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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
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Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
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Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Reproduction Science
  [SJR: 0.711]   [H-I: 78]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-4320
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Sperm quality and oxidative status as affected by homogenization of
           liquid-stored boar semen diluted in short- and long-term extenders
    • Authors: Mariana B. Menegat; Ana Paula G. Mellagi; Rafael C. Bortolin; Tila A. Menezes; Amanda R. Vargas; Mari Lourdes Bernardi; Ivo Wentz; Daniel P. Gelain; José Cláudio F. Moreira; Fernando P. Bortolozzo
      Pages: 67 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 179
      Author(s): Mariana B. Menegat, Ana Paula G. Mellagi, Rafael C. Bortolin, Tila A. Menezes, Amanda R. Vargas, Mari Lourdes Bernardi, Ivo Wentz, Daniel P. Gelain, José Cláudio F. Moreira, Fernando P. Bortolozzo
      Homogenization of diluted boar semen during storage has for a long time been regarded as beneficial. Recent studies indicated an adverse effect of homogenization on sperm quality for yet unknown reasons. This study aimed to verify the effect of homogenization on sperm parameters and to elucidate the impact of oxidative stress. Twenty-one normospermic ejaculates (21 boars) were diluted with Androstar® Plus (AND) and Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS). Semen doses were submitted to no-homogenization (NoHom) or twice-a-day manual homogenization (2xHom) during storage at 17°C for 168h. NoHom and 2xHom were similar (P>0.05) for both short- and long-term extenders with respect to motility and kinematics parameters (CASA system), membrane viability (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species, sulfhydryl content, and total radical-trapping antioxidant potential. 2xHom reduced sperm motility and motion kinematics (VCL, VSL, VAP, BCF, and ALH) following the thermoresistance test and presented with a slight increase in pH along the storage (P=0.05) as compared to NoHom. Furthermore, 2xHom semen doses presented with a constant SOD and GSH-Px activity during storage whereas enzymatic activity increased for NoHom at the end of the storage. These findings confirm that homogenization of semen doses is detrimental to sperm quality. Moreover, it is shown that the effect of homogenization is unlikely to be primarily related to oxidative stress. Homogenization is not recommended for storage of liquid boar semen for up to 168h in both short- and long-term extenders.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • A membrane-associated adenylate cyclase modulates lactate dehydrogenase
           and creatine kinase activities required for bull sperm capacitation
           induced by hyaluronic acid
    • Authors: Silvina Fernández; Mariana Córdoba
      Pages: 80 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 179
      Author(s): Silvina Fernández, Mariana Córdoba
      Hyaluronic acid, as well as heparin, is a glycosaminoglycan present in the female genital tract of cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism and intracellular signals mediated by a membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (mAC), in sperm capacitation with hyaluronic acid and heparin, in cryopreserved bull sperm. The mAC inhibitor, 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine, was used in the present study. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities and lactate concentration were determined spectrophotometrically in the incubation medium. Capacitation and acrosome reaction were evaluated by chlortetracycline technique, while plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were determined by trypan blue stain/differential interference contrast microscopy. Heparin capacitated samples had a significant decrease in LDH and CK activities, while in hyaluronic acid capacitated samples LDH and CK activities both increased compared to control samples, in heparin and hyaluronic acid capacitation conditions, respectively. A significant increase in lactate concentration in the incubation medium occurred in hyaluronic acid-treated sperm samples compared to heparin treatment, indicating this energetic metabolite is produced during capacitation. The LDH and CK enzyme activities and lactate concentrations in the incubation medium were decreased with 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine treatment in hyaluronic acid samples. The mAC inhibitor significantly inhibited heparin-induced capacitation of sperm cells, but did not completely inhibit hyaluronic acid capacitation. Therefore, hyaluronic acid and heparin are physiological glycosaminoglycans capable of inducing in vitro capacitation in cryopreserved bull sperm, stimulating different enzymatic pathways and intracellular signals modulated by a mAC. Hyaluronic acid induces sperm capacitation involving LDH and CK activities, thereby reducing oxidative metabolism, and this process is mediated by mAC.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A
           (VEGFA) synergistically promote steroidogenesis and survival of cultured
           buffalo granulosa cells
    • Authors: S.R. Mishra; Jaya Bharati; G. Rajesh; V.S. Chauhan; G. Taru Sharma; S. Bag; V.P. Maurya; G. Singh; M. Sarkar
      Pages: 88 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 179
      Author(s): S.R. Mishra, Jaya Bharati, G. Rajesh, V.S. Chauhan, G. Taru Sharma, S. Bag, V.P. Maurya, G. Singh, M. Sarkar
      The present study investigated the combined effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) on estradiol (E 2) secretion and relative abundance of mRNA for aromatase enzyme (CYP19A1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX) in cultured buffalo granulosa cells (GCs). Follicles were isolated and classified into four groups based on size and E 2 concentration in follicular fluid (FF): Small, 4–6mm diameter, E 2 <0.5ng/ml; Medium, 7–9mm, E 2 =0.5–5ng/ml; Large, 10–13mm, E 2 =5–40ng/ml; Preovulatory (PFs), >14mm, E 2 >180ng/ml. The GCs of PF were cultured in 24 well cell culture plates and allowed to become 75–80% confluent. Then cultured GCs were treated with FGF2 (200ng/ml) and VEGF-A (100ng/ml) separately and in combination for three incubation periods (24, 48 and 72h). Estradiol secretion was greater in GCs treated with FGF2+VEGF-A compared to FGF2 or VEGF-A at all incubation periods and was greatest (P <0.05) at 72h of incubation. The relative abundance of CYP19A1 and PCNA mRNA were relatively consistent with the amount E 2 secretion. In contrast, the relative abundance of Bax mRNA was less in GCs treated with the combination of FGF2 and VEGF-A as compared to either FGF2 or VEGF-A alone and the least concentration (P <0.05) was at 72h of incubation. Findings with use of immunocytochemistry of cells treated with these factors were consistent to the relative abundance of mRNA transcript for the factor. The present findings indicate that FGF2 and VEGF-A may function in a synergistic manner to promote steroidogenesis and survival of cultured buffalo GCs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Description of the composition of fatty acids and lipids in the breeders
           muscle, oocytes and in the embryonic development of Brycon orthotaenia
           (Günther, 1864)
    • Authors: Edenilce de Fatima Ferreira Martins; Larisa Magnone; Martin Bessonart; Deliane Cristina Costa; José Cláudio Epaminondas dos Santos; Nilo Bazolli; Cintia Labussière Nakayama; Ronald Kennedy Luz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Edenilce de Fatima Ferreira Martins, Larisa Magnone, Martin Bessonart, Deliane Cristina Costa, José Cláudio Epaminondas dos Santos, Nilo Bazolli, Cintia Labussière Nakayama, Ronald Kennedy Luz
      The objective of this work was to evaluate the fatty acid and lipid composition of oocytes, newly hatched larvae (NHL), first feeding larvae (FFL) and muscle tissue of female Brycon orthotaenia broodstock. Total and polar lipid was significantly (P <0.05) abundant in oocytes and larvae in different stages of development. The lowest content (P <0.05) of total lipids was found in the muscles, whereas total lipid content of oocytes, NHL and FFL did not show any significant difference. Polar lipid content was different (P <0.05) between NHL and FFL. For the neutral the lowest values of C18:2n 6 occurred during the initial feeding period, whilst C20:4n 6 (AA) exhibited the highest percentage in FFL (P <0.05). C22:6n 3 (DHA) was highest (P <0.05) in FFL. The neutral lipid n-9 and n-6 was highest in muscle of females. The n-3HUFA was highest in NHL and in FFL, n-6HUFA was highest in FFL (P<0.05). The ratios of DHA/EPA were higher (P<0.05) in oocytes and FFL. In fatty acids of polar lipids, C20:5n 3 (EPA) did not show differences (P>0.05) between stages. C18:3n 3 was highest (P <0.05) in NHL and FFL. C20:4n 6 (AA) and C22:6n 3 (DHA) showed the highest percentages during the larval stages. The fatty acids n-3 series was significantly higher (P <0.05) in FFL. The n-6HUFA was highest during development larval (P <0.05). The increases DHA reflects the ability of the species to elongate and desaturate to obtain n-3HUFA from 18:3n 3, shows the importance of this fatty acid during early development.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T14:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.005
  • Mastitis outcomes on pre-ovulatory follicle diameter, estradiol
           concentrations, subsequent luteal profiles and conception rate in
    • Authors: Mohamed Mohsen Mansour; Moustafa M. Zeitoun; Fekry M. Hussein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Mohamed Mohsen Mansour, Moustafa M. Zeitoun, Fekry M. Hussein

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T14:10:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.004
  • Effect of Different Concentrations of Egg Yolk and Virgin Coconut Oil in
           Tris-based Extenders on Chilled and Frozen-thawed Bull Semen
    • Authors: A.A. Tarig; H. Wahid; Y. Rosnina; N. Yimer; Y.M. Goh; F.H. Baiee; A.M. Khumran; H. Salman; M. Ebrahimi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A.A. Tarig, H. Wahid, Y. Rosnina, N. Yimer, Y.M. Goh, F.H. Baiee, A.M. Khumran, H. Salman, M. Ebrahimi
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8% virgin coconut oil (VCO) combined with different percentages of egg yolk in Tris extender on the quality of chilled and frozen–thawed bull semen. A total of 24 ejaculates from four bulls were collected using an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 8% VCO in Tris extender which contained different concentrations 0% (control), 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions: one was chilled and stored at 4°C until evaluation after 24, 72, and 144h; the second fraction was processed by chilling for 3h at 4°C to equilibrate, then packaged in 0.25mL straws and frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C until evaluation after 7 and 14 days. Both chilled and frozen semen samples were then thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), viability, acrosome integrity, and morphology (eosin-nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The results indicate treatments with 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk with 8% VCO had greater sperm quality (P <0.05) as compared with the control. The treatment with 20% egg yolk had the greatest sperm quality (P <0.05) among the treated groups for both chilled and frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, the use of 8% VCO combined with 20% egg yolk in a Tris-based extender enhanced the values for chilled and frozen-thawed quality variables of bull sperm.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T14:04:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.024
  • Seminal plasma removal by density-gradient centrifugation is superior for
           goat sperm preservation compared with classical sperm washing
    • Authors: J. Santiago-Moreno; M.C. Esteso; C. Castaño; A. Toledano-Díaz; J.A. Delgadillo; A. López-Sebastián
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J. Santiago-Moreno, M.C. Esteso, C. Castaño, A. Toledano-Díaz, J.A. Delgadillo, A. López-Sebastián
