maternal age but this effect was entirely due to the lower performance of the females over 4 years of age. Female body weight also showed a positive correlation with litter size, with the weight itself having increased by 10% during the 20- year period. We did not find any signs of a cost of reproduction: the number of litters the female had delivered earlier in her life did not have an effect on her litter size in the focal year. Beyond the effect of age and size, individual females did not differ in litter sizes. Consistently, we found the heritability of litter size to be low. We conclude that, when selecting females for breeding, there is little need to consider aspects other than genetic relatedness crucial for avoiding progressive inbreeding.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.019
  • Automatic and manual doppler velocimetry measurements of the uterine
           artery in pregnant ewes
    • Authors: Renato Travassos Beltrame; Lucas Buss Littig; Carolina Covre; Amanda de Barros Martins; Celia Raquel Quirino; eRicardo Lopes Dias da Costa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Renato Travassos Beltrame, Lucas Buss Littig, Carolina Covre, Amanda de Barros Martins, Celia Raquel Quirino, eRicardo Lopes Dias da Costa
      We aimed to compare measurements of speed and blood flow parameters obtained manually and automatically in the uterine arteries of pregnant ewes. Eighteen Santa Inês ewes, confirmed to be pregnant, were followed every 2 weeks until parturition. The systolic peak (PS), end diastolic velocity (ED), maximum and average speed in the cardiac cycle (TAMAX and TAMEAN, respectively), pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and the systole/diastole (S/D) ratio and body flow volume (BFV) was measured. We began the wave evaluation automatically, then the observer manually marked the beginning and end of the wave. To determine the differences between manual and automatic methods, a t-test was used for each of the study variables (PS, ED, TAMAX, TAMEAN, PI, RI, S/D, and BFV), with p<0.05 considered significant. Both methods were found to be effective for producing estimates for the variables analyzed. With the exception of the IP, IR and S/D (p<0.05), no significant differences were found between the methods. The manual method underestimated the PI (1.00±0.21×1.04±0.20), S/D (2.51±0.43×2.40±0.44) and RI (0.57±0.07×0.59±0.07) compared with the automatic method (p<0.05). The weakest correlations between methods were identified for the PI, RI and S/D variables (p<0.001). Manual evaluation allowed more accurate identification of the beginning and end of the systole and diastole, which may influence the outcome of some variables.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.021
  • Toward an integrative and predictive sperm quality analysis in Bos taurus
    • Authors: J.L. Yániz; C. Soler; C. Alquézar-Baeta; P. Santolaria
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J.L. Yániz, C. Soler, C. Alquézar-Baeta, P. Santolaria
      There is a need to develop more integrative sperm quality analysis methods, enabling researchers to evaluate different parameters simultaneously cell by cell. In this work, we present a new multi-parametric fluorescent test able to discriminate different sperm subpopulations based on their labeling pattern and motility characteristics. Cryopreserved semen samples from 20 Holstein bulls were used in the study. Analyses of sperm motility using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA-mot), membrane integrity by acridine orange-propidium iodide combination and multi-parametric by the ISAS®3Fun kit, were performed. The new method allows a clear discrimination of sperm subpopulations based on membrane and acrosomal integrity, motility and morphology. It was also possible to observe live spermatozoa showing signs of capacitation such as hyperactivated motility and changes in acrosomal structure. Sperm subpopulation with intact plasma membrane and acrosome showed a higher proportion of motile sperm than those with damaged acrosome or increased fluorescence intensity. Spermatozoa with intact plasmalemma and damaged acrosome were static or exhibit weak movement. Significant correlations among the different sperm quality parameters evaluated were also described. We concluded that the ISAS®3Fun is an integrated method that represents an advance in sperm quality analysis with the potential to improve fertility predictions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.022
  • Cytoplasmic droplet acting as a mitochondrial modulator during sperm
           maturation in dogs
    • Authors: D.S.R. Angrimani; J.D.A. Losano; C.F. Lucio; G.A.L. Veiga; F.C. Landim; M. Nichi; C.I. Vannucchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): D.S.R. Angrimani, J.D.A. Losano, C.F. Lucio, G.A.L. Veiga, F.C. Landim, M. Nichi, C.I. Vannucchi
      Motility acquisition during sperm maturation and passage through the epididymis is closely related to mitochondrial function and appears to occur in parallel with cytoplasmic droplet (CD) migration. However, such mechanism remains unclear in dogs. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the influence of sperm CD in the mitochondrial functionality during epididymal sperm maturation in dogs. Twenty-one adult dogs were submitted to elective bilateral orchiectomy. Testicles were stored for 18–24h at 5°C and epididymal sperm samples were then collected from different segments of the epididymis (caput, corpus and cauda). Samples were evaluated for computer-assisted motility analysis (CASA), presence of CD (eosin/nigrosin stain), ultrastructural CD analysis and sperm mitochondrial activity (3,3' diaminobenzidine technique) and membrane potential (JC-1 probe). Samples collected from the corpus epididymis showed higher motility and mitochondrial activity in comparison to the caput sperm. Moreover, corpus sperm had lower percentage of proximal droplets compared to caput samples, while mitochondrial membrane potential remained unchanged. Cauda samples showed higher motility, mitochondrial activity and potential, however, lower presence of sperm droplets (proximal and distal). In conclusion, the CD is essential for epididymal sperm maturation in dogs, showing important functions along the transit in the epididymis. In the corpus segment, the migration of the CD along the sperm midpiece provides a high mitochondrial activity and the onset of sperm motility. On the other hand, sperm from cauda epididymis lack CD but suffered lipid membrane changes which allow a maximum mitochondrial membrane potential and motility.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.014
  • Maternal age modulates the effects of early-pregnancy L-proline
           supplementation on the birth-weight of piglets
    • Authors: P. Gonzalez-Añover; A. Gonzalez-Bulnes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): P. Gonzalez-Añover, A. Gonzalez-Bulnes
      Previous results obtained in gilts maintained under experimental conditions suggest that amino acid supplementation during pregnancy may be a promising strategy for diminishing the incidence of embryo losses and low birth-weight newborn. The current study evaluated the effects of a short-term supplementation with L-proline, around implantational stages, on litter size and birth-weight of piglets in sows of different parities maintained under commercial farm conditions. There were no significant effects in mature sows with three or more parities, but the supplementation improved the reproductive efficiency of the high-prolific first-parity sows and of all the sows at second-parity. There were numerically higher litter size (of around two more live piglets; n.s.) and higher birth-weights (P<0.05) in the supplemented animals. The results of this study indicate that the effects of L-proline supplementation on litter size and birth-weight are strongly modulated by the maternal characteristics; specifically by parity and prolificacy and that supplementation may be cost-efficient for the management of females with compromised energy balance; specifically, sows at second farrowing and highly-prolific primiparous gilts.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.016
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