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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3049 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3089 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 360, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 330, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 417, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Animal Feed Science and Technology
  [SJR: 1.151]   [H-I: 83]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0377-8401 - ISSN (Online) 0377-8401
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3049 journals]
  • Metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility of mash and pelleted
           diets for broilers determined under different methodologies
    • Authors: L.F. Roza; F. de C. Tavernari; D. Surek; C. Sordi; L.F.T. Albino; D. Paiano; M.M. Boiago; T.G. Petrolli; A. Cunha Júnior
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): L.F. Roza, F. de C. Tavernari, D. Surek, C. Sordi, L.F.T. Albino, D. Paiano, M.M. Boiago, T.G. Petrolli, A. Cunha Júnior
      The objective of this study was to determine the interaction between feed processing and different methodologies for assessing apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen (AMEn) and standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SIDC) of amino acids (AA) in broiler diets. A completely randomized design in a 4×2 factorial was used to evaluate AMEn by four methodologies and two physical forms of diet (mash and pelleted). The methodologies were total excreta collection and use of the markers: acid insoluble ash (AIA), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3). After 5days of total excreta collection, all the birds were slaughtered and ileal content was assessed for AA. There was significant interaction (P<0.05) between the methodologies and physical form of the diets on AMEn values. Regardless of the physical form of the diet, the AIA marker provided similar AMEn values for total excreta collection on a DM basis. Pelleted diets had higher values (P<0.05) of AMEn (MJ/kg) on DM, except for Cr2O3. For AA, there was no interaction (P>0.05) between the markers and the physical form of the diets. There was no difference in SIDC between mash and pelleted diets (P>0.05). The AIA marker provided a higher SIDC compared to the TiO2 and Cr2O3 markers, except as regards methionine and lysine. Overall, pelleting increases dietary AMEn, but does not affect amino acid digestibility. Total collection and AIA lead to similar AMEn values, and AIA provides higher SIDC of the amino acids.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Effect of different levels of pomegranate marc with or without
           polyethylene glycol on performance, nutrients digestibility and protozoal
           population in growing lambs
    • Authors: Ali Hatami; Daryoush Alipour; Fardin Hozhabri; Meysam Tabatabaei
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Ali Hatami, Daryoush Alipour, Fardin Hozhabri, Meysam Tabatabaei
      This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of pomegranate marc (PM) supplemented with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) on performance, intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention, ruminal ammonia concentration and protozoal population in growing lambs. Thirty Mehraban male lambs (4–5 months of age; 29.5±1.19kg initial body weight (BW)) were assigned randomly to five treatments (6 lambs per treatment) which were different levels of PM with or without PEG: without PM (Control), 80g PM/kg DM (PM80), PM80 with PEG (PM80+PEG), 160g PM/kg DM (PM160), and PM160 with PEG (PM160+PEG). On day 61 of the fattening period, four animals from each group were selected randomly and housed individually in metabolism crates to evaluate nutrient digestibility by total collection method. Control animals had a greater dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) compared with PM160 (P<0.05). However, lambs fed the high level of PM showed decreased DMI and ADG compared with those fed the low level of PM (P<0.05). The addition of PEG to the PM diets increased DMI (P<0.05), but did not affect the ADG (P>0.05) of lambs. The PM160 diet had lower crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibities compared with other treatments (P>0.05). The addition of PEG to the PM diets increased the digestibilities of OM, CP, NDF and ADF (P<0.05) by lambs. There were no differences among treatments for N intake, fecal N output and N retention (P>0.05). Addition of PEG to the PM diets increased urinary N output and the ratio of urinary to fecal N (P<0.05). Ruminal ammonia concentration, numbers of Entodinium spp. and total protozoa population were higher in control-fed lambs than lambs fed other treatments. Inclusion of PEG in diets containing PM increased ruminal ammonia concentration, blood urea nitrogen, numbers of Entodinium spp. and total protozoa population (p<0.05). In conclusion, addition of 80g PM/kg DM of diet or tannins up to 1.62% of DM had no adverse effect on DMI, ADG, FCR, nutrient digestibility and N retention by lambs but it decreased protozoal population, ruminal ammonia concentration and blood urea nitrogen in lambs fed concentration based diets.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Mixed organic acids as antibiotic substitutes improve performance, serum
           immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota for weaned piglets
    • Authors: S.F. Long; Y.T. Xu; L. Pan; Q.Q. Wang; C.L. Wang; J.Y. Wu; Y.Y. Wu; Y.M. Han; C.H. Yun; X.S. Piao
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): S.F. Long, Y.T. Xu, L. Pan, Q.Q. Wang, C.L. Wang, J.Y. Wu, Y.Y. Wu, Y.M. Han, C.H. Yun, X.S. Piao
      The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of two mixed organic acids (OA) on performance, serum immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaned pigs in comparison with antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). A total of 144 weaned piglets [Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire), average weight 8.63±1.56kg] were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment (3 barrows and 3 gilts per pen). The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean basal diet (CTR), AGP diet (CTR+10mg/kg zinc bacitracin, 5mg/kg colistin sulphate and 5mg/kg olaquindox), Organic acid 1 diet [OA1; CTR+3000mg/kg OA1; a synergistic blend of free and buffered short chain fatty acids (mainly formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid) combined with medium chain fatty acids (MCFA)]. Organic acid 2 diet (OA2; CTR+2000mg/kg OA2; a synergistic blend of a phenolic compound, slow release C12, target release butyrate and sorbic acid, MCFA and OA). Compared with CTR, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (FE) were improved (P< 0.05) by OA2 in phase 2 (d 14–28) and the overall period (d 0–28), and OA1 improved (P< 0.05) FE during the overall period, while AGP increased (P< 0.05) ADG and FE in phase 2. Both OA1 and OA2 reduced (P< 0.05) the incidence of diarrhea and fecal E. coli counts. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of total carbohydrates, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and phosphorus was improved (P< 0.05) by OA2 in phase 1 (d 0–14). In phase 2, OA1 increased (P< 0.05) ATTD of dry matter, total carbohydrates, NDF and ADF while OA2 improved (P< 0.05) ATTD of total carbohydrates, phosphorus and ether extract. Compared with CTR, the concentration of total volatile fatty acid in feces was improved (P< 0.01) in pigs supplemented with AGP, OA1 and OA2. The concentration of IgG, growth hormone, and total antioxidant capacity in serum tended to be higher, and the amount of hydroxyl radicals in serum was lower (P< 0.05) in pigs supplemented with OA2 compared with CTR. Crypt depth in the jejunum for piglets fed with OA2 was lower (P< 0.05), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum was greater (P< 0.05) in pigs fed with AGP, OA1 or OA2 than those of CTR. The results from the present research indicate that OA1 and OA2 can be used to replace AGP based on the positive effects on performance, serum immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota in the weaned piglets.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Gut antimicrobial effects and nutritional value of black soldier fly
           (Hermetia illucens L.) prepupae for weaned piglets
    • Authors: Thomas Spranghers; Joris Michiels; Joachim Vrancx; Anneke Ovyn; Mia Eeckhout; Patrick De Clercq; Stefaan De Smet
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Thomas Spranghers, Joris Michiels, Joachim Vrancx, Anneke Ovyn, Mia Eeckhout, Patrick De Clercq, Stefaan De Smet
