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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3123 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3120 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 378, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 370, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)

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Journal Cover Animal Reproduction Science
  [SJR: 0.711]   [H-I: 78]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-4320
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Regulation of conceptus interferon-tau gene subtypes expressed in the
           uterus during the peri-implantation period of cattle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Min-Su Kim, Kwan-Sik Min, Hwan-Hoo Seong, Chan-Lan Kim, Ik Soo Jeon, Sung Woo Kim, Kazuhiko Imakawa
      Conceptus interferon tau (IFNT), produced by the embryonic trophectoderm, is known as a major signaling protein essential for the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. Similar to other IFN gene families such as IFNA and IFNB, multiple IFNT genes exist. The number of IFNT genes actively transcribed and regulated in conceptuses of cattle has, however, not been well characterized. In this study, IFNT transcripts in utero were studied through the use of next generation sequencer. Among 38 IFN genes registered and eight annotated as IFNT, only two transcripts, IFNT1 and IFNTc1, were found in conceptuses in utero. Relative abundance of transcription factor(s) involved in the regulation of IFNT genes were investigated by real-time PCR. Transcriptional activity of IFNT1 and IFNTc1 were investigated using bovine non-trophoblast ear fibroblast (EF) cells, which were co-transfected with luciferase reporter constructs with upstream (−631 to −51) promoter regions of IFNT1 or IFNTc1 and various transcription factor expression plasmids, CDX2, AP1 (JUN), ETS2 and/or CREBBP. CDX2 with AP1 and ETS2 was found to increase luciferase activity of IFNT1 and IFNTc1 approximately 14- and 11-fold, respectively, in EF cells, which do not express the CDX2 gene. These results indicated that two isoforms of conceptus IFNT genes of cattle could be regulated differently in utero. Furthermore, IFNT1 and IFNTc1 were found to have similar antiviral activity, suggesting that both IFNT genes could function to increase conceptus signaling to the uterine endometrium for the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy during the pre-implantation period.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Seminal plasma differentially alters the resistance of dog, ram and boar
           spermatozoa to hypotonic stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Guillaume Tsikis, Karine Reynaud, Stéphane Ferchaud, Xavier Druart
      During ejaculation and the deposition in the female genital tract, spermatozoa undergo hypo-osmotic stress and need to withstand it for optimal fertility. Resistance to hypo-osmotic stress may be affected by the interaction of the spermatozoa with seminal fluid components. The hypo-osmotic resistance of epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa from dogs, rams and boars was assessed by flow cytometric measurement of sperm viability after incubation in NaCl solutions with osmolalities ranging from 0 to 300 mmol/kg. The hypotonic resistance of epididymal spermatozoa was greater than those of ejaculated spermatozoa in all three species. Among species comparison revealed that ejaculated spermatozoa from dogs were much more resistant than those from rams and boars as 80.4 ± 5.3%, 56.7 ± 4.7 and 9.6 ± 3.6% of live spermatozoa were observed following exposure to an osmolality of 90 mmol/kg in dogs, rams and boars respectively. This can be explained by the fact that dog, ram and boar differ markedly in composition of the seminal plasma owing to the presence (ram, boar) or absence (dog) of seminal vesicles. Hypotonic resistance of epididymal and ejaculated dog spermatozoa was similar whereas ram and boar spermatozoa showed a marked drop in resistance after ejaculation. The in vitro incubation of boar epididymal spermatozoa with raw seminal plasma or the seminal plasma protein fraction induced a similar loss of resistance, suggesting that seminal proteins are involved in the lack of resistance to hypotonic stress of boar ejaculated spermatozoa.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Effects of parity on productive, reproductive, metabolic and hormonal
           responses of Holstein cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Jéssica Tatiana Morales Piñeyrúa, Santiago Rafael Fariña, Alejandro Mendoza
      The objective of this study was to determine the effects that parity may have on production, reproduction and the metabolic status of Holstein cows managed in a production system based on total mixed ration and pasture. Primiparous (n= 22) and multiparous (n= 24) cows from a dairy farm research station in Uruguay were used in a completely randomized design. Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and backfat thickness (BFT) were recorded weekly from −30 to 70 days postpartum. Milk production was measured daily, and milk composition was determined weekly. Resumption of postpartum ovarian activity and progesterone profiles were measured three times a week based on milk progesterone. Blood was collected to determine the levels of glucose, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1), insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), albumin, total protein and cholesterol. Milk production and components were lower for primiparous cows (p< 0.01) than multiparous cows. Body weights were also lower in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows (p< 0.05); however, BCS and BFT were greater (p< 0.01) in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows. Primiparous cows had greater levels of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and lower concentrations of NEFA and BHB (p<0.01) than multiparous cows. The intervals from calving to first ovulation were not affected by parity; however, primiparous cows showed less abnormal cycles (27.2%) than multiparous cows (50.0%) (p< 0.01). The present study found that a feeding system based on TMR and pasture was sufficient to produce over 25 L of milk per day without extending their calving to first ovulation interval in primiparous and multiparous cows. However, multiparous cows showed a greater imbalance in metabolic and hormonal profiles than primiparous cows, causing abnormal ovarian activity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • One year daily changes in fecal sexual steroids of two captive female
           cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus) in italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Valentina Vernocchi, Maria Giorgia Morselli, Massimo Faustini, Gianfranco Gabai, Laura Da Dalt, Gaia Cecilia Luvoni
      The present study evaluated changes of fecal sexual steroids in two female cheetahs (Geijsha and Duchessa) in Northern Italy throughout one year. Wet feces were collected daily from two sibling animals of the same age, housed with conspecific males and managed in the same conditions, and estrogens and progestogens concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Evidence of ovarian activity based on regular fluctuation in estrogen excretion was demonstrated in both females. None of the animals was continuously cycling, as follicular activity was interrupted by anestrous periods, during the spring and early winter. No significant increases of progestogens were recorded after the estrogen peaks, indicating that induced or spontaneous ovulations did not occur during the observation period. The wavelet decomposition evidenced the temporal pattern of ovarian activity in the two females, underlying throughout the year a more pronounced rhythmical ovarian estrogenic activity in Geijsha than in Duchessa. However, this statistical approach had a smoothing effect in depicting the hormonal patterns and the number of follicular phases might be lower than that revealed by the iterative method. In this study, RIA on wet feces performed very well to determine sexual steroid concentrations, and an ovarian activity interrupted by anestrous periods along the year in captive cheetahs co-housed in a small group was demonstrated. More information on estrous behavior of captive cheetahs were obtained in this study, but the effects of husbandry and management conditions on natural reproductive physiology of this species remain to elucidate.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Purification, structural and biophysical characterisation of the major
           seminal plasma protein from Texel rams
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): Manoel Augusto Klempovus Villela Condessa, Arethusa Lobo Pimentel, Flávio Augusto Vicente Seixas, Antonio Campanha Martinez
      Spermadhesins are a group of low molecular weight proteins present in seminal plasma. In Texel rams, they represent more than 70% of the seminal plasma proteins. Although their functions have not yet been fully clarified, there is much discussion about the role of these proteins in maintaining sperm viability during and after the semen freezing process. This work sought to isolate the major component of the seminal plasma from rams of the Texel breed (O. aries SPD2) and to evaluate its structural and biophysical characteristics in order to better understand its role in spermatic viability. The protein was isolated by centrifugation and ion exchange chromatography and its biophysical properties were evaluated by circular dichroism spectrometry. Molecular dynamics simulations of the modelled protein compared to the homologous bovine protein were also carried out. The results showed that O. aries SPD2 has a transition temperature (Tm ) of 65 °C and a ΔHm of 322.5 kJ mol−1, similar to the results for other spermadhesins described in the literature. The estimated composition of the secondary structure elements for the native protein is in agreement with that observed for the theoretical model. Its structural characteristics were preserved in simulations at temperatures of 27 °C and 40 °C, as was the case for bull spermadhesin. Taken together, these results suggest that the major component of the spermadhesins of Texel rams (O. aries SPD2) may play an important role in maintaining the viability of spermatozoa in fresh semen as well as after thawing.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Cryoprotective effect of glutamine, taurine, and proline on post-thaw
           semen quality and DNA integrity of donkey spermatozoa
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): M. Bottrel, D. Acha, I. Ortiz, M. Hidalgo, J. Gósalvez, J. Camisão, J. Dorado
      This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of amino acid addition to semen on post-thaw quality of donkey spermatozoa. Eighteen ejaculates were pooled and divided into aliquots which were cryopreserved in Gent A® containing 1% ethylene glycol (Gent-EG) and supplemented with 0 (as control), 20, 40, or 60 mM of glutamine, proline, or taurine. The greatest concentration (60 mM) of glutamine and taurine resulted in greater (P < 0.001) post-thaw sperm motility. Amino acid supplementation did not improve (P > 0.05) sperm morphology and membrane plasma integrity compared with the control samples. Whereas, improvement (P < 0.05) of acrosome integrity was observed with use of 60 mM glutamine. After thawing, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the sperm DNA fragmentation index (sDFI) among treatments. The 60 mM glutamine and 40 mM taurine treatments, however, resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in sDFI values in the first 6 h of semen incubation, compared with the control samples. At 24 h, the sDFI values were less (P < 0.05) in all supplemented as compared with control samples, except for the 20 mM proline treatment group. In conclusion, supplementation of the Gent-EG extender with glutamine or taurine at 60 mM improved post-thaw donkey sperm quality. The addition of proline to the freezing extender, however, did not provide any significant enhancement in sperm quality, compared with the control group.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Effects of long-term, near-term, and real-time energy balance, and blood
           progesterone concentrations, on the pregnancy rate of contemporary dairy
           cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): N.A. Gomez, A.J. Conley, P.H. Robinson
      This study aimed to contribute to understanding the interface between reproductive and nutritional energetic physiology in contemporary dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32) between 70 and 180 days in milk were used in a study starting 10 d prior to the artificial insemination (AI) date and were estrous synchronized using a hormonal regimen. Fourteen cows were determined pregnant on day 39 post-AI. Coccygeal blood samples of all cows were collected on d −10 and −3 prior to AI to determine estrous cyclicity, as well as at AI and at 6, 13 and 20 d post-AI. Milk progesterone was measured 20 d post-AI, and body condition was scored (BCS; 1–5 scale) on days −10, 0, 13 and 27 relative to AI. Blood non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, measured on the same days as BCS, and changes of BCS from d −10 to AI were not predictive of pregnancy outcome. The BCS of cows on the day of AI was greater (P = 0.02) for pregnant cows with an approximate minimum BCS for a high probability of conception being 2.50. Serum progesterone concentrations of pregnant cows were greater (P < 0.05) on days 6, 13 and 20 post-AI, as was milk progesterone at day 20 post-AI (P < 0.01). Pregnant cows had greater (P = 0.02) net energy output (NEL), which is inconsistent with a common belief that low pregnancy rates in contemporary dairy cows are due to excessive milk production, but is consistent with published studies in this study area. The present research indicates that current low pregnancy rates in commercial high-producing multiparous dairy cattle may be partly due to breeding cows that have insufficient BCS to support pregnancy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Increased testicular estradiol during the neonatal interval reduces
           Sertoli cell numbers
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 189
      Author(s): Trish Berger, Barbara J. Nitta-Oda
      Previous studies have demonstrated that reducing endogenous testicular estradiol in neonatal boars would stimulate increased proliferation of Sertoli cells during the neonatal interval. The objective of this experiment was to determine if increasing testicular estradiol would have the opposite effect of reducing Sertoli cell numbers during the neonatal interval. Five littermate pairs of boars were evaluated with one littermate receiving a silastic implant containing estradiol and the second receiving only silastic at 1.5 weeks of age. Testes were recovered at 6.5 weeks of age and Sertoli cell numbers determined. Littermates treated with exogenous estradiol had approximately two-thirds as many Sertoli cells as their control littermates (P < 0.001). This is additional evidence for regulation of Sertoli cell numbers during the neonatal interval by intra-testicular estradiol.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Effect of luteinizing hormone on goat theca cell apoptosis and
           steroidogenesis through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Xiaomei Wang, Pengda Zou, Yuanyuan He, Kai Meng, Fusheng Quan, Yong Zhang
      Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein that regulates the function of ovarian follicular cells. Theca cells (TCs) also have a key role in follicular growth and atresia. The effects and intracellular signaling mechanisms were investigated of LH on apoptosis and steroidogenesis in goat gonadotropin-independent follicular (1.0–4.0 mm) TCs. The results indicated that LH increased androstenedione secretion and relative abundance of CYP17A1 and BCL2 mRNA in the TCs, whereas LH in combination with LY294002, a PI3K/AKT inhibitor, decreased LH-induced function. The apoptosis ratio and expression of the BAX gene in TCs were less with LH treatment, and the extent of this inhibition was decreased by suppressing the PI3K/AKT pathway. In conclusion, results of the present study indicate LH regulates apoptosis and steroidogenesis in goat TCs by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Comparison of 3 anesthetic protocols for the elective cesarean-section in
           the dog: Effects on the bitch and the newborn puppies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): José M. Vilar, M. Batista, R. Pérez, A. Zagorskaia, E. Jouanisson, L. Díaz-Bertrana, S. Rosales
