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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3184 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3184 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 430, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 414, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 365, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 468, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 234, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Animal Feed Science and Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.937
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0377-8401 - ISSN (Online) 0377-8401
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • Sanguinarine and resveratrol affected rumen fermentation parameters and
           bacterial community in calves
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): R. Zhang, W.B. Zhang, Y.L. Bi, Y. Tu, T. Ma, L.F. Dong, H.C. Du, Q.Y. Diao Plant extracts can be used in calf feed as alternatives to antibiotics, but their effects on colonization of microbial populations remains to be determined. Thus, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant extracts on rumen fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial community in calves, and we followed them up to 9 months of age to determine the persistence of any effects. Fifty-four female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of basal diet alone (MR group) or supplemented with sanguinarine (SAG group) or resveratrol (RES group) at 7 days of age. Body weight was measured at the beginning of the experiment and 2 or 6 months of age. Rumen fluid was sampled at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 months of age to monitor rumen fermentation parameters. Rumen samples at 3 and 6 months of age were used to analyze the bacterial community by amplicon sequencing. The copy number of Desulfovibrio and methanogenic archaea was determined using droplet digital PCR. The results demonstrated that ADG of calves was similar among groups during 7 d-2 m, 2 m-6 m and 7 d-6 m, respectively. At 3 months, ruminal pH was lower in the SAG and RES groups than in the MR group. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) was greater in the SAG group than in the MR group. At 4 months, the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration and the molar proportion of butyrate were lower in the SAG group than in the other two groups. The molar proportion of acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate (A:P ratio) were lower in the RES group than in the SAG group. The molar proportion of valerate was greater in the RES group than in the other groups. At 5 months, the NH3-N concentration was lower in the SAG group than in the other groups. The molar proportion of valerate was lower in the RES and SAG groups than in the MR group. No differences were observed in rumen fermentation parameters among groups at 1, 2, 6, and 9 months of age. The observed species, Chao1, and abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) values were greater in the MR group than in the other groups at 3 months of age. The community structure of bacteria in the MR group was distinct from that of the SAG and RES groups at 3 months of age. Desulfovibrio population was increased by sanguinarine and resveratrol, whereas methanogenic archaea population was decreased by resveratrol. No difference was observed in alpha and beta measures among all groups at 6 months of age. In summary, dietary sanguinarine or resveratrol affected rumen fermentation parameters and bacterial community in calves during 3–5 months of age. No effects of plant extract on rumen environment was detected at 6 and 9 months of age.
       
  • Effects of tannins and saponins contained in foliage of Gliricidia sepium
           and pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum on fermentation, methane emissions
           and rumen microbial population in crossbred heifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): Isabel Cristina Molina-Botero, Julian Arroyave-Jaramillo, Sara Valencia-Salazar, Rolando Barahona-Rosales, Carlos Fernando Aguilar-Pérez, Armín Ayala Burgos, Jacobo Arango, Juan Carlos Ku-Vera Incorporation of foliage and pods of tropical legumes in ruminant rations is an alternative to mitigate enteric methane emissions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of adding increasing levels of ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. mixed with foliage of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. on emissions of ruminal methane (CH4), volatile fatty acid proportions, rumen pH and microbial population in cattle. Four heifers (218 ± 18 kg LW) were fed (13 days) 0, 15, 30, and 45% of pods of E. cyclocarpum mixed with foliage of G. sepium, which were supplemented to a basal ration of Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf. Data were analyzed as a 4 × 4 Latin square. After three days of CH4 measurements in open-circuit respiration chambers, rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acid (VFA) molar proportions and quantify the microbial population. Samples of ration ingredients, refusals and feces were collected to evaluate nutrient composition. Foliage and pods of legumes provided crude protein (CP), condensed tannins (CT) and saponins, while grass was characterized by higher concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Dry matter intake (DMI) was 5.35 kg/day on average (P = 0.272). Apparent fiber digestibility was reduced (81 g/kg) and digestible CP intake (13 g/kg) increased when E. cyclocarpum mixed with G. sepium in rations were given (P 
       
  • Effects of saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on milk production,
           insulin sensitivity and immune response in transition dairy cows during
           hot season
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): A.H. Nasiri, A. Towhidi, M. Shakeri, M. Zhandi, M. Dehghan-Banadaky, H.R. Pooyan, F. Sehati, F. Rostami, A. Karamzadeh, M. Khani, F. Ahmadi The objectives were to determine effects of feeding a live yeast supplement on the productive performance, blood metabolic profile, the immune function, and insulin sensitivity traits of transition dairy cows under the hot months of summer. From 21 d before expected date of calving until d 60 postpartum, two groups of multiparous Holstein cows (6 cows per treatment) were fed a diet without or with live yeast supplement (4 g yeast/d/head). Blood was collected on d −14, 0, 14, 28, and 60 d relative to parturition and analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, creatinine, urea-N, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Plasma concentrations of histamine and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were also determined on d –21, 14, 28, and 49 relative to parturition. An intravenous glucose challenge was made on d 14 postpartum. The cell-mediated immune and humoral responses were established through phytohemagglutinin challenge and ovalbumin immunization, respectively. Prepartum DM intake was greater in yeast-fed cows; however, this difference disappeared after parturition. Cows receiving yeast supplement produced more milk (+1.40 kg/d) and had greater concentrations of milk fat and total solid than those receiving no yeast. Loss of body condition score from calving to d 21 postpartum tended to be lower in yeast-fed cows than control cows. Yeast supplementation had no effect on the response variables to the glucose tolerance test. Plasma concentration of Hsp70 was also lower on d 14 and 28 after parturition in yeast-fed cows. Yeast supplementation enhanced cellular immune function; however, it had no effect on immunoglobulin G secretion against ovalbumin immunization. Overall, live yeast supplementation benefited milk production and milk composition, lowered plasma level of Hsp70, and enhanced the lymphocyte proliferative response in transition dairy cows, which may suggest an immunomodulatory effect of yeast supplement.
       