      Seminal plasma removal is routine in goat sperm cryopreservation protocols. The classical washing procedure designed to accomplish this usually leaves the pellet resulting from use of this procedure contaminated with dead sperm, debris, and cells other than sperm. This contamination negatively affects viability of sperm after cryopreservation. The present research was conducted to compare the effect on chilled and frozen-thawed goat sperm of the classical washing method to that of a selective washing method involving density gradient centrifugation (DGC). In the first experiment, sperm variables were measured in freshly collected sperm, and again after its washing with both methods and chilling at 5°C for 0, 3, 24, 48, 72 or 96h. The DGC-washed sperm had greater (P< 0.01) straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP) and progression ratio values at all chilling times. The amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) was, however, less (P< 0.001) in the DGC-washed sperm at all chilling times. There was a negative correlation (P< 0.05) between ALH and VSL. In the second experiment involving the freezing-thawing of sperm washed by using either method, aliquots were post-wash diluted with a Tris-citric acid/glucose/egg yolk/glycerol-based medium and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 5 days. After thawing, neither the VCL, VSL nor VAP of the DGC-washed samples were affected, whereas the traditionally washed samples had less motility. In conclusion, the use of DGC was associated with enhanced sperm motility variables after chilling and freezing-thawing. This procedure would, therefore, be a useful means of removing seminal plasma from goat semen and obtaining greater quality sperm for insemination purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T14:04:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.002
  • The myometrial contractility during late pregnancy in dairy cows, in vitro
    • Authors: L. Górriz-Martín; S.E. Ulbrich; M. Schmicke; G. Hirsbrunner; C. Keller; N. Yücesoy; C. Pfarrer; H. Bollwein; M. Heppelmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): L. Górriz-Martín, S.E. Ulbrich, M. Schmicke, G. Hirsbrunner, C. Keller, N. Yücesoy, C. Pfarrer, H. Bollwein, M. Heppelmann
      This study aimed to investigate the in vitro contractility of the myometrium and its relationship to the blood concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2β), progesterone (P4), 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α (PGFM) and ionised calcium (Ca2+) prior to tissue harvest in 12 healthy Holstein-Friesian cows in late pregnancy. Three circular (CM) and 3 longitudinal myometrial (LM) strips were dissected during a caesarean section and mounted in an organ bath containing modified Krebs solution (KS). The spontaneous contractility was recorded during five 30-min time periods (T1 to T5), after which the strips were exposed to increasing concentrations of oxytocin (OT; 10−10-10−7M), a natural PGF2α-analogue (PGF; 10−7-10−4M) and KS (Cont) for four 30-min time periods (T6 to T9). The variables area under the curve (AUC), mean (MA) and maximal amplitude (maxA) were calculated for each T. The blood P4, E2ß, Ca2+ and PGFM values averaged 4.0±1.7 ng/mL, 482.3±63.7 pg/mL, 0.8±0.3 mmol/L and 125.3±63.7 pg/mL. The LM strips had greater AUC, MA, and maxA than CM, and OT caused greater AUC and MA in both muscle layers than PGF or control treatment (OT>PGF>Cont). Estradiol-17β correlated with AUC and MA of LM at T1 to T5 (r=0.69; P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, LM and CM strips have different contractile performance but show enhanced activity when stimulated with OT and less activity after PGF stimulation if compared with Cont. Blood concentrations of E2β may be useful as an indicator of uterine contractile performance in late pregnant cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T14:04:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.04.001
  • Heifers express G-protein coupled receptor 61 in anterior pituitary
           gonadotrophs in stage-dependent manner
    • Authors: Kiran Pandey; Onalenna Kereilwe; Vitaliano Borromeo; Hiroya Kadokawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Kiran Pandey, Onalenna Kereilwe, Vitaliano Borromeo, Hiroya Kadokawa
      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) colocalize with insulin and glucocorticoid receptors in lipid rafts of the gonadotroph plasma membrane, where they facilitate downstream signaling. We recently found that orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)61 is expressed in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers, leading us to speculate that GPR61 colocalizes with GnRHR in the plasma membrane of gonadotroph and is expressed at specific times of the reproductive cycle. To test this hypothesis, we examined the coexpression of GnRHR, GPR61, and either luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit in AP tissue and cultured AP cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. GPR61 was detected in gonadotrophs, with a majority of them being colocalized with GnRHR and the remainder present at other parts of the cell surface or in the cytoplasm. We obtained a strong positive overlap coefficient (0.71±0.01) between GPR61 and GnRHR on the cell-surface of cultured GnRHR-positive AP cells. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses found that expression was lower (P <0.05) in AP tissues during early luteal phase as compared to pre-ovulation or mid- or late luteal phases. Additionally, the 5ꞌ-flanking region of the GPR61 gene contained several sites with response elements similar to those of estrogen or progesterone. These data suggested that GPR61 colocalizes with GnRHR in the plasma membrane of gonadotrophs, and its expression changes stage-dependently in the bovine anterior pituitary gland.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.020
  • Comparison between two estradiol-progesterone based protocols for timed
           artificial insemination in blocks in lactating Nelore cows
    • Authors: L.F.M. Pfeifer; N.A. Castro; P.M.A. Neves; J.P. Cestaro; A. Schneider
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): L.F.M. Pfeifer, N.A. Castro, P.M.A. Neves, J.P. Cestaro, A. Schneider
      The aim of this study was to compare the use of artificial insemination in time blocks (Artificial Insemination Blocks, AIB) using an 8 and 9 d estradiol-progesterone based protocol. In this experiment, lactating Nelore cows (n =253) were subjected to two estradiol-progesterone based TAI protocols. On the morning of Day 10 (8d group, n =124) or Day 11 (9d group, n =129), cows were examined by ultrasonography to evaluate the diameter of the preovulatory follicle and were inseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the pre-ovulatory follicle (POF): Block 0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0h after conventional TAI), Block 1 (POF 13.0 to 14.9mm, TAI 6h later), Block 2 (POF 10.1 to 12.9mm, TAI 24h later), and Block 3 (POF≤10.0mm, TAI 30h later). The pregnancy per AI (P/AI) did not differ between 8d and 9d groups (P > 0.05). Considering only multiparous cows, however, P/AI tended to be greater in the 8d (64.1%) than in the 9d group (49.3%; P =0.08). Cows from the 9d group tended to have a larger POF than cows from the 8d group (P =0.07). In conclusion, these results provide evidence that there is no difference between 8d or 9d protocols when using the AIB technique. Use of the 8d estradiol-progesterone based protocol, however, tended to increase pregnancy in multiparous cows.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.025
  • Postnatal developmental of Neuromedin S and its receptor in the male
           Xiaomeishan pig reproductive axis
    • Authors: Zhiyu Ma; Yangyang Zhao; Yuan Yao; Zhihai Lei; Mengmeng Jin; Xiang Li; Cuicui Jia; Zheng Zhang; Xiaoliang Li; Juan Su
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Zhiyu Ma, Yangyang Zhao, Yuan Yao, Zhihai Lei, Mengmeng Jin, Xiang Li, Cuicui Jia, Zheng Zhang, Xiaoliang Li, Juan Su
      Neuromedin S (NMS) has been identified as an endogenous ligand for FM-3/GPR66 and FM-4/TGR-1 which are NMU receptors NMUR1 and NMUR2, respectively. The NMS molecule is present in some peripheral tissues and the central nervous system (CNS), and it had been documented that NMS has fundamental and important roles in multiple physiological functions and processes such as circadian rhythm, energy balance, feeding behavior, stress responses and reproduction. The possible role of NMS in sexual development postnatally, however, is still obscure. This study aims to determine the change of NMS and its receptor gene expression in the reproductive axis of male Xiaomeishan pigs, postnatally. Firstly, the cDNA of the NMS and its receptors was cloned and sequenced. The results showed that there was a lack of 12 amino acids in the C-terminal of the male Xiaomeishan pig NMS amino-acid sequences compared with other animal species, but the main protein structure of prepro-NMS was high in homology. In addition, the nucleotide sequence and amino acids of the male Xiaomeishan pig’s NMUR1 and NMUR2 had high homology. The NMS and NMUR2 mRNA in the male Xiaomeishan pig was detected in the reproductive axis at postnatal development stages, including postnatal day 3, 30, 60, 90 and 120, using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that there were developmental changes in NMS and NMUR2 in the reproductive axis of the male Xiaomeishan pigs, postnatally, which suggested that NMS and NMUR2 might have a role in the development of the boar reproductive axis, but its regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.023
  • Reproductive parameters of critically endangered European mink (Mustela
           lutreola) in captivity
    • Authors: Kairi Kiik; Tiit Maran; Kristel Nemvalts; Siiri-Lii Sandre; Toomas Tammaru
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Kairi Kiik, Tiit Maran, Kristel Nemvalts, Siiri-Lii Sandre, Toomas Tammaru
      Founding captive populations is often the last chance for saving endangered species from extinction. Ensuring successful reproduction is typically most critical for the maintenance of captive populations, with purposeful selection of individuals for breeding being one of the crucial aspects. Comparable cross-species data on the determinants of reproduction success are most useful for solving problems in captive species programs. In the present study, we provide an overview of a 20-year captive breeding program of the critically endangered European mink. The mating season starts in March, reaching its peak in the middle of April. The average gestation length was 43.8days (mode 43), the mean litter size being 4.4 (mode 4). Litter size and cub survival were negatively correlated with maternal age but this effect was entirely due to the lower performance of the females over 4 years of age. Female body weight also showed a positive correlation with litter size, with the weight itself having increased by 10% during the 20- year period. We did not find any signs of a cost of reproduction: the number of litters the female had delivered earlier in her life did not have an effect on her litter size in the focal year. Beyond the effect of age and size, individual females did not differ in litter sizes. Consistently, we found the heritability of litter size to be low. We conclude that, when selecting females for breeding, there is little need to consider aspects other than genetic relatedness crucial for avoiding progressive inbreeding.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.019
  • Automatic and manual doppler velocimetry measurements of the uterine
           artery in pregnant ewes
    • Authors: Renato Travassos Beltrame; Lucas Buss Littig; Carolina Covre; Amanda de Barros Martins; Celia Raquel Quirino; eRicardo Lopes Dias da Costa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Renato Travassos Beltrame, Lucas Buss Littig, Carolina Covre, Amanda de Barros Martins, Celia Raquel Quirino, eRicardo Lopes Dias da Costa