      Prepupae of the black soldier fly (BSF) are a potential source of high value protein that could be incorporated in feed for monogastric farm animals. These prepupae are also rich in fat, with lauric acid (C12:0) as the predominant fatty acid, known for its antimicrobial effects on Gram positive bacteria. First, the effects of BSF fat on the porcine gut microbiota were assessed in vitro by simulating digestion in the upper small intestine of piglets. Different amounts of BSF fat were added to an incubation medium, which contained a synthetic diet, a phosphate buffer (pH 5) and a microbial inoculum from one donor piglet. The medium was incubated at 37°C for 4h. Using selective media, coliforms, D-streptococci, lactobacilli and total anaerobic bacteria were counted on aliquots taken at the end of the incubations. Second, weaned piglets were reared on diets including full-fat (4 and 8%) and defatted (5.4%) BSF prepupae and compared to a control diet (i.e. with soybean as protein and fat source). Next to the effects on gut microbiota, selected gut health parameters were investigated, performance was recorded and digestibility of the diets was calculated. In vitro, the prepupal fat at 0.58g C12:0/100mL, suppressed growth of lactobacilli, but the most substantial antibacterial effects were recorded against D-streptococci. At the highest inclusion level (equivalent to 0.87g C12:0/100mL), around 2 log fold reductions of D-streptococci were observed. From the animal trial, only 0.5 log fold reductions were observed for D-streptococci in the gut of piglets fed BSF containing diets. No differences were recorded for daily gain, feed intake and feed to gain ratio among treatments. The apparent fecal digestibility of the control feed did not differ significantly to that of the insect-containing feed (protein digestibility between 77 and 78% for all treatments). Whereas the ileal protein digestibility of the 8% full-fat BSF diet (67.4%) was lower than that of the control (69.7%), the values for the 4% full-fat and the defatted BSF diets were higher (73.3%). In conclusion, our trial with piglets showed that a substantial amount of soybean products (meal and/or toasted beans) can be replaced by BSF without adverse effects on performance. However, given that the current price of BSF prepupae is substantially higher than that of soybean, future research should focus on exploring the potential added value of BSF compared to conventional protein sources.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T14:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Lambs fed cassava silage with added tamarind residue: Silage quality,
           intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, growth performance and carcass
           quality
    • Authors: C.M. Souza; R.L. Oliveira; T.V. Voltolini; D.R. Menezes; N.J.A. dos Santos; A.M. Barbosa; T.M. Silva; E.S. Pereira; L.R. Bezerra
      Pages: 50 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): C.M. Souza, R.L. Oliveira, T.V. Voltolini, D.R. Menezes, N.J.A. dos Santos, A.M. Barbosa, T.M. Silva, E.S. Pereira, L.R. Bezerra
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects adding tamarind residue to cassava silage on the quality of the silage and its in vitro ruminal fermentation, as well as the growth performance and carcass quality of lambs. A completely randomized design with four inclusion levels (0.00, 100, 200 and 300g/kg) of tamarind residue (Tamarindus indica L.) added to cassava silage was used. Twenty mini-silos were used to prepare samples of the four treatments (five replicates each), which were opened after 56days. Forty male lambs were fed cassava silage with added tamarind residue as the roughage and a concentrate (500:500g/kg of feed) over 85days. There was no effect of the tamarind residue-added cassava silage on effluent losses and dry matter (DM) recovery rates. However, there were linear and quadratic reductions in pH (P< 0.001) and the crude protein (CP) (P< 0.001), ether extract (EE) (P< 0.001) and ash (P< 0.001) contents and linear and quadratic increases in the DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (P< 0.001), acid detergent fiber (ADF) (P< 0.001), non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) (P< 0.001), acid detergent lignin (ADL) (P< 0.001), and tannin (P< 0.001) contents. There was a linear increase in the maximum potential gas production from total carbohydrates and the gas production rate from NFCs (P< 0.001). The production rate of total gases (P< 0.001), lag phase duration (P< 0.001) and DM in vitro degradability (P< 0.001) were all reduced with the addition of tamarind residue in silage. There was no effect of the tamarind residue-added cassava silage on DM, CP, NFC or total digestible nutrient (TDN) intakes (g/d). However, there was a linear increase in the NDF intake (P =0.042) and a linear reduction in the EE (P =0.038) intake by lambs. There was an increase in the DM (P< 0.001), CP (P< 0.001), and NDF (P< 0.001) contents. There was linear effect on the DM (P< 0.001), CP (P< 0.001), and NDF (P< 0.001) contents and a positive quadratic on EE (P =0.018) digestibility. There was linear increase in nitrogen (N) fecal excretion (P< 0.001) and a quadratic decrease in N urinary (P =0.018) excretion and N retention (P< 0.001). There was an increase in the hot and cold carcass weights and yields (P< 0.001) and in the Longissimus dorsi area (LDA) (P< 0.001) of the lambs. The addition of 300g/kg tamarind residue to cassava silage is recommended because it reduces the production of gases and improves the DM content of the diet. In addition, this diet increases the DM in vitro digestibility and intake (DMI), N retention, hot and cold carcass yields, and LDA of lambs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T14:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Synergetic effects of essential oils mixture improved egg quality traits,
           oxidative stability and liver health indices in laying hens fed fish oil
    • Authors: A. Mousavi; A.H. Mahdavi; A. Riasi; M. Soltani-Ghombavani
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): A. Mousavi, A.H. Mahdavi, A. Riasi, M. Soltani-Ghombavani
      Omega-3 fatty acids are necessary for human health, although products containing higher proportions of these fatty acids make them more susceptible to lipid peroxidation. The current study was conducted to evaluate the synergetic effects of dietary supplementation of herbal essential oils mixture (Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis and Anethum graveolens) and dietary fat sources on egg quality traits, oxidative stability and liver health indices of laying hens. A total of 150 laying hens were randomly distributed among 6 experimental treatments with five replicates of five birds each. Dietary treatment consisted of three levels of herbal essential oils mixture (0, 100 and 200mg/kg) and two sources of fat (fish oil and soybean oil containing different ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids) that fed during an 80 d feeding trial. The results showed that administrating fish oil, containing low ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids, enhanced liver (P<0.05) malondialdehyde concentration, egg yolk color (P<0.05), and led to the reductions in liver relative weight, hepatic lipid percentage (P<0.05), serum alkaline phosphatase activity (P<0.01), as well as serum and egg yolk cholesterol contents (P<0.05). Moreover, herbal essential oils mixture resulted in the declines in blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P<0.01), enzymes activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.01), as well as hepatic and serum malondialdehyde concentrations (P<0.05). Also, it caused the improvements in eggshell hardness and thickness (P<0.05). In general, the findings indicated that although dietary administration of fish oil increased the susceptibility of serum and liver to lipid peroxidation, feeding 200mg/kg essential oils mixture resulted in the best systemic and hepatic antioxidant responses, the modulated serum lipid profiles, and also the improved eggshell quality.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T08:24:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in
           Chinese produced dehulled double-low rapeseed expellers and non-dehulled
           double-low rapeseed co-products fed to growing-finishing pigs
    • Authors: P.L. Li; Y.F. Chen; Z.Q. Lyu; S.B. Yu; F. Wu; B.B. Huang; L. Liu; C.H. Lai
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): P.L. Li, Y.F. Chen, Z.Q. Lyu, S.B. Yu, F. Wu, B.B. Huang, L. Liu, C.H. Lai
