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Showing 1 - 200 of 3089 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
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Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
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Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
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Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
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Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
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Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
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Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
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Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
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Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
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Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 417, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
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Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
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Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Animal Reproduction Science
  [SJR: 0.711]   [H-I: 78]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-4320
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3049 journals]
  • Pre-ovulatory follicle affects corpus luteum diameter, blood flow, and
           progesterone production in mares
    • Authors: G.M. Ishak; S.T. Bashir; M.O. Gastal; E.L. Gastal
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 187
      Author(s): G.M. Ishak, S.T. Bashir, M.O. Gastal, E.L. Gastal
      Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to study the temporal relationships between pre-ovulatory follicle (POF) and corpus luteum (CL) diameter and blood flow, with systemic progesterone (P4) concentration during two transitional ovulatory seasons in mares. Variables of POF and CL/P4 were evaluated for 6days before and 17days after ovulation, respectively. Evaluations were performed during two consecutive estrous cycles in spring and fall seasons, and during the last estrous cycle of the season. There were significant correlations among POF and CL variables, and P4 concentration that ranged from 0.24 to 0.95, and among the ratios of different variables that ranged from 0.39 to 0.92. There were linear regressions (P< 0.01−0.001) for all comparisons among different variables. The POF diameter before the first ovulation of the season was larger (P< 0.05), and POF vascularity was less (P< 0.05), than in the last estrous cycle during the season. The CL blood flow was less (P< 0.01) during the last compared with first pre-ovulatory period of the season. The POF diameters were positively correlated (r =0.67) during the two pre-ovulatory periods of spring and fall. Results provide evidence that the POF affects CL diameter and blood flow, and subsequently P4 production, and that POF diameter is repeatable within the same individual during different seasons.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 187 (2017)
  • HSP90 maintains boar spermatozoa motility and mitochondrial membrane
           potential during heat stress
    • Authors: V. Calle-Guisado; M.J. Bragado; L.J. García-Marín; L. González-Fernández
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 187
      Author(s): V. Calle-Guisado, M.J. Bragado, L.J. García-Marín, L. González-Fernández
      Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) is a family of proteins that protects cells from high temperatures. The present work aimed to elucidate the role that HSP90 exerts on boar sperm incubated under heat stress conditions on viability, total motility (TM), progressive motility (PM), acrosome status, mitochondrial membrane potential and plasma membrane lipid organization. Sperm were incubated in non-capacitating conditions (Tyrode’s basal medium or TBM) for 3, 8 and 24h or in capacitating conditions (Tyrode’s complete medium or TCM) for 4h at 38.5°C or 40°C (Heat stress) in the presence or absence of 5 or 20μM of 17-AAG, a specific HSP90 inhibitor. Sperm viability was not affected by the presence of 17-AAG in any condition tested compared with its own control (at the same temperature and incubation time). In non-capacitating conditions TM (22.7±4.1 vs. 1.9±1.1; % mean±SEM), PM (3.1±0.9 vs. 0) and high mitochondrial membrane potential (19.5±2.2 vs. 11.8±0.8) decreased significantly in sperm incubated at 40°C for 24h in the presence of 20μM 17-AAG (control vs. 20μM 17-AAG, respectively; p<0.05). In sperm incubated at 38.5°C only a mild decrease in TM was observed (48.7±3.1 vs. 32.1±4.8; control vs. 20μM 17-AAG, respectively; p<0.05). However, under capacitating conditions none of the sperm parameters studied were affected by 17-AAG after 4h of incubation. These results demonstrate for the first time the role of HSP90 in the maintenance of boar sperm motility and mitochondrial membrane potential during prolonged heat stress in non-capacitating conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 187 (2017)
  • Supplementation of cilostazol during in vitro maturation enhances the
           meiosis and developmental competence of yak oocytes by influencing cAMP
           content and mRNA expression
    • Authors: Xian-Rong Xiong; Dao-Liang Lan; Jian Li; Ya-Qiu Lin; Ming-Yang Li
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 186
      Author(s): Xian-Rong Xiong, Dao-Liang Lan, Jian Li, Ya-Qiu Lin, Ming-Yang Li
      The efficiency of in vitro embryo production remains low compared with that observed in vivo. Recent studies have independently shown that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulation prior to in vitro maturation (IVM) supplementation improves oocyte developmental competence. In this context, special cAMP modulators have been applied during IVM as promising alternatives to improve this biotechnology. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with cilostazol, a PDE3 inhibitor, during pre-IVM culture on oocyte meiotic maturation in yak. Immature yak cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated in vitro without (control) or with 5μM cilostazol for 0, 2, or 4h prior to IVM. Results showed that the presence of cilostazol in pre-IVM medium significantly increased the percentages of oocytes at metaphase II stage compared with that in the control groups (P< 0.05). Moreover, pre-IVM with cilostazol significantly enhanced intraoocyte cAMP and glutathione (GSH) levels at the pre-IVM or IVM phase relative to the no pre-IVM groups (P< 0.05). After in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA), the developmental competences of oocytes and embryo quality were improved significantly after pre-IVM with cilostazol compared with the control groups (P< 0.05), given that the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates and the total number of blastocyst cells were increased. The presence of cilostazol also increased the levels of mRNA expression for adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3) and protein kinase 1 (PKA1), as well as decreased the abundance of phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) in COCs and IVF blastocysts, compared with their control counterparts (P< 0.05). The results demonstrated that the meiotic progression of immature yak oocytes could be reversibly affected by cAMP modulators. By contrast, treatment with cilostazol during pre-IVM positively affected the developmental competence of yak oocytes, probably by improving intraoocyte cAMP and GSH levels and regulating mRNA expression patterns. We concluded that appropriate treatment with cilostazol during pre-IVM would be beneficial for oocyte maturation in vitro.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T20:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2017)
  • Different approaches to establish infertile rooster
    • Authors: Fereshteh Ghadimi; Malak Shakeri; Mahdi Zhandi; Mojtaba Zaghari; Abbas Piryaei; Parham Moslehifar; Alireza Rajabinejad
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 186
      Author(s): Fereshteh Ghadimi, Malak Shakeri, Mahdi Zhandi, Mojtaba Zaghari, Abbas Piryaei, Parham Moslehifar, Alireza Rajabinejad
      Several methods have been developed to suppress spermatogenesis in recipient males before spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) transplantation. The aim of this study was to compare two different methods of depleting endogenous spermatogenesis in recipient ROSS 308 strain adult roosters. Gamma-radiation and alkylating agent busulfan were utilized to infertilize adult roosters (ROSS 308 strain). Two radiation therapy regimes (based on 60co isotope) were conducted locally to testes using 40Gy (5×8Gy with three-day intervals) and 30Gy (3×10Gy with three-day intervals). And two different levels of busulfan 60mg(40+20) and 50mg(30+20) with 10-day intervals were injected intraperitoneally. The results showed that both radiation therapy regimes and both busulfan levels reduced sperm motility and sperm concentration significantly compared with control group. Moreover, there were no significant differences between gamma radiation and busulfan treatments in progressive and total motility of sperm reduction. Sperm concentration reached to zero at the end of the 4th week of experiment in all treatment groups. Also histological examinations revealed that both treatments could significantly reduce the diameter of seminiferous tubules and thickness of epithelium. None of the treatments had significant effect on body weight in comparison with control group and the health status of experimental roosters remained good throughout the study. Given that, the risk probability of high doses of radiation exposure and busulfan, it can be concluded that the 30Gy (3×10Gy) and 50mg (30+20) are appropriate for suppression of endogenous spermatogenesis in mature roosters.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T20:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2017)
  • Effects of different levels of feed intake during four short periods of
           gestation and housing systems on sows and litter performance
    • Authors: P. Ren; X.J. Yang; R. Railton; J. Jendza; L. Anil; S.K. Baidoo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): P. Ren, X.J. Yang, R. Railton, J. Jendza, L. Anil, S.K. Baidoo
      The current study investigated the effects of different levels of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation and of housing systems on sow and litter performance. A total of 255 multiparous sows were allotted to 1–4 dietary treatments using a randomized complete block design blocking by initial body weight (BW), backfat (BF) and parity. Sows were housed either in individual stalls (n=129) or group pens (n=126) with 55 sows in each pen with electronic sow feeder during gestation. All sows were fed one common corn-soybean meal-based diet with the amount of 1.0×maintenance energy level of feed intake (106×BW0.75) throughout gestation except 4 periods of 7 d when dietary treatments were imposed on day 27, 55, 83 and 97 of gestation. During the 4 periods, sows were fed 1 of 4 different levels of feed intake: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×maintenance energy level (0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M, respectively). Results showed that both BW gain and BF change during gestation for sows on 1.5M (49.7kg and 3.1mm, respectively) and 2.0M (52.5kg and 3.7mm, respectively) levels of feed intake were significantly (P< 0.01) greater than sows on 0.5M (26.1kg and −0.1mm, respectively) and 1.0M (35.6kg and 0.1, respectively) levels of feed intake. In contrast, lactation weight gain for sows on 1.5M (3.3kg) and 2.0M (3.4kg) levels of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation were significantly (P< 0.01) less than sows on 0.5M (18.4kg) and 1.0M (11.4kg) levels of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation, whereas BF loss during lactation for sows on 1.5M (−3.6mm) level of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation were significantly (P =0.03) higher than sows on 1.0M (−2.1mm) level of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation. Additionally, average daily feed intake during lactation for sows on 0.5M (6.6kg/d) level of feed intake during gestation tended (P =0.06) to be greater than sows on 2.0M (5.9kg/d) level of feed intake. There were no differences (P> 0.1) among 4 levels of feed intake in terms of numbers of total born and weaning piglets. However, both piglet weight at birth (1.46, 1.52, 1.53 and 1.51kg for piglets from sows on 0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M levels of feed intake during gestation, respectively) and at weaning (6.37, 6.55, 6.64 and 6.38kg for piglets from sows on 0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M levels of feed intake during gestation, respectively) were maximized at 1.5M level of feed intake. Sows housed in group pens had greater (P <0.01) net BW gain (24.7 vs. 19.2kg) from day 27 of gestation to weaning compared with sows housed in individual stalls. However, there were no differences (P >0.1) between the 2 housing systems in terms of litter size and piglet weight at birth and at weaning. In conclusion, increasing levels of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation increased BW and BF gain during gestation and led to less BW gain and more BF loss during lactation. Piglet weight at birth and at weaning was maximized at 1.5M level of feed intake. However, housing systems did not affect reproductive performance. Group pen housing system may be beneficial in terms of increased overall BW gain during gestation and lactation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.001