      We aimed to compare measurements of speed and blood flow parameters obtained manually and automatically in the uterine arteries of pregnant ewes. Eighteen Santa Inês ewes, confirmed to be pregnant, were followed every 2 weeks until parturition. The systolic peak (PS), end diastolic velocity (ED), maximum and average speed in the cardiac cycle (TAMAX and TAMEAN, respectively), pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and the systole/diastole (S/D) ratio and body flow volume (BFV) was measured. We began the wave evaluation automatically, then the observer manually marked the beginning and end of the wave. To determine the differences between manual and automatic methods, a t-test was used for each of the study variables (PS, ED, TAMAX, TAMEAN, PI, RI, S/D, and BFV), with p<0.05 considered significant. Both methods were found to be effective for producing estimates for the variables analyzed. With the exception of the IP, IR and S/D (p<0.05), no significant differences were found between the methods. The manual method underestimated the PI (1.00±0.21×1.04±0.20), S/D (2.51±0.43×2.40±0.44) and RI (0.57±0.07×0.59±0.07) compared with the automatic method (p<0.05). The weakest correlations between methods were identified for the PI, RI and S/D variables (p<0.001). Manual evaluation allowed more accurate identification of the beginning and end of the systole and diastole, which may influence the outcome of some variables.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.021
  • Toward an integrative and predictive sperm quality analysis in Bos taurus
    • Authors: J.L. Yániz; C. Soler; C. Alquézar-Baeta; P. Santolaria
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J.L. Yániz, C. Soler, C. Alquézar-Baeta, P. Santolaria
      There is a need to develop more integrative sperm quality analysis methods, enabling researchers to evaluate different parameters simultaneously cell by cell. In this work, we present a new multi-parametric fluorescent test able to discriminate different sperm subpopulations based on their labeling pattern and motility characteristics. Cryopreserved semen samples from 20 Holstein bulls were used in the study. Analyses of sperm motility using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA-mot), membrane integrity by acridine orange-propidium iodide combination and multi-parametric by the ISAS®3Fun kit, were performed. The new method allows a clear discrimination of sperm subpopulations based on membrane and acrosomal integrity, motility and morphology. It was also possible to observe live spermatozoa showing signs of capacitation such as hyperactivated motility and changes in acrosomal structure. Sperm subpopulation with intact plasma membrane and acrosome showed a higher proportion of motile sperm than those with damaged acrosome or increased fluorescence intensity. Spermatozoa with intact plasmalemma and damaged acrosome were static or exhibit weak movement. Significant correlations among the different sperm quality parameters evaluated were also described. We concluded that the ISAS®3Fun is an integrated method that represents an advance in sperm quality analysis with the potential to improve fertility predictions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.022
  • Monitoring Menstrual Cycle, Gestation and Lactation by Measuring Urinary
           Oestradiol and Progesterone in the Captive Golden Snub-nosed Monkey
           (Rhinopithecus roxellanae)
    • Authors: Wei-Zhen Chen; Yue Li; Hui-Liang Yu; Hui Yao; Xiang Li; Li Han; Chang-Min Hu; Jia-Jun Xiong; Dong-Ming Liu; Ming-Xing Ding; Jian-Guo Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Wei-Zhen Chen, Yue Li, Hui-Liang Yu, Hui Yao, Xiang Li, Li Han, Chang-Min Hu, Jia-Jun Xiong, Dong-Ming Liu, Ming-Xing Ding, Jian-Guo Chen
      The golden snub-nosed monkey is an endangered species and study of its reproductive physiology is crucial for the species’ breeding programs. Urine samples (770) from 5 mature female golden snub-nosed monkeys were collected in the Shengnongjia Nature Reserve between October 2013 and December 2014 to monitor their menstrual cycle, gestation, and lactation. The concentrations of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in the samples were measured by Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA), and the hormone concentrations were indexed to creatinine levels to compensate for differences in water content. The results showed that the E2 and P4 levels during the breeding season were significantly higher than those during the non-breeding season (P< 0.01). The length of the menstrual cycle during the breeding season was 24.29±0.71days (mean±SEM) with a follicular cycle of 8.33±0.62days and luteal cycle of 15.27±0.83 days. In addition, the levels of E2 and P4 began to rise on day 14 and day 10 after conception and remained at a high level until parturition. However, the E2 and P4 levels during lactation were lower than those during gestation (P< 0.01). In summary, this study extends our knowledge regarding the basic reproductive physiology of golden snub-nosed monkeys, which could play an important role in the expansion of this species’ population.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.018
  • Cytoplasmic droplet acting as a mitochondrial modulator during sperm
           maturation in dogs
    • Authors: D.S.R. Angrimani; J.D.A. Losano; C.F. Lucio; G.A.L. Veiga; F.C. Landim; M. Nichi; C.I. Vannucchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): D.S.R. Angrimani, J.D.A. Losano, C.F. Lucio, G.A.L. Veiga, F.C. Landim, M. Nichi, C.I. Vannucchi
      Motility acquisition during sperm maturation and passage through the epididymis is closely related to mitochondrial function and appears to occur in parallel with cytoplasmic droplet (CD) migration. However, such mechanism remains unclear in dogs. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the influence of sperm CD in the mitochondrial functionality during epididymal sperm maturation in dogs. Twenty-one adult dogs were submitted to elective bilateral orchiectomy. Testicles were stored for 18–24h at 5°C and epididymal sperm samples were then collected from different segments of the epididymis (caput, corpus and cauda). Samples were evaluated for computer-assisted motility analysis (CASA), presence of CD (eosin/nigrosin stain), ultrastructural CD analysis and sperm mitochondrial activity (3,3' diaminobenzidine technique) and membrane potential (JC-1 probe). Samples collected from the corpus epididymis showed higher motility and mitochondrial activity in comparison to the caput sperm. Moreover, corpus sperm had lower percentage of proximal droplets compared to caput samples, while mitochondrial membrane potential remained unchanged. Cauda samples showed higher motility, mitochondrial activity and potential, however, lower presence of sperm droplets (proximal and distal). In conclusion, the CD is essential for epididymal sperm maturation in dogs, showing important functions along the transit in the epididymis. In the corpus segment, the migration of the CD along the sperm midpiece provides a high mitochondrial activity and the onset of sperm motility. On the other hand, sperm from cauda epididymis lack CD but suffered lipid membrane changes which allow a maximum mitochondrial membrane potential and motility.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.014
  • Maternal age modulates the effects of early-pregnancy L-proline
           supplementation on the birth-weight of piglets
    • Authors: P. Gonzalez-Añover; A. Gonzalez-Bulnes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): P. Gonzalez-Añover, A. Gonzalez-Bulnes
      Previous results obtained in gilts maintained under experimental conditions suggest that amino acid supplementation during pregnancy may be a promising strategy for diminishing the incidence of embryo losses and low birth-weight newborn. The current study evaluated the effects of a short-term supplementation with L-proline, around implantational stages, on litter size and birth-weight of piglets in sows of different parities maintained under commercial farm conditions. There were no significant effects in mature sows with three or more parities, but the supplementation improved the reproductive efficiency of the high-prolific first-parity sows and of all the sows at second-parity. There were numerically higher litter size (of around two more live piglets; n.s.) and higher birth-weights (P<0.05) in the supplemented animals. The results of this study indicate that the effects of L-proline supplementation on litter size and birth-weight are strongly modulated by the maternal characteristics; specifically by parity and prolificacy and that supplementation may be cost-efficient for the management of females with compromised energy balance; specifically, sows at second farrowing and highly-prolific primiparous gilts.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.016
  • Effects of eCG and progesterone on superovulation and embryo production in
           wood bison (Bison bison athabascae)
    • Authors: J. Manuel Palomino; Miriam P. Cervantes; Murray R. Woodbury; Reuben J. Mapletoft; Gregg P. Adams
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J. Manuel Palomino, Miriam P. Cervantes, Murray R. Woodbury, Reuben J. Mapletoft, Gregg P. Adams
      Experiments were done to determine if inclusion of eCG and progesterone in the superstimulation protocol will increase the ovarian response and embryo production in wood bison, and to provide preliminary information regarding the effect of season. In Experiment 1 (anovulatory season), bison (n=26) were synchronized by follicular ablation (Day −1) and given FSH on Days 0 and 2, and assigned to 3 groups: Progesterone (Days 0 to 4), eCG (Day 3), or progesterone+eCG. On Day 5, bison were given hCG and inseminated 12 and 24h later. Ova/embryos were collected 8days after hCG. In Experiment 2 (ovulatory season), bison (n=24) were synchronized and assigned randomly to two groups in which superstimulation was induced with FSH, either with or without eCG, as in Experiment 1. No differences among groups were found in ovarian response or embryo production in either experiment. The follicular count at wave emergence was positively correlated with the number of large follicles at the end of superstimulation in all groups. A significantly greater number of follicles present at wave emergence in the anovulatory vs. ovulatory season was associated with a greater number of CL at the time of embryo collection, but only half the number of freezable embryos. In conclusion, the number of transferable embryos collected (1-2/bison) was higher than in any previous report, but was not attributable to the inclusion of eCG or progesterone in the superovulatory protocol. The apparent effect of season on oocyte competence, and not superovulatory response, is worthy of further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.013
  • Effects of natural environment on reproductive histo-morphometric dynamics
           of female dromedary camel
    • Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Ali; Anas Sarwar Qureshi; Giorgia Urbinati; Riaz Hussain; Mohammad Zahid Mustafa; Farah Ali; Abdul Manan; Liliane Massaad-Massade
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Hafiz Muhammad Ali, Anas Sarwar Qureshi, Giorgia Urbinati, Riaz Hussain, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa, Farah Ali, Abdul Manan, Liliane Massaad-Massade
      Camel shows a seasonal breeding pattern with enhanced reproductive activity during the period of low climatic temperature, high rainfall and better food conditions. Therefore, the study was thus conducted to explore the underlying seasonal effects on histological dimensions of reproductive system in adult female one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) kept in the natural environment of Pakistan. A total 25 reproductive tracts were collected during spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons and histo-morphometric observations were correlated with environmental factors. A significant increase in number (p< 0.05) and size (p< 0.05) of surface with secondary and tertiary ovarian follicles was observed in winter season. The epithelial height (p< 0.05) and luminal diameter (p< 0.05) of infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus of uterine tubes were also significantly increased during winter season. Moreover, significantly increased length (p< 0.05) and circumference (p< 0.05) of uterine cornua, increased number (p< 0.001) and diameter (p< 0.001) of endometrial glands with enlarged surface and glandular epithelia (p< 0.001) were found in winter compared to summer season. Therefore, we concluded that quiescent ovarian follicular and uterine glandular activities are the main reason of camel non-breeding during summer season.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T13:55:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.012