  • Ingestive behaviour of grazing ruminants: meta-analysis of the components
           of bite mass
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): M. Boval, D. Sauvant Bite mass (BM) is the main parameter determining intake, production level and efficiency for grazing ruminants. Various data have been published concerning BM and its components bite diameter, bite area, bite depth and bite volume (BDiam, BA, BD and BV). However, it was not yet possible to have a clear quantitative view of the relationships between BM and its related components. The sward factors and animal traits influencing BM have only partially been studied previously. To progress on this topic, we performed a meta-analysis of a large set of 96 publications (776 treatments).Bite volume is closely linked with BM, and when linear components of BV are considered, BDiamis much more determining than BD. Among the sward characteristics, sward height (SH) is a key factor of BM through its strong and almost linear influence on BD and BV. On this aspect, SH is more determining than herbage mass/ha. Herbage bulk density (HBD) is also an influencing factor, notably at low HBD, which induces an adaptive behaviour consisting of increasing BDiam and BA. A significant interaction was observed between SH and HBD in determining BM;for low values of SH, the positive influence of HBD on BM was distinct.The measured parameters were diversely scaled with BW. For BM, the power coefficient was 1, while it was 0.346 for incisor arcade (IA) and of 0.20 for bite depth. Incisor arcade is an accurate determining factor for BM via BDiam and BA.Analysis of the various factors of variation in bite mass and its components studied in the literature facilitates our understanding of the adaptive strategies of the animals.
       
  • Effects of exogenous amylolytic enzymes on fermentation, nutritive value,
           and in vivo digestibility of rehydrated corn silage
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): Euclides R. Oliveira, Caio S. Takiya, Tiago A. Del Valle, Francisco P. Rennó, Rafael Henrique T.B. Goes, Rodrigo S.R. Leite, Kelly M.P. Oliveira, Jamille D.O. Batista, Hayne M.C. Araki, Juliane Damiani, Mábio Silvan J. Da Silva, Erika R.S. Gandra, Thais L. Pereira, Jefferson R. Gandra This study aimed to evaluate the effects of amylolytic enzymes incorporation - into rehydrated ground corn on silage fermentative profile, chemical composition, microbiological profile, as well as their effects on feed intake and total tract apparent digestibility in lambs. Twenty-four silos of rehydrated ground corn with theoretical particle size of 2.5 mm and 625 g/kg DM content were used in a completely randomized design containing the following treatments: 1) Control (CON), without exogenous enzymes; 2) Glucoamylase (GLU), incorporation of 300 μL of glucoamylase product (Kerazyme 4560–300 U/mL, Kera Nutrição Animal, Bento Gonçalves, RS) per kg of ground corn (as-fed basis); and 3) alpha-amylase (AMY), incorporation of 300 μL of alpha-amylase product (Kerazyme 4577–300 U/mL, Kera Nutrição Animal) per kg of ground corn (as-fed basis). Nine castrated lambs (25.4 ± 4.57 kg body weight and 6.0 ± 0.4 months age) were enrolled to a 3 × 3 Latin square design to evaluate effects of silages with amylolytic enzymes on nutrient intake and total apparent digestibility. Enzyme products (GLU or AMY) increased (P ≤ 0.043) fermentative losses and decreased (P = 0.002) DM recovery of rehydrated corn. Silage treated with GLU tended to show greater (P ≤ 0.052) fermentative losses than those treated with AMY. Enzyme products increased (P 
       
  • Small amounts of agro-industrial byproducts in dairy ewes diets affects
           milk production traits and hematological parameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): A. Nudda, G. Buffa, A.S. Atzori, M.G. Cappai, P. Caboni, G. Fais, G. Pulina The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different dried byproducts on milk yield and composition, and blood hematological parameters of lactating ewes. Thirty-six Sarda dairy sheep at about 120 ± 10 days in milk and with an average pre-trial milk yield of 1720 ± 430 g/day were assigned to 4 experimental groups and fed four different diets: no byproduct (CON), dry tomato pomace (TP), dry grape marc (GM), and exhausted myrtle berries (EMB) supplementation. Feed intake, milk yield, milk composition and hematological parameters were affected by byproduct supplementation of the diet. In particular, ewes fed byproducts combined diets consumed less dry matter compared with the CON (1.88 vs. 1.79 in GM and 1.71 kg in EMB and TP groups) diet daily. The GM group exhibited a larger milk production (+200 g/day), as well as protein (+8.4 g/day) and fat (+5.5 g/day) milk contents compared to the CON group. The EMB group produced less milk compared to CON group (1050 vs. 1220 g/day). The addition of TP did not affect production performance in comparison to CON group. Any significant interaction among dietary treatment and sampling time was observed on daily feed intake, animal performances and milk coagulation properties. The analysis of the hematological profile showed values within the physiological range of the species for all groups, and were used to assess apparent good health conditions of ewes throughout the experiment. In conclusion, 100 g/day of GM in addition to the basal sheep diet allowed to improve milk yield and to maintain the health status of lactating animals.
       
  • Influence of storage length and inoculation with Lactobacillus buchneri on
           the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of
           high-moisture corn and rehydrated corn grain silage
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): Naiara C. da Silva, Cleisy F. Nascimento, Vinícius M.A. Campos, Michele A.P. Alves, Flávio D. Resende, João L.P. Daniel, Gustavo R. Siqueira The objective of this study was to compare the conservation of rehydrated corn grain silage (RCGS) and high-moisture corn (HMC), treated or not with Lactobacillus buchneri, and to determine the minimum storage length necessary to improve ruminal in situ dry matter (DM) degradability. The treatments consisted of two grain sources, HMC and RCGS (rehydrated to 350 g/kg of moisture), inoculated with L. buchneri NCIMB 40788 at 1 × 105 cfu/g (LB) or chlorine free water (Control), and stored for 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 days. The concentrations of lactic, acetic, and propionic acids, and 1,2-propanediol were higher (P 
       
  • Sustainability of feeding plant by-products: A review of the implications
           for ruminant meat production
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): Saheed A. Salami, Giuseppe Luciano, Michael N. O'Grady, Luisa Biondi, Charles J. Newbold, Joseph P. Kerry, Alessandro Priolo Ruminant meat production is associated with a large environmental cost compared to other livestock products. Feed production, transport, and utilisation play a major role in global food security and greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production. Replacement of edible feed crops with human-inedible biomass in animal diets is a potential strategy that could reduce food-feed competition and mitigate the environmental impacts of livestock. Globally, plant by-products (PBP) represent an important human-inedible feed resource for livestock production. These waste streams can be obtained from agro-industrial processes such as distillery and biofuel production, oilseed processing, fruit and vegetable processing, sugar production, root and tuber processing, and herb, spice and tree processing. The microbial population in the forestomach (rumen) of ruminants allow PBP to be used effectively compared to monogastric livestock. Assessing and improving the utilisation of PBP may enhance the environmental sustainability of ruminant meat production without compromising the quality attributes and consumer acceptability of meat. Some PBP contain a considerable amount of residual bioactive compounds such as vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, and phytochemicals. Feeding innovations based on the utilisation of bioactive-rich PBP may reduce enteric methane and nitrogen emissions in ruminants while improving the nutritional composition and shelf-life quality of meat and meat products. This review examines the dual-impact of dietary PBP on environmental sustainability and meat quality attributes in ruminant production. In addition, the paper highlights the implications of this alternative feeding strategy on meat safety and the strategic interventions pertinent to its practical application for ruminant meat production.
       