  • Effect of supplementing a diet with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces
           Cerevisiae on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes
    • Authors: Leila Ahmadzadeh; Ali Hosseinkhani; Hossein Daghighkia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Leila Ahmadzadeh, Ali Hosseinkhani, Hossein Daghighkia
      Effect of supplementing a diet, in an attempt to enhance reproduction, with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on reproductive performance was investigated during the breeding season using 44 Ghezel ewes (body weight 56.97±7.47kg, age 2–5 years and body condition score (BCS) 2.5) which were allocated randomly in equal numbers to the four dietary treatments as follows: 1) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) plus monensin sodium (30mg/ewe/d) (MS); 2) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450 g/ewe/d) plusSaccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (4×109 CFU/ewe/d) (SC); 3) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) (FG); 4) Basal diet (only grazing on pasture, Control; G). Estrous synchronization of all ewes was done using controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and all ewes were mated with purebred Ghezel rams after CIDR removal. The results indicated that MS and SC treatments with 15 lambs had greater number of lambs than ewes of the other two treatment groups. Ewes in MS group with 50% twining rate had the greatest value followed by the FG, SC and G treatment groups (P< 0.05). The lambs from ewes in MS and SC groups were heavier in weight than those in FG and G treatments (P< 0.01). Blood sample analysis provided evidence that ewes in MS and SC groups had greater concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), blood urea nitrogen (P< 0.05), insulin, glucose, cholesterol and total protein (P< 0.01) than ewes of the other groups. These results indicated that using a diet for enhancing reproduction, including monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in the breeding season could have beneficial effects on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.013
  • Platelets are involved in in vitro swine granulosa cell luteinization and
    • Authors: Giuseppina Basini; Simona Bussolati; Stefano Grolli; Roberto Ramoni; Virna Conti; Fausto Quintavalla; Francesca Grasselli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Giuseppina Basini, Simona Bussolati, Stefano Grolli, Roberto Ramoni, Virna Conti, Fausto Quintavalla, Francesca Grasselli
      During corpus luteum formation, impressive biological events take place to guarantee the transition from original follicular to luteal cells and to support required massive angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that these phenomena resemble those essential for wound healing. After ovulation, blood vessels release their content in the antral cavity and coagulation takes place. Involvement of platelets in corpus luteum growth has been hypothesized both in human and in rat. On this basis, using platelet lysate (PL), a blood derivative with a higher platelet concentration, we aimed to assess a potential involvement of platelets in swine granulosa cell luteinization and on new blood vessel growth. Our results demonstrate, for the first time in the swine, that platelets could be directly involved in granulosa cell physiological luteinization, since the treatment with PL shifted steroid production from estradiol 17β to progesterone. Moreover, PL stimulated angiogenesis. Nitric oxide could be involved in these effects. These results are important to clarify complex intrafollicular molecular machinery. A better understanding of these mechanisms can be useful to develop more focused therapeutic strategies to contrast sow infertility. In addition, since the pig represents a model for translational studies, collected data could be of interest for human medicine because reproductive pathologies such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis are often accompanied by platelet dysfunctions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.008
  • Modelling piglet growth and mortality on commercial hog farms using
           variables describing individual animals, litters, sows and management
    • Authors: Lucie Galiot; Isabelle Lachance; Jean-Paul Laforest; Frédéric Guay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Lucie Galiot, Isabelle Lachance, Jean-Paul Laforest, Frédéric Guay
      Increases in sow prolificacy have reduced piglet vitality, growth capacity and weight at weaning and even pig weight at slaughter. The aim of this study was to develop a model that predicts likelihood of mortality and weight at weaning. A database containing 3214 records of birth weight, weight gain at 24h, rectal temperature at 24h, litter size, age at weaning, fostering status, manual assistance of birth and oxytocin use as well as the corresponding 227 records of sow parity and feed intake was analysed using logit functions for mortality and linear functions for weaning weight. The best model of mortality predicted increased likelihood as birth weight, rectal temperature and 0–24h weight gain decreased and sow parity and time between births increased (P< 0.01, χ2 =2910). The best model of weaning weight predicted increases with increasing birth weight, 0–24h body weight gain, age at weaning and sow parity and decreases with increasing litter size at 24h (P< 0.01; AICC=4324; RMSE=0.82). This study confirmed that birth weight and weight gain during the first 24h are the principal factors influencing piglet growth and pre-weaning mortality.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.009
  • The relationship between circulating concentration of AMH and LH content
           in the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) preparations on follicular
           growth and ovulatory response to superovulation in water buffaloes
    • Authors: A.K. Redhead; N. Siew; N. Lambie; D. Carnarvon; R. Ramgattie; M. Knights
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A.K. Redhead, N. Siew, N. Lambie, D. Carnarvon, R. Ramgattie, M. Knights
      The relationship between circulating concentration of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and the LH content of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) preparation on follicular growth and ovulatory response in water buffaloes was evaluated. A single blood sample was taken from cows (N=31; age: 9.06±0.98years) to determine systemic AMH. Animals with concentrations higher or lower than 194±30pg/ml were placed into LOW and HIGH AMH groups and were assigned randomly to be superovulated FSH containing either a high (FSHp, HLH) or low (FolltropinV, LLH) LH content. Follicular growth and ovulation were monitored using transrectal ultrasonography. In animals with HIGH systemic AMH, treatment with FSH with a high LH content was associated with more small follicles (AMH X FSH; P=0.02). AMH had no effect on small follicles in animals treated with LLH. Females with a HIGH AMH had greater numbers of small follicles (P=0.01) and total follicles (P=0.005) than LOW AMH cows. Animals treated with HLH had more small follicles (P=0.001) but fewer large (P<0.001) and total follicles (P=0.0005) than those treated with LLH. Among animals with HIGH AMH, those treated with LLH, ovulated more follicles than those treated with HLH. (AMH X FSH; P=0.03). In conclusion, selecting animals with high AMH concentration and the use of FSH preparations with a lower LH content may improve the superovulatory response in water buffaloes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.010
  • Effects of N-carbamylglutamate and L-arginine on steroidogenesis and gene
           expression in bovine granulosa cells
    • Authors: T. Feng; L.F. Schütz; B.C. Morrell; M.C. Perego; L.J. Spicer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): T. Feng, L.F. Schütz, B.C. Morrell, M.C. Perego, L.J. Spicer
      Feeding N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and arginine (ARG) improves reproductive measures in pigs and reduces systemic steroid levels in pregnant ewes. We hypothesized that the effects of NCG and ARG on reproduction were due to direct effects on the ovary. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of NCG and ARG on granulosa cell (GC) steroidogenesis, gene expression, and cell proliferation in vitro. GC were collected from small (1–5mm) bovine follicles and treated in vitro with NCG or ARG in serum-free medium for 24h to 48h. Both NCG and ARG inhibited (P< 0.05) IGF1- and FSH-induced GC estradiol production but only NCG inhibited (P< 0.05) progesterone production. In contrast, NCG and ARG increased (P <0.05) GC numbers induced by IGF1 and FSH. NCG inhibited (P <0.05) StAR, CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 mRNA abundance in small-follicle GC, whereas ARG had no effect (P >0.10) on StAR, CYP11A1 or CYP19A1 mRNA abundance. We conclude that NCG and ARG may act directly on GC and therefore may regulate ovarian function by slowing follicular differentiation via inhibiting IGF1 action, and steroid synthesis while stimulating GC proliferation in cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.012
  • Studies of the cryopreservation condition of Gymnocypris przewalskii
    • Authors: Fulei Wei; Luxian Yu; Ruihong Li; Xia Zhang; Xuehan Zhang; Ya Zhang; Yuqing Wang; Hongchao Wang; Jian Liang; Rui Ma; Hongfang Qi; Qiwei Qin; Rongqing Zhang; Shihai Zhu; Changzhong Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Fulei Wei, Luxian Yu, Ruihong Li, Xia Zhang, Xuehan Zhang, Ya Zhang, Yuqing Wang, Hongchao Wang, Jian Liang, Rui Ma, Hongfang Qi, Qiwei Qin, Rongqing Zhang, Shihai Zhu, Changzhong Li
      The endemic naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii Kessler, 1876) plays an important role in the maintenance of the distinctive ecological system of Lake Qinghai at 3.2km altitude on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. This study aimed to develop a cryopreservation protocol for Gymnocypris przewalskii spermatozoa. Semen was collected from mature individuals during migration and frozen using the liquid nitrogen vapor method. The influence of different cryoprotectants and three extenders on the post-thaw quality of the sperm was analyzed. The highest sperm motility rate and longest motility time after cryopreservation were achieved by combining Ringer’s solution with 15% ethylene glycol (P<0.05). The fertilization rate of this cryopreserved semen was 15.26±4.54%. This study thus provides a valuable method for the cryopreservation of the sperm of this important endangered fish species.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.021
  • Corrigendum to “Relationship between time post-ovulation and
           progesterone on oocyte maturation and pregnancy in canine cloning”
           [Anim. Reprod. Sci. 185 (2017) 75–82]
    • Authors: Joung Joo Kim; Kang Bae Park; Eun Ji Choi; Sang Hwan Hyun; Nam-Hyung Kim; Yeon Woo Jeong; Woo Suk Hwang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Joung Joo Kim, Kang Bae Park, Eun Ji Choi, Sang Hwan Hyun, Nam-Hyung Kim, Yeon Woo Jeong, Woo Suk Hwang

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.008