  • Notch signaling pathway promotes the development of ovine ovarian
           follicular granulosa cells
    • Authors: Jiongjie Jing; Xiaolong Jiang; Jianwei Chen; Xiaolei Yao; Miaomiao Zhao; Pengfei Li; Yangyang Pan; Youshe Ren; Wenzhong Liu; Lihua Lyu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Jiongjie Jing, Xiaolong Jiang, Jianwei Chen, Xiaolei Yao, Miaomiao Zhao, Pengfei Li, Yangyang Pan, Youshe Ren, Wenzhong Liu, Lihua Lyu
      The Notch signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis involved in development of the organs and tissues such as nervous system, cartilage, lungs, kidneys and prostate as well as the ovarian follicles. This study aimed to investigate the mRNA expression and localization of NOTCH2, as the key factor in Notch signaling pathway. This was determined by PCR, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the effects of inhibiting Notch signaling pathway with different concentrations (5μM, 10μM and 20μM) of N-[N-(3, 5-Difuorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), an inhibitor of Notch signaling pathway, on ovine granulosa cells was determined in vitro by detecting estradiol production using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and expressions of the genes related to the cell cycle and apoptosis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). NOTCH2, the key member of Notch signaling pathway, was found in ovine follicles, and the expression of NOTCH2 mRNA was highest in the theca cells of the follicles in medium sizes (3–5mm in diameter) and granulosa cells of the follicles in large sizes (>5mm in diameter). Immunohistochemical results demonstrated that NOTCH2 protein was expressed in granulosa cells of preantral follicles, in both granulosa cells and theca cells of antral follicles. Compared with DAPT-treated groups, the control group had a higher number of granulosa cells (P< 0.05) and a higher estradiol production (P< 0.05). Compared with the control group, the mRNA abundances of HES1, MYC, BAX, BCL2 and CYP19A1 in DAPT-treated groups was lower (P< 0.05), respectively; whereas, the expression of CCND2, CDKN1A and TP53 mRNA showed no remarkable difference compared with control group. Collectively, Notch signaling pathway could be involved in the ovine follicular development by regulating the growth and estradiol production of granulosa cells.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T08:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.017
  • Effect of injectable trace mineral complex supplementation on development
           of ovarian structures and serum copper and zinc concentrations in
           over-conditioned Holstein cows
    • Authors: Juan González-Maldonado; Raymundo Rangel-Santos; Raymundo Rodríguez-de Lara; Oswaldo García-Peña
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Juan González-Maldonado, Raymundo Rangel-Santos, Raymundo Rodríguez-de Lara, Oswaldo García-Peña
      This study evaluated the effect of injecting trace minerals on reproductive performance in over-conditioned Holstein cows before synchronized estrus. Multiparous non-lactating, over-conditioned repeat breeder cows (n=20) were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: 1) control (n = 10), and 2) supplementation with an injectable trace mineral complex 25days before expected synchronized estrus (n = 10). Follicular waves were synchronized by intravaginal insertion of a CIDR for eight days and an intramuscular (i.m.) injection of a GnRH analogue. Estrus was induced at CIDR removal by an i.m. injection of PGF2α. Blood samples were collected before and after synchronized estrus. The response variables were follicle population (FP), diameter of the preovulatory follicle at CIDR removal (DFP0) and at estrus detection (DFP1), time of estrus after CIDR removal (TE), area of corpus luteum (ACL), pregnancy rate and copper and zinc serum concentrations. The statistical analysis of the variables was carried out with SAS. The FP, DFP0, DFP1, TE, ACL and serum concentrations of copper and zinc were not affected by the trace mineral injection (P ˃ 0.05). Even though pregnancy rate at 40 (77.78±13.46 vs 44.44±16.56%) and 60days after AI (66.67±15.71 vs 33.33±15.71%) was numerically higher for cows injected with trace minerals than for the control group, the differences were not significant (P ˃ 0.05). In conclusion, while follicular and corpus luteum development were not affected by trace mineral injection, it may be a feasible way to increase the pregnancy rate in over-conditioned cows.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T08:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.015
  • Effects of grazing tall fescue containing ergot alkaloids on bull sperm
    • Authors: C.R. Burnett; W.C. Bridges; S.L. Pratt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): C.R. Burnett, W.C. Bridges, S.L. Pratt
      There are many positive agronomic traits that make tall fescue a desirable forage, however, reduced fertility rates are reported for beef cattle grazing pasture containing the ergot alkaloid-producing endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of consumption tall fescue containing ergot alkaloids on sperm physiology as measured by survival of sperm following cryopreservation. Yearling Angus bulls (n =25), having passed a breeding soundness exam (BSE), were assigned to one of two treatments accounting for body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS). Bulls were allotted to one of two treatments on day (d) 0, grazing toxic Kentucky 31 (KY31) or a novel endophyte-containing cultivar, Texoma Max Q II (NE; AR584 Ag Research) that does not produce ergot alkaloid for 112 days. On d 112, all bulls were placed on NE pasture to the end of test (d 168) to evaluate recovery from grazing KY31. Blood, urine, and semen samples were collected every 28 days. Semen collected on d 28, 84, 112, 140 and 168 were extended, frozen, thawed 48h later and subjected to analyses. There were significant treatment by day interactions for serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations, verifying the effectiveness of treatment (P< 0.05). Serum PRL concentrations were less in the bulls pastured on KY31 compared with NE on d 28, 84, and 112. Urinary alkaloid concentrations were affected by treatment by day interactions, confirming ergot alkaloids were present in animal systems (P< 0.05). Bulls in the NE treatment group had lesser urinary alkaloid concentrations than those pastured on KY31 on d 28, 84, and 112. Post-thaw sperm analyses revealed that the percentage of progressively motile sperm was less in bulls pastured on KY31 as compared with NE (P< 0.05). There were treatment by day interactions for sperm concentration, percent motile sperm, percent motile sperm concentration, and percent progressively motile sperm concentration post-thawing (P< 0.05). The KY31 treatment group had a lesser sperm 1) concentration than the NE group on d 84; 2) percent motility on d 28, 84, and 168; 3) motility concentration on d 28, 84, and 168; and 4) progressively motile concentration on d 28 and 84. Sperm motility was affected post-thawing for at least 56 d following removal from the KY31 pasture.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T08:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.011
  • Reproductive parameters of dairy goats after receiving two doses of
           d-cloprostenol at different intervals
    • Authors: A.L.R.S. Maia; F.Z. Brandão; J.M.G. Souza-Fabjan; M.F.A. Balaro; M.E.F. Oliveira; O. Facó; J.F. Fonseca
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A.L.R.S. Maia, F.Z. Brandão, J.M.G. Souza-Fabjan, M.F.A. Balaro, M.E.F. Oliveira, O. Facó, J.F. Fonseca
      This study evaluated the efficiency of two d-cloprostenol injections at different intervals on the reproductive parameters of dairy goats. Trial 1 comprised 54 goats allocated to receive two 37.5μg d-cloprostenol doses at intervals of seven (T7, n=19), 10 (T10, n=18), and 11.5 (T11.5, n=17) days. Trial 2 comprised 62 goats allocated to receive injections at T7 (n=30) and T11.5 (n=32). Ultrasonography was done and blood was collected just before d-cloprostenol injections. After the second dose, goats were artificially inseminated (AI) with frozen-thawed semen at 18 to 24h (Trial 1) or at 10 to 24h (adjusted according to the time of estrus onset in Trial 2) after estrus detection. Estrous response rate did not differ (P >0.05) among groups in Trials 1 (T7 =94.7%;T10=88.9%;T11.5 =88.2%) and 2 (T7 =90.0%;T11.5 =96.9). All females showed progesterone concentrations >1ng/mL before both d-cloprostenol injections. The largest follicle diameter present on ovaries was similar (P >0.05) among treatments at the first and second dose. The second largest follicle diameter was superior (P <0.05) to T7 than to T10 and T11.5 goats at first dose only. This possibly resulted in lower interval to estrus (P <0.05) in T7-treated goats than other treated goats in both trials. The conception rate was similar among treatment groups in Trials 1 (T7 =55.6%;T10 =18.8%;T11.5 =26.7%) and 2 (T7 =85.2%;T11.5 =93.6%). The three treatments efficiently synchronized estrus. T7 and T11.5 protocols resulted in high interval of estrus synchrony and more than 90% conception rates when adjusting the AI time according to interval of estrus.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T08:18:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.02.013
  • Induction of out-of-season egg laying by artificial photoperiod in
           Yangzhou geese and the associated endocrine and molecular regulation
    • Authors: Huanxi Zhu; Xibing Shao; Zhe Chen; Chuankun Wei; Mingming Lei; Shijia Ying; Jianning Yu; Zhendan Shi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Huanxi Zhu, Xibing Shao, Zhe Chen, Chuankun Wei, Mingming Lei, Shijia Ying, Jianning Yu, Zhendan Shi
      This study was carried out to induce out-of-season breeding, in the summer, and to achieve high reproductive performance using artificial photoperiod manipulation in the long-day breeding Yangzhou goose. Young geese were subject to a two-phase short-to-long (group A) or a three-phase (long-short-long; group B) photoperiod program February through October. Egg-laying was induced to start similarly in both groups in May, increased to a peak level in July, then decreased gradually through to October. The peak and post-peak laying rates were higher with the three-phase than with the two-phase program. Plasma progesterone concentrations changed similarly in the two groups, increasing from low levels during the pre-lay periods until the peak laying stage, then decreasing with decline in the egg-laying rate. Plasma T3 concentrations increased from the beginning of the experiment to form the first peak under a short photoperiod, declined to a trough at peak lay and then progressively increased to high levels towards the end of the experiment. Plasma T4 concentrations increased throughout the experiment, showing little response to changes in photoperiod. GnIH mRNA expression level in the hypothalamus steadily decreased from high levels under the short photoperiod to a nadir at peak of lay, but was abruptly up-regulated by over a thousand-fold thereafter. This mRNA expression pattern was also shared by GnIHR, VIPR, TRHR, TSH, and PRL genes in the pituitary gland, and to lesser extent, by GnRH, VIP, and TRH genes in the hypothalamus. Pituitary GnRHR mRNA expression levels changed in a similar manner to that of reproductive activities of geese in both groups. FSH beta subunits mRNA expression levels increased to high levels after day 11 of the long photoperiod, and were higher in group B than in group A at peak laying. LH beta gene expression level was similarly upregulated by photoperiod and was higher in group B than in group A when used the multivariable and two-way analyses of variance. Taken together, photoperiod, through regulation of expression of an array of genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, synchronized stimulation and refractoriness of the reproductive system in Yangzhou geese. The higher out-of-season egg laying performance following the three-phase photo-program treatment was mediated by higher FSH beta and LH beta subunit mRNA expression levels.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.009
  • Chemical sterilisation of animals: A review of the use of zinc- and CaCl2
           based solutions in male and female animals and factors likely to improve
           responses to treatment.