  • Plant flavonoids to improve productivity of ruminants – A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): K.E. Olagaray, B.J. Bradford Use of plant polyphenols in production animal agriculture is increasingly being investigated, especially in the face of heavier restrictions on antibiotic use. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenols known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative functions. The aim of this review is to discuss the use of flavonoids in the areas of neonatal health, animal growth, efficiency of rumen fermentation, milk production, and resilience to stress in dairy cows. Bioavailability of flavonoids is typically greater in the aglycone form in humans and monogastric species; however, in ruminants the aglycone can be quickly degraded by rumen microbes. Bioavailability studies have demonstrated that although the aglycone form is the more bioavailable source in neonatal calves, as the rumen develops, the glycosylation of flavonoids provides a degree of ruminal protection and therefore improves bioavailability. Flavonoid supplementation appears to be most beneficial during periods of stress. In growing ruminants, flavonoid supplementation had little impact on metabolism, health status, or growth parameters, but did reduce the severity of pathogenic and nonpathogenic diarrhea. Flavonoids lessened the drop in ruminal pH and reduced the inflammatory state of cows fed a high grain diet and during induced subacute ruminal acidosis. Several studies supplementing different flavonoids to dairy cows during the transition period showed their potential to reduce postpartum inflammation, endoplasmic reticular stress, and hepatic lipid accumulation. In addition, milk yield was increased in most studies over the transition to lactation, but milk component responses were varied. Milk somatic cell concentration was often reduced by dietary flavonoids, and they have been effective at suppressing inflammation and apoptosis in pathogen-induced mouse mastitis models. Further research is warranted to investigate the potential of flavonoids to reduce mastitis in dairy cows. Overall, flavonoids can increase ruminant productivity with beneficial effects exhibited under a variety of stressful conditions; however, unexplained variability in response to flavonoid supplementation is likely due to differences in dose, specific compound efficacy, and mode of action.
       
  • Effect of the method of preservation on the chemical composition and in
           vitro fermentation characteristics in two legumes rich in condensed
           tannins
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): P.J. Rufino-Moya, M. Blanco, J.R. Bertolín, M. Joy The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of preservation (hay and silage) on the chemical composition and the in vitro fermentation characteristics in comparison with fresh forage in two legumes rich in condensed tannins (CT). Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) was collected at the late bloom stage and sulla (Hedysarum coronarium) at the early bloom stage. In each forage, a part was immediately freeze-dried, a part was dried at ambient temperature to obtain hay, and another part was ensiled in vacuum-packages for 82 days. An in vitro assay to study the fermentation was carried out with an Ankom system during 72 h. In both forages, the silages had different contents of polyphenols and condensed tannins fractions than fresh forage and hay (P
       
  • Effects of dietary lysophospholipid complex supplementation on lactation
           performance, and nutrient digestibility in lactating sows
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 251Author(s): Q.Q. Wang, S.F. Long, J.X. Hu, M. Li, L. Pan, X.S. Piao This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lysophospholipid complex (LPL; Lipidol; EasyBio, Inc., Korea) on lactation performance, production of immunoglobulins, and nutrients digestibility in lactating sows. Forty sows (Large White × Landrace, 222 ± 13 kg BW, and 2.5 ± 0.6 parity) were allotted to 5 dietary treatments with 8 sows per treatment based on back fat thickness, and body weight. From d 107 of gestation to d 21 of lactation, sows were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg / kg LPL, respectively. As the concentration of LPL increased, body weight loss of sows during lactation was reduced (P 
       
  • Impacts of feeding a flax-seed based feed supplement on productive and
           reproductive performance of early lactation multiparous Holstein cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): N. Swanepoel, P.H. Robinson Research conducted over the past 50 years has shown that the general health of dairy cows (i.e., immunity and uterine health) as well as pregnancy rates (i.e., fertilization and embryo development) can be improved through enhanced post-ruminal delivery, and absorption, of poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially omega-3 (n-3) PUFA. Since flax-seed contains very high concentrations of n-3 PUFA relative to other oilseeds, our objective was to evaluate effects of substituting conventional ration ingredients (mainly Pima cottonseed) with a flax-seed based product ‘LinPRO-R’ on production, reproduction and health of multiparous Holstein cows through 150 days in milk (DIM). The LinPRO-R is designed to be a rumen stable, free flowing source of n-3 FA created using dry extrusion. Pens of ˜315 early lactation cows were offered rations formulated to contain 0 g/kg (NoLin), 25 g/kg (LoLin) and 50 g/kg (HiLin) dry matter (DM) of LinPro. Samples were collected monthly for 5 months after assignment to treatment at 13.4 ± 0.84 DIM. The DM intake was unaffected by treatment while milk and component yields all increased (P 
       
  • Impact of flint corn processing method and dietary starch concentration on
           finishing performance of Nellore bulls
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): M. Caetano, R.S. Goulart, P.M. Rizzo, S.L. Silva, J.S. Drouillard, P.R. Leme, D.P.D. Lanna Nellore cattle are predominant in Brazil and appear to have poor performance when fed high-grain diets. In addition, most corn produced in Brazil is of the flint type, and the starch therein is more difficult to digest compared to that in dent corn hybrids. The aim of this study was to evaluate flint corn processing method (CPM) and dietary starch content for finishing Nellore bulls fed high-concentrate, corn-based diets. In this study, 112 Nellore bulls (initial BW 378.3 ± 21.28 kg) were fed twice daily using Calan gates or individual pens. The animals were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experiment tested two CPM: high moisture corn (HMC) and finely ground dry corn (FGC) and dietary starch concentrations (DSC) of 300, 350, 400 and 450 g/kg DM, replacing citrus pulp with corn. Bulls were adapted to finishing diets over a period of 18 days and fed a total of 75 days (18 + 57 days). To determine fecal starch (FS) concentration, feces from each animal were sampled on day 47 of the feeding period. Bulls fed diets containing more than 300 g/kg DSC from HMC were more efficient than bulls fed 300 g/kg DSC as HMC; but gain:feed ratio (G:F) for bulls fed FGC did not differ (CPM × DSC; P = 0.04). Final BW and average daily gain (ADG) were not affected by CPM, but carcass G:F was greater for bulls fed HMC than for those fed FGC (P < 0.01). Increases in DSC resulted in quadratic decreases in DM intake (P = 0.02), linear decreases in metabolisable energy (ME) intake (P < 0.01), and linear improvements in carcass G:F (P < 0.01). Interactions between CPM and DSC were observed for calculated dietary concentrations of net energy for maintenance (NEm), net energy for gain (NEg), and ME (P = 0.02), whereby NEm, NEg and ME of diets increased linearly with increases in DSC for bulls fed HMC, but did not differ across DSC for bulls fed FGC. Bulls fed FGC had 2.75 times greater FS compared to bulls fed HMC (P < 0.01); resulting in lower fecal pH for bulls fed FGC compared to those fed HMC (P < 0.01). In conclusion, there was no effect on G:F of Nellore cattle or net energy content of diets when DSC was increased by adding flint FGC, but increasing HMC in diets improved growth efficiency and net energy content.
       