  • Characterization of the ovarian preantral follicle populations and its
           correlation with age and nutritional status in Brazilian Northeastern
           donkeys (Equus assinus)
    • Authors: K.R.F. Lopes; G.L. Lima; L.G.P. Bezerra; R.A. Barreto-Junior; M.F. Oliveira; A.R. Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): K.R.F. Lopes, G.L. Lima, L.G.P. Bezerra, R.A. Barreto-Junior, M.F. Oliveira, A.R. Silva
      This study aimed to characterize the ovarian follicular population and to determine its correlations with the age and nutritional status of donkeys of the Northeastern Brazilian breed. A total of 10 females with a mean age of 5.1±3.2years were submitted to ovariectomy by videolaparoscopy to obtain the ovaries. In the laboratory, the ovaries were sectioned into 6–12 fragments of approximately 7mm in diameter, which were fixed in Carnoy, dehydrated in increasing concentrations of alcohol (85%, 95% and absolute), clarified using xylol and embedded in blocks of histological paraffin. The blocks were cut in sections of 7μm and each 120th section was mounted on a slide for observation using optical microscopy. The follicle counting and identification allowed the characterization of the population of the preantral follicles. A total of 21.135±10.821 preantral follicles was counted, of which, 91.3% were primordial, 8.3% were primary follicles and 0.4% were secondary follicles. There were no differences between the two ovaries of each animal regarding the follicular population (P >0.05). There was a rate of 9.77% degenerated follicles. Values of 0.99% follicles containing two oocytes were also identified and classified as multi-oocyte follicles, always of the primordial category. The thickness of the granulosa cell layer was 1.85μm±1.39, 3.56μm±2.08 and 21.85μm±17.27, for primordial, primary and secondary follicles, respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation (r =−0.66; P< 0.001) between the age of the animals and the population of ovarian follicles. A negative influence of the weight and body score on the ovarian follicular population was also observed, when donkeys had very little or a great amount of body condition. This is the first study to describe the morphometric characteristics and estimation of the population of preantral ovarian follicles in Northeastern Brazilian donkey, showing that number of preantral follicles decreased with increasing age of the animals and this finding may be affected by nutritional status of the animals.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.007
  • Proteomic analysis of follicular fluid from tropically-adapted goats
    • Authors: Alexandre R. Paula Junior; Mauricio F. van Tilburg; Marina D.P. Lobo; Ana C.O. Monteiro-Moreira; Renato A. Moreira; Carlos H.S. Melo; Joanna M.G. Souza-Fabjan; Airton A. Araújo; Luciana M. Melo; Dárcio I.A. Teixeira; Arlindo A. Moura; Vicente J.F. Freitas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Alexandre R. Paula Junior, Mauricio F. van Tilburg, Marina D.P. Lobo, Ana C.O. Monteiro-Moreira, Renato A. Moreira, Carlos H.S. Melo, Joanna M.G. Souza-Fabjan, Airton A. Araújo, Luciana M. Melo, Dárcio I.A. Teixeira, Arlindo A. Moura, Vicente J.F. Freitas
      The present study was conducted to characterize the major proteome of ovarian follicular fluid from locally-adapted, “Canindé” goats in the northeast of Brazil. Eight estrous cycling goats received a hormonal treatment consisting of medroxyprogesterone acetate, D-cloprostenol and FSH. Fluid was collected by laparoscopy from small (<3mm), medium (3–4mm) and large (>4mm) follicles and then, proteins were analyzed by 2-D SDS-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-six proteins were identified in the goat follicular fluid, including albumin, immunoglobulins, ceruloplasmin, complement factor B, alpha-1B-glycoprotein precursor, serotransferrin, complement C3 and serpins, among others. Albumin and immunoglobulins were the most abundant proteins. Protein concentrations were similar in the fluid from small (45.3±3.1mg/mL), medium (44.2±3.3mg/mL) and large follicles (45.1±2.3mg/mL). The intensities of spots identified in 2-D gels as serotransferrin, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein-like, complement factor B and complement protein C3 differed (P < 0.05) among follicle categories. The amount of serotransferrin was greater in the medium than small follicles (P< 0.05). Content of zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein-like, complement factor B and complement C3 was greater (P < 0.05) in the fluid of large follicles than in medium follicles. Based on gene ontology, the major molecular functions associated with goat follicular fluid proteins were binding and catalytic activity, while the main biological processes were related to regulation, cellular processing, location and the immune system. In conclusion, the major proteome of the follicular fluid from goats subjected to hormonal stimulation was elucidated in the present study. Also, molecules associated with follicle development are potential biomarkers of oocyte competence were prevalent.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.005
  • Characterization of polymorphism in the FSH receptor gene and its impact
           on some reproductive indices in dairy cows
    • Authors: Hassan Sharifiyazdi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Zahra Ghanaatian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Hassan Sharifiyazdi, Abdolah Mirzaei, Zahra Ghanaatian
      Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is released from the anterior pituitary gland and has an important role in female fertility. As FSH is a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone which cannot pass through the cell membrane, its influence on target cells must be mediated by the FSH receptor (FSHR). Accordingly, any kind of mutation in FSHR can affect reproduction in dairy cows. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) technique was used for recognition of a point mutation (A/G: position −278) located in the FSHR gene in Iranian dairy cows. The association was evaluated of this mutation with reproductive performance. Blood samples were collected from 79 cows in a dairy farm in Iran and genotyped based on this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The 5′-flanking regions of FSHR gene were successfully amplified and produced a fragment of 211bp in all cases. Three different patterns were, however, produced following restriction digestion with FaqI enzyme. The molecular results showed the existence of three different genotypes of AA, AG and GG among examined cows. In this study percentages of genotypes were 51.9%, 43.2% and 4.9% for AA, AG and GG genotypes, respectively. Allele frequencies were 73.5% and 26.5% for A and G, respectively. Results indicate that cows lacking allele G had desirable fertility in which a greater percentage (53.7%) of cows lacking Allele G (AA) had services per conception (SPC) of <2 in the previous lactation; while a lesser percentage of cows with Allele G (28.9%) had SPC of <2 (P <0.05). There was no difference in the days non-pregnant (DNP) and calving to first service interval among cows with these genotypes (P> 0.05). Calving to first service interval was 69.9 ±12.3 in cows with Allele G and 74.73±13.9 in cows without Allele G (P> 0.05). Percentage of cows with repeat breeder syndrome (SPC >3) was also 15.6% and 27.6% in cows without Allele G and with Allele G, respectively, but these values were not different (P> 0.05). It can be concluded that the A to G mutation within the upstream region of FSHR gene (position −278) may affect some reproductive variables in Holstein dairy cows.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.006
  • Transcriptome studies of granulosa cells at different stages of ovarian
           follicular development in buffalo
    • Authors: J. Li; Z. Li; S. Liu; R. Zia; A. Liang; L. Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J. Li, Z. Li, S. Liu, R. Zia, A. Liang, L. Yang
      The normal maturation and ovulation from ovarian follicles is important in ensuring conception and improving fertility of buffalo. The molecular regulation mechanism of buffalo follicles growth, however, remains unknown. This study analyzed the gene expression profiles associated with buffalo ovarian follicle growth. According to the analysis of RNA sequencing, 17,700 unigenes and 13,672 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. A total of 30 common DEGs were identified during four stages of follicle growth, and the expression patterns are basically synchronized, suggesting the products as a result of expressions of these genes may cooperate to regulate follicular development. Furthermore, GO and KEGG enrichment analyses revealed that the majority of DEGs in early stage of follicular growth were enriched in ribosomal and oxidative phosphorylation signaling pathways, and the expression patterns of these DEGs are basically up-regulated at the beginning of follicular growth (<8mm, diameter), and then down-regulated (8–12mm) in the following stages of follicular development. The pathway of immune signaling, including allograft rejection, chemokine signaling pathway, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, phagosome, and antigen processing and presentation, was significantly enriched in the last stage of follicular development (>12mm), which indicates that the immune system has an important role in the last stage of follicular maturation and ovulation. This study provided a gene expression profile of buffalo follicle growth, and provided an insight into biological processes associated with molecular regulation of ovarian follicle growth.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.004
  • Purification, structural and biophysical characterisation of the major
           seminal plasma protein from Texel rams
    • Authors: Manoel Augusto Klempovus Villela Condessa; Arethusa Lobo Pimentel; Flavio Augusto Vicente Seixas; Antonio Campanha Martinez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Manoel Augusto Klempovus Villela Condessa, Arethusa Lobo Pimentel, Flavio Augusto Vicente Seixas, Antonio Campanha Martinez
      Spermadhesins are a group of low molecular weight proteins present in seminal plasma. In Texel rams, they represent more than 70% of the seminal plasma proteins. Although their functions have not yet been fully clarified, there is much discussion about the role of these proteins in maintaining sperm viability during and after the semen freezing process. This work sought to isolate the major component of the seminal plasma from rams of the Texel breed (O. aries SPD2) and to evaluate its structural and biophysical characteristics in order to better understand its role in spermatic viability. The protein was isolated by centrifugation and ion exchange chromatography and its biophysical properties were evaluated by circular dichroism spectrometry. Molecular dynamics simulations of the modelled protein compared to the homologous bovine protein were also carried out. The results showed that O. aries SPD2 has a transition temperature (Tm ) of 65°C and a ΔHm of 322.5kJmol−1, similar to the results for other spermadhesins described in the literature. The estimated composition of the secondary structure elements for the native protein is in agreement with that observed for the theoretical model. Its structural characteristics were preserved in simulations at temperatures of 27°C and 40°C, as was the case for bull spermadhesin. Taken together, these results suggest that the major component of the spermadhesins of Texel rams (O. aries SPD2) may play an important role in maintaining the viability of spermatozoa in fresh semen as well as after thawing.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.013
  • Expression of tissue-specific imprinted gene tumor Suppressing
           Subtransferable Candidate 4 (TSSC4) is altered in placentae produced by
           nuclear transfer in cattle
    • Authors: João C.T. Penteado; Rodolpho J. Borduchi; Mariângela B.C. Maldonado; Juliano R. Sangalli; Tiago H.C. de Bem; Flavio V. Meirelles; Daniel R. Arnold; Flavia L. Lopes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): João C.T. Penteado, Rodolpho J. Borduchi, Mariângela B.C. Maldonado, Juliano R. Sangalli, Tiago H.C. de Bem, Flavio V. Meirelles, Daniel R. Arnold, Flavia L. Lopes