      Two experiments were conducted to determine and compare the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (CSID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in two sources of dehulled rapeseed expellers (RSE-DH1 and RSE-DH2), conventional rapeseed expellers (RSE-CV), cold-pressed rapeseed expellers (RSE-CP) and rapeseed meal (RSM) produced by Chinese double-low rapeseed fed to growing-finishing pigs. In experiment 1, 36 growing pigs [initial body weight (BW): 37.7±4.8kg] were randomly allotted to one of six diets (n=6) including a corn-soybean meal basal diet and five rapeseed co-product test diets. The test diets contained 194.8g/kg each of the five double-low rapeseed co-products added at the expense of corn and soybean meal in the basal diet. In experiment 2, six growing barrows (initial BW: 69.4±4.4kg) fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were allotted to a 6×6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets. Diets included one N-free diet and five test diets which contained 400g/kg RSE or RSM as the only source of CP and AA. On an as fed basis, dehulled RSE samples (RSE-DH1 and RSE-DH2) contained the lowest neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber among rapeseed co-product samples. Dehulled RSE samples had greater lysine concentration than non-dehulled RSE and RSM. The coefficient of apparent total tract ileal digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy (GE) in RSE-DH1 (0.822) was greater (P< 0.05) than that in RSE-CV (0.700) and RSM (0.655), but the CATTD of GE did not differ among RSE-DH1, RSE-DH2 (0.782) and RSE-CP (0.722). On an as-fed basis, the ME value was greater (P < 0.05) in dehulled RSE (14.5MJ/kg) than RSE-CV (12.2MJ/kg) and RSM (10.4MJ/kg). The RSE-DH1 (9.72MJ/kg) and RSE-DH2 (9.33MJ/kg) contained greater (P < 0.05) calculated net energy value than RSE-CP (8.03MJ/kg), RSE-CV (7.84MJ/kg) and RSM (5.66MJ/kg). With the exception of phenylalanine and valine, the CSID of CP and all AA in dehulled RSE was greater (P < 0.05) than that in RSE-CV and RSM. The CSID of CP and most of AA in RSE-DH1 was greater (P < 0.05) than that in RSE-CP. In conclusion, compared with non-dehulled rapeseed co-products, dehulled double-low rapeseed expellers may be a better energy and protein source for pigs considering its greater ME value and CSID of AA.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Digestibility and intestinal fermentability of canola meal from Brassica
           juncea and Brassica napus fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs
    • Authors: M.H.A. Le; A.D.G. Buchet; E. Beltranena; W.J.J. Gerrits; R.T. Zijlstra
      Pages: 43 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M.H.A. Le, A.D.G. Buchet, E. Beltranena, W.J.J. Gerrits, R.T. Zijlstra
      Yellow-seeded Brassica (B.) juncea is a novel canola species. Therefore, its meal co-product requires feed quality evaluation and comparison to conventional, dark-seeded B. napus canola meal for pigs. The B. juncea canola meal contains less fibre than B. napus canola meal (190 vs. 260g NDF/kg, as is), but also less lysine (20.3 vs. 22.1g/kg). Nutrient digestibility and fermentibility of B. juncea and B. napus canola meal were assessed in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (47kg BW) were fed six diets in a 6×6 Latin square: basal diet (460g wheat/kg and corn starch), 4 diets with 460g wheat/kg and either B. juncea or B. napus canola meal at 250 or 500g/kg replacing corn starch, sugar and canola oil, and an N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea canola meal had greater (P< 0.05) CATTD of gross energy than B. napus canola meal (0.70 vs. 0.63) most likely due to its lower fibre content. Ileal total VFA concentration was lower (P< 0.001) in pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus canola meal diets (15.2 vs. 20.8μmol/g of wet digesta). In pigs fed B. juncea canola meal instead of B. napus canola meal diets, the molar ratio was greater (P< 0.01) for digesta propionate and faecal acetate, but lower (P< 0.05) for digesta and faecal butyrate. Canola meal species did not affect the CAID of gross energy, CSID of amino acid and faecal VFA content. The digestible energy (DE) value was greater (P< 0.01; 12.1 vs. 10.9MJ/kg, standardised to 100g/kg moisture) for B. juncea than B. napus canola meal. Increasing dietary inclusion of canola meal up to 500g/kg reduced (P< 0.01) diet digestibility of gross energy but not amino acids and decreased (P< 0.05) intestinal fermentability of B. napus but not B. juncea. In conclusion, B. juncea canola meal had greater fermentability and ATTD of gross energy than B. napus canola meal, but digestibility of amino acids did not differ. Increasing dietary inclusion of canola meal up to 500g/kg reduced digestibility of gross energy but not digestibility of AA. Fermentability of B. napus canola meal but not B. juncea canola meal decreased in the pig intestine with increased dietary inclusion. Hence, yellow-seeded B. juncea canola meal had a greater DE value, similar amino acid digestibility as conventional dark-seed B. napus canola meal and may limit protein fermentation in the pig intestine.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Enteric methane emissions and protozoa populations in Holstein steers fed
           spent mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) substrate silage-based diets
    • Authors: K.T. Rangubhet; M.C. Mangwe; V. Mlambo; Y.K. Fan; H.I. Chiang
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): K.T. Rangubhet, M.C. Mangwe, V. Mlambo, Y.K. Fan, H.I. Chiang
      Direct modification of rumen microbial fermentation could provide universal and cost-effective solutions to reduce methane emissions from ruminant livestock. In this study, the effect of feeding spent mushroom (golden needle mushroom, Flammulina velutipes) substrate (SMS)-based silage supplemented with or without urea on the enteric methane emission and total rumen protozoa populations in Holstein steers was investigated. Spent mushroom substrate and whole crop corn were ensiled for 60days with or without urea as follows: Silage 1 (SMS 900g/kg and whole crop corn 100g/kg); Silage 2 (SMS 900g/kg, urea 10g/kg and whole crop corn 90g/kg); Silage 3 (SMS 800g/kg and whole crop corn 200g/kg); Silage 4 (SMS 800g/kg, urea 10g/kg and whole crop corn 190g/kg) on dry matter (DM) basis. Five dietary treatments were prepared as follows: 1) a control diet made-up of 500g/kg of concentrate and 500g/kg of bermuda hay (Cynodon dectylon), and 2) four diets formulated by replacing 400g/kg of the bermuda hay in the control diet with the four SMS-based silages described above. Five Holstein steers (mean BW 542±72kg) were assigned to a 5×5 Latin square design in which the five dietary treatments were offered across 5 periods, with 14days of adaptation plus 7days of samples collection in each period. Holstein steers fed diets containing SMS-based silages had lower total protozoa population (3.37×105/mL vs. 6.09×105/mL), rumen acetate (55.43mM/L vs. 57.08mM/L) and methane emission (211g/day vs. 252g/day) (P <0.05) than Holstein steers fed control diet. When comparing the inclusion levels of SMS-based silages in the diets, cattle fed diets of lower levels of SMS-based silages (800g/kg of SMS) had higher acetate contents (56.61mM/L vs. 54.25), protozoa population (3.92×105/mL vs. 2.84×105/mL) and methane emission (226g/day vs. 196g/day) than heifers fed diets of higher levels of SMS-based silage (900g/kg of SMS). The study demonstrates that feeding Holstein steers with SMS-based silage significantly decreases protozoa populations in the rumen and enteric methane emission. Although the mechanisms are not fully understood, the phytochemicals in SMS could be responsible for the reduction in rumen protozoa populations and the inhibition of rumen methanogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and
           rumen development of calves during transition from liquid to solid feed:
           Effects of physical form of starter feed and forage provision
    • Authors: A. Pazoki; G.R. Ghorbani; S. Kargar; A. Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi; J.K. Drackley; M.H. Ghaffari
      Pages: 173 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): A. Pazoki, G.R. Ghorbani, S. Kargar, A. Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, J.K. Drackley, M.H. Ghaffari
      Fifty-two 4-d-old male Holstein dairy calves (41.3±0.41kg of BW) were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of physical form of starter feed on intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, structural growth, and rumen development. At d 4 of age, individually housed calves were randomly allocated (n=13 per treatment) to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) ground starter feed (Ground; mean particle size of 0.72mm diameter), 2) textured starter feed including steam flaked corn and barley grains (Textured; mean particle size of 3.61mm diameter), 3) pelleted starter feed (Pelleted; mean particle size of 4.53mm diameter), and 4) ground starter feed with 10% chopped alfalfa hay (Ground+AH; mean particle size of 1.02mm diameter). Calves received 4.0L/d of pasteurized milk from d 1 to 46 of study and 1.0L/d from d 47 to 49. Weaning occurred at the end of d 50 and the study lasted for 70 d. During the study (d 1–70), total dry matter (DM) and starter feed intakes, and final BW were greater for calves fed Ground+AH compared with those fed Ground and Pelleted starter feeds. Compared with Pelleted group, calves fed Textured starter feed had greater total DM and starter feed intakes, and final BW with no difference between Ground and Pelleted groups. Feeding Ground+AH starter feed increased average daily gain compared with other groups through the entire of trial. Similarly, feed efficiency was increased and tended to increase in Ground+AH as compared with the Ground and Pelleted groups as well as the Textured group, respectively. Fecal score and skeletal growth measurements were not affected by the dietary treatments. Calves fed Ground+AH starter feed spent more time rumination and had greater rumen pH at d 70 compared with calves fed other starter feeds with no difference in values at d 35. Ruminal NH3 N concentration was not different between Ground+AH and Textured groups but was greater for both groups compared with Ground and Pelleted groups. At d 70, total volatile fatty acids concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater for calves fed Pelleted- vs. Ground+AH starter feed with no difference across other groups. Empty viscera weights including reticulorumen, omasum, and abomasum were not different between Ground+AH and Textured groups; but Ground+AH starter feed increased viscera weights as compared with the Ground and Pelleted starter feeds which was substantiated with both greater rumen wall thickness and muscularization. Overall, Ground+AH starter feed was able to maintain rumen pH at least by induction of greater time spending rumination and promoted growth performance of calves and also influenced morphometric attributes of the rumen wall which substantiated the effect of alfalfa hay supplementation on macroscopic and microscopic appearances by decreasing plaque formation and increasing muscularization, respectively. These benefits, however, were small when Textured starter feed was provided.