      This study assessed the influence of 3 different anesthetic protocols based on the quality of anesthesia induction and maintenance in four dog breeds (French Bulldog, n = 13; Yorkshire terrier, n = 12; Chihuahua, n = 10; Bull Terrier, n = 10) subjected to cesarean section. Neonatal mortality, birth defects and newborn viability were assessed. All females were pre-medicated with morphine (IM), and then were assigned to three different anesthetic protocols: group P (n = 17), anesthesia was induced with propofol (IV) and then also maintained with propofol until the complete delivery of puppies and then anesthesia was maintained afterwards with sevoflurane; group PS (n = 14), anesthesia was induced with IV propofol, and maintenance of the anesthesic plan was performed with sevoflurane; group PES (n = 14) the females were induced by propofol and an epidural anesthesia was then performed, anesthesia was then maintained with propofol until the complete extraction of all puppies and then anesthesia was maintained afterwards with sevoflurane. Throughout the surgery, group PES required a lower concentration of sevoflurane (p < 0.05), and extra doses of propofol or fentanyl during inhalatory anesthesia were not required. Mean values of heart rate (p < 0.01) were higher in females from groups P and PS. Mean values of blood pressure values were lower (p < 0.01) in group PES as compared with the other two groups. Birth defects were detected in 3.1% (5/162) of the neonates, with a significantly higher incidence (p < 0.05) in French bulldog puppies. Neonatal viability was assessed using a modified Apgar score model; Apgar score was defined immediately after delivery (Apgar0) and a second score was assessed 60 min after delivery (Apgar60). Apgar0 scores were significantly different between the groups, showing neonates of group PES the highest values (p < 0.05). In Apgar60, more than 94% of puppies were already classified as normal viability neonates (7–10 score) and no differences were observed between groups. This study confirmed that females of group PES showed a higher quality of anesthesia during surgery and a vitality of puppies immediately after delivery. Regardless of the anesthetic protocol used, French bulldog females and puppies required more clinical care than other breeds.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Changes in external osmolality and ionic composition affect Megaleporinus
           obtusidens sperm motility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Jurandir Joaquim Bernardes Júnior, Jhon Edison Jimenez, Robie Allan Bombardelli, Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer
      Understanding the effects of environmental factors on sperm motility characteristics can increase artificial reproduction efficiency in species that do not spawn naturally in captivity, such as Megaleporinus obtusidens. This study evaluated the effects of the osmolality (25, 85, 145, 205, 265, and 325 mOsm kg−1) and composition of activating solutions (NaCl, KCl, or fructose) on the percentage of motile sperm, and the swimming velocity and path straightness of M. obtusidens spermatozoa. The concentrations of major ions in the seminal fluid were also assessed and Na+ (74.46 mmol L−1), K+ (37.24 mmol L−1), and Cl− (114.29 mmol L−1) were the most abundant. When the activating solution was hypertonic (325 mOsm kg−1) compared to the seminal fluid (293 mOsm kg−1), sperm motility was completely inhibited. A wide range of osmolalities that initiated sperm motility were identified for all three solutions. Both, the percentage of motile sperm and the motility duration were reduced (P < .05) at extreme osmolalities. At 145 mOsm kg−1, the percentage of motile sperm remained high (>50%) up to 40 s after activation and the motile phase lasted for >50 s, regardless of the activating solution composition. Over the postactivation time, the curvilinear velocity and straightness were similar (P > .05) for fructose and NaCl solutions, whereas KCl solutions induced a higher (P < .05) curvilinear velocity, lower (P < .05) straight-line velocity, and a circular swimming motion in spermatozoa. Our results suggest that a reduction in osmolality, using both non-electrolyte and electrolyte solutions, is the main trigger for the onset of spermatic movement in M. obtusidens sperm.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Endometrial blood perfusion as assessed using a novel laser Doppler
           technique in Angus cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): M.P.T. Owen, K.J. McCarty, C.G. Hart, C.S. Steadman, C.O. Lemley
      Previous studies have characterized ovarian steroid synthesis which directly affects uterine environment and blood flow. Clearance of steroids occurs primarily in hepatic tissues, however, it was discovered that there is an abundant activity of the phase II steroid metabolizing enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in uterine biopsies. No minimally invasive techniques for collecting endometrial perfusion, which is affected by steroids and indicative of reproductive health, have been developed for livestock. The objective of the present study was to characterize UGT activity and endometrial blood perfusion during a normal estrous cycle of cattle. It was hypothesized that there would be increased steroid metabolism during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (CL). During the first synchronized estrous cycle, progesterone and UGT activity increased on Day 6 compared with 0 and 3, with the first day of estrus being considered Day 0 of the study. Endometrial perfusion was greater ipsilateral to the CL compared with contralateral on Day 12, and was less ipsilateral to the CL compared with contralateral on Day 18. Similar to perfusion results, nitric oxide metabolites (nitrites) were greatest in the endometrium ipsilateral as compared with contralateral to the CL. Moreover, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.28; P = 0.04) between endometrial perfusion and nitrite concentration. It is concluded that activity of UGT within the endometrium is affected by the contralateral or ipsilateral location of the CL, and collection of endometrial perfusion data using a laser Doppler probe could be a viable measurement technique as indicated by associated nitrite concentrations in the present study.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Reproductive responses to sexually active buck of does treated with
           melatonin when body weight/body condition is increasing or decreasing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): L. Gallego-Calvo, M.C. Gatica, J.L. Guzmán, L.A. Zarazaga
      When the sexual activity of bucks is minimal, there is a minimal male effect on does regardless of their body weight (BW)/body condition (BC) and whether does are treated with melatonin or not. The study examines whether sexually active bucks can induce an adequate male effect in does with an increasing or decreasing trajectory of change in BW/BC when does are or not treated with melatonin. During natural anoestrus, 46 Blanca Andaluza does were assigned to two groups: 1) low BW/low BC group in which does were fed 1.9 times maintenance requirements for dietary energy for gaining BW/BC (LLg group; n = 23); or 2) a high BW/high BC group in which the does were fed 0.4 times maintenance requirements for dietary energy that resulted in a loss of BW/BC (HHl group; n = 23). There were similar numbers of does in each group that were treated or not treated with melatonin (MEL). Following 48 days of isolation from bucks, four sexually active individuals fitted with marking harnesses were transferred to the paddock containing the does of each group. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture (before the distribution of concentrate) twice per week. The effect of the treatments (increasing or decreasing BW/BC and melatonin) on the different variables that were assessed were analysed using an ANOVA or the Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact probability test as necessary. During the 35 days after treatments were applied, the percentage of females expressing oestrous and having an ovulation were greater in the LLg + MEL than HHl-MEL subgroup (P < 0.05). The interaction of nutrition × melatonin treatment had a significant effect on reproduction of does (P < 0.05). This could be explained by the greater plasma glucose and IGF-1 and lesser plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in does with increasing BW/BC (P < 0.01), and the greater IGF-1 concentrations of MEL-treated females (P < 0.01). The LH concentration and pulsatile release of this hormone from the pituitary were also modified by the presence of the males (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the LLg + MEL-treated does were responsive to the presence of bucks (P < 0.05). The present results indicate sexually active males cannot induce an adequate reproductive response in females with decreasing BW/BC even when does are being treated with melatonin. The presence of bucks enhanced the doe reproductive response when does were treated with melatonin and a pattern of increasing BW/BC.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Effect of GnRH analogue administration on Day 7 after natural mating on
           formation accessory corpus luteum, progesterone concentration and
           conception rate in llamas (Lama glama)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Marcos C. Abalos, Francisco Acuña, Andrea K. Cancino, Juan F. Aller
      The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of exogenous GnRH administered 7 days after breeding on the formation of an accessory corpus luteum (ACL), plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and pregnancy rates. Adult females (n = 71) having a follicle ≥ 7 mm in diameter in the ovary were naturally mated (Day 0). On Day 7, ultrasonic examination was performed to confirm the occurrence of ovulation as evidenced by presence of an induced corpus luteum (ICL). Females with an ICL plus a dominant follicle ≥ 7 mm (n = 56) were treated with saline solution (SS, n = 29) or GnRH analogue (n = 27). On Day 14, the formation of an ACL was observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected on Days 7 and 14 to quantify plasma P4 concentrations. On Day 14, 21 of 27 (77.8%) females in the GnRH group developed an ACL, whereas females in the SS group did not. Progesterone concentrations on Day 7 and 14 in those llamas diagnosed as pregnant on Day 30 were not different (P > 0.05) between groups. In addition, P4 concentration was similar for GnRH-treated females having two CL to those with a single CL. Pregnancy rates were similar (P > 0.05) between SS and GnRH groups (55.2% compared with 74.1% respectively) and the pregnancy rate for the GnRH group was not affected (P > 0.05) by the number of CL observed at Day 14 (66.6% and 75.6% for females with one and two CL respectively). In conclusion, GnRH administration on Day 7 after breeding leads to ACL formation; however, neither the plasma P4 concentration nor pregnancy rate was affected by having an ACL.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Effect of production management on semen quality during long-term storage
           in different European boar studs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): M. Schulze, C. Kuster, J. Schäfer, M. Jung, R. Grossfeld
      The processing of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that affect quality of boar semen doses. The production process during 1 day of semen processing in 26 European boar studs was monitored. In each boar stud, nine to 19 randomly selected ejaculates from 372 Pietrain boars were analyzed for sperm motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and thermo-resistance (TRT). Each ejaculate was monitored for production time and temperature for each step in semen processing using the special programmed software SEQU (version 1.7, Minitüb, Tiefenbach, Germany). The dilution of ejaculates with a short-term extender was completed in one step in 10 AI centers (n = 135 ejaculates), in two steps in 11 AI centers (n = 158 ejaculates) and in three steps in five AI centers (n = 79 ejaculates). Results indicated there was a greater semen quality with one-step isothermal dilution compared with the multi-step dilution of AI semen doses (total motility TRT d7: 71.1 ± 19.2%, 64.6 ± 20.0%, 47.1 ± 27.1%; one-step compared with two-step compared with the three-step dilution; P < .05). There was a marked advantage when using the one-step isothermal dilution regarding time management, preservation suitability, stability and stress resistance. One-step dilution caused significant lower holding times of raw ejaculates and reduced the possible risk of making mistakes due to a lower number of processing steps. These results lead to refined recommendations for boar semen processing.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Freeze-dried spermatozoa: an alternative biobanking option for endangered
           species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Debora Agata Anzalone, Luca Palazzese, Domenico Iuso, Giuseppe Martino, Pasqualino Loi
      In addition to the iconic wild species, such as the pandas and Siberian tigers, an ever-increasing number of domestic species are also threatened with extinction. Biobanking of spermatozoa could preserve genetic heritages of extinct species, and maintain biodiversity of existing species. Because lyophilized spermatozoa retain fertilizing capacity, the aim was to assess whether freeze-dried spermatozoa are an alternative option to save endangered sheep breeds. To achieve this objective, semen was collected from an Italian endangered sheep breed (Pagliarola), and a biobank of cryopreserved and freeze-dried spermatozoa was established, and evaluated using IVF (for frozen spermatozoa) and ICSI procedures (for frozen and freeze-dried spermatozoa). As expected, the fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved Pagliarola’s spermatozoa was comparable to commercial semen stocks. To evaluate the activating capability of freeze-dried spermatozoa, 108 MII sheep oocytes were subjected to ICSI, and allocated to two groups: 56 oocytes were activated by incubation with ionomycin (ICSI-FDSa) and 52 were not activated (ICSI-FDSna). Pronuclear formation (2PN) was investigated at 14 to 16 hours after ICSI in fixed presumptive zygotes. Only artificially activated oocytes developed into blastocysts after ICSI. In the present study, freeze-dried ram spermatozoa induced blastocyst development following ICSI at a relatively high proportion, providing evidence that sperm lyophilization is an alternative, low cost storage option for biodiversity preservation of domestic species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Application of liquid semen technology under the seasonal dairy production
           system in New Zealand
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): D.H. Yang, N.T. Standley, Z.Z. Xu
      Systems for preserving semen in liquid form for artificial insemination were developed before cryopreserved semen became widely available in the 1960s. Advantages of liquid semen include reduced number of sperm per dose, reduced storage and transportation costs, increased insemination speed and safety in the field. A liquid semen dose requires one tenth the sperm number in a frozen semen dose to achieve equivalent fertility (24 day non-return rate: 67.6% for liquid versus 67.8% for frozen). The main disadvantage of liquid semen is its relatively short shelf life, thus limiting its application mainly to countries, like New Zealand and Ireland, with predominantly seasonal dairy production systems. Nevertheless, successful application of liquid semen technology can improve the rate of genetic gain by increasing the utilization of elite sires. This brief review covers the principles of liquid semen preservation and describes why and how this technology is implemented by Livestock Improvement Corporation in New Zealand.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Age-associated expression of vitamin D receptor and vitamin D-metabolizing
           enzymes in the male reproductive tract and sperm of Hu sheep
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Xiaolei Yao, M.A. EI-Samahy, Hua Yang, Xu Feng, Fengzhe Li, Fanxing Meng, Haitao Nie, Feng Wang
      The cellular response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3; biologically active form of Vitamin D) is complex and depends not only on Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression but also on cellular uptake of circulating Vit D3 and the presence and activity of Vitamin D-metabolizing enzyme. This study evaluated the expression of VDR and Vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes in the ram reproductive tract at different developmental stages and in spermatozoa. Nearly all cell types in the testes and epithelial cells of the caput, corpus, and cauda expressed VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 proteins. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP2R1, CYP27A1, and CYP27B1 in the testes and cauda increased significantly with increasing age (P < 0.05). However, epididymal VDR mRNA and protein expression showed no significant difference (P < 0.05) between adult (9- and 24-month-old) and prepubertal (3-month-old) rams. Furthermore, VDR and CYP24A1 were mainly concentrated in the mid-piece of ejaculated or cauda epididymis spermatozoa or both. Additionally, VDR and CYP27B1 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly higher in ejaculated spermatozoa than in cauda epididymal spermatozoa (P < 0.05). Moreover, VDR and CYP24A1 expression was significantly higher in high-motility than in low-motility spermatozoa (P < 0.05). The diverse expression patterns of VDR and Vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes in the ram reproductive tract at different developmental stages and spermatozoa suggest it plays a potential role in spermatogenesis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:48:52Z
       