      Embryonic and placental development is highly orchestrated by epigenetic processes. Disruptions in normal placental development, commonly observed in pregnancies produced by nuclear transfer, are associated with abnormal gene expression and altered epigenetic regulation of imprinted and vital placental genes. The objective of this study was to evaluate expression and epigenetic regulation of the imprinted gene TSSC4 in cotyledonary and intercotyledonary tissues from day 60 pregnancies produced by embryo transfer (ET), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and nuclear transfer (NT) in cattle. TSSC4 expression was reduced by 30% in cotyledons at 60days of gestation in the NT group. The proximal promoter region of TSSC4 showed an increase in the permissive histone mark (H3K4me2) and a reduction in the inhibitory histone mark (H3K9me2) in the cotyledons produced by NT, in relation to cotyledons produced by embryo transfer. Interestingly, H3K9me2 was also significantly reduced in cotyledons produced by IVF, compared to the ET controls. DNA methylation, in CpG-rich regions located at the proximal promoter region and the coding region of TSSC4 did not differ. These results suggest that the reduction in TSSC4 expression, observed following NT, can not be explained by the histone changes investigated in the proximal promoter region of the gene, or by changes in methylation in three regions evaluated. Also, a decrease in the levels of H3K9 dimethylation in IVF samples, indicate that in vitro culturing could corroborate with the alterations seen in the NT group.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.003
  • Effect of Single Layer Centrifugation Porcicoll (70%, 80% and 90%) or
           supplementation with reduced glutathione, seminal plasma and bovine serum
           albumin on frozen-thawed boar sperm
    • Authors: I. Crespo-Félez; A. Castañeda-Sampedro; D.I. Sánchez; E. Fernández-Alegre; M. Álvarez-Rodríguez; J.C. Domínguez; J.M. Morrell; F. Martínez-Pastor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): I. Crespo-Félez, A. Castañeda-Sampedro, D.I. Sánchez, E. Fernández-Alegre, M. Álvarez-Rodríguez, J.C. Domínguez, J.M. Morrell, F. Martínez-Pastor
      Selecting the optimal sperm population is essential for success with reproductive techniques. Porcicoll (formerly Androcoll-P) is a colloid formulation for selection of high-quality boar spermatozoa by single layer centrifugation (SLC). To date, most studies have been carried out with fresh semen and large volumes. We carried out 2 experiments to test the use of Porcicoll for thawed boar semen in small volumes. In Experiment 1, cryopreserved semen doses were thawed, split in 200-μL aliquots and layered on 1mL of Porcicoll 70%, 80% or 90%, or buffer without colloid. We assessed sperm recovery (the proportion of the loading dose that appeared in the pellet, %), and the physiology of the selected spermatozoa (flow cytometry: Viability, apoptotic changes, capacitation, mitochondrial activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species). The most suitable proportion was Porcicoll 80%, allowing acceptable sperm recovery (16.9±4.2%, compared to 70% (35.4%±3.0, p<0.001) and 90% (8.2%±3.0, P=0.001), and improved quality (mitochondrial activity: Porcicoll 80%: 77.7±1% vs Control: 60.3±0.7%, P<0.05). In Experiment 2, we compared 3 supplements to Porcicoll 80%: 500mM reduced glutathione (GSH), 20% seminal plasma (SP) and 0.5% bovine serum albumin (BSA). Supplementation with GSH or BSA did not cause relevant changes relative to Control. In contrast, SP induced membrane and acrosomal changes resembling capacitation, which might preclude its use in some applications, and decreased recovery (5.5%±1.9 vs. 24.3%±1.2 Control; P<0.001). However, it could be useful prior to other applications such as in vitro fertilisation. Overall, Porcicoll is an effective colloid for isolating a high-quality population from thawed boar sperm, 80% being a balanced option for good recovery and high quality. Supplements could be useful depending on the proposed use of the spermatozoa.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.002
  • Physical and kinematic properties of cryopreserved camel sperm after
           elimination of semen viscosity by different techniques
    • Authors: Khalid El-Bahrawy; Sherif Rateb; Marwa Khalifa; Davide Monaco; Giovanni Lacalandra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Khalid El-Bahrawy, Sherif Rateb, Marwa Khalifa, Davide Monaco, Giovanni Lacalandra
      This investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different techniques for liquefaction of semen on post-thaw physical and dynamic characteristics of camel spermatozoa. A total of 144 ejaculates were collected from 3 adult camels, Camelus dromedarius, twice-weekly over 3 consecutive breeding seasons. A raw aliquot of each ejaculate was evaluated for physical and morphological properties, whereas the remaining portion was diluted (1:3) with glycerolated Tris lactose egg yolk extender, and was further subjected to one of the following liquefaction treatments: control (untreated), 5μl/ml α-amylase, 0.1mg/ml papain, 5u/ml bromelain, or 40-kHz nominal ultrasound frequency. The post-thaw objective assessment of cryopreserved spermatozoa, in all groups, was performed by a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. The results revealed that all liquefaction treatments improved (P<0.05) post-thaw motility, viability and sperm motion criteria. However, an adverse effect (P<0.05) was observed in acrosome integrity, sperm cell membrane integrity and percent of normal sperm in all enzymatically-treated specimens compared to both control and ultrasound-treated semen. These results elucidate the efficiency of utilizing ultrasound technology for viscosity elimination of camel semen. In addition, developing enzymatic semen liquefaction techniques is imperious to benefit from when applying assisted reproductive technologies, particularly AI and IVF, in camels.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.011
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area of rams with high or
           low libido—A role for dopamine
    • Authors: A.C. Kramer; A.J. Mirto; K.J. Austin; C.E. Roselli; B.M. Alexander
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A.C. Kramer, A.J. Mirto, K.J. Austin, C.E. Roselli, B.M. Alexander
      Dopamine synthesis in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is necessary for the reinforcement of sexual behavior. The objective of this study determined if sexual stimuli initiates reward, and whether reward is attenuated in sexually inactive rams. Sexually active rams were exposed to urine from estrous (n=4) or ovariectomized (n=3) ewes with inactive rams (n=3) exposed to urine from estrous ewes. Following exposure, rams were exsanguinated and brains perfused. Alternating sections of the VTA were stained for Fos related antigens (FRA), tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity. Forebrain tissue, mid-sagittal ventral to the anterior corpus callosum, was stained for dopamine D2 receptors. Concentrations of cortisol was determined prior to and following exposure. Exposure to ovariectomized-ewe urine in sexually active rams did not influence (P =0.6) FRA expression, but fewer (P< 0.05) neurons were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase in the VTA. Sexually inactive rams had fewer (P< 0.05) FRA and tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the VTA than sexually active rams following exposure to estrous ewe urine. VTA neurons staining positive for dopamine beta-hydroxylase did not differ by sexual activity (P =0.44) or urine exposure (P =0.07). Exposure to stimulus did not influence (P =0.46) numbers of forebrain neurons staining positive for dopamine D2 receptors in sexually active rams, but fewer (P =0.04) neurons stain positive in inactive rams. Serum concentrations of cortisol did not differ (P ≥0.52) among rams prior to or following stimulus. In conclusion sexual inactivity is unlikely due to stress, but may be partially a result of decreased tyrosine hydroxylase and/or the response to dopamine.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.019
  • Sex-steroid receptors, prostaglandin E2 receptors, and cyclooxygenase in
           the equine cervix during estrus, diestrus and pregnancy: Gene expression
           and cellular localization
    • Authors: Claudia B. Fernandes; Shavahn C. Loux; Kirsten E. Scoggin; Edward L. Squires; Mats H. Troedsson; Alejandro Esteller-Vico; Barry A. Ball
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Claudia B. Fernandes, Shavahn C. Loux, Kirsten E. Scoggin, Edward L. Squires, Mats H. Troedsson, Alejandro Esteller-Vico, Barry A. Ball
      The cervix is a dynamic structure that undergoes dramatic changes during the estrous cycle, pregnancy and parturition. It is well established that hormonal changes, including estrogens, progestogens and prostaglandins, regulate the expression of key proteins involved in cervical function. The arachidonic acid cascade is important in the remodeling and relaxation of the cervix in the days preceding parturition. Despite the complexity of this mechanism, regulation of cervical function has received little study in the mare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the expression of estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2), progesterone receptor (PGR), prostaglandin E2 type 2 (PTGER2) and type 4 (PTGER4) receptors as well as cyclooxygenase-1 (PTGS1) and -2 (PTGS2) in the equine cervical mucosa and stroma during estrus, diestrus and late pregnancy using qPCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize ESR1, ESR2, PGR, PTGER2 and PTGER4 receptors in these regions of the cervix. Relative mRNA expression of ESR1 and PGR was greater during estrus and diestrus than in late pregnancy in both the mucosa and stroma of the cervix. Expression of PTGER2 was highest in the cervical stroma during late pregnancy compared to either estrus or diestrus. Moreover, PTGS1 expression in mucosa and PTGS2 in stroma was greater during late pregnancy compared with estrus, but not diestrus. Immunostaining for ESR1, ESR2, PGR, PTGER2 and PTGER4 was consistently detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm of epithelium of the endocervix as well as the smooth muscle cytoplasm of the cervix in all stages evaluated. Immunolabeling in smooth muscle nuclei was detected for ESR1 and PGR in estrus, diestrus and late pregnancy, and for ESR2 in estrus and late pregnancy stages. The changes noted in late gestation likely reflect preparation of the equine cervix for subsequent parturition.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.018
  • Validation of simple and cost-effective stains to assess acrosomal status,
           DNA damage and mitochondrial activity in rooster spermatozoa
    • Authors: Bruno R. Rui; Daniel S.R. Angrimani; João Diego A. Losano; Luana de Cássia Bicudo; Marcílio Nichi; Ricardo J.G. Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Bruno R. Rui, Daniel S.R. Angrimani, João Diego A. Losano, Luana de Cássia Bicudo, Marcílio Nichi, Ricardo J.G. Pereira
      Several methods have been developed to evaluate spermatozoa function in birds but many of these are sometimes complicated, costly and not applicable to field studies (i.e., performed within poultry breeding facilities). The objective was, therefore, to validate efficient, practical and inexpensive procedures to determine DNA fragmentation, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial activity in poultry spermatozoa. Initially, ejaculates were individually diluted and divided into control (4°C, 4h) and UV-irradiated aliquots (room temperature, 4h), and then samples containing different percentages of DNA-damaged spermatozoa (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) were subjected to Toluidine Blue (TB) and Sperm Chromatin Dispersion assessments (SCD). Fast Green-Rose Bengal (FG-RB) and FITC-PSA staining protocols were subsequently used to assess acrosome status in aliquots comprising assorted amounts of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Furthermore, to validate 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) assay, ejaculates containing different gradients of spermatozoa with great amounts of mitochondrial activity were concurrently evaluated using DAB and JC-1 stains. The proportion of spermatozoa with abnormal DNA integrity when evaluated using the TB assessment correlated significantly with the expected percentages of UV-irradiated spermatozoa and with SCD results. A significant linear regression coefficient was also observed between expected amounts of acrosome-intact spermatozoa and FG-RB readings, and there was a significant correlation of the data when FG-RB and FITC-PSA were used. Likewise, the use of the DAB assay enabled for accurately ascertaining percentages of rooster spermatozoa with greater and lesser mitochondrial function, and results were highly correlated to results with staining with JC-1. Altogether, findings of the present study indicate acrosomal status, DNA integrity and mitochondrial activity in rooster spermatozoa can be easily and reliably determined using FG-RB, TB and DAB stains.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.017