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T23:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary β-glucan supplementation on growth performance, carcass
           characteristics and gut morphology in broiler chicks fed diets containing
           different theronine levels
    • Authors: F. Kazempour; M. Shams Shargh; R. Jahanian; S. Hassani
      Pages: 186 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): F. Kazempour, M. Shams Shargh, R. Jahanian, S. Hassani
      The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary β-glucan supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and jejunal morphology in broiler chicks fed diets containing different threonine (Thr) levels. A total of 360 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed among 4 pen replicates of 6 dietary treatments according to a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments, including 2 different basal diets (control or diet supplemented with 30g/kg of β-glucan) and 3 different Thr levels (90, 100 or 110% of Ross recommendations during different growth periods). Trial lasted for 42days. In addition to performance parameters, 4 randomly-selected birds from each pen were slaughtered at the last trail day to evaluate carcass traits and morphological indices of jejunal epithelium. Results showed that dietary inclusion of β-glucan decreased (P< 0.01) average daily feed intake (ADFI) during the starter and grower periods; consequently, it resulted in the significant decreases in average daily gains (ADG) during the starter (P< 0.05), grower and entire (P< 0.001) trial periods. In addition, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was increased (P< 0.05) as a result of dietary β-glucan supplementation. Although ADFI was not affected by dietary Thr level, increasing Thr level increased (P< 0.001) ADG, and in turn, caused the significant (P< 0.01) improvements in FCR values during the starter, grower and entire trial periods. Dietary supplementation of 30g/kg of β-glucan increased (P< 0.001) the relative weights of gizzard and small intestine. On the other hand, abdominal fat pad was decreased by supplemental β-glucan. Increase in dietary Thr up to 100% of recommended values resulted in an increase (P< 0.01) in thigh percentage. Although dietary β-glucan inclusion decreased (P< 0.001) villi height (VH), VH to crypt depth ratio (VH:CD) and villi absorptive surface area, it resulted in the significant (P< 0.01) increases in submucosal and muscular layers thickness, and increased goblet cells count. On the other hand, dietary supplementation of Thr at the level of 110% of recommendations increased (P< 0.01) VH:CD. The present findings indicated that dietary supplementation of β-glucan at high level diminished growth performance and impaired morphological indices of jejunal epithelial cells. On the other hand, Thr fortification of diet could compensate for a large part of these detrimental impacts on weight gain of broiler chicks.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T23:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.015
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Transcriptome profiling and functional analysis of sheep fed with high
           zinc-supplemented diet: A nutrigenomic approach
    • Authors: R. Elgendy; F. Palazzo; F. Castellani; M. Giantin; L. Grotta; L. Cerretani; M. Dacasto; G. Martino
      Pages: 195 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): R. Elgendy, F. Palazzo, F. Castellani, M. Giantin, L. Grotta, L. Cerretani, M. Dacasto, G. Martino
      Zinc (Zn) is crucial to animals’ growth and homeostasis, as it actively regulates transcription factors, DNA, and protein synthesis. To date, there is little information on the Zn-induced transcriptomic changes in small ruminants. Therefore, the present study investigated the nutrigenomics-related effects of dietary Zn in sheep. Fifteen lactating crossbred ewes (3 to 4 years of age and 55 to 65kg body weight) were acclimated to indoor individual pen feeding of a basal control diet, that contained Zn, in the form of Zn oxide (ZnO, 79mg/animal/day), for 2 weeks. Using a randomized pretest-posttest control group design, sheep were then assigned to two groups. For 40-days, the first group (n=5) kept receiving the basal diet and served as a control (CTR), while the other group (n=10, group Zn) received high dietary Zn diet, in the form of Zn sulphate monohydrate (ZnSO4.H2O, 291mg/animal/day). Whole blood was collected from each group at 2 time-points [beginning (T0), and after 40-days of the extra Zn supplementation (T40)], then total RNA was isolated. The microarray analysis of 30 samples (15 animal x 2 time-points), evidenced (fold-change≥2, adjusted P-value <0.05) 154 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Zn group (T40 versus T0), while no genes were differentially expressed in the CTR group. Functional analysis of the DEGs showed the enrichment of cardiovascular-related, extracellular matrix, and immune-system-related pathways, several signal transduction and membrane permeability-related biological processes, as well as ion channels and zinc ion binding molecular functions. This study provides evidence on the dietary Zn-supplementation-induced transcriptomic signature in sheep, that mainly reflects transcriptional-modulation, induced immunity, and disrupted cardiac contraction patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T23:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary pomegranate pulp silage supplementation on milk yield
           and composition, milk fatty acid profile and blood plasma antioxidant
           status of lactating dairy cows
    • Authors: Β. Kotsampasi; C. Christodoulou; E. Tsiplakou; A. Mavrommatis; C. Mitsiopoulou; C. Karaiskou; V. Dotas; P.H. Robinson; V.A. Bampidis; V. Christodoulou; G. Zervas
      Pages: 228 - 236
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): Β. Kotsampasi, C. Christodoulou, E. Tsiplakou, A. Mavrommatis, C. Mitsiopoulou, C. Karaiskou, V. Dotas, P.H. Robinson, V.A. Bampidis, V. Christodoulou, G. Zervas
      The objective of this study was to determine effects of inclusion of pomegranate pulp silage (PS) in lactating dairy cows’ rations, in replacement of mainly corn silage, on milk yield, chemical composition, somatic cells count, colony forming units, and fatty acid (FA) concentrations of milk, as well as on blood antioxidant status. Fifteen lactating Holstein dairy cows, with a milk yield of 26.6±3.86kg/day and lactation number of 2.9±1.17, were assigned to one of three dietary treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design, with three 25days periods. The PS was added to the total mixed ration (TMR) at levels of 0, 75 and 150g/kg TMR on a dry matter (DM) basis to create dietary treatments PS0, PS75 and PS150, respectively. Experimental rations were iso-net energetic (6.20MJ NEL/kg DM) and iso-nitrogenous (150g CP/kg DM), and the TMR were offered to cows individually twice a day with feed residues recorded. In the last 5days of each experimental period, milk yield was recorded and milk samples collected for chemical composition and FA analysis. Inclusion of 75 or 150g PS/kg of TMR (on a DM basis) did not affect milk yield, milk composition or milk bacterial and somatic cell counts. Milk FA analysis showed a linear decrease (P<0.05) in concentrations of C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C15:0 and C16:0 saturated FA (SFA), and linear increase (P<0.05) in concentrations of trans-11C18:1, cis-9C18:1,C18:2n-6c,C18:3n-3 and cis-9, trans-11C18:2 unsaturated FA (UFA). As dietary PS inclusion levels increased, medium chain FA, SFA, the SFA/UFA ratio and atherogenicity index linearly decreased (P<0.05), whereas, long chain FA, monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA linearly increased (P<0.05). Linear and quadratic effects (P<0.05) occurred in the n-6 FA concentration. Blood plasma glutathione reductase activity linearly decreased (P<0.05), whereas glutathione S- transferase and superoxide dismutase activity linearly increased (P<0.05), with increasing dietary PS feeding level. Inclusion of PS up to 150g/kg DM in dairy cows’ TMR did not affect milk yield and chemical composition, but improved the milk FA profile and blood plasma antioxidant status.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T15:39:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • A multienzyme NSP product solubilises and degrades NSP structures in