    • Authors: John Cavalieri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): John Cavalieri
      Chemical sterilisation can be used as an alternative to surgical castration in some circumstances. This review focuses on responses to treatment with zinc- or CaCl2-based chemosterilants, factors that have affected treatments and their potential use to sterilise female cattle. Successful treatment with a low incidence of adverse side effects in male animals has occurred with the use of zinc gluconate (ZG), neutralised in arginine and a 20% solution of CaCl2 in ethanol. Injection technique plays an important role in success. Less satisfactory results appear to occur following use in animals with relatively larger testes. In animals with relatively small testes adjustment of the dose according to testicular size appears to optimise results. The techniques appear to be most suited to population control strategies in companion animals where low cost treatment of animals in environments where surgical facilities and specialised aftercare are lacking. The need for careful administration and likely slower speed of administration compared to surgical castration are likely to hamper application within the cattle industries. Recently transvaginal, intraovarian administration of CaCl2 in ethanol has been shown to cause complete ovarian atrophy without apparent pain in some heifers, although variable responses were found. Chemical sterilisation can play a role in the sterilisation of animals but careful attention to dose, volume, chemical composition, administration technique are needed to avoid adverse side effects and variability in responses associated with some treatments. Application in female animals requires further study but CaCl2 in ethanol can potentially cause complete ovarian atrophy when administered to heifers.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.010
  • Cell-specific immuno-localization of progesterone receptor alpha in the
           rabbit ovary during pregnancy and after parturition
    • Authors: Mahmoud Abd-Elkareem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Mahmoud Abd-Elkareem
      Progesterone receptor alpha (PRA) has a central coordinator role in the ovarian functions in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of PRA in the rabbit ovary during pregnancy and after parturition. The rabbit ovary during pregnancy and after parturition had moderate cytoplasmic and moderate to intense nuclear PRA immunostaining in the ovarian surface epithelial cells, stromal cells and interstitial gland cells. The PRA was also present in granulosa cells and theca interna cells of the growing, small antral and mature Graafian follicles. Theca interna cells of the atretic antral follicle in addition to endothelial and fibroblast cells had PRA immunoreactivity. The PRA were also observed in the theca externa smooth muscle-like cells of the growing and antral follicles and in the telocytes. In the present study, the corpora haemorrhagica and early developing corpora lutea had, slight cytoplasmic and nuclear PRA immunostaining in the large lutein and small lutein cells. The endothelial cells of the corpora haemorrhagica and corpora lutea had an intense nuclear PRA immune signal. The corpora lutea at an advanced stage of development had moderate cytoplasmic and nuclear PRA immunostaining in the large lutein cells and intense nuclear PRA immunostaining in the small lutein cells. The regressed corpora lutea did not have PRA immunostaining in the apoptotic large lutein cells and moderate cytoplasmic and intense nuclear PRA immunostaining in the small lutein cells.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.007
  • Progesterone and estradiol profiles in different reproductive stages of
           captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) females assessed by fecal
    • Authors: Concepción Ahuja-Aguirre; Lorena López-deBuen; Susana Rojas-Maya; Bertha C. Hernández-Cruz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Concepción Ahuja-Aguirre, Lorena López-deBuen, Susana Rojas-Maya, Bertha C. Hernández-Cruz
      The study determined the fecal progesterone and estradiol profiles in different reproductive stages of captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) females from eastern Mexico. Fifteen adult females were included. At the start of the study the females were either pregnant (early, mid, or late pregnancy), lactating, or non-lactating of unknown pregnancy status. Feces from each female were collected once a week during nine consecutive months to determine concentrations of fecal progesterone and estradiol metabolites using ELISA. Progesterone was similar in early (2048±285ng/g), mid (2254±274ng/g), and late pregnancy (2491±374ng/g), and in early-pregnant and non-lactating females (1154±274ng/g). Progesterone in lactating females (442±255ng/g) was lower than in females at any stage of pregnancy, but was similar to non-lactating females. Overall progesterone in pregnant females (2229±173ng/g) was higher than in lactating and non-lactating females together (772±189ng/g). Estradiol was similar in early (66±8ng/g), mid (83±9ng/g), late pregnant (109±15ng/g), and non-lactating females (64±9ng/g). Estradiol in lactating females (34±8ng/g) was similar to estradiol in early-pregnant and non-lactating females, but was lower than in females in late and mid pregnancy. Overall estradiol in pregnant females (79±6ng/g) was similar to non-lactating females, but higher than in lactating females. The progesterone and estradiol profiles of captive collared peccary females at different reproductive stages were determined by assessing concentrations of fecal hormone metabolites.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.008
  • Association analysis of polymorphism in KiSS1 gene with reproductive
           traits in goats
    • Authors: Mahmoud S. El-Tarabany; Asmaa W. Zaglool; Akram A. El-Tarabany; Ashraf Awad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Mahmoud S. El-Tarabany, Asmaa W. Zaglool, Akram A. El-Tarabany, Ashraf Awad
      Understanding the genetic information of related genes is helpful for the selection and breeding course through marker assisted selection. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of the KiSS1 gene in 137 animals, including Baladi, Zaraibi and Damascus goat breeds by PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing and to investigate the association between these variants and reproductive traits. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence indicated the substitution of T with A at position 121 (T121A) in the intron 1 of the KiSS1 gene in all goat breeds. This substitution distorts the restriction site of the XmnI restriction enzyme and consequently two genotypes were detected (TA and TT). The T121A SNP is associated significantly with litter size in Damascus and Zaribi breeds (p=0.025 and 0.001, respectively). The animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had a significantly higher estradiol17β level than that recorded in TA genotype at estrus phase (p=0.013 and 0.028, respectively) and late-luteal phase (p=0.067 and 0.041, respectively) of the estrus cycle. Furthermore, animals with the TT genotype in Damascus and Zaribi breeds had significant higher progesterone level at mid-luteal (p=0.037 and 0.045, respectively) phase. Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in progesterone level in late-luteal phase between both genotypes in Zaribi breed (p=0.267). The current trial indicated that the prolific TT genotype in both Damascus and Zaribi breeds had superior estradiol17β level at estrus phase and an eminent progesterone level at both early and mid-luteal phases of the estrous cycle.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.006
  • Long interval prostaglandin as an alternative to progesterone-eCG based
           protocols for timed AI in sheep
    • Authors: S. Fierro; J. Olivera-Muzante
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): S. Fierro, J. Olivera-Muzante
      To compare the reproductive performance after TAI in ewes synchronized with mid (12 or 13) or long (14 to 16 d) interval prostaglandin (PG) or progesterone plus eCG (P4-eCG) based protocols, 440 multiparous Corriedale ewes were synchronized with two PG injections administered 12 to 16 d apart (PG12, PG13, PG14, PG15 and PG16 respectively), or P4-eCG (MAP sponges 14 d and eCG). Cervical TAI (Day 0) was performed with fresh semen. It was evaluated the ovulated ewes (OE, %) and the ovulation rate (OR) on Day 8 by trans-rectal ultrasonography, the rate of non-return to service between Days 13 and 21 by painted rams, and the pregnancy rate, prolificacy and fecundity on Day 60 by trans-abdominal ultrasonography. No significant differences were found in OE among groups (P>0.05), but P4-eCG achieved higher OR (P<0.05) compared to PG protocols, without differences among them (P>0.05). Similar NRR-21, pregnancy and fecundity were observed among PG15 (64.3, 62.9 and 84.3), PG16 (59.7, 59.7 and 77.8) and P4-eCG (70.3, 66.2 and 95.9), but higher compared to PG12 (42.5, 39.7 and 52.1) and PG13 group (44.0, 40.0 and 48.0, respectively; P<0.05). PG14 achieved intermediate results compared to other groups. No differences were found in prolificacy among groups (P>0.05), except PG13 that was lower compared to P4-eCG (P<0.05). In conclusion, long interval between PG injections (15 or 16 d) determined better reproductive outcome that mid interval (12 or 13 d), equating the P4-eCG based protocol after cervical TAI with fresh semen during the breeding season in sheep.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.004
  • Developing a female-only flock for artificial insemination purposes in
           ostriches: Progress and future directions
    • Authors: Maud Bonato; Irek A. Malecki; Zanell Brand; Schalk W.P. Cloete
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Maud Bonato, Irek A. Malecki, Zanell Brand, Schalk W.P. Cloete
      The development of a flock of females that can produce eggs and maintain egg production rate without the presence of males is a prerogative for a viable artificial insemination protocol in ostriches. Over six consecutive breeding seasons (May–December, 2009–2014), we recorded the egg production performance of 40 single-penned (ART) South African Black ostrich females (2–9 years of age), and compared these records with the egg production of 162 pair-mated females of comparable age from the breeding flock (BP). ART females laid significantly fewer eggs than BP females (mean±SEM: 3.49±0.13 eggs per month vs. 4.64±0.09 eggs per month respectively; P<0.001). Both groups showed a similar pattern of laying, with a peak production in July to September. The mean egg weight of ART females was significantly lower than those of BP females (1367±2.25g vs. 1423±1.1g, respectively; P<0.001). Furthermore, female age significantly affected egg production and egg weight whereby BP females reached a peak egg production at 3 years of age, while in ART females, egg production was the highest at 5 years of age. Interestingly, the number of eggs produced, clutches and eggs per clutch of ART females were independent of visual stimulation from the males. These results indicate that male presence is not needed to ensure egg production. Continuous recruitment of young females based on human-friendly behaviour to breeding by artificial insemination from high egg production performance parents could improve egg production of the ART flock. Studies are also needed to gain a better understanding of underlying physiological mechanisms promoting spontaneous ovulation in this species.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.005
  • Expression and secretory profile of buffalo fetal fibroblasts and
           Wharton's jelly feeder layers
    • Authors: Mehtab S. Parmar; Smruti Ranjan Mishra; Anjali Somal; Sriti Pandey; G. Sai Kumar; Mihir Sarkar; Vikash Chandra; G. Taru Sharma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Mehtab S. Parmar, Smruti Ranjan Mishra, Anjali Somal, Sriti Pandey, G. Sai Kumar, Mihir Sarkar, Vikash Chandra, G. Taru Sharma