  • Nutritional impact on gene expression and competence of oocytes used to
           support embryo development and livebirth by cloning procedures in goats
    • Authors: C.C.L. Fernandes; L.H. Aguiar; C.E.M. Calderón; A.M. Silva; J.P.M. Alves; R. Rossetto; L.R. Bertolini; M. Bertolini; D. Rondina
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science, Volume 188
      Author(s): C.C.L. Fernandes, L.H. Aguiar, C.E.M. Calderón, A.M. Silva, J.P.M. Alves, R. Rossetto, L.R. Bertolini, M. Bertolini, D. Rondina
      Changes in the nutritional plan have been shown to affect oocyte quality, crucial to oocyte donors animals used in cloning. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of diets with increasing nutritional levels (maintenance diet=M; 1.3M; 1.6M; 1.9M) fed to goats for four weeks on follicular fluid composition, gene expression and oocyte competence used to cloning in goats. Donor females were superovulated for the retrieval of matured oocytes and physical measurements reported. After four weeks, groups receiving diets above maintenance increased thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue and body weight, with higher values in 1.9M Group (P<0.05). Treatments did not affect follicular density, number of aspirated follicles, retrieved and matured oocytes. Animals from 1.3M group had lower (P<0.05) maturation rate (44.0%) and number of viable oocytes (65.3%) than M (68.8%) and 1.9M (76.0%). Follicular fluid glucose concentrations increased with nutritional levels (P=0.010), with a difference (P<0.05) between groups 1.9M (11.4±2.6mg/dL) and M (2.6±0.5mg/dL). The diet did not affect the expression of GDF9, BMP15, and BAX genes in oocytes, but BCL2 and apoptotic index were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the 1.3M and 1.6M groups than the other groups. Following the transfer of cloned embryos, one fetus was born live of a twin pregnancy in the 1.9M Group. The association between energy intake and oocyte quality suggests better nutritional use by oocytes when the maximum flow was used (1.9M), but the optimal feeding level in cloning still needs refinement.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2017)
       