  • Impact of holding and equilibration time on post-thaw quality of shipped
           boar semen
    • Authors: J. Schäfer; D. Waberski; M. Jung; M. Schulze
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J. Schäfer, D. Waberski, M. Jung, M. Schulze
      Cryopreservation of boar semen is of growing interest for breeding companies. Overnight-shipping of pre-diluted ejaculates to specialized laboratories offers a practicable method, but requires fine-tuned protocols. In this study, the impact of holding post shipping at 17°C for 2 or 24h (n=10 samples) and of equilibration in lactose-egg yolk extender without glycerol at 5°C for 2, 4, 24 or 48h (n=11 samples) before freezing was investigated. Sperm-rich fractions of ejaculates from 21 mature Pietrain boars were collected at a single boar stud. After pre-dilution (1+1, v:v) with Beltsville thawing solution, samples were sent to the laboratory. Temperature profiles during transport and initial equilibration time were recorded. Semen quality post-thaw (PT) was evaluated using CASA and flow cytometry. Holding of 2h after shipping resulted in higher sperm motility (P=0.013) and beat cross frequency (BCF; P=0.047) compared to 24h. Differences between both groups vanished with prolonged incubation at 38°C PT. Equilibration at 5°C for 4h yielded the highest motility and BCF, whereas the equilibration for 48h impaired sperm motility. Membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and DNA fragmentation index were not affected by any protocol modification. In conclusion, processing of pre-diluted boar semen shipped overnight within 2h after arrival at the laboratory is preferred to 24h of additional holding at 17°C. Extending the equilibration period in lactose-egg yolk extender without glycerol at 5°C from 2h to 4h before freezing is recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.014
  • Expression and localization of polypeptide
           N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-like protein 5 in the reproductive
           organs and sperm of Hu sheep
    • Authors: Xiaolei Yao; M.A. EI-Samahy; Xu Feng; Tinging Zhang; Fengzhe Li; Guomin Zhang; Jing Pang; Haitao Nie; Feng Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Xiaolei Yao, M.A. EI-Samahy, Xu Feng, Tinging Zhang, Fengzhe Li, Guomin Zhang, Jing Pang, Haitao Nie, Feng Wang
      The polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-like protein 5 (GALNTL5) is involved in male fertility; however, its involvement in the reproduction and fertility of females remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the presence of GALNTL5 in the reproductive organs of ewes during the estrus period and to investigate its expression in cauda epididymal and ejaculated sperm. Results showed that GALNTL5 mRNA and protein were present in some reproductive organs of ewes during the estrus period. The highest levels of GALNTL5 mRNA and protein occurred in the uterine horn and oviductal ampulla and the lowest in the uterine cervix and oviductal infundibulum. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that GALNTL5 protein was mainly located in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of the uterus and oviduct, and in the theca and granulosa cells of the ovary. GALNTL5 gene expression was significantly higher in ejaculated sperm than in cauda epididymal sperm. The amount of GALNTL5 protein in seminal plasma was significantly higher than in ejaculated sperm. Additionally, GALNTL5 was strongly localized in the mid-piece and head of ejaculated sperm, and in the head-tail coupling apparatus and acrosome of cauda epididymal sperm. This is the first evidence that GALNTL5 might play an important role in a range of reproductive functions as well as in sperm motility and capacitation. Further studies are required to evaluate the function of GALNTL5 in reproduction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.020
  • Multiple paternity: A compensation mechanism of the Chinese alligator for
    • Authors: Huan Wang; Peng Yan; Shengzhou Zhang; Long Sun; Min Ren; Hui Xue; Fang Zhang; Rong Wu; Xiaobing Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Huan Wang, Peng Yan, Shengzhou Zhang, Long Sun, Min Ren, Hui Xue, Fang Zhang, Rong Wu, Xiaobing Wu
      The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is a critically endangered species endemic to China. Knowledge about reproductive strategies of a species contributes to their conservation. Little is, however, known about the reproductive strategies and its impact on the population. In the present study, an easy and non-invasive genetic method was used to improve the understanding of mating system of Chinese alligators and its effect on the population genetic diversity by nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. There was a high incidence of multiple paternity among 50 clutches, with a total 60% of the clutches having multiple paternity and up to three males contributing to single clutches. In addition, polyandry females choose to mate with males that are more distant in relatedness compared with monogamy females. Multiple paternity can decrease the inbreeding coefficient, while there is no significant difference between single and multiple paternity (P> 0.05). Furthermore, there was an increased allelic diversity (though not heterozygosity) in multiple paternity sired offspring compared with the single paternity sired offspring in F2 generations (P< 0.05), as predicted by the genetic diversity hypothesis. Multiple paternity may function as an important inbreeding avoidance compensation mechanism leading to the potential of the species to avoid extinction. These findings will not only enhance the understanding of the mating system and the biological traits of the Chinese alligator, but also improve the captive breeding program management and conservation strategies of the endangered species.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.016
  • Successful pregnancies from vitrified embryos in the dromedary camel:
           Avoidance of a possible toxic effect of sucrose on embryos
    • Authors: M. Herrid; M. Billah; J.A. Skidmore
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): M. Herrid, M. Billah, J.A. Skidmore
      Successful embryo cryopreservation facilitates the wider application of assisted reproduction technologies and also provides a useful method for gene banking of valuable genetics. Unfortunately attempts to establish an effective cryopreservation protocol for camelid embryos have been unsuccessful. In the current study, a modified vitrification protocol with three steps was investigated, whereby embryos were exposed to solutions containing increasing amounts of glycerol and ethylene glycol for fixed time periods. Embryos were then loaded into an Open Pull Straw (OPS) and plunged directly into liquid nitrogen for storage. Three experiments were designed to investigate the effect of 1) artificial shrinkage (AS) of embryos, 2) the addition of sucrose to the vitrification solutions, and 3) the replacement of sucrose by galactose in the warming solution, on the outcome of vitrification. The results showed that neither AS of hatched embryos prior to vitrification, nor the addition of sucrose into vitrification solutions improves the outcome of vitrification, while replacement of sucrose with galactose in warming solution increases the survival and developmental rates of vitrified embryos in culture. Transfer of vitrified embryos that were warmed in galactose resulted in a pregnancy rate of 42.8% per embryo or 46.1% per recipient. Collectively, these results suggest a possible species-specific toxic effect of sucrose on camel embryos, and that avoiding its use either in vitrification or warming solution is critical for establishing an effective protocol. This study may also be applicable to the vitrification of embryos of other camelid species including alpaca and llamas.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T04:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.015
  • Hormonal induction of ovulation using salmon gonadotropin-releasing
           hormone analogue (D-Arg6, Pro9-NEt) with dopamine antagonist and its
           impact on embryonic development of wild-caught Longspine scraper, Capoeta
           trutta (Heckel, 1843)
    • Authors: Vahid Zadmajid; Rahman Mirzaee; Hamid Hoseinpour; Nazir Vahedi; Ian Anthony Ernest Butts
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Vahid Zadmajid, Rahman Mirzaee, Hamid Hoseinpour, Nazir Vahedi, Ian Anthony Ernest Butts
      Knowledge of gamete quality is a prerequisite for developing techniques to fertilize eggs and rear offspring for hatchery production. Our objective was to develop assisted reproductive techniques, via hormonal induction, for Longspine scraper, Capoeta trutta. Fish were administered injections of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) containing anti-dopaminergic drug (Domperidone) or saline (control). The incidence of ovulation, gamete quality, embryonic development, and larval survival was then examined with serum steroid levels and ovary histology. Saline group failed to spawn, whereas sGnRHa accelerated final oocyte maturation (FOM) and induced spawning. Fish treated with sGnRHa showed an increase in gonadosomatic index, egg diameter and wet weight relative to controls. Average absolute fecundity, relative fecundity, fertilization and hatching rates were 8237,712 eggs/spawn, 45.52 eggs/g body weight, 95.50%, and 81%, respectively. Histology revealed a higher number of oocytes at FOM in response to sGnRHa and this was accompanied by increasing levels (∼4-fold) of 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one. 17β-estradiol levels also declined upon FOM in sGnRHa treated fish. Embryonic development closely resembled the teleost scheme, despite variation in timing. Larval survival at 1 and 12days post-hatch were 97% and 95.08%, respectively. Results suggest that sGnRHa is efficient for ovulation/spawning in C. trutta for stock enhancement or hatchery purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T03:48:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.009
    • Authors: C.C.L. Fernandes; L.H. Aguiar; C.E.M. Calderón; A.M. Silva; J.P.M. Alves; R. Rossetto; L.R. Bertolini; M. Bertolini; D. Rondina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): C.C.L. Fernandes, L.H. Aguiar, C.E.M. Calderón, A.M. Silva, J.P.M. Alves, R. Rossetto, L.R. Bertolini, M. Bertolini, D. Rondina
      Changes in the nutritional plan have been shown to affect oocyte quality, crucial to oocyte donors animals used in cloning. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of diets with increasing nutritional levels (maintenance diet=M; 1.3M; 1.6M; 1.9M) fed to goats for four weeks on follicular fluid composition, gene expression and oocyte competence used to cloning in goats. Donor females were superovulated for the retrieval of matured oocytes and physical measurements reported. After four weeks, groups receiving diets above maintenance increased thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue and body weight, with higher values in 1.9M Group (P<0.05). Treatments did not affect follicular density, number of aspirated follicles, retrieved and matured oocytes. Animals from 1.3M group had lower (P<0.05) maturation rate (44.0%) and number of viable oocytes (65.3%) than M (68.8%) and 1.9M (76.0%). Follicular fluid glucose concentrations increased with nutritional levels (P=0.010), with a difference (P<0.05) between groups 1.9M (11.4±2.6mg/dL) and M (2.6±0.5mg/dL). The diet did not affect the expression of GDF9, BMP15, and BAX genes in oocytes, but BCL2 and apoptotic index were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the 1.3M and 1.6M groups than the other groups. Following the transfer of cloned embryos, one fetus was born live of a twin pregnancy in the 1.9M Group. The association between energy intake and oocyte quality suggests better nutritional use by oocytes when the maximum flow was used (1.9M), but the optimal feeding level in cloning still needs refinement.