  • Effect of extruded linseed supplementation, grain source and pH on dietary
           and microbial fatty acid outflows in continuous cultures of rumen
           microorganisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 249Author(s): V. Berthelot, H. Albarello, L.P. Broudiscou Using 6 continuous cultures of rumen microorganisms, we studied the effects of pH (low vs. high) and extruded linseed supplementation (10% of DM) in association with rapidly or slowly degraded starch sources (wheat vs. corn grains) 1) on fatty acid (FA) outflows and PUFA biohydrogenation (BH) processes 2) on FA microbial composition and its contribution to FA outflows, in two replicated periods of 10d (7d adaptation and 3d sampling). The control diet contained wheat. The buffer solutions infused in low or high pH cultures differed by the addition of 10 mL of 5 N H2SO4 or NaOH so as to allow fermentation medium pH fluctuations with diets and time after feeding. The fermentation pattern, daily amounts of hexoses fermented (HF), efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS), and specific production of gases (CH4 and H2) were measured. FA compositions were determined in total effluents and bacterial pools isolated from effluents. Lowering pH (from 6.46 to 6.16 measured just before feeding) increased the VFA concentration in the control diet whereas it decreased it in all linseed supplemented diets. Lowering pH tended to decrease CH4 specific production as well as acetate and propionate proportions and to increase butyrate and valerate proportions but did not alter HF and EMPS. Linseed but not grain source increased pH by 0.08 and did not modify fermentative parameters. Apparent BH of C18:3 9c,12c,15c and C18:2 9c,12c decreased at low pH but increased with linseed supplementation. Corn associated to linseed increased 18:3 9c,12c,15c BH compared to wheat. Consequently, C18:3 9c,12c,15c outflows increased at low pH and with linseed, and were higher with linseed-wheat diet than linseed-corn diet. For all treatments, the proportions of C18:0 (% of C18-FA outflows) remained low associated with high levels of BH intermediates (C18:2 11t, 15c and C18:1 11t) suggesting that BH did not proceed to completion. Lowering pH decreased C16:1 9c and C18:1 11c bacteria contents and tended to increase anteiso-FA. Linseed supplementation increased C18:0, C18:1 9c, C18:1 9t, C18:2 9c,12c bacteria contents without modifying the C18:3 9c,12c,15c and decreased their odd-FA content and anteiso-FA in tendency. Compared to wheat, corn decreased branched-FA bacteria content, as well as even-saturated FA. Lowering pH decreased the bacterial FA outflow whereas linseed increased it. Both decreased the bacterial FA contribution to total FA outflow. Results indicate that pH and diets modified PUFA BH while differing in their effect on odd- and branched-chain FA bacteria content and outflows.
       
  • Effects of yeast culture supplementation and the ratio of non-structural
           carbohydrate to fat on rumen fermentation parameters and
           bacterial-community composition in sheep
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 249Author(s): Yang-zhi Liu, Xue Chen, Wei Zhao, Min Lang, Xue-feng Zhang, Tao Wang, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk, Yu-guo Zhen, Gui-xin Qin This study aimed to evaluate the effects of yeast culture (YC) supplementation and the ratio of non-structural carbohydrate to fat (NSCFR) on rumen fermentation parameters (RFPs) and bacterial-community composition (BCC) using 6 ruminally cannulated sheep in a 2 × 3 factorial experiment. We formulated 6 dietary treatments with 3 levels of YC supplementation (0, 0.8 and 2.3 g/kg of dietary dry matter) and 2 dietary NSCFRs (17.02 and 5.60). Each animal was fed 1 of 6 diets in a 6 × 6 Latin square arrangement during the experiment. Ruminal liquid was sampled at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after morning feeding on days 16 and 17 (last 2 days) in all 6 of the Latin square periods. The concentrations of acetic acid, butyric acid and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) were significantly (p < 0.05) increased and the pH values were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased when the animals fed on high-NSCFR diet (H diet) with 2.3 g/kg of YC at 2 h after feeding compared with that on the low-NSCFR diet (L diet). However, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) were higher (p < 0.05) in all H groups than that in L groups. The relative abundances of Prevotella_1 were higher in all L groups (p < 0.05), while Lachnospiraceae_NK3A20 and Olsenella were higher in H groups (p < 0.05). Compared with L groups, the relative abundances of Candidatus_Saccharimonas and [Ruminococcus]_gauvreauii of H groups were increased when supplemented with YC (2.3 g/kg; p < 0.05). A significant increased relative abundance of Butyrivibrio_2 was observed in the L group (2.3 g/kg YC). Overall, the RFPs and BCC were influenced by both dietary NSCFR and YC supplementation. There was significant interaction between dietary NSCFR and YC supplementation in the aspects of VFAs, NH3-N and all genera of BCC.
       
  • Effect of the volume of methane released into respiration chambers on full
           system methane recovery
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 249Author(s): Jeyder I. Arceo-Castillo, Maria D. Montoya-Flores, Isabel C. Molina-Botero, Angel T. Piñeiro-Vázquez, Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez, Armin J. Ayala-Burgos, Francisco J. Solorio-Sánchez, Octavio A. Castelán-Ortega, Patricia Quintana-Owen, Juan C. Ku-Vera The respiration chamber method is considered to be the most precise approach for measuring enteric methane emissions in cattle. A set of experimental runs was carried out in which increasing volumes of pure methane (168.5, 194.9, 234.9, 264.9, 301.0, 339.8, and 375.7 L per run) were gravimetrically released into open-circuit respiration chambers to simulate the volumes of methane eructated by cattle of different weights. The aim was to assess the effect of the volume of methane released into the chambers on percentage of methane recovered at the exit by the infrared methane analyzer. It was found that as the volume of methane released into the respiration chambers was decreased, methane recovery percentages were concomitantly reduced. The recovery percentages ranged from 103.7% down to 18.3% and from 102.7% down to 31.6% for chambers one and two, respectively. It can be concluded that the slow stabilization of methane inside the large volume chamber, when injected at low rates from the cylinder, led to low recoveries of the gas at an air extraction rate of 300 L/min. As a result, the recovery of methane was constrained, leading to underestimation of the actual volumes released from the pure methane cylinders. Poor mixing of air inside the chambers did also constrain the recovery of methane with the experimental approach employed. The possible implications for methane measurements in respiration chambers under in vivo conditions with cattle are discussed.
       