  • Presence of gynogenetic males suggests a female heterogamety in sterlet
           Acipenser ruthenus L.
    • Authors: Dorota Fopp-Bayat; Piotr Hliwa; Konrad Ocalewicz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Dorota Fopp-Bayat, Piotr Hliwa, Konrad Ocalewicz
      Investigation of the heterogametic sex in sterlet Acipenser ruthenus L. was performed using meiotic gynogenesis and gonadal histology. Eggs from the albino females were activated by UV irradiated sperm of wild colored males and exposed to a heat shock. The resultant fish were all albino and exhibited exclusively maternal inheritance of the microsatellite DNA markers. Cytogenetic analysis indicated that gynogenetic progeny were diploids with 120 chromosomes. Based on the histological analysis, more than 86% of the gynogenetic individuals were found to be females. Moreover, some males (7%), sterile speciemens (3.5%) and fish with unidentified gonads (3.5%) were observed among the gynogenetic fish. Presence of both females and males in the gynogenetic offspring is indicative that the heterogametic sex in sterlets is female.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.014
       
  • Regional morphology and mucus composition in the urogenital papilla skin
           of the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809)
    • Authors: Gianluca Accogli; Letizia Sion; Porzia Maiorano; Francesca Capezzuto; Gianfranco D’Onghia; Salvatore Desantis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Gianluca Accogli, Letizia Sion, Porzia Maiorano, Francesca Capezzuto, Gianfranco D’Onghia, Salvatore Desantis
      Blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus is a zygoparous fish whose males are equipped with the copulating organ named urogenital papilla (UP). This study deals with the morphology and the glycoconjugate pattern of the UP epidermis, which is the male tissue interacting with the female internal body during copulation. The carbohydrate content was studied by means of conventional and lectin histochemistry. The epidermis was shown to be a stratified cuboidal epithelium and to exhibit characteristic intraepithelial pits in the apical zone. The mucous cells are scattered in the epidermis. The epidermal cell layers and their thickness as well as the size of mucous cells varied along the UP. Conventional histochemistry showed that the mucous cells contained i) only neutral glycoproteins in the basal zone; ii) both neutral and acidic non-sulphated glycans as well as only acidic non-sulphated or sulphated glycoconjugates in the intermediate zone; iii) neutral and sulphated glycoconjugates in the apical zone. The mucous cells in the basal region expressed O-linked (mucin type) glycans terminating with αGalNAc, Galβ1,3GalNAc which could be α2,3-linked to sialic acid, and high mannose type N-linked glycans terminating with fucose, lactosamine, and sialic α2,6-linked to galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine; terminal Gal and terminal/internal GlcNAc were also found. The mucous cells in the intermediate zone lacked Galβ1,3GalNAc and showed less terminal α2,3-linked sialic acid, lactosamine, fucose, galactose, and internal N-acetylglucosamine residues. In the apical region, mucous cells only exhibited O-glycans terminating with GalNAc and N-acetylglucosamine. The demonstrated region-specific differences in the UP skin provide new insights into the reproductive biology of fishes with internal fertilization.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.018
       
  • Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), external
           morphometrics and fertility in Tabapuã cows
    • Authors: Renata Maculan; Tássia Louregiani Carvalho Pinto; Gabriel Miranda Moreira; Gisvani Lopes de Vasconcelos; Jesus Afonso Sanches; Ricardo Garcia Rosa; Rafael Ribeiro Bonfim; Tarcisio de Moraes Gonçalves; José Camisão de Souza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Renata Maculan, Tássia Louregiani Carvalho Pinto, Gabriel Miranda Moreira, Gisvani Lopes de Vasconcelos, Jesus Afonso Sanches, Ricardo Garcia Rosa, Rafael Ribeiro Bonfim, Tarcisio de Moraes Gonçalves, José Camisão de Souza
      The intense selection of characteristics related to animal performance may affect the reproductive efficiency of beef cows negatively. Selection for fertility along with production traits is, therefore, readily justifiable. The objective of the present study was to evaluate possible relationships among AFC, serum AMH concentrations and external morphometrics with reproductive efficiency in Tabapuã (a Brazilian Bos indicus beef breed) females. Antral follicle counts and external morphometrics were measured in nulliparous (n = 162), primiparous (n = 80) and multiparous (n = 351) cows, from four farms. Age at first parturition (AFP), parturition interval (PI), maternal ability (MA), precocity, rusticity and survival (PRS) and overall reproductive efficiency (RE) were evaluated according to the Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders (ABCZ) data bank indexes. A single blood sample per animal was collected at random stages of the reproductive cycle from a subset of animals (nulliparous = 84, primiparous and multiparous = 136) to determine serum AMH concentrations. The AFC classes were defined as lesser (<28), intermediate (28–50) and greater (>50). Correlations between all variables and the effects of parity and AFC on reproductive traits, AMH and external genitalia size were analyzed by the PROCORR and by the PROCGENMOD procedures of SAS® (SAS, Cary, NC, USA), respectively. Antral follicle count did not differ (P = 0.71) among nulliparous (38.6 ± 23.96) primiparous (47.54 ± 26.16) and multiparous (41.08 ± 25) cows and was negatively correlated with pregnancy interval (PI), such that, as PI decreased (r = −0.28; P < 0.005), AFC increased. Vulva width was not affected (P = 0.08) by parity and was larger (P < 0.05) for females in the greater AFC class (8.81 ± 0.12 cm) compared with the intermediate (8.42 ± 0.11 cm) and lesser (8.38 ± 0.13 cm) classes. As vulva width increased, parturition interval decreased (r = −0.15; P < 0.005) and overall reproductive efficiency increased (r = 0.17, p < 0.005). Thoracic depth was associated with greater AFCs (r = 0.10; P < 0.001). Anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for animals in the greater AFC class (1.15 ± 0.09 ng/mL) compared with the lesser (0.44 ± 0.02 ng/mL) and intermediate (0.73 ± 0.05 ng/mL) classes. Vulva width, AFC, external morphometrics and AMH concentrations were moderately associated, considering the low heritability of fertility traits, and should be studied further to be considered in the selection for fertility in Bos indicus cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.011
       
  • INFLUENCE OF COOLING TEMPERATURE IN SPERM SUBPOPULATIONS OF DOMESTIC CATS
    • Authors: Anne Kemmer Souz; Luiz Guilherme Corsi Trautwein; Cristiane Sella Paranzini; Felipe Montanhero Perencin; Guilherme Schiess Cardoso; Maria Isabel Mello Martins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Anne Kemmer Souz, Luiz Guilherme Corsi Trautwein, Cristiane Sella Paranzini, Felipe Montanhero Perencin, Guilherme Schiess Cardoso, Maria Isabel Mello Martins
      The objective of this study was to identify and compare domestic feline sperm subpopulations, chilled at −1 °C for 24 and 48 hours, as well as to analyze the sperm frequency in different subpopulations. Ten adult cats were used. Sperm collection was performed using electroejaculation (EEJ). Spermatic kinetics were evaluated using a computerized system at three moments: fresh, 24 and 48 hours after refrigeration. The ejaculates were divided into a group refrigerated at −1 °C (n = 5,) and a group refrigerated at 4 °C (n = 5),. A total of 1560 spermatozoa were analyzed individually, and the sperm subpopulations were identified using multivariate statistics. Three spermatic subpopulations were defined using prior analysis of the hierarchical dendrogram. A principal components analysis (PCA) identified the existence of three groups with higher iterations at the three moments: PC1 (VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH, SVI), PC2 (STR, LIN, WOB and SMI) and PC3 (BCF). Subpopulation 1, after 48 hours of refrigeration at −1 °C, and subpopulation 3, after 24 hours of refrigeration at 4 °C, maintained their sperm quality, which allowed us to characterize the groups of spermatozoa that were resistant to cryopreservation. The present study identified three well defined ejaculate spermatozoa subpopulations, with proportional distributions between the groups and two refrigeration resistant subpopulations.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.015
       