      The present study examined the comparative expression and secretory profile of vital signaling molecules in buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFF) and Wharton's jelly (BWJ) feeder layers at different passages. Both feeder layers were expanded up to 8th passage. Signaling molecules bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) and pluripotency-associated transcriptional factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, MYC and FOXD3) were immunolocalized in the both feeder types. A clear variation in the expression pattern of key signaling molecules with passaging was registered in both feeders compared to primary culture (0 passage). The conditioned media (CM) was collected from different passages (2, 4, 6, 8) of both the feeder layers and was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Concomitant to expression profile, protein quantification also revealed differences in the concentration of signaling molecules at different time points. Conjointly, expression and secretory profile revealed that 2nd passage of BFF and 6th passage of BWJ exhibit optimal levels of key signaling molecules thus may be selected as best passages for embryonic stem cells (ESCs) propagation. Further, the effect of mitomycin-C (MMC) treatment on the expression profile of signaling molecules in the selected passages of BFF and BWJ revealed that MMC modulates the expression profile of these molecules. In conclusion, the results indicate that feeder layers vary in expression and secretory pattern of vital signaling molecules with passaging. Based on these findings, the appropriate feeder passages may be selected for the quality propagation of buffalo ESCs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.02.012
  • Estrous detection by monitoring ventral tail base surface temperature
           using a wearable wireless sensor in cattle
    • Authors: Ryotaro Miura; Koji Yoshioka; Toru Miyamoto; Hirofumi Nogami; Hironao Okada; Toshihiro Itoh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Ryotaro Miura, Koji Yoshioka, Toru Miyamoto, Hirofumi Nogami, Hironao Okada, Toshihiro Itoh
      In the present study, the ventral tail base surface temperature (ST) was monitored using a wearable wireless sensor for estrus detection in cattle. Relationships among ST, behavioral estrus expression, ovulation, and changes in hormone profiles during the estrous cycle were examined. Holstein Friesian or Japanese Black female cattle were used in summer (August–September), autumn (October–November) and winter (January–February; three animals per season). On Day 11 of the estrous cycle (Day 0=the day of ovulation), the sensor was attached to the surface of the ventral tail base and ST was measured every 2min until Day 11 of the next estrous cycle. Hourly maximum ST values were used for analysis. To exclude circadian rhythm and seasonal effects, ST changes were expressed as residual temperatures (RT=actual ST − mean ST for the same hour on the previous 3days). Obvious circadian rhythms of the ST were observed and daily changes in the ST significantly differed among seasons. There was no significant seasonal difference, however, in the RT. The mean RT increased significantly ∼24 compared with ∼48h before ovulation. The mean maximum RT was 1.27±0.30°C, which was observed 5.6±2.4h after the onset of estrus, 2.4±1.3h before LH peak, and 26.9±1.2h before ovulation. The ST of the ventral tail base could be monitored throughout the estrous cycle and could detect a substantial change around the time of expression of behavioral estrus. Calculation and analysis of the RT could be useful for automatic estrous detection.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.002
  • Serum biochemical profile and molecular detection of pathogens in semen of
           infertile male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius)
    • Authors: Khaled A. Al-Busadah; Sabry M. El-Bahr; Abdelmalik I. Khalafalla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Khaled A. Al-Busada, Sabry M. El-Bahr, Abdelmalik I. Khalafalla
      Detection of pathogens in the semen of camels has not been completely elucidated. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the association of some economically important pathogens with infertility in 94 male infertile camels through molecular detection and estimation of selected biochemical parameters in serum of these animals compared with a control non infected fertile animals (n=40). PCR analysis of semen samples of infertile camels indicated that, four potential pathogens namely Mycoplasma spp., Leptospira spp., Brucella melitensis, and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were detected in 50 semen samples of infertile camels whereas, 44 semen samples of infertile camels were free of pathogens and all tested semen samples were negative for bovine herpes virus 1, Salmonella spp. and Trypanosoma evansi. Single and mixed infection was detected in 88% and 12% of the infected semen samples, respectively. Mycoplasma spp., Leptospira spp., Brucella and Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection represented 66%, 27.2%, 4.5% and 2.3% of the single infected semen samples. Mycoplasma spp.+ Leptospira spp. and Mycoplasma spp.+ Brucella spp. were detected in 83.3% and 16.7% of mixed infected semen samples, respectively. Testosterone concentration decreased significantly in infertile infected camels compare to both control and infertile non infected animals that remained comparable. The current findings reported the molecular detection of mixed infection in camel semen for the first time. Mycoplasma spp. is the most widely recognized microorganism in the present study and together with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp. and Bovine viral diarrhea virus, might be associated with infertility in dromedary camels.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.003
  • Analysis of common carp Cyprinus carpio sperm motility and lipid
           composition using different in vitro temperatures
    • Authors: Hadiseh Dadras; Sabine Sampels; Amin Golpour; Viktoriya Dzyuba; Jacky Cosson; Borys Dzyuba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Hadiseh Dadras, Sabine Sampels, Amin Golpour, Viktoriya Dzyuba, Jacky Cosson, Borys Dzyuba
      In fish, sperm quality is frequently associated with sperm motility variables. The response of sperm motility to different temperatures varies among species and plasma membrane lipid composition may contribute to variations in findings in previous research. In the present study, sperm motility and lipid composition were analysed between motile or immotile carp Cyprinus carpio sperm at different in vitro temperatures (4, 14 and 24°C). The duration of the period over which sperm motility is sustained was longer at 4°C compared with 14 and 24°C; while sperm velocity was greatest at 24°C. Motile sperm had lesser proportions of 18:3 (n-3) and 22:6 (n-3) fatty acids at 24°C relative to immotile sperm. There was no difference in fatty acid composition of motile and immotile sperm at 4 and 14°C. The total phospholipid content was less in motile than in immotile sperm at 24°C. At 24°C, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine proportions were less in motile than immotile sperm. It is concluded that lipid composition of motile carp sperm is affected by temperature, with greater temperatures associated with reduced lipid content, elevation of sperm curvilinear velocity and a decreased duration of the period over which motility is sustained.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.02.011
  • Effect of altering the intervals between consecutive superovulatory doses
           of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone on ovarian responses and embryo
           yields in anestrous ewes
    • Authors: P.M. Bartlewski; M. Murawski; T. Schwarz; M.E.F. Oliveira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): P.M. Bartlewski, M. Murawski, T. Schwarz, M.E.F. Oliveira
      The effect of varying intervals between successive gonadotropin injections on the superovulatory outcomes in anestrous Rideau Arcott ewes superstimulated for ovarian follicular development with multiple doses of porcine FSH (pFSH) was evaluated in a single study. Twenty-five animals received six (1×2.5ml and 5×1.25ml) injections of Folltropin®-V given at 0800 and 1600h or at 0800 and 2000h in Group 1 (n =9) or Group 2 (n =16), respectively. An i.m. injection of 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; Folligon®) was given concurrently with the first pFSH dose. Time of estrus was synchronized among ewes with intravaginal sponges containing 60mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Veramix®) that were left in place for 14days; sponges were removed at the time of the 5th pFSH injection. Six days after insertion of MAP sponges, all ewes received an i.m. injection of estradiol-17β dissolved in 1ml of sesame oil (350μg/ewe) to synchronize follicular wave emergence. Following the last pFSH dose, all animals were given a single i.m. injection of 50μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; Cystorelin®) to induce ovulations before placing in a pen with four fertile rams for 36h. The ovarian responses were assessed and embryos recovered surgically 7days after GnRH injections. The mean number of corpora lutea was greater (P <0.05) in Group 1 compared with Group 2 ewes (21.0±2.9 compared with 10.4±1.6, respectively; mean±SEM) but there was no difference (P >0.05) in the number of transferable embryos (5.4±2.4 compared with 5.4±1.3/ewe, respectively), and Group 1 animals had significantly more degenerated embryos than Group 2 ewes (2.6±1.2 compared with 0.6±0.3/ewe, respectively). A superovulatory protocol wherein pFSH injections were given at 0800 and 1600h was more effective in terms of inducing multiple ovulations than the protocol with 12-h intervals between consecutive pFSH doses, but it was not associated with an increased production of transferable quality embryos by anestrous ewes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T16:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.03.001
  • Extra and intracellular calcium signaling pathway(s) differentially
           regulate histamine-induced myometrial contractions during early and
           mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
    • Authors: Abhishek Sharma; Udayraj P. Nakade; Soumen Choudhury; Rajkumar Singh Yadav; Satish Kumar Garg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Abhishek Sharma, Udayraj P. Nakade, Soumen Choudhury, Rajkumar Singh Yadav, Satish Kumar Garg
      This study examines the differential role of calcium signaling pathway(s) in histamine-induced uterotonic action during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes. Compared to mid pregnancy, tonic contraction, amplitude and mean-integral tension were significantly increased by histamine to produce myometrial contraction during early pregnancy with small effects on phasic contraction and frequency. Although uterotonic action of histamine during both stages of pregnancy is sensitive to nifedipine (a L-type Ca2+ channels blocker) and NNC55-0396 (T-type Ca2+ channels blocker), the role of extracellular calcium seems to be more significant during mid-pregnancy as in this stage histamine produced only 9.38±0.96% contraction in Ca2+ free-RLS compared to 21.60±1.45% in uteri of early pregnancy stage. Intracellular calcium plays major role in histamine-induced myometrial contraction during early pregnancy as compared to mid pregnancy, as in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) Ca2+-free RLS, histamine produced significantly higher contraction in myometrial strips of early-pregancy in comparison to mid-pregnancy (10.59±1.58% and 3.13±0.46%, respectively). In the presence of U-73122, the DRC of histamine was significantly shifted towards right with decrease in maximal effect (Emax) only in early pregnancy suggesting the predominant role of phospholipase-C (PL-C) in this stage of pregnancy.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T16:11:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.011
  • The reproductive performance of female goats treated with melatonin is not
           improved after introduction to bucks displaying springtime sexual activity
           if these does are experiencing decreasing body weight/condition score
    • Authors: L.A. Zarazaga; M.C. Gatica; L. Gallego-Calvo; J.L. Guzmán
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): L.A. Zarazaga, M.C. Gatica, L. Gallego-Calvo, J.L. Guzmán