  • The use of filter bags in combination with an in vitro system to evaluate
           forage degradation in mixed substrates
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 249Author(s): J.M. Castro-Montoya, U. Dickhoefer The current study determined the effects of using ANKOM R510 filter bags for substrate incubation during in vitro fermentations using the ANKOM RF technique on gas production (GP, ml/g DM), truly degraded dry matter (TDDM, g/100 g), and total short chain fatty acids concentration (SCFA, μmol/ml). Maize silage and grass hay tested separately in combination with a concentrate mixture (70:30 ratio, dry matter basis) were used as substrate for three experiments. In Experiment 1, 2.0 g of substrate (1.4 g of forage and 0.6 g of concentrate) were incubated during 48 h following three methodologies: Control, where the forage and concentrate were incubated freely in the incubation medium; Forage.In, where the forage was incubated inside the filter bag while the concentrate was incubated freely in the medium; Conc.In, where the concentrate was incubated inside the bag while the forage was incubated freely in the medium. In Experiment 2a only the Control and the Conc.In methodologies were considered. The sample size was reduced to 1.2 g and the incubation time was 24 h. A further modification was included in Experiment 2b by pre-washing the filter bags with acetone prior to the incubation and otherwise following the same procedures of Experiment 2a. A regression of GP, TDDM and SCFA of the control on those parameters of the Conc.In across all three experiments was performed to evaluate the correspondence between both methodologies. In Experiment 1 GP, total SCFA and TDDM decreased when utilizing the filter bag, particularly for the Forage.In methodology (P  0.90) between control and Conc.In was observed for all three parameters, indicating that comparable results can be expected when the concentrate is incubated inside the filter bag to those obtained when the mixed substrate is incubated freely in the incubation medium. Overall, the use of R510 filter bags to separately incubate the forage and the concentrate portion of a substrate can be used with confidence as long as the concentrate portion is incubated inside the bag and all samples studied are evaluated using the same methodology.
       
  • Comparison between a laser sensor and mechanical tools to estimate pasture
           mass in strata of kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pastures
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 249Author(s): M.A. Benvenutti, D.G. Barber, D.G. Mayer, K. Ison, M.V. Colman, C. Findsen Pasture meters are typically calibrated to estimate total pasture mass (TPM). Recent studies have shown that animal productivity was driven by the level of utilisation of the top leafy stratum (TLS) rather than the TPM. A study of kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pasture conducted on two farms located in southeast Queensland, Australia assessed whether pasture mass of the TLS, bottom stemmy stratum (BSS) and TPM can be more accurately estimated by using not only pasture surface height but also pasture density derived from height data captured by a laser sensor. The results indicated that there was a notable improvement of the pasture mass estimates when density was included in the calibration equations. The study also compared the accuracy of the pasture mass estimates between the laser sensor and mechanical pasture meters (rising plate meter and ruler). The results indicated that all devices provided reasonable estimates of pasture mass for TLS, BSS and total (R2 ≥ 0.75). However, pasture mass was estimated with a slightly higher level of accuracy when using the laser sensor in comparison with the other pasture meters, particularly for the top leafy stratum (R2 = 0.81 vs R2 ≤ 0.77).
       
  • Effects of feeding unprocessed oilseeds on methane emission, nitrogen
           utilization efficiency and milk fatty acid profile of lactating dairy cows
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 249Author(s): C. Muñoz, R. Sánchez, A.M.T. Peralta, S. Espíndola, T. Yan, R. Morales, E.M. Ungerfeld Lipid supplementation can decrease enteric methane emission and affect nutrient utilization in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of unprocessed oilseeds on methane emissions, nitrogen (N) utilization efficiency, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein Friesian cows (75.4 ± 15.9 days in milk) were randomly allocated to treatments in a double 4 × 4 Latin square with 4 periods (22 d for adaptation and 6 d for measurements in digestion units). Treatments formulated on an isonitrogenous and equal ether extract content were: 1) Prilled fat consisting of a mixture of FA from fractionated palm oil (PFA; 3.5% of diet DM), 2) Rapeseed (RPS; 6.9% of diet DM), 3) Cottonseed (CTS; 18.4% of diet DM), and 4) Linseed (LNS; 7.5% of diet DM). Oilseeds were fed without processing. Diets contained varying amounts of corn silage (26 to 27% of diet DM), grass silage (23 to 37% of diet DM), and concentrate (37 to 50% of diet DM), plus the allocated lipid source treatment. Diets were formulated to provide an ether extract level of 6% of diet DM. Methane emissions were measured using the SF6 technique. The RPS diet increased dry matter intake (DMI) compared to the other treatments. The CTS diet decreased methane production (g/d) and yield (g/kg of DMI) compared to RPS and LNS, and decreased methane intensity (g/kg of energy-corrected milk) compared to RPS, but not LNS or PFA. Also, the CTS diet increased N excretion in urine. Dietary inclusion of LNS and RPS decreased milk fat content, and the CTS diet tended to increase milk protein, and increased milk lactose contents compared to the PFA diet. However, milk yield and milk components yield were not affected by treatments. Unprocessed oilseeds improved milk FA profile by increasing mono- and poly-unsaturated FA concentration in milk fat. In conclusion, unprocessed oilseeds differed in their effects on the response variables studied, and many of these effects were independent of the degree of FA unsaturation. The most important implication of these results is the need to evaluate methane mitigation strategies in conjunction other environmental, production and consumer health aspects.
       