  • Cryopreservation of donkey sperm using non-permeable cryoprotectants
    • Authors: M. Diaz-Jimenez; J. Dorado; I. Ortiz; C. Consuegra; B. Pereira; C.A. Gonzalez-De Cara; R. Aguilera; G. Mari; B. Mislei; C.C. Love; M. Hidalgo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): M. Diaz-Jimenez, J. Dorado, I. Ortiz, C. Consuegra, B. Pereira, C.A. Gonzalez-De Cara, R. Aguilera, G. Mari, B. Mislei, C.C. Love, M. Hidalgo
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of sucrose combined with bovine serum albumin (BSA), as non-permeable cryoprotectants, on donkey sperm parameters after cryopreservation, in comparison to a control extender containing glycerol. Semen from five Andalusian donkeys (n = 12) were centrifuged and resuspended with a commercial extender for equine sperm (Gent A, Minitube) adding 1% BSA and different concentrations (M, mol/l) of water-diluted sucrose: 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45. Thereafter, semen (n = 24) were diluted in the same base extender containing 0.25 M sucrose (S25) or glycerol (GLY, Gent B). Sperm were slowly cooled, filled in 0.5 ml straws and frozen in nitrogen vapours. Post-thaw samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane and DNA integrity and results were compared by ANOVA. In Experiment 1, sperm motility was significantly higher (P < 0.001) for S25 than the remaining treatments, and no differences were found for plasma membrane or DNA integrity. In Experiment 2, no differences were found between S25 or GLY for sperm motility and DNA integrity but plasma membrane integrity was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for S25. In conclusion, the extender with sucrose 0.25 M combined with BSA can be considered as an alternative to conventional extenders with glycerol for donkey sperm cryopreservation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.013
       
  • Factors affecting staining to discriminate between bull sperm with greater
           and lesser mitochondrial membrane potential
    • Authors: Alessia Gloria; Laura Wegher; Augusto Carluccio; Claudio Valorz; Domenico Robbe; Alberto Contri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Alessia Gloria, Laura Wegher, Augusto Carluccio, Claudio Valorz, Domenico Robbe, Alberto Contri
      The sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is usually evaluated using the JC-1 dye. This study aimed to verify the effect of incubation temperature (25 °C or 38 °C), incubation time (10, 30, and 45 min), JC-1 stain concentration (0.2 μM, 2 μM, 8 μM, 12 μM), and the presence of glycerol (6.6% compared with 0%), on the capacity of the stain to discriminate between sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential (hMMP) and low mitochondrial membrane potential (lMMP) in fresh and frozen bull sample by both flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy. The temperature (38 °C for 10 min) and the dye concentration (8 μM and 12 μM) resulted in a greater proportion of hMMP (P < .05). The incubation for 45 min at 38 °C resulted in a significant reduction of hMMP in samples stained with JC-1 dye at 8 μM and 12 μM (P < .01). A longer incubation time (45 min) and greater dye concentration (8 μM and 12 μM) resulted in an increased proportion of hMMP sperm in cryopreserved samples. Fresh sperm incubated with glycerol had a hMMP (P < .05). Data for the present study indicate that the optimal incubation temperature was 38 °C, with an incubation time differing between fresh (10–30 min) and cryopreserved sperm (at least 45 min). Furthermore, the JC-1 dye concentration used that could reliably detect the proportion of hMMP sperm was 2 μM in fresh samples, and at least 8 μM in cryopreserved sperm.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.007
       
  • Proteomic analyses of ram (Ovis aries) testis during different
           developmental stages
    • Authors: Zengkui Lu; Youji Ma; Quanwei Zhang; Xingxu Zhao; Yong Zhang; Liping Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Zengkui Lu, Youji Ma, Quanwei Zhang, Xingxu Zhao, Yong Zhang, Liping Zhang
      Male reproductive capacity is essential for animal breeding and reproduction. In males, the testes produce sperm and secrete androgen, processes which require precise regulation by multiple proteins. The composition of proteins in the ram testes has not yet been studied systematically, thus, the application of proteomics to explore differential protein regulation during ram testes development is of great significance. In the present study, ram testes were studied at five different developmental phases to assess postnatal differences in protein regulation. Two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to separate ram testes proteins at each developmental phase, yielding 45 different proteins, 37 of which were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). Gene Ontology (GO) was used to specifically annotate the biological process, cellular composition, and molecular function of each identified protein. Most of the identified proteins were involved in structural formation, development, reproduction, and apoptosis of the testicular spermatogenic tissue and spermatozoa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemical methods were used to verify the proteins, and the results were consistent with that of 2-DE. The proteins that were different in abundance that were identified in this study can be used as biomarkers in future studies of ram reproduction.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.012
       
  • Incubation of spermatozoa with Anandamide prior to cryopreservation
           reduces cryocapacitation and improves post-thaw sperm quality in the water
           buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
    • Authors: Puneeth Kumar; Tushar Kumar Mohanty; Arumugam Kumaresan; Pradeep Nag; Kaustubh Kishor Saraf; Vimlesh Kumar; Sreela Lathika; Samiksha Nayak; Mukesh Bhakat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Puneeth Kumar, Tushar Kumar Mohanty, Arumugam Kumaresan, Pradeep Nag, Kaustubh Kishor Saraf, Vimlesh Kumar, Sreela Lathika, Samiksha Nayak, Mukesh Bhakat
      Anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid, has been shown to reduce capacitation and acrosomal exocytosis in human spermatozoa. Because buffalo spermatozoa are highly susceptible to cryopreservation induced damage, AEA was assessed as to whether it could protect spermatozoa from cryo-damage. Six ejaculates from six Murrah buffalo bulls (total 36 ejaculates) were utilized for the study. Each ejaculate was divided into four aliquots; spermatozoa in Aliquot 1 were extended in Tris-Citrate-Egg Yolk and frozen as per the standard protocol. Spermatozoa in Aliquots 2, 3 and 4 were incubated with AEA at 1 nM, 1 μM and 10 μM, respectively in Tris-Citrate extender for 15 min at 37 °C before cryopreservation. Cryopreserved spermatozoa were thawed at 37 °C for 30 s before assessment of sperm motility, membrane integrity, capacitation, acrosome reaction, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and lipid peroxidation status. The proportion of motile and membrane intact spermatozoa were greater (P < 0.05) with use of 1 μM AEA incorporated group compared with other groups. The proportion of un-capacitated and acrosome intact spermatozoa was greater (P < 0.05) with use of 1 or 10 μM of AEA compared with the other groups. When compared to the control group, use of 1 μM AEA resulted in a greater proportion of spermatozoa with high MMP (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the lipid peroxidation status of spermatozoa among any of the four groups. It was inferred that the protective role of AEA during cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa was dose dependent and incubation of spermatozoa with AEA at 1 μM concentration prior to cryopreservation reduced cryo-capacitation and improved post-thaw sperm quality in buffalo.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.010
       
  • The genetic polymorphisms of TGFβ superfamily genes are associated with
           litter size in a Chinese indigenous sheep breed (Hu sheep)
    • Authors: Weimin Wang; Yongfu La; Xiang Zhou; Xiaoxue Zhang; Fadi Li; Bang Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Weimin Wang, Yongfu La, Xiang Zhou, Xiaoxue Zhang, Fadi Li, Bang Liu
      Litter size, which is a complex economic trait in sheep, is affected by polygenes. Hu sheep are a prolific native breed in China and also an ideal resource for studying the genetic mechanism that controls litter size in sheep. In this study, we investigated the genetic effects of candidate genes on litter size in a large experimental population (n = 2021) of Hu sheep. A total of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including six reported major mutations (FecB, FecXI , FecXB , FecXH , FecGI , and FecGH ) and 17 novel SNPs in 10 candidate genes involved in reproduction were genotyped using KASPar technology. Genotyping showed that Hu sheep carry the FecB mutation, but not the FecXI , FecXB , FecXH , FecGH , and FecGI mutations. Among the remaining 18 SNPs, 16 tagged SNPs were selected based on the HAPLOVIEW program. Analysis of single marker association indicated a significant association between litter size in Hu sheep and three mutations in the TGFβ superfamily (FecB, GDF9 and TGFBR2 genes). Quantitative trait modes (QTMs) analysis revealed that the FecB and GDF9 mutations exerted an additive effect, while the mutation located within TGFBR2 gene was dominant. Linear regression analysis of the association between multiple markers and litter size indicated a correlation between homozygous ewes with the GG/AA/TT genotype and larger litter size than any of the other genotypes. In conclusion, the FecB, GDF9, and TGFBR2 polymorphisms were implicated as genetic markers of potential importance in marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies to improve litter size in Hu sheep.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.003
       
  • A simple flow cytometry protocol to determine simultaneously live, dead
           and apoptotic stallion spermatozoa in fresh and frozen thawed samples
    • Authors: M.C. Gil; C. Ortega Ferrusola; L. Anel-López; J.M. Ortiz-Rodriguez; M. Alvarez; P. de Paz; L. Anel; F.J. Peña
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): M.C. Gil, C. Ortega Ferrusola, L. Anel-López, J.M. Ortiz-Rodriguez, M. Alvarez, P. de Paz, L. Anel, F.J. Peña
      Spermatozoa undergo apoptotic changes during the cryopreservation process. These changes, recently termed spermptosis, resemble the cryopreservation induced delayed onset of cell death observed after thawing of somatic cells. Due to its importance in cryobiology, methods to easily identify spermptotic cells are warranted. In this study, a well-validated method for identification of spermatozoa with caspase 3 activity was compared with use of the combination of Hoechst 33342 (H-42) and ethidium homodimer (Eth-1). Live, dead and apoptotic spermatozoa assessed with each method were compared using descriptive statistics and method agreement analysis. No differences were observed in the percentages of spermatozoa in each of the categories investigated with each method. Moreover the method agreement analysis indicated there were consistent findings using both methods The combination H-42/Eth-1 can be successfully used to determine apoptosis in addition to dead and live spermatozoa. Moreover the intensity of H-42 fluorescence (bright and dim populations) allows for distinguishing of live and dead sperm cells.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.009
       