      The aim of the present work was to determine whether treatment with melatonin modifies the reproductive response of female goats experiencing increasing or decreasing body weight (BW)/body condition score (BCS) when introduced to bucks displaying springtime sexual activity. During natural anoestrus, 53 does were isolated from bucks for a period of 42days and distributed into two groups: 1) low BW/low BCS animals (N=24) (LLg group), which were fed 1.9 times their maintenance requirements so they would experience increasing BW and BCS; and 2) high BW/high BCS animals (N=29) (HHl group), which were fed 0.4 times their maintenance requirements so they would experience decreasing BW and BCS. Half of each group was treated, or not, with melatonin (LLg+Mel N=12, HHl+Mel N=15, LLg-Mel N=12 and HHl-Mel N=14). On 6th May they were introduced to six males, showing natural sexual activity, fitted with marking harnesses (thus permitting the detection of oestrous activity). The ovulation rate was assessed by transrectal ultrasonography and confirmed via the plasma progesterone concentration (measured twice per week in blood samples). Plasma glucose, IGF-1 and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were also determined, along with the conception rate, fertility, prolificacy and productivity of the does. LH concentrations and LH pulsatility were also recorded in the hours around introduction to the males. ‘Oestrous plus ovulation' was observed only in does treated with melatonin. A higher conception rate and greater fertility and productivity were observed among the LLg+Mel does. These females showed higher glucose and IGF-1 concentrations after the introduction of the males. LH concentrations increased after male introduction independent of all other conditions. In conclusion, the present results show that treatment with melatonin does not enhance reproductive performance in does experiencing decreasing BW/BCS, but can improve it when does are experiencing increasing BW/body fat reserves — even when exposed to males displaying only springtime sexual activity. This might be explained by the higher blood glucose and IGF-1 concentrations of the LLg+Mel females.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T16:11:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.02.001
  • Prospective ultrasonographic and endocrine predictors of spermatogenic
           onset in ram lambs
    • Authors: Pawel M. Bartlewski; Jennifer L. Giffin; Olutobi A. Oluwole; Ann C. Hahnel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Pawel M. Bartlewski, Jennifer L. Giffin, Olutobi A. Oluwole, Ann C. Hahnel
      The objective of this study was to examine testicular ultrasonographic characteristics and endocrine profiles in prepubescent ram lambs for correlations with the age at first detection of elongated spermatids (ESt age). Bi-weekly ultrasound examinations and weekly testicular biopsies began at 10 weeks of age or at the time that testicular volume reached 15cm3, and continued until 1–2 weeks after Est's were first detected by histological examination of testicular biopsies in twenty-two spring-born Rideau Arcott×Polled Dorset lambs. Computer-assisted analysis of testicular ultrasonograms was performed using commercially available image analytical software. Blood samples were drawn before each ultrasonographic examination and were used for measurements of free triiodothyronine (fT3) and thyroxine (fT4), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. The mean (±SEM) age at first detection of ESts was 15.9±0.5 weeks. Testicular volumes recorded between 10 and 12 weeks of age correlated inversely with the ESt age (r =−0.44 to −0.50, P ≤0.05). Statistically significant correlations were recorded between the ESt age and numerical pixel values of testicular parenchyma at 10 (r =−0.48, P =0.05) and 15 (r =0.52, P =0.05) weeks of age, and between the ESt age and testicular pixel heterogeneity in ram lambs aged 14.5 weeks (r =0.60, P =0.007). Lastly, circulating FSH concentrations at 10 weeks (r =−0.43, P =0.05), serum fT3 concentrations at 13 weeks (r =0.44, P =0.04) and fT4 concentrations at 11.5 weeks of age (r =0.48, P =0.03) were all correlated with the ESt age. The present results show that testicular volume has the most stable relationship with pubertal onset; however, testicular echotexture as well as circulating concentrations of FSH and free fractions of thyroid hormones at specific ages may be indicative of more intricate developmental events heralding puberty.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T16:11:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.015
  • Identification of g.170G>A and g.332G>A mutations in exon 3 of
           leptin gene (Bcnl and Cail) and their association with semen quality and
           testicular dimension in Sanjabi ram
    • Authors: Roya Bakhtiyar; Alireza Abdolmohammadi; Hadi Hajarian; Zahra Nikoosefat; Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Roya Bakhtiyar, Alireza Abdolmohammadi, Hadi Hajarian, Zahra Nikoosefat, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
      Semen samples were collected from 96 Sanjabi ram in order to investigate leptin gene variants and their relationship with the characteristics of sperm quality and testicular size. Simultaneously, the dimensions of length, width and scrotal circumference were measured over two years and during autumn and spring seasons. Blood samples were also taken from jugular vein to extract DNA. PCR was performed using to amplify a 463bp fragment including exon 3 of leptin gene. PCR products were digested by Bcnl and Cail restriction enzymes to identify 170G>A and 332G>A mutations in exon 3, respectively. Leptin gene polymorphism in 170G>A locus had a significant effect on individual motility trait, water test and scrotal circumference (P<0.05) and animals with the AA genotype had significantly the highest the individual motility compared with GG and GA genotypes (P<0.05). The AG genotypes had significantly the highest water test compared with GG and AA genotypes (P<0.05) but GG genotype had significantly higher scrotal circumference than that of GA and AA genotypes (P<0.05). The results showed that polymorphism in 332G>A locus had a significant effect on viability trait, water test and scrotal circumference as GA genotypes had significantly the highest viability, and water test and scrotal circumference compared with GG genotypes (P<0.05). Based on our knowledge, the current study is the first report on the association of leptin gene polymorphisms with sperm fertility and testicular dimension in sheep which suggests leptin gene as a potential gene to use in breeding programs in order to improve fertility in herds.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.016
  • PDPN gene promotes the proliferation of immature Bovine Sertoli cells in
    • Authors: Yi Gao; Lihong Qin; Yuwei Yang; Xue Dong; Zijiao Zhao; Guoliang Zhang; Zhihui Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Yi Gao, Lihong Qin, Yuwei Yang, Xue Dong, Zijiao Zhao, Guoliang Zhang, Zhihui Zhao
      Podoplanin (PDPN) is a transmembrane receptor which is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, such as cell motility, invasion, tumor metastasis and blood vessels formation. Although there are reports on the involvement of PDPN in Sertoli cells in human and mice, the role of PDPN on the development of bovine Sertoli cells has not been reported. In the present study, Sertoli cells were isolated from 1 day old bovine testes by two steps enzyme digestion method. Feulgen staining of satellite karyosomes and inhibin Immunofluorescence staining suggested that the isolated immature Sertoli cells were very pure. Transfection with overexpression plasmid pBI-CMV3-PDPN and interference shRNA plasmid indicated that PDPN could significantly promote Sertoli cells cycle progression, cells proliferation and androgen-binding protein (ABP) production. Our results indicated that PDPN gene plays a significant role in the proliferation and maturation of bovine Sertoli cells.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.014
  • Pentoxifylline effects on capacitation and fertility of stallion
           epididymal sperm
    • Authors: P.N. Guasti; G.A. Monteiro; R.R.D. Maziero; M.T. Carmo; J.A. Dell’Aqua; A.M. Crespilho; E.A. Rifai; F.O. Papa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): P.N. Guasti, G.A. Monteiro, R.R.D. Maziero, M.T. Carmo, J.A. Dell’Aqua, A.M. Crespilho, E.A. Rifai, F.O. Papa
      The aims of this study were to determinate whether pentoxifylline (PTX) increases the motion parameters of fresh and frozen-thawed equine epididymal spermatozoa, to evaluate the tyrosine phosphorylation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm in the presence of PTX and to determine whether the PTX-treatment of stallion epididymal sperm prior to freezing improves the fertility response of mares to a reduced number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Fifty epididymis were flushed with a skim milk based extender with or without PTX. The pre-treatment with PTX enhanced the sperm motility after being harvested (P <0.05); however the freeze-thaw process did not alter the sperm kinematics between control and treated samples (P >0.05). Plasma membrane integrity did not differ between control and PTX group after recovery and after thawing (P >0.05), as observed in tyrosine phosphorylation, which the PTX treatment did not alter the percentage of tail-associated immunofluorescence of cryopreserved epididymal sperm (P >0.05). For the fertility trial, different insemination groups were tested: 800×106 epididymal sperm (C800); 100×106 epididymal sperm (C100); 100×106 epididymal sperm recovered in an extender containing PTX (PTX100). The conception rates for C800; C100 and PTX100 were 68.7% (11/16); 31.5% (5/16) and 50% (8/16), respectively. The conception rate did not differ among groups (P >0.05), however, a low number of animals was used in this study. A trend towards significance (P =0.07) was observed between C800 and C100 groups. In conclusion, PTX has no deleterious effect on sperm motility, viability and capacitation of cryopreserved stallion epididymal sperm. The conventional artificial insemination with 100×106 sperm recovered with PTX ensures acceptable conception rates and maximize the limited number of doses of cryopreserved stallion epididymal sperm.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.013
  • The cryoprotective effect of iodixanol in buffalo semen cryopreservation
    • Authors: Dheer Singh Swami; Pradeep Kumar; R.K. Malik; Monika Saini; Dharmendra Kumar; M.H. Jan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Dheer Singh Swami, Pradeep Kumar, R.K. Malik, Monika Saini, Dharmendra Kumar, M.H. Jan
      This is the first report to examine the effect of iodixanol (OptiPrepTM) on cryosurvival of buffalo spermatozoa. A total of thirty ejaculates (five ejaculates from each bull) from six buffalo bulls were used for this experiment. Each ejaculate was divided into four aliquots and diluted in freezing extender supplemented with different concentrations of OptiPrepTM (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5%) and then cryopreserved. The semen quality variables were evaluated before and after freezing of the semen. There were no effects of OptiPrepTM (P > 0.05) on sperm kinetics, motility, abnormality and membrane integrity of fresh extended spermatozoa. However, after freeze-thaw, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and distance travelled in cervical mucus of 2.5% OptiPrepTM treated samples showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to other treated and control samples. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were seen in sperm abnormality and acrosomal integrity of treated and control frozen-thawed samples. The total antioxidant capacity of 2.5 and 5% OptiPrepTM treated frozen-thawed sperm were found to be higher (P < 0.05) as compared to other groups; whereas the MDA level in OptiPrepTM treated sperm was significantly lower than the control (P < 0.05). In incubation test, 2.5% OptiPrepTM proved to be better in preservation of sperm motility as compared to other treated and control samples. In conclusion, the present study has shown that iodixanol has the ability protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress and resulting overall improvement in the post-thaw semen quality.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.012
  • Expression of adenosine 5′-monophosphate—Activated protein kinase
           (AMPK) in ovine testis (Ovis aries): In vivo regulation by nutritional
    • Authors: N. Taibi; J. Dupont; Z. Bouguermouh; P. Froment; C. Ramé; A. Anane; Z. Amirat; F. Khammar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): N. Taibi, J. Dupont, Z. Bouguermouh, P. Froment, C. Ramé, A. Anane, Z. Amirat, F. Khammar