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T03:48:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.012
  • Effect of liquid helium vitrification on cytoskeleton of immature cattle
    • Authors: Xian Fei Guo; Xue Li Yu; Fan Zhang; Hua Wu; Xu Zhe Pei; Xiao Xia Li; Ying Hua Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Xian Fei Guo, Xue Li Yu, Fan Zhang, Hua Wu, Xu Zhe Pei, Xiao Xia Li, Ying Hua Li
      The developmental potential and the changes in cytoskeleton structures in immature oocytes of cattle resulting from liquid helium (LHe) vitrification was evaluated in this study. Immature oocytes were randomly divided into three groups: fresh oocytes (negative control), oocytes vitrified in liquid nitrogen (LN group, positive control), and oocytes vitrified in LHe (LHe group). In Experiment 1, the proportions for normal morphology, maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst were greater in the LHe group than in the LN group (88.3% compared with 79.1%, 51.7% compared with 43.3%, 42.6% compared with 33.0%, and 11.0% compared with 4.7%, respectively; P< 0.05), and the rates of oocyte development were greater in the control group (100%, 72.8%, 64.3%, and 40.3%) than in the vitrified groups (P <0.05). In Experiment 2, the effect of vitrification by LHe and LN on cytoskeleton of cattle oocytes was examined. The cytoskeleton had varying degrees of damage, and the negative influence of LHe vitrification on the cytoskeleton was less than that of LN vitrification (P <0.05), and the vitrified group had greater cytoskeleton degeneration than the control group (P <0.05). In conclusion, LHe vitrification reduced the negative effect of cryoinjury on cytoskeleton structure and improved the viability of immature oocytes of cattle compared with LN vitrification.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T14:46:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.010
  • Comparison of DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm of dogs
           using Sperm Chromatin Structure Analysis and Sperm Chromatin Dispersion
    • Authors: I. Ortiz; M. Urbano; J. Dorado; J.M. Morrell; E. Al-Essawe; A. Johannisson; M. Hidalgo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): I. Ortiz, M. Urbano, J. Dorado, J.M. Morrell, E. Al-Essawe, A. Johannisson, M. Hidalgo
      The aim of this study was to compare sperm DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm of dogs using the SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay) and SCDt (Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test). For this purpose, epididymis from neutered dogs were minced and incubated in a Tris-based extender. The recovered sperm were frozen in a two-step cooling protocol with Tris-based, egg yolk extender and increasing glycerol concentrations, and stored in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, each replica was incubated at 38°C for 24h. Sperm DNA fragmentation index (sDFi) was assessed by SCSA and SCDt at 0, 3, 6 and 24h of incubation and compared within treatments. The relationship and agreement between techniques were evaluated by Pearson’s coefficient and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The results were expressed as mean±standard error of the mean (SEM). Both techniques indicated there was a significant increase of DNA fragmentation after 24h of incubation. Moderate correlation (r=0.65; P<0.01) but lack of agreement (ICC=0.451; P>0.05) was found between SCSA and SCDt. The lack of agreement indicates that SCSA and SCDt measure different aspects of DNA fragmentation. Four halo morphologies were detected after 24h of incubation using the SCDt: un-fragmented DNA with a small halo, fragmented DNA with large halo and two new halo presentations never described before for dog sperm: receding sperm with a disappearing halo and “bald” sperm without chromatin dispersion halo around the core. Sperm without a halo of chromatin dispersion are not described by the manufacturer and are similar to un-fragmented sperm, which could lead to erroneous results when using the SCDt. Further studies with different incubation periods and including the new morphologies described in this study should be performed. In conclusion, although SCSA and SCDt can evaluate the changes in the sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics of frozen-thawed epididymal dog sperm, these provided different findings on sperm DNA fragmentation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T14:46:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.007
  • PTGER2 activation induces PTGS-2 and growth factor gene expression in
           endometrial epithelial cells of cattle
    • Authors: Long Gao; Liu Wei Mao Ruifeng Gao Shuangyi Zhang Duritahala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Long Gao, Bo Liu, Wei Mao, Ruifeng Gao, Shuangyi Zhang, Duritahala, Changqi Fu, Yuan Shen, Ying Zhang, Nan Zhang, Jindi Wu, Yang Deng, Xing Wu, Jinshan Cao
      The prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (PTGER2) is present in the endometrium and its gene expression is accompanied with endometrial growth, however, it is unknown whether there is endometrial repair through stimulation of growth factor gene expression that is promoted by PTGER2 activation in cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PTGER2 activation can induce prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS-2) and growth factor gene expression by activating PKA and ERK signaling pathways in endometrial epithelial cells of cattle. Results demonstrated that the PTGER2 agonist, butaprost, induced cAMP/PKA and ERK activation and up-regulated PTGS-2, VEGF, CTGF, TGF-β1 and IL-8 gene expression. These activations were less after PTGER2 antagonist, AH6809, treatment. Data suggested that PTGS-2 gene expression was induced by PTGER2 activation through the PKA and ERK pathways. Furthermore, PTGER2 activation promoted several growth factor gene expressions in endometrial epithelial cells. One potential implication of this finding is that PTGER2 activation in the endometrium of cattle could induce endometrial repair by stimulating VEGF, CTGF, TGF-β1 and IL-8 gene expression.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T20:05:08Z
  • Inhibition of deubiquitinases alters gamete ubiquitination states and
           sperm-oocyte binding ability in pigs
    • Authors: Yang Wang; Lili Zhuang Xuan Chen Man Zuochen Jin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Yang Wang, Lili Zhuang, Xuan Chen, Man Xu, Zuochen Li, Yi Jin
      This study was undertaken to investigate the dynamics of protein ubiquitination in pig gametes and their micro-environments, as well as to explore the action of deubiquitinases (DUBs) in sperm-oocyte binding. Protein ubiquitination states were evaluated by in the ejaculated sperm, seminal plasma, epididymal sperm, oocytes, zona pellucida (ZP) and follicular fluid (FF) by western blotting. Different concentrations of PR-619, a non-selective inhibitor of DUBs, were used to treat oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM), the maturation rate, amount of ubiquitinated ZP proteins, and ZP solubility were assessed. The PR-619 was also used to treat sperms during capacitation, then the ubiquitinated amounts of acrosin inhibitor (AI) proteins were evaluated. The number of sperm attached to the ZP of each oocyte was subsequently determined after gamete co-incubation. The study indicates the existence of ubiquitinated proteins (76kDa) in sperm, seminal plasma, oocytes, and follicular fluid (FF). The amount of ubiquitinated ZP proteins changed as growth of follicles progressed. Treatment with PR-619 at 10 and 15μM concentrations during IVM reduced the maturation rate of pig oocytes (P <0.05), while treatments with 10μM of PR-619 extended the ZP dissolution time (P <0.05). Treatment with PR-619 enhanced AI ubiquitination and improved amounts of 30-kDa ubiquitinated proteins (P <0.05). Treatment with PR-619 at the 10μM dose effectively reduced the number of sperm attached to per oocyte (P< 0.05). Ubiquitinated proteins were present in gametes and their micro-environments. The DUBs were important in regulating pig gamete ubiquitination and sperm-oocyte binding.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T20:05:08Z
  • Oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early maternal recognition of
           pregnancy (MRP) in alpacas
    • Authors: Michela Ciccarelli; Muhammad Salman Waqas James Pru Ahmed Tibary
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Michela Ciccarelli, Muhammad Salman Waqas, James K. Pru, Ahmed Tibary
      Pregnancy maintenance depends on the maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), a physiological process by which the lifespan of the corpus luteum is prolonged. This mechanism is not well characterized in camelids. The objectives of the present research were to determine if exogenous oxytocin prolongs the corpus luteum activity in alpacas and to evaluate expression and localization of oxytocin receptors within the endometrium at 9 and 14days post-mating. In the oxytocin studies, plasma progesterone profiles were determined after ovulation in the same alpacas on 2 cycles: one cycle without oxytocin treatment and one cycle with oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin was administered daily by intramuscular injections (IM) at a dose of 20IU (experiment 1, n=6) or 60IU (experiment 2, n=7 from day 3 through day 10 after induction of ovulation with GnRH IM. There was no significant difference in the length of the luteal phase (i.e. corpus luteum lifespan) between the treated and control cycles using either 20 or 60IU of oxytocin. In the final experiment, uteri from open and pregnant alpacas (n=4 per group) at 9 and 14days post-mating were evaluated for expressions of oxytocin receptors by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference (P≤0.05) in the expression of oxytocin receptors was observed between open and pregnant animals in either staining intensity or tissue localization. We conclude that oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early MRP in alpacas.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T20:05:08Z
  • Sperm subpopulations in ejaculated sperm and spermatozoa recovered from
           ovine epididymides up to 48h after death
    • Authors: Tácia Gomes Bergstein-Galan; Romildo Romualdo Weiss; Luiz Ernandes Kozicki; Sony Dimas Bicudo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Tácia Gomes Bergstein-Galan, Romildo Romualdo Weiss, Luiz Ernandes Kozicki, Sony Dimas Bicudo