  • Growth, rumen fermentation and plasma metabolites of Holstein male calves
           fed fermented corn gluten meal during the postweaning stage
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 249Author(s): X. Jiang, X. Liu, S. Liu, Y. Li, H.B. Zhao, Y.G. Zhang The objective of this experiment was to determine whether the dietary inclusion of fermented corn gluten meal (FCGM) would alter the growth, rumen fermentation and plasma metabolites of postweaning calves. Twenty-four Holstein male calves (mean ± SEM: ages = 56.21 ± 2.43 d; body weight = 83.36 ± 3.62 kg) were kept in individual pens (2.0 × 2.5 m2). After 2 weeks of adaptation, the calves were blocked for body weight and age before being randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets groups (12 calves per group): (1) untreated basal diet (Control diet, CON), and (2) supplementation with 5% of FCGM in the basal diet (FCGM diet, FCGM, DM basis). Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous as well as the amino acids levels were similar between 2 diets. Moreover, the calves received diets and water ad libitum throughout the 8 week trial period. Calves fed FCGM diet significantly increased the average daily gain (P = 0.028) and feed efficiency (P = 0.034) and tended to elevate withers height (P = 0.067) compared with the CON. No difference was observed for body weight, body length and heart girth between the treatments. The rumen ammonia nitrogen (P < 0.001), acetate (P = 0.004), propionate (P = 0.042), total volatile fatty acids (P = 0.002), microbial protein (P = 0.003) and proteinase (P = 0.001) were higher in FCGM calves. Moreover, rumen pH (P < 0.001) was lower in FCGM. The relative abundance of the phylum-level Bacteroidetes (79.4%) and the family-level Prevotellaceae (56.1%) in FCGM was higher than that in CON (66.8% and 37.7%, respectively). Feeding FCGM significantly increased the relative abundance of the genera-level Prevotella_1 (P = 0.028) and Prevotellaceae_UCG-003 (P = 0.016) but decreased the relative abundance of the Ruminobacter (P = 0.011) compared with the CON. Additionally, FCGM significantly increased the plasma total protein (P = 0.027), glucose (P = 0.014), total superoxide dismutase (P = 0.003), catalase (P = 0.023), total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.029), immunoglobulin A (P = 0.016), immunoglobulin G (P = 0.026), growth hormone (P = 0.027) and insulin-like growth factor-І (P = 0.007). In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of FCGM elevated the growth rate and feed efficiency, promoted rumen fermentation, diversified the bacterial community composition in the rumen, as well as improved antioxidant and immune functions of calves during the postweaning stage.
       
  • Dietary supplementation with tannin and soybean oil on intake,
           digestibility, feeding behavior, ruminal protozoa and methane emission in
           sheep
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 249Author(s): P.R. Lima, T. Apdini, A.S. Freire, A.S. Santana, L.M.L. Moura, J.C.S. Nascimento, R.T.S. Rodrigues, J. Dijkstra, A.F. Garcez Neto, M.A.Á. Queiroz, D.R. Menezes Tannins and soybean oil are supplements used in diets that depending on concentration may promote beneficial or negative effects on animal productivity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with tannins extract or soybean oil, as well as their combination, on intake, digestibility, methane production, feeding behavior and rumen parameters in Santa Inês crossbred uncastrated male sheep. Eight sheep were assigned to a double 4 × 4 Latin square (4 treatments and 4 periods), and 4 sheep to a simple 4 × 4 Latin square (for ruminal fluid collection) and fed a basal diet of 60% elephant grass and 40% concentrate (dry matter (DM) basis). The treatments were: control (no tannins or soybean oil); tannins (30 g/kg DM); soybean oil (50 g/kg DM); and tannins plus soybean oil (30 g/kg DM of tannin and 50 g/kg DM of soybean oil). Intake did not differ between treatments. Tannins supplementation increased eating time (ET) (P 
       
  • Nutritional impact of nano-selenium, garlic oil, and their combination on
           growth and reproductive performance of male Californian rabbits
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 249Author(s): A.A.A. Abdel-Wareth, A.E. Ahmed, H.A. Hassan, M.S. Abd El-Sadek, A.A. Ghazalah, J. Lohakare This study aimed to investigate the effects of nano-selenium (nano-Se), garlic oil, and their combination on nutrients digestibility, semen quality, serum testosterone and metabolites of male Californian rabbits. A total of 80 rabbits (120 days of age) were randomly distributed into four treatment groups of 20 rabbits each. Treatment groups were fed a control diet, a control diet supplemented with nano-Se (400 μg/kg), control diet supplemented with garlic oil (700 mg/kg), or control diet supplemented with combination of nano-Se (400 μg/kg) and garlic oil (700 mg/kg). The feeding trial lasted for 60 days. The results showed that improvements were observed in body weight (BW) gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in nano-Se treated group than non-supplemented group, and an interaction effect was observed on final BW of rabbits. The digestibility of all measured nutrients were significantly higher (P 
       
  • Comments on two publications which examined underlay films commonly used
           on silage piles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): P.H. Robinson, N. Swanepoel Thin plastic underlay films are commonly recommended to reduce spoilage and increase hygienic quality of commercial silages. However there has been a limited amount of research completed to ascertain the benefits of these underlay films, and even less to compare underlay films with differing oxygen permeability. This Short Communication comments on two papers recently published in this area, one in Animal Feed Science and Technology and the other in Grass and Forage Science.
       
  • Food safety - Salmonella update in broilers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): Martha Pulido-Landínez The increase in the presence of Salmonella in the processing plants is alarming. This problem represents challenges both at the processing level and for the whole integration. Chickens are the most important input in the processing plant, so the increase of Salmonella in the plant directly suggests what is happening in the primary production. All the interventions in breeder farms, hatchery, feed mills, and broiler farms that are related to the control of Salmonella will play a crucial role in the fulfillment of the processing plants objectives. The vertical integration model for chicken meat production, should act as one of the main tools for reducing the presence of bacteria that is related to foodborne diseases. Salmonella is one of the main food safety challenges for modern poultry production. Controls and interventions established in each vertical integration step will contribute to the reduction of the unwanted presence of Salmonella in the final product.
       
  • Holistic view of intestinal health in poultry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón The intestinal health of poultry has broad implications for the systemic health of birds, animal welfare, the production efficiency of flocks, food safety, and environmental impact. The importance of this topic has grown over the past two decades and this was the focus of this workshop arranged to provide a forum for discussion and mutual learning by sharing experiences, scientific information and demonstrations of comparative effects of multiple factors that affect intestinal health under controlled conditions. This special issue is the product of that workshop.This first paper reviews the multiple aspects that can affect the intestinal health of poultry, and individual factors are then addressed in more detail in subsequent papers. However, some factors, like breeder intestinal health, incubation conditions, early feeding, water quality, housing conditions, feedstuff quality, mycotoxin and rancidity, and grain drying will be discussed herein since will not be covered in detail elsewhere in the issue. The objective of this paper is to offer a great overview of intestinal health in poultry production and emphasize that a holistic approach is necessary when trying to minimize these dysbiosis and enteric diseases.
       