  • Partial deoxygenation of extender improves sperm quality, reduces lipid
           peroxidation and reactive oxygen species during cryopreservation of
           buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen
    • Authors: B Balamurugan; SK Ghosh; SA Lone; JK Prasad; GK Das; R Katiyar; Abdul Rahman Mustapha; Ajay Kumar; MR Verma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): B Balamurugan, SK Ghosh, SA Lone, JK Prasad, GK Das, R Katiyar, Abdul Rahman Mustapha, Ajay Kumar, MR Verma
      The present study was designed to investigate the effect of partial deoxygenation of extender on sperm quality, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) during cryopreservation of semen. Semen extender was prepared freshly and split into three sub-extenders [Extender I: control (non-deoxygenated), Extender II (partially deoxygenated by using LN2 flushing) and Extender III (partially deoxygenated mechanically by vacuum pump)]. Amounts of dissolved oxygen (DO) were determined in all the three extenders and also in post-thaw semen. Ejaculates with mass motility of  ≥3+ and individual progressive motility of 70% or greater were collected from Murrah buffalo bulls and utilized in the study. Each semen sample was divided into Groups I (diluted with Extender I), II (diluted with Extender II) and III (diluted Extender III) with a maximum of 60 × 106 sperm/mL. French mini straws (0.25 mL) were filled with the extended semen samples, sealed with polyvinyl alcohol powder, kept for 3 h at 5 °C for equilibration and then stored in an automatic programmable freezer until the temperature of straws reached −145 °C followed by plunging the straws into liquid nitrogen (–196 °C). Semen samples were evaluated at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages for various variables [sperm motility, live sperm count, acrosomal integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) response, LPO and ROS concentrations]. The mean DO was less (P < 0.05) in Extender II as compared to I and III. The DO was less (P < 0.05) in Group II (semen extended with Extender II) as compared with III (semen extended with Extender III) and I (semen extended with Extender I). The percentages for sperm motility, viability and intact acrosomes (PIA) were greater (P < 0.05) in Groups II and III as compared to the control group at the pre-freeze stage, while at the post-thaw stage, percentages of sperm motility, viability, PIA and HOS response were greater (P < 0.05) in Group II as compared with the control group and Group III. Pre-freeze HOS response (%) was greater (P < 0.05) in Group II as compared with the control and Group III. At the pre-freeze stage, sperm LPO and ROS were less (P < 0.05) in Groups II and III as compared with the control and at post-thaw stage, spermatic LPO and ROS concentrations were less (P < 0.05) in Group II than in the control group and Group III. In conclusion, partial deoxygenation of extender improves sperm quality, reduces sperm LPO and ROS concentrations in buffalo during cryopreservation. Partial deoxygenation of the extender with LN2 flushing may be one of the ways for improving quality and fertility of frozen-thawed buffalo sperm.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:20:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.008
       
  • Ultrastructure of spermatozoa in cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus,
           1766)
    • Authors: Dhanasekar Krishnamoorthy; Selvakumar Narasimman; Munuswamy Natesan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Dhanasekar Krishnamoorthy, Selvakumar Narasimman, Munuswamy Natesan
      Ultrastructure and development of spermatozoa in cobia, Rachycentron canadum are described. Sections through the testis show different developmental stages viz, Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm. Spermatozoa of R. canadum exhibit the configuration of uniflagellated, anacrosomal Type I aquasperm, typical for externally fertilizing fish. Mature spermatozoon is seen with a prominent head and long cylindrical flagellum. Ultrastructure of sperm shows invaginated ‘U’ shaped nucleus and other organelles. The mitochondrial matrix is electron-dense with irregular arrangement of the cristae. The nucleus reveals a deep invagination (nuclear fossa) in which the centriolar complex is located. The centriolar complex lies inside the nuclear fossa and is composed of a proximal and a distal centriole. The two centrioles are placed perpendicular to each other. The flagellum has a typical eukaryotic organization (microtubule doublets 9+2 pattern) and measures around 36.21±0.42μm in length. This study for the first time provides a comprehensive detail on the ultrastructure and developmental process of sperm in cobia, R. canadum.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T05:10:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.12.005
       
  • A nested-PCR strategy for molecular diagnosis of mollicutes in uncultured
           biological samples from cows with vulvovaginitis
    • Authors: Daniele Cristina Voltarelli; Brígida Kussumoto de Alcântara; Michele Lunardi; Alice Fernandes Alfieri; Raquel de Arruda Leme; Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Daniele Cristina Voltarelli, Brígida Kussumoto de Alcântara, Michele Lunardi, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Raquel de Arruda Leme, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri
      Bacteria classified in Mycoplasma (M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium) and Ureaplasma (U. diversum) genera are associated with granular vulvovaginitis that affect heifers and cows at reproductive age. The traditional means for detection and speciation of mollicutes from clinical samples have been culture and serology. However, challenges experienced with these laboratory methods have hampered assessment of their impact in pathogenesis and epidemiology in cattle worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop a PCR strategy to detect and primarily discriminate between the main species of mollicutes associated with reproductive disorders of cattle in uncultured clinical samples. In order to amplify the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region of the genome, a consensual and species-specific nested-PCR assay was developed to identify and discriminate between main species of mollicutes. In addition, 31 vaginal swab samples from dairy and beef affected cows were investigated. This nested-PCR strategy was successfully employed in the diagnosis of single and mixed mollicute infections of diseased cows from cattle herds from Brazil. The developed system enabled the rapid and unambiguous identification of the main mollicute species known to be associated with this cattle reproductive disorder through differential amplification of partial fragments of the ITS region of mollicute genomes. The development of rapid and sensitive tools for mollicute detection and discrimination without the need for previous cultures or sequencing of PCR products is a high priority for accurate diagnosis in animal health. Therefore, the PCR strategy described herein may be helpful for diagnosis of this class of bacteria in genital swabs submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories, not demanding expertise in mycoplasma culture and identification.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T05:10:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.018
       
  • Effect of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity on follicular development
           and pregnancy rate in cattle
    • Authors: Natália A. Castro; Luiz F.M. Pfeifer; Jéssica S. Andrade; Joao A.A. Rincón; Ligia M. Cantarelli Pegoraro; Augusto Schneider
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Natália A. Castro, Luiz F.M. Pfeifer, Jéssica S. Andrade, Joao A.A. Rincón, Ligia M. Cantarelli Pegoraro, Augusto Schneider
      Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity has been associated with improvement in ovarian function in early postpartum dairy cows and improved in vitro embryo development. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential association among PON1 activity and follicular growth, diameter of the preovulatory follicle and pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) service in cattle. In Experiment 1, cows (n =33) were subjected to an estradiol-progesterone based protocol to control time of ovulation. Starting on Day 8 of the protocol, follicular growth and serum PON1 activity were monitored. Cows were separated according to the occurrence of ovulation into two groups: Ovulatory (Ov; n =22) and Anovulatory (Anov; n =11). The serum activity of PON1 was not different between Ov and Anov cows (P =0.94). In addition, using a regression model there was no effect of serum PON1 activity on the diameter of dominant follicle (r2 =0.00; P =0.99). In Experiment 2, cows (n =193) were submitted to the same hormonal protocol as in Experiment 1. On the day of the timed artificial insemination (TAI), the diameter of dominant follicle was evaluated and blood samples were collected for analysis of PON1 activity. According to the serum PON1 activity, cows were divided into three groups: Low (<70U/mL), Medium (70–90U/mL) or High (>90U/mL) PON1 activity. The overall pregnancy rate was 62.7% (121/193), with no difference among PON1 activity groups. Additionally, using a regression model there was no effect of serum PON1 activity on the diameter of the preovulatory follicle (r2 =0.03; P =0.65) and pregnancy rate (r2 =0.005; P =0.94). The results of this study indicate that there is no effect of serum PON1 activity on the diameter of preovulatory follicle or establishment of pregnancy in cows submitted to time of ovulation synchronization protocols.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T05:10:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.017
       
  • Expression of sex hormone receptors in the brain of male and female newly
           hatched chicks
    • Authors: Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo; Valeria Hansberg-Pastor; Araceli Gutiérrez-Rodríguez; Jorge Chávez-Jiménez; María Genoveva González-Morán
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Araceli Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Jorge Chávez-Jiménez, María Genoveva González-Morán
      Chromosomal sex and steroid hormones play a determining role in brain sexual differentiation during chick embryonic development. Hormone effects on the brain are associated with the expression pattern of their intracellular receptors, which is sexually dimorphic in many species. We determined by Western blot the content of progesterone, estrogen, and androgen receptors (PR-A and PR-B, ERα, and AR, respectively) in the cortex, cerebellum, tectum, and hypothalamus of female and male newly hatched chicks. Males presented a higher content of PR-B in the tectum whereas females exhibited a higher content of PR-A in the hypothalamus. ERα was only detected as a band of 66kDa, and it showed a higher content in the cerebellum and tectum of females as compared to these regions in males. Besides, males exhibited a higher content of AR in the tectum than females. Our study suggests that newly hatched chicks show a sexual dimorphism in the expression of sex hormone receptors in brain regions involved in sexual behavior such as the hypothalamus, and in non-sexual behavior such as the optic tectum and the cerebellum.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T05:10:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.016
       