           canola and mediates protein solubilisation and degradation in vitro
    • Authors: Ninfa Rangel Pedersen; Jonas Laukonnen Ravn; Dan Pettersson
      Pages: 244 - 252
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): Ninfa Rangel Pedersen, Jonas Laukonnen Ravn, Dan Pettersson
      To conclusively assess the value enhancing effect of enzymes targeting antinutritional non–starch polysaccharides in a specific feed source, in depth understanding of the substrate is required, to use the right enzyme for the relevant polysaccharides. In the current study a commercial non-starch polysaccharide multienzyme product obtained by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus aculeatus was supplemented to canola non-starch polysaccharides. The enzyme effects studied included substrate viscosity reduction and solubilisation of non-starch polysaccharides and crude protein as well as peptide cleavage. Results were compared with the effects obtained by a monocomponent protease and a combination of protease and the multienzyme product. Viscosity reduction of solutions of xyloglucan and galactomannan solution clearly showed the presence of xyloglucanase and galactomannan activity in the product. On enzyme supplementation, there was an increase (P<0.05) in the solubilisation of rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, galactose and glucose non-starch polysaccharide residues. In a separate experiment using a different measuring system (HPLC) the product was also shown to solubilise galacturonic acid from canola meal. Highest concentrations of solubilised crude protein and peptides measured by combining the protease and the multienzyme product together. Antibodies (LM25, LM19 and LM 6) targeting different cell wall components were used in microscopy studies. Monoclonal antibody LM25, directed towards xyloglucan, bound abundantly to the intercellular spaces on the cytoplasmic side of the cell wall lining. On enzyme treatment with the multienzyme product the LM25 binding disappeared, indicating a reduction of xyloglucans as also was observed in a polysaccharide analysis of enzyme incubated canola meal. Monoclonal antibody LM19 recognizes de-esterified homogalacturonan epitopes in pectin also bound to the uronic acid residues in canola meal. The LM 19 signal was weak in samples treated only with buffer, but became stronger when the xyloglucan layer was removed by a purified experimental xyloglucanase. Monoclonal antibody LM6, directed towards arabinan, also became more visible in canola meal after the removal of the xyloglucan layer by the experimental xyloglucanase. Treatment with the commercial non starch polysaccharide multienzyme product resulted in degradation of arabinan and thereby also a disappearance of the LM6 signal. Both the pectin and the arabinan signal were visible mainly/only after removal of the xyloglucan layer in both the seed and the meal.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Effects of yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) inclusion in diets
           for female broiler chickens: implications for animal health and gut
           histology
    • Authors: I. Biasato; L. Gasco; M. De Marco; M. Renna; L. Rotolo; S. Dabbou; M.T. Capucchio; E. Biasibetti; M. Tarantola; C. Bianchi; L. Cavallarin; F. Gai; L. Pozzo; D. Dezzutto; S. Bergagna; A. Schiavone
      Pages: 253 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): I. Biasato, L. Gasco, M. De Marco, M. Renna, L. Rotolo, S. Dabbou, M.T. Capucchio, E. Biasibetti, M. Tarantola, C. Bianchi, L. Cavallarin, F. Gai, L. Pozzo, D. Dezzutto, S. Bergagna, A. Schiavone
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the animal performance, haematochemical parameters, intestinal morphology and histological features of broiler chickens fed diets including Tenebrio molitor (TM) larvae meal. A total of 160 female broiler chicks (Ross 708) at one-day of age were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments: a control (C) group and three TM groups, in which TM meal was included at 50 (TM50), 100 (TM100) and 150 (TM150) g/kg, respectively. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with eight chicks per pen. After the evaluation of growth performance and haematochemical parameters, two birds per pen were slaughtered at 40days and carcass traits were recorded. Morphometric investigations were performed on duodenum, jejunum and ileum and histopathological alterations were assessed for liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart. The live weight (LW) showed a linear (12days, P<0.05, maximum with TM150) and quadratic response (40days, P<0.05, maximum with TM50) to dietary TM meal inclusion. The average daily gain (ADG) showed a linear increase (1-12days, P<0.05, maximum with TM150) in response to TM meal utilization. A linear effect (1–12 and 12–25days, P<0.01 and P<0.05, maximum with TM150 and TM50) was observed for the daily feed intake (DFI). The feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed a linear response to TM utilization in the period 12–25days (P<0.01, maximum with TM150). A quadratic effect (P<0.05, maximum with TM50) was observed for the carcass weight. The abdominal fat weight and percentage showed a linear response to dietary TM meal inclusion (P<0.05 and P<0.01, maximum with TM150 and TM100). A quadratic increase (P<0.05, maximum with TM100) was observed for the erythrocytes, while the albumin and GGT showed a linear and quadratic decrease (P<0.05, minimum with TM100) in relation to TM utilization. Gut morphology and histopathological findings were not significantly influenced (P>0.05) by dietary TM meal inclusion. The present study suggests that increasing levels of dietary TM meal inclusion in female broiler chickens diets may improve body weight and feed intake, but can partially worsen feed efficiency. However, positive effects on carcass traits and haematochemical parameters related to TM meal utilization are observed, along with no negative influence on gut morphology and histological findings.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • The effect of raw material combination on the nutritional composition and
           stability of four types of autolyzed fish silage
    • Authors: M. van ’t Land; E. Vanderperren; K. Raes
      Pages: 284 - 294
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. van't Land, E. Vanderperren, K. Raes
      Producing fish silage for animal feed is an excellent way of valorizing underutilized fishery byproducts. However, the nutritional quality of fish silage strongly depends on the freshness and composition of the raw materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of raw material composition (RMC) on nutritional quality and stability of fish silage. Using different combinations of whole undersized flatfish (plaice, sole, flounder) and codfish (whiting), four fish silages were produced: a single-species (plaice) flatfish silage (F-single); a mixed flatfish silage in equal ratios (F-equal); a mixed flatfish silage in ratios similar to fish-bycatch ratios (F-bycatch); a mixed flatfish and codfish silage, also in ratios similar to fish-bycatch ratios (FC-bycatch). Raw materials were homogenized, mixed with 2.5% (v/w) formic acid and 0.2% (w/w) potassium sorbate, and stored for 91days at ambient temperature. Dry matter (DM) increased slightly during storage in all silages, from 228±3.7g/kg silage to 256±3.6g/kg silage; whereas ash content slightly decreased, from 192±15.8g/kg DM to 176±13.1g/kg DM. Crude protein did not differ in the raw materials (739±18.9g/kg DM), but decreased at different speeds in the silages. After 91days, protein content of F-single and F-bycatch decreased to 621±9.5g/kg DM and 634±18.8g/kg DM, respectively, whereas F-equal and FC-bycatch decreased to 592±6.7g/kg DM and 580±7.6g/kg DM, respectively. Differences in protein decrease could be caused by the higher degree of hydrolysis in F-equal (60.6±3.4%) and FC-bycatch (62.2±2.3%), compared to F-single (51.6±4.7%) and F-bycatch (52.9±1.7%), after 91days. Extended hydrolysis leads to overall deamination, also reflected by the decrease in essential amino acids (EAA) and increase in total volatile basic nitrogen. Crude lipid decreased in F-single and F-bycatch, but remained stable in F-equal and FC-bycatch. After 91days, there were no more differences between the silages (58.0±4.2g/kg DM). The decrease in F-single and F-bycatch could be the result of lipid oxidation, also reflected by the TBARS value and decreased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Overall there is a significant effect of RMC on nutritional quality and stability of fish silage. A more diverse mixture of raw materials improved nutritional quality, mainly in the form of EAA and PUFA, but was also more prone to deterioration by chemical and biological processes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Feed efficiency and carcass traits of feedlot lambs supplemented either