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of feed enzymes on
           growth and nutrient digestibility in grow-finisher pigs: effect of enzyme
           type and cereal source
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): A. Torres-Pitarch, E.G. Manzanilla, G.E. Gardiner, J.V. O’Doherty, P.G. Lawlor Dietary supplementation of pig diets with exogenous enzymes has been suggested as a strategy to increase nutrient digestibility and improve feed efficiency in grow-finisher pigs. However, inconsistent results are found in the literature. Ingredient composition of the diets is one of the most important sources of variation that may affect enzyme efficacy and consistency of results. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was therefore conducted to determine which exogenous enzymes with which diet type most consistently improve pig growth, nutrient digestibility and feed efficiency. Enzyme type and dietary cereal source were the main explanatory variables included in the models. The mean difference effects of enzyme supplementation on average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain to feed (G:F), apparent ileal digestibility (AiD) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and gross energy (GE) were calculated for each study and these were used as the effect size estimates in the meta-analysis. A dataset with 139 comparisons from 67 peer-reviewed publications was used in the meta-analysis. In response to enzyme supplementation, G:F was improved in 38 of the 120 comparisons reporting pig growth data, remained un-changed in 78 and deteriorated in 4. Overall, DM and GE AiD and ATTD were improved by xylanase, xylanase and β-glucanase, mannanase and protease dietary supplementation (P 
       
  • The effect of microbiome modulation on the intestinal health of poultry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): Michael H. Kogut The chicken gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to a complex microbial community that underlines the links between diet and health. The GI tract is rich in microbial biodiversity, playing home to ≥500 phylotypes or ∼1 million bacterial genes, which equates to 40–50 times the number in the chicken genome. Manipulating the microbiota would serve as promising therapeutic paradigm; albeit not a new concept for the poultry industry as evidenced by competitive exclusion where newly hatched chickens could be protected against colonization by Salmonella enteritidis by dosing a suspension of gut contents derived from healthy adult chickens. This concept of adding beneficial bacteria to the intestine has led to the development of probiotics and prebiotics. Unlike the host genome, which is rarely manipulated by xenobiotic intervention, the microbiome is readily changeable by diet, ingestion of antibiotics, infection by pathogens and other host- and environmental-dependent events. The plasticity of the microbiome has been implicated in numerous disease conditions, and an unfavorable alteration of the commensal structure of gut microbiota is referred to as dysbiosis; this includes a reduction in the number of tolerogenic bacteria and an over-growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (pathobionts) that can penetrate the intestinal epithelium and induce diseases in certain genetic or environmental contexts. This review highlights the plasticity of the avian microbiome that allows defined interventions as a means of enhancing poultry health and productivity. The ability to intentionally manipulate the microbiota by providing nutrients, modulating host immunity, inhibiting/preventing pathogen intestinal colonization, or improving intestinal barrier function has led to a number of novel methods to prevent disease, but also led to improved body weight, feed conversion, and carcass yield.
       
  • Clutch formation and nest activities by the setting hen synchronize chick
           emergence with intestinal development to foster viability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): Edwin T. Moran The fertile hen collects eggs in a nest to form her clutch. The egg’s asymmetrical ellipsoid shape encourages placement blunt end up. Chalaza formation centralizes ovum in the egg while its high lipid favors upward positioning as early rotations interface germ with outer thin and access its glucose. Repetitive heating during successive ovipositions together with glucose recovery sustain blastodisc viability. Further turning of eggs upon formal incubation distributes the chorio-allantois over the blunt end while consolidating albumen in its sac at the sharp end. Rupture of the sero-amnionic connection mixes albumen with amnion which the embryo consumes over the next several days. During consumption certain of the proteins directly enter the vascular system while most pass through the jejunum to enter the yolk sac and foster embryonic nutrition. Mineralization of the skeleton, pipping muscle enlargement, multiple fortifications of glycogen, and deposition of subcutaneous fat subsequently occur as liver cholesterol becomes exaggerated. Minimal oxygen during transition from chorio-allantois to pulmonary respiration necessitates umbilical closure together with the heart’s intra-auricle septum as inner to outer shell pipping proceeds. Abdominal pressures during yolk sac retraction force a portion of yolk contents back into the jejunum while bile and pancreatic enzymes initiate its digestion to enhance early mucosal maturation. Concurrently, glycogen is sourced for energy in support of emergence. A narrow hatch window exists for the clutch because of egg uniformity while intermittent pre-incubation heating enabled similar germ development. Hen confinement of emergents to the nest provides insulation and heat sharing to extend body reserves through completion of hatch. Confinement also exposes hatchlings to a mature microbial population from hen excreta that colonize the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Microbe composition in concert with the hen’s environment advantages digestion of hatchling feedstuffs outside the nest while concurrent mucosal failures generate permanent immunoglobins to commensals as passive ones dissipate. Inherent delays to feed with commercial chicks and absence of a favorable microflora impair early intestinal maturation prior to initial feed access. A pre-starting feed providing high protein that assures amino acids favoring mucin is thought to resist lumen microbes while aiding recovery of delayed development. Concurrent dietary enzyme supplementation and a source of nucleic acids are believed to partially substitute for digestive and nutritional complementation expected from commensals.
       
  • Coinfection with Eimeria spp. decreases bacteremia and spinal lesions
           caused by pathogenic Enterococcus cecorum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): L.B. Borst, K.A. McLamb, M.M. Suyemoto, L.R. Chen, M.G. Levy, A.H. Sarsour, H.A. Cordova, H.J. Barnes, E.O. Oviedo-Rondón Pathogenic strains of Enterococcus cecorum (EC) escape the gut niche to infect the spine of broilers at the free thoracic vertebra (FTV) causing the disease enterococcal spondylitis or ‘kinky-back’. Intestinal barrier damage caused by coinfection with Eimeria spp. has been suggested to play a role in potentiating EC bacteremia and FTV lesion development. To test this hypothesis, 1440 broilers were experimentally infected with EC only, EC and a coinfection of E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella (EC:Cocci), and a saline only control (Sham). Birds were grown for 35 days, spleen cultures, histologic lesions in the FTV and live performance parameters were compared among groups. Coccidian coinfection significantly decreased the prevalence of EC bacteremia and histologic lesions in the FTV. Histologic evaluation of the ceca revealed significantly increased cecal mucosal height and mean inflammatory scores in the EC:Cocci group compared to EC only and sham inoculated controls. These findings indicate that the decrease in pathogenic EC bacteremia observed with coccidia coinfection may be due to increased intestinal epithelial turnover or increased immune surveillance of the intestine. In both infection groups, body weights, body weight gain and feed intake were significantly decreased and feed conversion ratios were significantly increased. These undesirable alterations in live performance parameters were exacerbated by nicarbazin treatment but not zoalene or bacitracin treatment. Further work is needed to determine the mechanism for the observed benefit of coccidian coinfection in decreasing bacteremia and FTV lesions due to pathogenic EC.
       