      The objectives of this study were threefold: to identify subpopulations of sperm based on the kinetics of frozen/thawed sheep epididymal spermatozoa or semen collected with an artificial vagina; to evaluate the effects on sperm subpopulations in the thawed samples of post mortem storage at room temperature and the addition of 20% of seminal plasma to the freezing extender and to correlate the percentage of subpopulations with gestation rate following artificial intrauterine insemination. The categorization of the subpopulations was based on sperm kinetic data from Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA). A hundred ewes were inseminated with thawed spermatozoa and gestation rate was correlated with the proportions of each subpopulation using Pearson correlation matrix and linear regression. Three distinct subpopulations were identified in the thawed samples of either ovine ejaculate collected in artificial vaginas (AV) or ovine spermatozoa retrieved from the cauda epididymis. Subpopulation 1 (SP1) was characterized by spermatozoa with slow and non-linear motion, subpopulation 2 (SP2) was classified as hyperactived spermatozoa and subpopulation 3 (SP3) was composed of spermatozoa with fast, linear motion. The largest subpopulation in all groups was SP1. The semen collected in an artificial vagina had a higher (P<0.05) percentage of SP2 and lower (P<0.05) percentage of SP1 when compared to spermatozoa recovered after death. Increasing time of storage after death had a detrimental effect on sperm samples, increasing (P<0.05) the percentage of SP1 and decreasing (P<0.05) SP2. Length of storage after death was the only variable that influenced, with an inversely proportional relationship, SP3. In samples stored for 48h after death no SP3 spermatozoa were present. The addition of seminal plasma to the cryopreservative decreased (P<0.05) the subpopulation of hyperactived spermatozoa (SP2). We conclude that, after thawing there are three sperm subpopulations in the spermatozoa obtained from the cauda epididymides and the semen collected in AVs and that the relative proportions of these subpopulations varies with the time of storage post mortem and the presence of 20% of seminal plasma in the extender. However, we conclude that these subpopulations do not correlate with fertility after intrauterine artificial insemination.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T20:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.001
  • Effect of season on follicular population, quality and nuclear maturation
           of bovine oocytes under tropical conditions
    • Authors: Jorge Alonso Peralta-Torres; Jesús Ricardo Aké-López; José Candelario Segura-Correa; Jesús Ricardo Aké-Villanueva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Jorge Alonso Peralta-Torres, Jesús Ricardo Aké-López, José Candelario Segura-Correa, Jesús Ricardo Aké-Villanueva
      The aim was to determine the effect of season of the year and the presence of a corpus luteum (CL) on follicular population (FP) and the quality of the oocytes, and of season on nuclear maturation of the bovine oocytes under tropical conditions. Three seasons were evaluated: hot-dry (March–June), hot-humid (July–October) and fresh-humid (November–February). In a first study, 1112 bovine ovaries were obtained from a local slaughterhouse. Follicles were classified as small (≤4mm), middle (4.1–8mm) and large (≥8.1mm); and the maximum diameter of the follicle (MDF) and CL (MDCL) were also recorded. The oocytes were collected by aspiration and classified as viable (grade I and II) and damaged (grade III and IV). In the second study, 2261 viable oocytes were matured in vitro, and then fixed and stained with Lacmoid to classify the stage of development as mature (metaphase II), immature or degenerate. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and chi-square procedures. The largest FP of large follicles (0.67), MDF (1.18mm), MDCL (1.87mm), and the highest proportion of viable oocytes (34.19%) were obtained during the hot-humid season (P<0.05). The ovaries without CL had the greatest FP (10.34) with more viable oocytes (24.44%). The highest proportion of mature oocytes (76.92%) was also obtained in the hot-humid season. In conclusion, season influenced FP, MDF, MDCL, and the quality and nuclear maturation of oocytes. The presence of a CL in the ovary resulted in a decrease of FP and viability of oocytes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T20:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.004
  • Prediction of calving time in dairy cattle
    • Authors: Fadul Mahmoud; Bogdahn Christopher; Alsaaod Maher; Hüsler Jürg; Starke Alexander; Steiner Adrian; Hirsbrunner Gaby
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Fadul Mahmoud, Bogdahn Christopher, Alsaaod Maher, Hüsler Jürg, Starke Alexander, Steiner Adrian, Hirsbrunner Gaby
      This prospective study was carried out to predict the calving time in primiparous (n=11) and multiparous (n=22) Holstein-Friesian cows using the combination of data obtained from the RumiWatch noseband-sensor and 3D-accelerometer. The animals included in the study were fitted with the RumiWatch noseband-sensor and 3D-accelerometer at least 10days before the expected calving day. The calving event was defined as the time of the first appearance of the calves’ feet outside the vulva, and this moment was determined by farm staff and/or confirmed by video monitor. As primiparous and multiparous cows behaved differently, two models including data of noseband-sensors and 3D-accelerometers were used to predict the calving time in each group. Lying bouts (LB) increased and rumination chews (RC) decreased similarly in both groups; besides that, boluses (B) decreased and other activities (OA) increased significantly in multiparous and primiparous cows, respectively. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for prediction of the onset of calving within the next 3h were determined with the logistic regression and ROC analysis (Se=88.9%, 85% and Sp=93.3%, 74% for multiparous and primiparous cows, respectively). This pilot study revealed that the RumiWatch system is a useful tool to predict calving time under farm conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T20:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.003
  • Fetal sex alters maternal anti-Mullerian hormone during pregnancy in
    • Authors: Anja Stojsin-Carter; Nathalia N. Costa; Rodrigo De Morais; Tiago H. De Bem; Mayra P. Costa; Timothy F. Carter; Daniel J. Gillis; Michael S. Neal; Otavio M. Ohashi; Moyses S. Miranda; Flavio V. Meirelles; Laura A. Favetta; W. Allan King
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Anja Stojsin-Carter, Nathalia N. Costa, Rodrigo De Morais, Tiago H. De Bem, Mayra P. Costa, Timothy F. Carter, Daniel J. Gillis, Michael S. Neal, Otavio M. Ohashi, Moyses S. Miranda, Flavio V. Meirelles, Laura A. Favetta, W. Allan King
      Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by both male and female fetuses during mammalian development, with males expressing AMH earlier and at significantly higher concentration. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential impact of pregnancy and fetal sex on maternal AMH and to determine if plasma (Pl) AMH or placenta intercotyledonary membrane and cotyledonary AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) mRNA expression differ in pregnant cows carrying male vs. female fetuses. AMH levels in blood were measured using a bovine optimized ELISA kit. Cows pregnant with a male fetus were observed to have a significantly greater difference in Pl AMH between day 35 and 135 of gestation. Average fetal AMH level between 54 and 220days of gestation was also observed to be significantly higher in male vs. female fetuses. Intercotyledonary membranes and cotyledons were found to express AMHR2 between days 38 and 80 of gestation at similar levels in both fetal sexes. These findings support the hypothesis that fetal sex alters maternal Pl AMH during pregnancy in cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T05:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.010
  • Current status of the role of endothelins in regulating ovarian follicular
           function: a review
    • Authors: J.M. Ervin; L.F. Schütz; L.J. Spicer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): J.M. Ervin, L.F. Schütz, L.J. Spicer
      Endothelins (EDN) are a group of vasoactive 21 amino acid peptides reported to play roles in steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and ovulation. EDN1, EDN2 and EDN3 have all been shown to affect granulosa cell (GC) function in a variety of mammalians species. Herewithin, the role of EDN in regulating steroidogenesis and ovarian follicular development is reviewed, focusing on the localization and function of EDN and their receptors in ovarian follicular function emphasizing species differences. For example, in single ovulating species such as humans and cattle, in the presence of trophic hormones such as FSH and IGF1, EDN1 and EDN2 significantly inhibited GC estradiol production in 2 of 4 studies, while no effect was observed for GC progesterone production in 2 of 4 studies. In contrast, EDN1 exhibited inhibitory effects on progesterone production by GC in 3 of 3 studies in pigs and 3 of 4 studies in rats. Also, EDN1 inhibited GC estradiol production in 4 of 5 studies in rats. Altogether, these results indicate that EDN are produced by ovarian follicles and are involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis of GC of several mammalian species including humans, cattle, pigs and rats, but that these effects may vary with species and culture condition.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T05:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.008
  • Pregnancy-associated changes in expression of progesterone receptor and
           progesterone-induced blocking factor genes in bone marrow of ewes
    • Authors: Le-Ying Zhang; Hao Mi; Jin-Kun Yan; Xian-Xi Yan; Ling Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Le-Ying Zhang, Hao Mi, Jin-Kun Yan, Xian-Xi Yan, Ling Yang
      Progesterone (P4) regulates reproductive and immune functions through binding to the progesterone receptor (PGR), and the effects of P4 are partly mediated by a progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF). Bone marrow (BM) is a key component of the lymphatic system and has an important role in immune response. In this study, BM was harvested from femurs on days 13, 16 and 25 of pregnancy and day 16 of the estrous cycles without mated by intact rams, and a qRT-PCR assay, Western blot and an immunohistochemistry analysis were used to analyze the expression of PGR and PIBF genes in BM. The results showed that there was an increase in relative abundance of PGR and PIBF mRNA in BM during early pregnancy, and PGR-B and the full-length PIBF genes were up-regulated in pregnant ewes. Immunohistochemistry results confirmed that the PGR and PIBF proteins were localized in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of adipocytes and the cells in the stroma and capillaries. This is the first study reporting an up-regulated expression of PGR-B and full-length PIBF genes in BM during early pregnancy in sheep. It is suggested that the conceptus exerted its effects on the adipocytes and the cells in the stroma and capillaries in BM, which were involved in the immunoregulation of BM through both cytosolic and nuclear pathways in ewes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T05:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.007
  • Improvement of liquid stored boar semen quality by removing low molecular
           weight proteins and supplementation with α-tocopherol