           monensin or increasing doses of copaiba (Copaifera spp.) essential oil
    • Authors: L.V. Moura; E.R. Oliveira; A.R.M. Fernandes; A.M.A. Gabriel; L.H.X. Silva; C.S. Takiya; N.R.B. Cônsolo; G.C.G. Rodrigues; Thaís Lemos; J.R. Gandra
      Pages: 110 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): L.V. Moura, E.R. Oliveira, A.R.M. Fernandes, A.M.A. Gabriel, L.H.X. Silva, C.S. Takiya, N.R.B. Cônsolo, G.C.G. Rodrigues, Thaís Lemos, J.R. Gandra
      The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary monensin (MON) and incrementing levels of copaiba (Copaifera spp.) essential oil (CO) on nutrient intake, time spent eating and ruminating, performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Sixty non-castrated Crossed White Dorper lambs were randomly assigned to the following treatments: control (CON), basal diet with no feed additives; MON, dietary inclusion of 25mg/kg DM of MON (Rumensin®, Elanco Eli Lilly and Company, Sao Paulo, Brazil); and copaiba essential oil (CO), dietary inclusion of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5g/kg DM of CO diluted into isopropyl alcohol (7mL). Animals were fed a diet with 53:47 of forage to concentrate ratio. Monensin dietary inclusion was compared with the other treatments through Dunnett’s test, and the effects of CO levels were evaluated through linear and quadratic contrasts. Dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), and time spent eating were recorded through the feedlot period. Immediately after slaughtering and at 24h postmortem, carcass traits were assessed and meat samples were taken to meat quality analyses, respectively. Control and MON-treated lambs had lower ADG in comparison with those fed CO at 0.5g/kg DM. There was a positive quadratic effect on feed efficiency and ADG according to CO levels, wherein the highest values were observed in lambs fed CO at 0.5g/kg. Nutrient intake was not affected by treatments. Copaiba essential oil provision linearly increased the time spent eating and quadratically affected the time spent ruminating while lambs were lying, wherein the highest value of time spent ruminating was found in lambs fed CO at 0.5g/kg. Neither carcass traits nor subprimal yield were affected by CO levels, but MON-fed lambs had lower fat thickness and external length compared to CON and those CO-fed lambs. Copaiba essential oil provision at 1.5g/kg increased cooking losses of Longissimus dorsi in comparison with MON. Further, CO supply at 1.5g/kg increased Warner Bratzler shear force and decreased L* intensity in Semimembranosus meat in relation to MON. Copaiba essential oil had a negative quadratic effect on the ether extract content in Gluteo biceps. This study demonstrated that CO supplementation ranging from 0.5 to 0.75g/kg can improve feed efficiency and ADG, consequently decreasing the feedlot time of lambs, and CO can be used in place of MON in feedlot lamb diets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Use of monensin in lactating crossbred dairy cows (Holstein×Gyr) raised
           on tropical pastures with concentrate supplementation
    • Authors: Noemila D. Kozerski; Ricardo D. Signoretti; Júlio C. Souza; Veridiana Souza Daley; José A. Freitas
      Pages: 119 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Noemila D. Kozerski, Ricardo D. Signoretti, Júlio C. Souza, Veridiana Souza Daley, José A. Freitas
      Monensin is a feed additive produced by a strain of Streptomyces cinnamonensis that has been used to improve milk production and feed efficiency by a mechanism linked to rumen fermentation of lactating dairy cows. Evaluation on performance, digestibility and blood parameters of crossbred dairy cows supplemented with monensin is still scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of monensin supplementation on intake, digestibility of nutrients, lactational performance and blood parameters in crossbred dairy cows grazing tropical pasture subjected to rotational stocking and supplemented with concentrate. Sixteen crossbred Holstein-Gyr cows (initial milk yield=20kg/d; body weight=505.5kg±47.64) were blocked according to stage of lactation and milk production, and assigned to two treatments in a crossover design. The treatments were (1) control diet (pasture and concentrate) or (2) control diet plus 300mg per cow per day of sodium monensin. There were 24 paddocks used of 1750m2 each (total of 42,000m2) with Tanzania Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), irrigated and managed under intermittent stocking systems. Concentrate supplementation was offered after milking in individual stalls (12.5m2). The first 18days were considered an adaptation period, followed by 10days of the sampling period of milk, feces, blood, pasture and concentrate. The intakes of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and total digestible nutrients (TDN), and concentrate as well as the digestibility of CP were similar between treatments. Monensin supplementation increased the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of DM (P=0.03) and NDFom of crossbred dairy cows. Blood parameters such as glucose and urea were similar among the two groups. Monensin did not affect milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk, but fat and total solids contents were reduced in cows fed ionophore. There was a tendency for the beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) level to be lower, while the nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration was reduced in dairy cows supplemented with feed monensin additive. These results demonstrate that monensin may increase the nutrient digestibility and fiber digestion. Furthermore, ionophore use could be beneficial to reduce fat mobilization as the ionophore tended to reduce BHBA with lower NEFA levels. Therefore, monensin has the potential to be used as an additive for crossbred dairy cows grazing on Tanzania-grass pasture (Panicum maximum) under tropical conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Influence of increasing doses of a yeast hydrolyzate obtained from
           sugarcane processing on in vitro rumen fermentation of two different diets
           and bacterial diversity in batch cultures and Rusitec fermenters
    • Authors: A. Díaz; M.J. Ranilla; C. Saro; M.L. Tejido; M. Pérez-Quintana; M.D. Carro
      Pages: 129 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): A. Díaz, M.J. Ranilla, C. Saro, M.L. Tejido, M. Pérez-Quintana, M.D. Carro
      Live yeast cultures and yeast hydrolyzates can be used as rumen fermentation modifiers, but their effects and mode of action are different. Whereas the effects of live yeast cultures on rumen fermentation are well documented, yeast hydrolyzates have received much less attention. The influence of a yeast hydrolyzate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, obtained after ethanol production from sugarcane (YHS), on in vitro rumen fermentation was investigated using both batch cultures and Rusitec fermenters inoculated with ruminal fluid from sheep. Batch cultures (300mg dry matter (DM)) with two mixed diets (AHC, 0.5:0.5 alfalfa hay:concentrate; BSC, 0.15:0.85 barley straw:concentrate) as substrate were supplemented with increasing doses of YHS (0, 3.3, 6.7, 10.0 and 13.3ml/l) and incubated for 16.5h at 39°C. Supplementation of increasing amounts of YHS to AHC-cultures increased (P< 0.05) linearly total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and butyrate molar proportion, and decreased (P< 0.001) acetate proportion and acetate:propionate ratio. In contrast, only subtle effects of YHS on NH3-N concentrations and molar proportions of isovalerate and caproate were observed for the BSC diet. Longer-term effects of YHS supplementation on rumen fermentation of AHC diet were investigated using four Rusitec fermenters in a cross-over experimental design with two 14-day incubation periods. Fermenters were given daily 30g of diet DM, and in each period half of them were supplemented daily with 5ml of YHS (10.0ml/l) Supplementing with YHS did not affect (P> 0.05) total VFA production, lactate concentrations, DM and aNDFom disappearance or enzymatic activities (amylase, xylanase and carboxymethylcellulase). Compared with the unsupplemented fermenters, YHS treatment increased (P< 0.001) NH3-N concentrations and molar proportions of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate, and decreased (P< 0.001) acetate:propionate ratio. In addition, YHS supplementation tended (P< 0.07) to reduce CH4/total VFA ratio and to increase microbial growth in the liquid phase of the fermenters. The automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) of samples taken on days 3, 8 and 14 of incubation from solid and liquid content of fermenters revealed that YHS supplementation increased (P< 0.02) bacterial diversity in the liquid phase and tended to increase (P< 0.08) it in the solid phase. The results indicate that YHS at a dose of 10ml/l may be a useful dietary additive for ruminants, because it promoted a shift in fermentation toward propionate production, reduced the CH4/total VFA ratio and increased microbial growth with a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Comparing sheep and cattle to quantify internal markers in tropical feeds