  • Nutrient uptake of the uterus during the last third of pregnancy in sows:
           Effects of litter size, gestation stage and maternal glycemia
    • Authors: Marie-Christine Père; Michel Etienne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Marie-Christine Père, Michel Etienne
      Effects of litter size, pregnancy stage, and glycemia level on uterine uptake of energetic nutrients were studied on multiparous sows left intact (CTR; n=6) or subjected to unilateral oviduct ligation (LIG; n=6). A jugular vein, a carotid artery, and the main vein draining one uterine horn were catheterized. A blood flow probe was fitted around the artery irrigating that horn. A meal test and two glucose infusion tests (1.15 or 2.30g glucose·(100kg BW)−1 min−1) were performed at 79, 93, and 106 d of pregnancy. Number of fetuses in the measured uterine horn was lower (3.7 vs. 8.0, P< 0.001) and newborn piglets were heavier (1.71 vs. 1.31kg, P =0.04) in the LIG than in the CTR sows. Treatment did not affect uterine blood flow (UBF), but UBF/fetus was greater for the LIG treatment (0.57 vs. 0.32L/min, P =0.003). Glucose and lactate uterine uptakes were never significantly affected by treatment. During both tests, uterine uptake of glucose/fetus was greater in the LIG sows, which was associated with greater growth rate of their fetuses. Glucose and lactate uterine uptakes per fetus increased with glucose infusion level (P =0.03) and stage of pregnancy (P =0.04). Extraction coefficient of glucose decreased during infusion (P< 0.001). Uptakes of NEFA and triglycerides were small and decreased during hyperglycemia. Glucose and lactate uptakes increased with pregnancy stage due to increased uterine blood flow. Altogether, the nutrient uptake per fetus was greater in the sows with few fetuses.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T05:10:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.014
       
  • Effects of different levels of feed intake during four short periods of
           gestation and housing systems on sows and litter performance
    • Authors: P. Ren; X.J. Yang; R. Railton; J. Jendza; L. Anil; S.K. Baidoo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): P. Ren, X.J. Yang, R. Railton, J. Jendza, L. Anil, S.K. Baidoo
      The current study investigated the effects of different levels of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation and of housing systems on sow and litter performance. A total of 255 multiparous sows were allotted to 1–4 dietary treatments using a randomized complete block design blocking by initial body weight (BW), backfat (BF) and parity. Sows were housed either in individual stalls (n=129) or group pens (n=126) with 55 sows in each pen with electronic sow feeder during gestation. All sows were fed one common corn-soybean meal-based diet with the amount of 1.0×maintenance energy level of feed intake (106×BW0.75) throughout gestation except 4 periods of 7 d when dietary treatments were imposed on day 27, 55, 83 and 97 of gestation. During the 4 periods, sows were fed 1 of 4 different levels of feed intake: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×maintenance energy level (0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M, respectively). Results showed that both BW gain and BF change during gestation for sows on 1.5M (49.7kg and 3.1mm, respectively) and 2.0M (52.5kg and 3.7mm, respectively) levels of feed intake were significantly (P< 0.01) greater than sows on 0.5M (26.1kg and −0.1mm, respectively) and 1.0M (35.6kg and 0.1, respectively) levels of feed intake. In contrast, lactation weight gain for sows on 1.5M (3.3kg) and 2.0M (3.4kg) levels of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation were significantly (P< 0.01) less than sows on 0.5M (18.4kg) and 1.0M (11.4kg) levels of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation, whereas BF loss during lactation for sows on 1.5M (−3.6mm) level of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation were significantly (P =0.03) higher than sows on 1.0M (−2.1mm) level of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation. Additionally, average daily feed intake during lactation for sows on 0.5M (6.6kg/d) level of feed intake during gestation tended (P =0.06) to be greater than sows on 2.0M (5.9kg/d) level of feed intake. There were no differences (P> 0.1) among 4 levels of feed intake in terms of numbers of total born and weaning piglets. However, both piglet weight at birth (1.46, 1.52, 1.53 and 1.51kg for piglets from sows on 0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M levels of feed intake during gestation, respectively) and at weaning (6.37, 6.55, 6.64 and 6.38kg for piglets from sows on 0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M levels of feed intake during gestation, respectively) were maximized at 1.5M level of feed intake. Sows housed in group pens had greater (P <0.01) net BW gain (24.7 vs. 19.2kg) from day 27 of gestation to weaning compared with sows housed in individual stalls. However, there were no differences (P >0.1) between the 2 housing systems in terms of litter size and piglet weight at birth and at weaning. In conclusion, increasing levels of feed intake during 4 short periods of gestation increased BW and BF gain during gestation and led to less BW gain and more BF loss during lactation. Piglet weight at birth and at weaning was maximized at 1.5M level of feed intake. However, housing systems did not affect reproductive performance. Group pen housing system may be beneficial in terms of increased overall BW gain during gestation and lactation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.001
       
  • Effect of supplementing a diet with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces
           Cerevisiae on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes
    • Authors: Leila Ahmadzadeh; Ali Hosseinkhani; Hossein Daghighkia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Leila Ahmadzadeh, Ali Hosseinkhani, Hossein Daghighkia
      Effect of supplementing a diet, in an attempt to enhance reproduction, with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on reproductive performance was investigated during the breeding season using 44 Ghezel ewes (body weight 56.97±7.47kg, age 2–5 years and body condition score (BCS) 2.5) which were allocated randomly in equal numbers to the four dietary treatments as follows: 1) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) plus monensin sodium (30mg/ewe/d) (MS); 2) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450 g/ewe/d) plusSaccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (4×109 CFU/ewe/d) (SC); 3) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) (FG); 4) Basal diet (only grazing on pasture, Control; G). Estrous synchronization of all ewes was done using controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and all ewes were mated with purebred Ghezel rams after CIDR removal. The results indicated that MS and SC treatments with 15 lambs had greater number of lambs than ewes of the other two treatment groups. Ewes in MS group with 50% twining rate had the greatest value followed by the FG, SC and G treatment groups (P< 0.05). The lambs from ewes in MS and SC groups were heavier in weight than those in FG and G treatments (P< 0.01). Blood sample analysis provided evidence that ewes in MS and SC groups had greater concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), blood urea nitrogen (P< 0.05), insulin, glucose, cholesterol and total protein (P< 0.01) than ewes of the other groups. These results indicated that using a diet for enhancing reproduction, including monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in the breeding season could have beneficial effects on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.013
       
  • Platelets are involved in in vitro swine granulosa cell luteinization and
           angiogenesis
    • Authors: Giuseppina Basini; Simona Bussolati; Stefano Grolli; Roberto Ramoni; Virna Conti; Fausto Quintavalla; Francesca Grasselli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Giuseppina Basini, Simona Bussolati, Stefano Grolli, Roberto Ramoni, Virna Conti, Fausto Quintavalla, Francesca Grasselli
      During corpus luteum formation, impressive biological events take place to guarantee the transition from original follicular to luteal cells and to support required massive angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that these phenomena resemble those essential for wound healing. After ovulation, blood vessels release their content in the antral cavity and coagulation takes place. Involvement of platelets in corpus luteum growth has been hypothesized both in human and in rat. On this basis, using platelet lysate (PL), a blood derivative with a higher platelet concentration, we aimed to assess a potential involvement of platelets in swine granulosa cell luteinization and on new blood vessel growth. Our results demonstrate, for the first time in the swine, that platelets could be directly involved in granulosa cell physiological luteinization, since the treatment with PL shifted steroid production from estradiol 17β to progesterone. Moreover, PL stimulated angiogenesis. Nitric oxide could be involved in these effects. These results are important to clarify complex intrafollicular molecular machinery. A better understanding of these mechanisms can be useful to develop more focused therapeutic strategies to contrast sow infertility. In addition, since the pig represents a model for translational studies, collected data could be of interest for human medicine because reproductive pathologies such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis are often accompanied by platelet dysfunctions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.008
       
  • Modelling piglet growth and mortality on commercial hog farms using
           variables describing individual animals, litters, sows and management
           factors
    • Authors: Lucie Galiot; Isabelle Lachance; Jean-Paul Laforest; Frédéric Guay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Lucie Galiot, Isabelle Lachance, Jean-Paul Laforest, Frédéric Guay
      Increases in sow prolificacy have reduced piglet vitality, growth capacity and weight at weaning and even pig weight at slaughter. The aim of this study was to develop a model that predicts likelihood of mortality and weight at weaning. A database containing 3214 records of birth weight, weight gain at 24h, rectal temperature at 24h, litter size, age at weaning, fostering status, manual assistance of birth and oxytocin use as well as the corresponding 227 records of sow parity and feed intake was analysed using logit functions for mortality and linear functions for weaning weight. The best model of mortality predicted increased likelihood as birth weight, rectal temperature and 0–24h weight gain decreased and sow parity and time between births increased (P< 0.01, χ2 =2910). The best model of weaning weight predicted increases with increasing birth weight, 0–24h body weight gain, age at weaning and sow parity and decreases with increasing litter size at 24h (P< 0.01; AICC=4324; RMSE=0.82). This study confirmed that birth weight and weight gain during the first 24h are the principal factors influencing piglet growth and pre-weaning mortality.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.009
       