    • Authors: M. Zakošek Pipan; J. Mrkun; A. Nemec Svete; P. Zrimšek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): M. Zakošek Pipan, J. Mrkun, A. Nemec Svete, P. Zrimšek
      Seminal plasma contains low-molecular weight components that can exert a harmful effect on sperm function. We have evaluated the effects of removing low-molecular weight components from seminal plasma and adding α-tocopherol on boar semen quality after 72h of liquid storage. Semen was evaluated on the basis of motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane modifications, mitochondrial activity, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostane, and antioxidant status (total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD)) were measured in seminal plasma. Removal of low-molecular weight components from seminal plasma, together with the addition of α-tocopherol, kept the lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial activity and DNA fragmentation at the same level as in native semen samples. Dialysing semen and adding 200μM of α-tocopherol led to higher progressive motility, a higher proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa and a significantly lower level of acrosomal reacted spermatozoa compared to non-dialyzed semen samples after 72h of storage. In conclusion, liquid stored boar semen was better preserved, and oxidative stress in the semen was reduced when semen was dialyzed and α-tocopherol was added prior to storage.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T05:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.004
  • Beneficial effects of dietary soluble fiber supplementation in replacement
           gilts: Pubertal onset and subsequent performance
    • Authors: Yong Zhuo; Xiaolin Shi; Gang Lv; Lun Hua; Pan Zhou; Liangqiang Che; Zhengfeng Fang; Yan Lin; Shengyu Xu; Jian Li; Bin Feng; De Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Yong Zhuo, Xiaolin Shi, Gang Lv, Lun Hua, Pan Zhou, Liangqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Jian Li, Bin Feng, De Wu
      The aim of this study was to examine the effects of soluble fiber supplementation prior to puberty on age at puberty and subsequent reproductive performance of gilts. A total of 136 gilts of similar body weight (BW, 60.59±7.02kg) and age (140±10 days) were fed a control diet (CON) or control diet supplemented with 0.8% soluble fiber (SF) until mating at the third estrus. Circulating concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, and estradiol in gilts fed the SF diet were lower than in CON gilts at 205d of age. Compared with CON-fed gilts, the SF-fed gilts attained observed puberty 15.6d earlier (P< 0.05), at a 12.2kg lower body weight, and a 0.84mm lower backfat thickness at the P2 point (P <0.05). The total number of piglets born, the number born alive, and average birthweight, were not affected by diet (P >0.05). However, the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) was lower for SF gilts (4.62%) than for CON gilts (11.3%) (P< 0.05). There was also a greater intra-litter uniformity (P< 0.05) and a tendency for a higher number of piglets born in the SF gilts compared with the CON gilts (P =0.07). In summary, prepubescent dietary soluble fiber supplementation can reduce the age at puberty in gilts and increase their subsequent reproductive performance as sows.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T05:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.08.007
  • High energetic cost of oviposition in an edible marine gastropod
    • Authors: Andrés Averbuj; Daniel Fernández; Pablo E. Penchaszadeh; Gregorio Bigatti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Andrés Averbuj, Daniel Fernández, Pablo E. Penchaszadeh, Gregorio Bigatti
      The edible neogastropod Buccinanops cochlidium from Patagonia, Argentina, reproduces by means of egg capsules attached by the female to its own shell. Gravid females lay an outstanding mean of 500,000 eggs that nurse around 800 embryos, which hatch as crawling juveniles (4mm in shell length) after four months of intracapsular development. This reproductive investment could be expressed as the energy content (EC) estimated for the production of a complete egg mass (33.94±12.85 KJ), representing a conservative estimation of the total EC needed for an adult female to spawn, which is in average ∼12% of the total EC in gravid females. This high maternal investment allows a considerable offspring size, which confers them high survival chances. A translocation of energy stored in the foot during the oviposition season is shown in a relative decrease of ∼10% in the foot EC in respect of the total EC (61.8% in non-gravid females vs. 51.3% in gravid females). Gravid females showed significantly higher body wet mass/shell length index and higher total EC than non-gravid females (266.0±66.4 KJ vs. 184.3±69.6 KJ), suggesting that a body condition threshold is required for females to reproduce. These values represent an energetic surplus of over 40% of the total EC per individual when compared to non-gravid females. Protecting gravid females from fisheries would ensure the sustainability of the resource and must be taken into account when establishing fisheries policies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T05:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.005
  • Luteolytic efficiency of reduced doses of cloprostenol in the ewe. Effect
           of progesterone concentrations at the time of treatment
    • Authors: Luz María Granados-Villarreal; Luis Zarco; Octavio Mejía; María Teresa Sánchez-Torres; José Luis Pablos-Hach
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Luz María Granados-Villarreal, Luis Zarco, Octavio Mejía, María Teresa Sánchez-Torres, José Luis Pablos-Hach
      Seventy six ewes were treated with 7.5, 12.5, 25 or 50μg of cloprostenol on day 6 or 9 post-estrus to compare the luteolytic efficiency of the PGF2α analogue at each stage and to evaluate if progesterone concentrations at the time of treatment affect such efficiency. Blood samples were obtained before cloprostenol administration and 12, 24, 48, and 72h thereafter. There was an effect of dose (p<0.05) but not of day post-estrus on the proportion of animals completing luteolysis. As the dose increased, the proportion of ewes completing luteolysis also increased. Also, as the dose increased from 7.5 to 25μg, more ewes showed a transient progesterone decline instead of an absence of response, indicating that in some ewes reduced doses initiated luteolysis but were not able to finish the process. Since the dose of 25μg resulted in close to 50% luteolytic efficacy, this group was used to study the effects of progesterone concentrations at the time of treatment on the response to cloprostenol. Pre-treatment progesterone concentrations were higher (p<0.01) in ewes experiencing luteolytic failure than in those that completed luteolysis. There was a negative correlation between initial progesterone concentrations and their reduction by 12h post-treatment. It is concluded that high progesterone concentrations are associated with a reduction in sensitivity to small doses of cloprostenol. Possible mechanisms and implications of this luteoprotective effect are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T05:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.006
  • Nanos2 is a molecular marker of inchoate buffalo spermatogonia
    • Authors: Meng-Qi Li; Ao-Lin Luo; Peng-Wei Zhao; Ting-Ting Li; Shuang-Shuang Geng; Xing-Wei Liang; Hui-Yan Xu; Yang-Qing Lu; Sheng-Sheng Lu; Xiao-Gan Yang; Ke-Huan Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Meng-Qi Li, Ao-Lin Luo, Peng-Wei Zhao, Ting-Ting Li, Shuang-Shuang Geng, Xing-Wei Liang, Hui-Yan Xu, Yang-Qing Lu, Sheng-Sheng Lu, Xiao-Gan Yang, Ke-Huan Lu
      Nanos2 belongs to the Nanos gene-coding family and is an important RNA-binding protein that has been shown to have essential roles in male germline stem cells development and self-renewal in mouse. However, little is known about Nanos2 in inchoate buffalo spermatogonia. Here, rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the full-length buffalo Nanos2 sequence and bioinformatic analysis revealed a highly conserved Nanos2 sequence between buffalo and other mammalian species. Although Nanos2 was expressed in various tissues, the highest mRNA expression levels were found in testes tissue. Moreover, Nanos2 mRNA was abundant in fetal and pre-puberal testes but markedly decreased in the testes of adults. At the protein level, immunohistochemistry in pre-puberal testes revealed a pattern of NANOS2 expression similar to that for the undifferentiated type A spermatogonia marker PGP9.5. Furthermore, NANOS2 expression was low in adult testes and restricted to elongating spermatids. Altogether, our data suggest that Nanos2 is a potential preliminary molecular marker of inchoate buffalo spermatogonia, and may play an important role in buffalo spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) development and self-renewal, as has been observed in other model animals.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T20:31:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.002
  • Effects of GnRHR polymorphisms on sperm quality in Chinese water buffalo
    • Authors: Gang Wang; Linlin Hao; Yunyun Cheng; Shuai Li; Yu Zhang; Chen Lv; Wenzhen Wei; Shan Huang; Hongyu Shi; Lijie Dong; Yifan Zhang; Hao Yu; Jiabao Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Gang Wang, Linlin Hao, Yunyun Cheng, Shuai Li, Yu Zhang, Chen Lv, Wenzhen Wei, Shan Huang, Hongyu Shi, Lijie Dong, Yifan Zhang, Hao Yu, Jiabao Zhang
      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) plays a critical physiological role in animal reproduction and is a potential marker for improving sperm quality. In the present study, eight SNPs (g.539T>C, g.640A>G, g.655T>C, g.707T>C, g.812A>G, g.18951A>T g.16867T>C and g.18953Indel GGCAAAGTAA) were detected in the GnRHR gene from one-hundred-sixty-five water buffalo by direct sequencing and identification of overlapping peaks. All SNPs were associated significantly with the ejaculate volume and two genes (g.655T>C and g.707T>C) were correlated with sperm abnormalities. Furthermore, three haplotypes (H1:TAI, H2:CT-, and H3:TT-) were identified by linkage disequilibrium analysis and were composed of four combined genotypes. Notably, buffalo with the combined genotypes H1H2 and H1H3 had the higher ejaculate volume compared to the other combined genotypes. Among the eight SNPs and four combined genotypes, the deletion of GGCAAAGTAA at position 18953bp in GnRHR was associated significantly with a higher ejaculate volume. Moreover, the GGCAAAGTAA deletion may lead to the miR8661 binding failure and subsequent changes in GnRHR gene expression. In the present study, we demonstrate that there is a significant association between SNPs in the GnRHR gene and the sperm ejaculate volume of Chinese water buffalo. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to address the association between the SNPs in the GnRHR gene and the sperm quality of Chinese buffalo.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T05:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.09.001
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