  • Immunity, immunomodulation, and antibiotic alternatives to maximize the
           genetic potential of poultry for growth and disease response
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): Woo H. Kim, Hyun S. Lillehoj Multiple challenges confront the increasing demand for wholesome poultry food products, including governmental restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), nutritional requirements to obtain maximum growth potential, understanding crosstalks among the immunity–microbiota–neuroendocrine system in the gut to maximize intestinal efficiency, high-density production conditions, waste management, and the emergence of infectious pathogens, particularly those that emerge in the antibiotic-free animal production environment. Although in-feed antibiotics have dramatically increased the efficiency of commercial poultry production over the last 50 years, we are now faced with an increasing global crisis concerning the heightened use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the emergence of multidrug-resistant superbugs that threaten disease management in animals and humans. Therefore, much interest has focused on the development of alternative, antibiotic-free methods of commercial poultry production. Initially, alternatives to antibiotics included any strategies that replace AGPs, but now include any feed additives or treatment that will allow antibiotic-free animal production to prevent and/or treat diseases. These newer disease control strategies can be classified broadly into those that are directly cytotoxic against infectious agents or remove pathogenic toxins, including vaccines, hyperimmune antibodies, antimicrobial peptides, and bacteriophages, and those that augment non-specific host immunity and gut health, including phytochemicals, adjuvants, prebiotics, and probiotics. Furthermore, because the gut microbiota influences various physiological aspects of the immune response, brain function, and gut health, most antibiotic alternatives are expected to promote beneficial microbes that will benefit host physiological responses. However, there is a timely need to better understand the role of the microbiota in gut health if we want to use microbes to modulate the host response to enhance growth performance. This review will highlight current knowledge of host immunity in poultry, and various strategies to modulate host immunity, growth performance, and disease responses to guide the development of alternatives to reduce the use of antibiotics, using a few selected alternatives and a description of their efficacy and modes of action.
       
  • Best practices: Mixing and sampling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): A.C. Fahrenholz In the manufacture of animal food, proper mixing is of utmost importance, no matter whether one is concerned about the inclusion of an additive, nutritional adequacy, or simply the general quality of the finished product. In order to produce a high quality, homogenous mixture, it is important to put into place good practices for both processes and sampling procedures utilized for process evaluation. However, producing a properly mixed animal food actually begins well before the mixing process itself, with a number of important steps in manufacturing coming first, including receiving, grinding, and batching of ingredients. At the mixer, feed mills should be concerned with proper ingredient addition order, appropriate mixer fill, and dry mix, wet mix, and discharge times. As with any process, attention must also be given to preventive maintenance and repairs as necessary. With all of these things in mind, a well-designed quality assurance program, including the use of statistical process control to provide data-driven reviews of performance, is key to ensuring that each of the processes throughout the feed mill do not place limits on the effectiveness of mixing, and that mixing itself is adequate.
       
  • Biomarkers of gastrointestinal functionality in animal nutrition and
           health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): Pietro Celi, Viviane Verlhac, Estefania Pérez Calvo, Jerome Schmeisser, Anna-Maria Kluenter Effective gastrointestinal functionality is crucial in determining animal health, welfare and performance. A new definition of gastrointestinal functionality has been recently presented and it has identified the key components that contribute to effective gastrointestinal functionality and health. These components are: diet, effective structure and function of the gastrointestinal barrier, host interaction with the gastrointestinal microbiota, effective digestion and absorption of feed, effective immune status, and neuroendocrine function of the gut. Each of these components are linked to each other by several complex mechanisms and pathways, however, having identified some key components of gastrointestinal functionality offers the opportunity to evaluate potential biomarkers that can allow us to measure the functionality of the gastrointestinal system in farm animals. Numerous and rapidly evolving methodologies are producing an ever-increasing number and types of biomarkers, each with their own distinct advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, differences in models and methodologies make it difficult to extrapolate finding across species and to make meaningful comparisons, even when studies seem quite similar. This review will highlight the intrinsic challenges in choosing what biomarker to measure, where and when to measure it. Because of the complexity of the interactions between the key components of gastrointestinal functionality, we propose that the use of a single biomarker might not be feasible, rather we propose the development of a panel of biomarkers of gastrointestinal functionality that needs to be indicative not only of effective functionality and health of the gastrointestinal tract, but also of animal performance, health and welfare.
       
  • Broiler production without antibiotics: United States field perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): John A. Smith Recent United States Food and Drug Administration restrictions on antibiotic use in broilers should have minimal impacts on broiler health and performance. Of more significance are marketing programs that more severely restrict and often totally prohibit the use of antibiotics, including ionophores, in broiler production. The major impacts of antibiotic-free programs include increased neonatal infections due to removal of added antibiotics from Marek’s vaccines, compromised control of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis, control of litter moisture and the issues associated with wet litter, and general disease control. Management of these issues requires significant adjustments to management and diet and the use of non-antibiotic medications such as chemically-synthesized coccidiostats. While these adjustments can ameliorate the impacts of antibiotic-free programs, performance, health, and welfare problems are likely to exceed those found in programs with unrestricted access to judicious use of all approved medications.
       
  • Contribution of exogenous enzymes to potentiate the removal of antibiotic
           growth promoters in poultry production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018Source: Animal Feed Science and TechnologyAuthor(s): A.J. Cowieson, A.M. Kluenter Removal of prophylactic in-feed antibiotics from the diets of animals that enter the human food chain is increasing on a global basis. This removal is motivated by a range of factors including legislative compliance, consumer and retailer pressure and for ethical reasons. However, whilst this shift in approach to the rearing of production animals has benefits, there are also significant challenges for animal husbandry, disease control, nutritional optimization and food safety and security. For example, the use of in-feed antibiotics generates increases in weight gain and feed conversion ratio in the region of 4% and so, axiomatically, their removal introduces significant efficiency cost for producers. The vacuum created by the removal of in-feed antibiotics has led to a sustained body of research into alternative additives such as plant secondary metabolites, pro- and pre-biotics, acidifiers and enzymes. Whilst no single alternative to date can claim to demonstrably and consistently replace the antibiotics, many of these additives have substantial value and can form part of successful ‘anti-biotic free’ production programs. It is therefore the purpose of this review article to summarise the consequences of removal of in-feed antibiotics and to highlight the potential of feed enzymes as part of a displacement strategy.
       
 
 
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