  • The relationship between circulating concentration of AMH and LH content
           in the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) preparations on follicular
           growth and ovulatory response to superovulation in water buffaloes
    • Authors: A.K. Redhead; N. Siew; N. Lambie; D. Carnarvon; R. Ramgattie; M. Knights
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): A.K. Redhead, N. Siew, N. Lambie, D. Carnarvon, R. Ramgattie, M. Knights
      The relationship between circulating concentration of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and the LH content of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) preparation on follicular growth and ovulatory response in water buffaloes was evaluated. A single blood sample was taken from cows (N=31; age: 9.06±0.98years) to determine systemic AMH. Animals with concentrations higher or lower than 194±30pg/ml were placed into LOW and HIGH AMH groups and were assigned randomly to be superovulated FSH containing either a high (FSHp, HLH) or low (FolltropinV, LLH) LH content. Follicular growth and ovulation were monitored using transrectal ultrasonography. In animals with HIGH systemic AMH, treatment with FSH with a high LH content was associated with more small follicles (AMH X FSH; P=0.02). AMH had no effect on small follicles in animals treated with LLH. Females with a HIGH AMH had greater numbers of small follicles (P=0.01) and total follicles (P=0.005) than LOW AMH cows. Animals treated with HLH had more small follicles (P=0.001) but fewer large (P<0.001) and total follicles (P=0.0005) than those treated with LLH. Among animals with HIGH AMH, those treated with LLH, ovulated more follicles than those treated with HLH. (AMH X FSH; P=0.03). In conclusion, selecting animals with high AMH concentration and the use of FSH preparations with a lower LH content may improve the superovulatory response in water buffaloes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.010
       
  • Effects of N-carbamylglutamate and L-arginine on steroidogenesis and gene
           expression in bovine granulosa cells
    • Authors: T. Feng; L.F. Schütz; B.C. Morrell; M.C. Perego; L.J. Spicer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): T. Feng, L.F. Schütz, B.C. Morrell, M.C. Perego, L.J. Spicer
      Feeding N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and arginine (ARG) improves reproductive measures in pigs and reduces systemic steroid levels in pregnant ewes. We hypothesized that the effects of NCG and ARG on reproduction were due to direct effects on the ovary. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of NCG and ARG on granulosa cell (GC) steroidogenesis, gene expression, and cell proliferation in vitro. GC were collected from small (1–5mm) bovine follicles and treated in vitro with NCG or ARG in serum-free medium for 24h to 48h. Both NCG and ARG inhibited (P< 0.05) IGF1- and FSH-induced GC estradiol production but only NCG inhibited (P< 0.05) progesterone production. In contrast, NCG and ARG increased (P <0.05) GC numbers induced by IGF1 and FSH. NCG inhibited (P <0.05) StAR, CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 mRNA abundance in small-follicle GC, whereas ARG had no effect (P >0.10) on StAR, CYP11A1 or CYP19A1 mRNA abundance. We conclude that NCG and ARG may act directly on GC and therefore may regulate ovarian function by slowing follicular differentiation via inhibiting IGF1 action, and steroid synthesis while stimulating GC proliferation in cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T05:46:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.012
       
  • Studies of the cryopreservation condition of Gymnocypris przewalskii
           spermatozoa
    • Authors: Fulei Wei; Luxian Yu; Ruihong Li; Xia Zhang; Xuehan Zhang; Ya Zhang; Yuqing Wang; Hongchao Wang; Jian Liang; Rui Ma; Hongfang Qi; Qiwei Qin; Rongqing Zhang; Shihai Zhu; Changzhong Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Fulei Wei, Luxian Yu, Ruihong Li, Xia Zhang, Xuehan Zhang, Ya Zhang, Yuqing Wang, Hongchao Wang, Jian Liang, Rui Ma, Hongfang Qi, Qiwei Qin, Rongqing Zhang, Shihai Zhu, Changzhong Li
      The endemic naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii Kessler, 1876) plays an important role in the maintenance of the distinctive ecological system of Lake Qinghai at 3.2km altitude on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. This study aimed to develop a cryopreservation protocol for Gymnocypris przewalskii spermatozoa. Semen was collected from mature individuals during migration and frozen using the liquid nitrogen vapor method. The influence of different cryoprotectants and three extenders on the post-thaw quality of the sperm was analyzed. The highest sperm motility rate and longest motility time after cryopreservation were achieved by combining Ringer’s solution with 15% ethylene glycol (P<0.05). The fertilization rate of this cryopreserved semen was 15.26±4.54%. This study thus provides a valuable method for the cryopreservation of the sperm of this important endangered fish species.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.10.021
       
  • Proteomic analysis of follicular fluid from tropically-adapted goats
    • Authors: Alexandre R. Paula Junior; Mauricio F. van Tilburg; Marina D.P. Lobo; Ana C.O. Monteiro-Moreira; Renato A. Moreira; Carlos H.S. Melo; Joanna M.G. Souza-Fabjan; Airton A. Araújo; Luciana M. Melo; Dárcio I.A. Teixeira; Arlindo A. Moura; Vicente J.F. Freitas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Alexandre R. Paula Junior, Mauricio F. van Tilburg, Marina D.P. Lobo, Ana C.O. Monteiro-Moreira, Renato A. Moreira, Carlos H.S. Melo, Joanna M.G. Souza-Fabjan, Airton A. Araújo, Luciana M. Melo, Dárcio I.A. Teixeira, Arlindo A. Moura, Vicente J.F. Freitas
      The present study was conducted to characterize the major proteome of ovarian follicular fluid from locally-adapted, “Canindé” goats in the northeast of Brazil. Eight estrous cycling goats received a hormonal treatment consisting of medroxyprogesterone acetate, D-cloprostenol and FSH. Fluid was collected by laparoscopy from small (<3mm), medium (3–4mm) and large (>4mm) follicles and then, proteins were analyzed by 2-D SDS-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-six proteins were identified in the goat follicular fluid, including albumin, immunoglobulins, ceruloplasmin, complement factor B, alpha-1B-glycoprotein precursor, serotransferrin, complement C3 and serpins, among others. Albumin and immunoglobulins were the most abundant proteins. Protein concentrations were similar in the fluid from small (45.3±3.1mg/mL), medium (44.2±3.3mg/mL) and large follicles (45.1±2.3mg/mL). The intensities of spots identified in 2-D gels as serotransferrin, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein-like, complement factor B and complement protein C3 differed (P < 0.05) among follicle categories. The amount of serotransferrin was greater in the medium than small follicles (P< 0.05). Content of zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein-like, complement factor B and complement C3 was greater (P < 0.05) in the fluid of large follicles than in medium follicles. Based on gene ontology, the major molecular functions associated with goat follicular fluid proteins were binding and catalytic activity, while the main biological processes were related to regulation, cellular processing, location and the immune system. In conclusion, the major proteome of the follicular fluid from goats subjected to hormonal stimulation was elucidated in the present study. Also, molecules associated with follicle development are potential biomarkers of oocyte competence were prevalent.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.005
       
  • Characterization of polymorphism in the FSH receptor gene and its impact
           on some reproductive indices in dairy cows
    • Authors: Hassan Sharifiyazdi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Zahra Ghanaatian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Animal Reproduction Science
      Author(s): Hassan Sharifiyazdi, Abdolah Mirzaei, Zahra Ghanaatian
      Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is released from the anterior pituitary gland and has an important role in female fertility. As FSH is a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone which cannot pass through the cell membrane, its influence on target cells must be mediated by the FSH receptor (FSHR). Accordingly, any kind of mutation in FSHR can affect reproduction in dairy cows. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) technique was used for recognition of a point mutation (A/G: position −278) located in the FSHR gene in Iranian dairy cows. The association was evaluated of this mutation with reproductive performance. Blood samples were collected from 79 cows in a dairy farm in Iran and genotyped based on this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The 5′-flanking regions of FSHR gene were successfully amplified and produced a fragment of 211bp in all cases. Three different patterns were, however, produced following restriction digestion with FaqI enzyme. The molecular results showed the existence of three different genotypes of AA, AG and GG among examined cows. In this study percentages of genotypes were 51.9%, 43.2% and 4.9% for AA, AG and GG genotypes, respectively. Allele frequencies were 73.5% and 26.5% for A and G, respectively. Results indicate that cows lacking allele G had desirable fertility in which a greater percentage (53.7%) of cows lacking Allele G (AA) had services per conception (SPC) of <2 in the previous lactation; while a lesser percentage of cows with Allele G (28.9%) had SPC of <2 (P <0.05). There was no difference in the days non-pregnant (DNP) and calving to first service interval among cows with these genotypes (P> 0.05). Calving to first service interval was 69.9 ±12.3 in cows with Allele G and 74.73±13.9 in cows without Allele G (P> 0.05). Percentage of cows with repeat breeder syndrome (SPC >3) was also 15.6% and 27.6% in cows without Allele G and with Allele G, respectively, but these values were not different (P> 0.05). It can be concluded that the A to G mutation within the upstream region of FSHR gene (position −278) may affect some reproductive variables in Holstein dairy cows.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T04:47:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.11.006
       
 
 
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