           using in situ ruminal incubation
    • Authors: Maria José Reis; Stefanie Alvarenga Santos; Luciana Louzada Prates; Edenio Detmann; Gleidson Giordano Pinto Carvalho; Antônio Carneiro Santana Santos; Luana Marta Rufino; Lays Débora Mariz; Felipe Neri; Eduardo Costa
      Pages: 139 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Maria José Reis, Stefanie Alvarenga Santos, Luciana Louzada Prates, Edenio Detmann, Gleidson Giordano Pinto Carvalho, Antônio Carneiro Santana Santos, Luana Marta Rufino, Lays Débora Mariz, Felipe Neri, Eduardo Costa
      The main focus of this work was to verify the hypothesis that there are differences between cattle and sheep to obtain internal markers in tropical forages using in situ ruminal incubation. A presupposition that the indigestible fraction is exclusively inherent to feed was considered, and its ruminal incubation in different animal species should not change the estimate of this fraction; but should change the minimum time required to obtain this value, or the critical-time (Tc). The Tc to obtain indigestible fractions were compared between species for neutral detergent fiber (INDF) and acid detergent fiber (IADF) in feeds and feces. A total of 16 samples were divided into two groups of forages; one group of concentrates and another one of feces. These samples were placed inside bags and incubated in the rumens of 4 sheep and 4 cattle, at following time-points: 0, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144, 192, 240, 288, and 336h, using two 4×4 Latin squares. There was no effect on the species with regard to the degradation rate (kd) of both the aNDF and ADF in alfalfa hay (P=0.36; P=0.14). All other forages, which were tropical types, were affected by animal specie (P<0.05). Cattle was associated with lesser Tc when compared to sheep, both for INDF and IADF. All concentrate feeds were affected by the species (P<0.05), with sheep providing greater Tc for both undegradable fractions. Feces from cattle and sheep fed with low concentrate required higher Tc when incubated in sheep (P<0.05), while feces from cattle and sheep fed with low concentrate required the same Tc to obtain IADF in cattle or sheep (P=0.19; P=0.11). Sheep is not a practical recommendation to obtain internal markers based on in situ trials, due to the high incubation time length to obtain the non-degraded fraction of feeds and feces. Internal markers IDNF and IADF from sheep trials can be obtained from 216h of in situ incubation in cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Long-term administration of formic acid to weaners: Influence on
           intestinal microbiota, immunity parameters and growth performance
    • Authors: Diana Luise; Vincenzo Motta; Chiara Salvarani; Martina Chiappelli; Luciano Fusco; Micol Bertocchi; Maurizio Mazzoni; Giuseppe Maiorano; Leonardo Nanni Costa; Jaap Van Milgen; Paolo Bosi; Paolo Trevisi
      Pages: 160 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Diana Luise, Vincenzo Motta, Chiara Salvarani, Martina Chiappelli, Luciano Fusco, Micol Bertocchi, Maurizio Mazzoni, Giuseppe Maiorano, Leonardo Nanni Costa, Jaap Van Milgen, Paolo Bosi, Paolo Trevisi
      The use of organic acids in diets for livestock animals is interest due to their being potentially beneficial in maintaining gut homeostasis and controlling pathogenic bacterial growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two doses of formic acid supplementation for six weeks to weaner pigs. The long-term effects of formic acid were tested for growth performance, microbiota composition in the jejunum using 16S_rRNA, expression of marker genes of inflammation in the jejunum, and quantification of acid-secreting cells in the gastric oxyntic mucosa using immunohistochemistry. Three diets containing no (control; CO), 1.4g/kg (low formic acid; LFA) or 6.4g/kg (high formic acid; HFA) free formic acid were fed to 36 pigs for 42 d from 7 d post-weaning (7.1±1.0kg live weight) until the end of the trial (27.7±5.5kg live weight); they were housed in individual cages for six weeks. During the first three weeks, formic acid supplementation, at any of the dosage above, increased average daily gain (ADG) (P =0.004), tended to increase average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P =0.08) and tended to decrease g of feed to g of gain (F:G) (P =0.08) while no effect was observed during the last three weeks. At the end of the trial, formic acid supplementation had only a minor effect on the microbiota composition in the jejunum. A higher microbiota diversity (Chao1 index P< 0.05) was found in the HFA group than in the CO group. The Control group showed a higher abundance (P< 0.05) of Gemella, Lactobacillus and Parvimimoas than the HFA and LFA groups, higher levels of Acinetobacter, Fusobactrium, Leuconostoc respect to the HFA group and of Turcibacter as compared to the LFA group. The abundance of Streptococcus was lower in the CO group than in the HFA group and higher than in the LFA group. The jejunal expression of C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL20) was higher in the HFA group respect to the LFA group. Formic acid intake did not affect the thickness of the gastric mucosa, the number of parietal cells and stomach weight. This study showed that the addition of formic acid to piglet diets improved growth performance during the first period after weaning and that the long-term supplementation of formic slightly affected the microbiota composition according to the dose.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Nutrient digestibility of chickpea in ileal-cannulated finisher pigs and
           diet nutrient digestibility and growth performance in weaned pigs fed
           chickpea-based diets
    • Authors: L.F. Wang; E. Beltranena; R.T. Zijlstra
      Pages: 90 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): L.F. Wang, E. Beltranena, R.T. Zijlstra
      In 2 studies, ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA), energy value of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and effects of increasing dietary inclusion of chickpea on diet nutrient digestibility and growth performance were evaluated. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (89.9kg BW) were fed diets containing 965 or 812.5g chickpea (Kabuli type; mix of cultivars CDC Frontier, CDC Orion, CDC Luna and CDC Leader)/kg in a crossover design. Chickpea contained 213g crude protein (CP), 328g starch, 88g crude fat, 125g total dietary fibre, 12.9g chemically available lysine, 5.2g trypsin inhibitory activity and 4g tannin per kg (as-is basis). For chickpea, coefficients of standardised ileal digestibility were 0.660 for CP and 0.717 for lysine, the coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of gross energy (GE) was 0.623, the apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of GE was 0.886, the digestible energy (DE) value was 15.8MJ/kg (as fed) and the predicted net energy (NE) value was 11.3MJ/kg. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (initial BW: 9.6kg), weaned at 20±1days of age, were fed diets containing 0, 75, 150, 225 or 300g chickpea/kg in substitution for up to 200g SBM and 100g wheat grain/kg for 3 weeks starting 2 weeks post-weaning. Steam-pelleted diets were formulated to provide 9.8MJ NE/kg and 1.2g standard ileal digestible lysine/MJ NE. Increasing chickpea inclusion quadratically increased (P< 0.001) diet CATTD of dry matter and GE by up to 0.024, diet DE by up to 0.6MJ/kg and predicted diet NE value by up to 0.4MJ/kg, but quadratically decreased (P< 0.001) CATTD of CP by up to 0.046. Overall (day 0–21), increasing chickpea quadratically increased (P< 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI), quadratically increased then decreased (P< 0.001) average daily gain (ADG) and quadratically decreased (P< 0.001) feed efficiency (G:F) and final BW. Pigs fed diet containing 150g chickpea/kg had increased (P< 0.01) ADFI by 65g/d and ADG by 53g/d while maintaining G:F compared with pigs fed a diet without chickpea. In conclusion, chickpea in the present study had DE and NE similar to reported values, but had a lower CSID of AA than reported. Dietary inclusion of up to 300g chickpea/kg did not affect feed intake in weaned pigs. Maximum growth and feed efficiency were attained at 150g chickpea/kg diet fed to weaned pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T08:24:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 223 (2017)
       