      In the present study, we identified AMPK and investigated its potential role in steroidogenesis in vivo in the ovine testis in response to variation in nutritional status (fed control vs. restricted). We performed immunoblotting to show that both active and non-active forms of AMPK exist in ovine testis and liver. In testis, we confirmed these results by immunohistochemistry. We found a correlation between ATP (Adenosine-Triphosphate) levels and the expression of AMPK in liver. Also, low and high caloric diets induce isoform-dependent AMPK expression, with an increase in α2, ß1ß2 and γ1 activity levels. Although the restricted group exhibited an increase in lipid balance, only the triglyceride and HC-VLDL (Cholesterol-Very low density lipoprotein) fractions showed significant differences between groups, suggesting an adaptive mechanism. Moreover, the relatively low rate of non-esterified fatty acid released into the circulation implies re-esterification to compensate for the physiological need. In the fed control group, AMPK activates the production of testosterone in Leydig cells; this is, in turn, associated with an increase in the expression of 3ß-HSD (3 beta hydroxy steroid deshydrogenase), p450scc (Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme) and StAR (Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) proteins induced by decreased MAPK ERK½ (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase -Mitogen-activated protein kinase) phosphorylation. In contrast, in the restricted group, testosterone secretion was reduced but intracellular cholesterol concentration was not. Furthermore, the combination of high levels of lipoproteins and emergence of the p38 MAP kinase pathway suggest the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as confirmed by transcriptional repression of the StAR protein. Taken together, these results suggest that AMPK expression is tissue dependent.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.003
  • Evaluation of porcine stem cell competence for somatic cell nuclear
           transfer and production of cloned animals
    • Authors: Jan O. Secher; Ying Liu; Stoyan Petkov; Yonglun Luo; Dong Li; Vanessa J. Hall; Mette Schmidt; Henrik Callesen; Jacob F. Bentzon; Charlotte B. Sørensen; Kristine K. Freude; Poul Hyttel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Jan O. Secher, Ying Liu, Stoyan Petkov, Yonglun Luo, Dong Li, Vanessa J. Hall, Mette Schmidt, Henrik Callesen, Jacob F. Bentzon, Charlotte B. Sørensen, Kristine K. Freude, Poul Hyttel
      Porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been used extensively to create genetically modified pigs, but the efficiency of the methodology is still low. It has been hypothesized that pluripotent or multipotent stem cells might result in increased SCNT efficacy as these cells are closer than somatic cells to the epigenetic state found in the blastomeres and therefore need less reprogramming. Our group has worked with porcine SCNT during the last 20 years and here we describe our experience with SCNT of 3 different stem cell lines. The porcine stem cells used were: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) created by lentiviral doxycycline-dependent reprogramming and cultered with a GSK3β- and MEK-inhibitor (2i) and leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF) (2i LIF DOX-iPSCs), iPSCs created by a plasmid-based reprogramming and cultured with 2i and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) (2i FGF Pl-iPSCs) and embryonic germ cells (EGCs), which have earlier been characterized as being multipotent. The SCNT efficiencies of these stem cell lines were compared with that of the two fibroblast cell lines from which the iPSC lines were derived. The blastocyst rates for the 2i LIF DOX-iPSCs were 14.7%, for the 2i FGF Pl-iPSC 10.1%, and for the EGCs 34.5% compared with the fibroblast lines yielding 36.7% and 25.2%. The fibroblast- and EGC-derived embryos were used for embryo transfer and produced live offspring at similar low rates of efficiency (3.2 and 4.0%, respectively) and with several instances of malformations. In conclusion, potentially pluripotent porcine stem cells resulted in lower rates of embryonic development upon SCNT than multipotent stem cells and differentiated somatic cells.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.007
  • Physiological changes and reproductive performance of Sterlet sturgeon
           Acipenser ruthenus injected with thiamine
    • Authors: Sareh Ghiasi; Bahram Falahatkar; Murat Arslan; Konrad Dabrowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Sareh Ghiasi, Bahram Falahatkar, Murat Arslan, Konrad Dabrowski
      To evaluate the effects of thiamine on physiological changes and spawning performance of Sterlet sturgeon Acipenser ruthenus, 45 farmed female fish (698.6±8.9g) were randomly distributed in 9 tanks (1000L) and fed a diet with 1g/kg of an anti-thiamine drug. This was provided for 5 months prior to spawning. Thiamine hydrochloride was intraperitoneally injected to fish at three different doses: 0 (T0, as control), 5 (T5) and 50 (T50) mg/kg body weight at days 30, 90 and 150 after the experiment started. After five months, the results showed no significant differences in weight gain and hemoglobin level, but hematocrit significantly increased in T5 group. There was no significant difference in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and estradiol-17β, but testosterone was significantly increased in the T50 group. Total thiamine concentration in the eggs was significantly higher in T50 than that detected in the control group. Fecundity and larval mortality at 6day post hatch (dph) showed no significant differences among treatments, while the number of eggs per gram was significantly lower in T0 than that observed in T50. Larval weights at 1 (11.6mg) and 6 (23.1mg) dph and larval lengths at 6 (15.6mm) dph were significantly affected by the treatment with the highest level of thiamine injection (T50). Diseases symptoms such as yolk sac deformation, erratic pattern of swimming, and loss of equilibrium were observed at 4 dph in T0 and T5 groups. The overall results revealed that thiamine injection has positive effects on reproductive performance in the sturgeon and the negative impacts of anti-thiamine in the offspring can be reduced by the injection of this vitamin to the broodstock.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.005
  • Expression and localization of guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha S
           in the testis and epididymis of rams at different developmental stages
    • Authors: Zhen Li; Jieli Lu; Jia Chen; Quanhai Pang; Ruipeng Nan; Zhiwei Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Zhen Li, Jieli Lu, Jia Chen, Quanhai Pang, Ruipeng Nan, Zhiwei Zhu
      The guanine nucleotide-binding alpha S subunit (Gαs) is an important element of key signaling pathways, which is widely expressed in mammalian tissues; however, its role in the reproductive system is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization of Gαs in the testes and epididymis of rams at different developmental stages using quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting. In 1-, 6-, and 12-month-old rams, the transcription of Gαs-encoding gene (Gnαs) was significantly upregulated in the corpus and cauda epididymis compared to the testes and caput epididymis (P< 0.05). At 12 months, the level of Gnαs mRNA was higher than that at 1 and 6 months for all tested tissues (P< 0.05). The Gαs protein was detected in the principal cells and interstitial epididymal cells, including Sertoli and Leydig cells, as well as in testicular cells, spermatogonial stem cells, and spermatocytes. Gαs expression was the highest in the cauda epididymis (P< 0.05), followed by the corpus epididymis, caput epididymis, and testes. The results indicate that in the reproductive organs of rams, Gαs is expressed in a tissue-specific and age-dependent manner. The high levels of Gαs observed in the epididymis suggest that Gαs may influence the composition of the epididymal lumen fluid and, consequently, the microenvironment for spermatozoa maturation. Thus, Gαs could play an important role in spermatogenesis and the development of the testes and epididymis in the reproductive system of rams.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T15:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.006
  • Beef Heifers with Diminished Numbers of Antral Follicles Have Decreased
           Uterine Protein Concentrations
    • Authors: Anthony K. McNeel; Émerson M. Soares; Allyson L. Patterson; Jeffrey L. Vallet; Elane C. Wright; Erin L. Larimore; Olivia L. Amundson; Jeremy R. Miles; Chadwick C. Chase; Clay A. Lents; Jennifer R. Wood; Andrea S. Cupp; George A. Perry; Robert A. Cushman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Anthony K. McNeel, Émerson M. Soares, Allyson L. Patterson, Jeffrey L. Vallet, Elane C. Wright, Erin L. Larimore, Olivia L. Amundson, Jeremy R. Miles, Chadwick C. Chase, Clay A. Lents, Jennifer R. Wood, Andrea S. Cupp, George A. Perry, Robert A. Cushman
      Previous research demonstrated a favorable relationship between the number of follicles detectable in the bovine ovary by ultrasonography and fertility, and bovine females with diminished numbers of antral follicles had smaller reproductive tracts. Therefore, we hypothesized that uterine function would be compromised in beef heifers with diminished numbers of antral follilcles. Angus heifers (n=480) were submitted for ultrasonographic evaluation of antral follicle number at 325 and 355 d of age. After the second ultrasonographic examination, the 39 pubertal heifers with the greatest number of antral follicles and the 40 pubertal heifers with the lowest number of antral follicles were synchronized with two i.m. injections of prostaglandin F2α (25mg) administered 11 d apart, and heifers were slaughtered on d 6 or d 16 of the resultant estrous cycle. The uterus was weighed, flushed for determination of protein content, and representative pieces were fixed for determination of endometrial gland morphometry. Heifers in the Low group had fewer surface antral follicles and smaller reproductive tracts than heifers in the High group (P< 0.01). Protein content of the uterine flushes was decreased in heifers in the Low group (P< 0.01); however, there was no difference in the percent area of the endometrium occupied by endometrial glands (P >0.30). From these results, we conclude that the uterine environment of beef heifers with diminished numbers of antral follicles is less conducive to supporting early embryonic survival.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T14:00:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.004
  • Adiponectin, orexin A and orexin B concentrations in the serum and uterine
           luminal fluid during early pregnancy of pigs
    • Authors: Nina Smolinska; Marta Kiezun; Kamil Dobrzyn; Karol Szeszko; Anna Maleszka; Tadeusz Kaminski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Nina Smolinska, Marta Kiezun, Kamil Dobrzyn, Karol Szeszko, Anna Maleszka, Tadeusz Kaminski
      Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-released protein that circulates in human plasma at high concentrations. The neuropeptides orexin A (OXA, hypocretin-1) and orexin B (OXB, hypocretin-2) are derived from a common precursor peptide, prepro-orexin and are produced mainly by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus. It has been demonstrated that the peptides such as adiponectin and orexins have an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism and neuroendocrine functions. These hormones appear to be implicated in both normal and disturbed pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to determine adiponectin and orexin concentrations in the plasma and uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of pigs during early gestation and to explore the relationships between hormone concentrations and stages of pregnancy. The greatest plasma concentrations of adiponectin were observed on days 15–16 and 27–28 of pregnancy, and the least concentrations were on days 30–32 of gestation and on days 10–11 of the oestrous cycle. In ULF, adiponectin concentrations were greater on days 15–16 of pregnancy and on days 10–11 of the oestrous cycle than on days 10–11 and days 12–13 of pregnancy. The greatest OXA concentrations in the blood plasma were noted on days 10–16 of gestation, and the least OXA concentrations were on days 27–32 of pregnancy and on days 10–11 of the oestrous cycle. Orexin A concentrations in ULF were greater on days 10–11 of the cycle than throughout pregnancy. Serum OXB concentrations were greatest on days 10–11 and 30–32 of pregnancy, and least on days 12–28 of gestation. The greatest OXB concentrations in ULF were on days 10–13 of gestation, and the least OXB concentrations were on days 15–16 of pregnancy. This is first study to demonstrate the presence of adiponectin and orexins in the serum and ULF during early pregnancy of pigs as well as the relationships between adiponectin and orexin concentrations and the stage of pregnancy. The fluctuations in adiponectin and orexin concentrations in the plasma and ULF suggest that the hormones present in ULF are mostly of local origin and that these hormones participate in the processes that accompany early pregnancy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T14:00:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.01.001
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