  • Effects of α-galactosidase supplementation on nutrient digestibility,
           growth performance, intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activities
           in weaned piglets
    • Authors: Q.H. Shang; X.K. Ma; M. Li; L.H. Zhang; J.X. Hu; X.S. Piao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Q.H. Shang, X.K. Ma, M. Li, L.H. Zhang, J.X. Hu, X.S. Piao
      A total of 90 weaned piglets (initial body weight 7.86±0.98kg) were used in a 28-d trial to evaluate effects of α-galactosidase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activities. Piglets were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 5 pens per treatment and 6 piglets per pen in a randomized complete block design. The three dietary treatments were corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with 0 (control), 100 or 200 FTU/kg α-galactosidase. Piglets fed diets supplemented with α-galactosidase had greater (P< 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of isoleucine, leucine, threonine, alanine and serine than the control piglets. Supplementation of α-galactosidase improved (P< 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and reduced (P< 0.01) diarrhea rate compared with the control. The villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum of piglets fed diets containing α-galactosidase were greater (P< 0.05) than those in the control piglets. Piglets offered 100 FTU/kg α-galactosidase had greater (P< 0.05) villus height in the duodenum than those offered the control diet. Compared with the control, supplementation of α-galactosidase significantly enhanced (P< 0.05) trypsin activity in the duodenum and jejunum and lipase activity in the jejunum. The propionate concentration in the cecum decreased (P< 0.05) by α-galactosidase supplementation compared with the control. However, there was no difference in these indexes between α-galactosidase supplemented treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of α-galactosidase at 100 or 200 FTU/kg enhanced nutrient digestibility and ADG, and reduced diarrhea rate of weaned piglets by improving intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activities.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T14:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.008
       
  • Influence of dietary supplementation with sunflower oil and quebracho
           
    • Authors: H.E.M. Kamel; S.N. Al-Dobaib; A.Z.M. Salem; S. López; P.A. Alaba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): H.E.M. Kamel, S.N. Al-Dobaib, A.Z.M. Salem, S. López, P.A. Alaba
      The influence of dietary supplementation with quebracho tannins (QT) or/and sunflower oil (SF) on fatty acid profile and growth performance in the meat of Awassi lambs assigned randomly to nine diets. The experiment was conducted as a 32 factorial design with two factors, SF and QT each at three levels i.e. 0 (control), 20 and 40g/kg of the diets DM of QT and SF or their combination (QT+SF). The significant SF×QT interaction was observed on the conjugated linoleic acid content of intramuscular fat (P =0.007), but not average daily gain (P =0.11). Addition of QT at 40g/kg DM significantly increased average daily gain comparing to control diet. The inclusion of QT in the diet increased the content of the conjugated linoleic acid in meat above that achieved with SF. Addition the combination of QT and SF to the lamb diet enhanced the content of conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 c9t11) of lamb meat. This could be due to the reduction in the efficiency of ruminal microorganisms and the bio-hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in the diet. The results suggest that inclusion the combination of QT and SF in lamb diets improved the healthy fatty acids meat contents without effect on animal performance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T14:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.006
       
  • Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus) with high residual feed intake have
           increased the expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in
           rumen epithelium
    • Authors: P. Del Bianco Benedeti; E. Detmann; H.C. Mantovani; S.F.M. Bonilha; N.V.L. Serão; D.R.G. Lopes; W. Silva; C.J. Newbold; M.S. Duarte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): P. Del Bianco Benedeti, E. Detmann, H.C. Mantovani, S.F.M. Bonilha, N.V.L. Serão, D.R.G. Lopes, W. Silva, C.J. Newbold, M.S. Duarte
      The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and urea transport in rumen epithelium of bulls with different feed efficiency based on residual feed intake (RFI). Twenty-seven Nellore bulls (age=22.5±0.8 mo; initial body weight=401±42kg) were classified as either Low, Medium, and High (n=9 per group) RFI and finished in individual pens. During the finishing phase animals were fed the same diet formulated to meet the requirements of 1.3kg daily gain with a target finish weight of 550kg. At the end of the trial, bulls were slaughtered and ruminal fluid was collected for further VFA analyses. Samples of rumen epithelium from ventral sac were rapidly excised, rinsed with phosphate buffered saline solution (pH=7.04) and immediately immerged in RNA later solution within 2mL tubes. After 48hours, rumen epithelium samples were placed at −80°C until total RNA isolation and qPCR analysis. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4 with α=0.05; trends were determined as 0.10> P > 0.05. The concentrations of total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, iso-butyrate, iso-valerate, and acetate: propionate ratio did not differ (P > 0.05) among RFI groups. The mRNA abundance of UQCR10 (P < 0.01) and NDUFB4 (trend; P =0.07) were greatest for High RFI animals. However, the mRNA abundance of ATP5H, COX10, and SDHF2 did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatments. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed for mRNA abundance of genes associated with ion pumping (ATP1B1, ATP1B2, ATP1B3), protein turnover (IGF1R, MKI67, UBA1), heat production (UCP2), butyrate metabolism (BDH1, BDH2, HMGCL, HMGS1), and VFA (CA7, DRA, NHE2, MCT1, and PAT1) and urea transport (AQP3, AQP7, AQP8, AQP10, and SLC14A1) in rumen epithelium of bulls classified as High, Medium, and Low RFI. These findings may indicate that more efficient animals (Low and Medium RFI) have lower energy expenditure in this tissue, which likely contribute for their better efficiency compared to the less efficient (High RFI) bulls.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T14:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.002
       
  • Iron status of piglets and impact of phytase superdosing on iron
           physiology: A review
    • Authors: Jae Cheol Kim; Pete Wilcock; Mike R. Bedford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Jae Cheol Kim, Pete Wilcock, Mike R. Bedford
      It has long been considered that an injectable iron supplementation within 48–72hours of birth would sufficiently met iron requirement for rapidly growing piglets and therefore the prevalence of iron deficiency and, therefore, the anaemia in nursery barns would not be one of the major issues that compromise the genetic growth potential of young pigs. However, a number of recent commercial farm surveys indicate a significant prevalence of iron deficiency and anaemia in young pigs reared in indoor pork production systems along with a negative relationship between iron status of piglets and body weight gain during the first 6 weeks postpartum. Therefore, this review aims to provide (1) the underline physiology for how iron homeostasis is maintained through regulation of iron absorption capacity, (2) iron status of sows and piglets, (3) supplemental iron in relation to physiological response of pigs, (4) dietary factors involved in the regulation of iron absorption capacity, and (5) possible nutritional strategies to improve iron absorption capacity and hence iron status of piglets.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.001
       
  • Effect of organic acids and essential oils on performance, intestinal
           health and digestive enzyme activities of weaned pigs
    • Authors: Y.T. Xu; L. Liu; S.F. Long; L. Pan; X.S. Piao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Y.T. Xu, L. Liu, S.F. Long, L. Pan, X.S. Piao
      This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acid (OA) and essential oil (EO) used individually or combination on performance, fecal microbiota, intestinal morphology and digestive enzymes of weaned pigs. A total of 210 weaned piglets [Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire)] with initial body weight (8.64±0.33kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 treatments with 7 replicate pens (3 barrows and 3 gilts per pen) per treatment according to sex and weight in randomized complete block design. The treatments consist of NC (negative control, corn-soybean meal basal diet), PC (positive control, NC+15mg/kg Colistin sulfate, 2mg/kg Nosiheptide and 50mg/kg Olaquindox), OA (NC+1.5g/kg OA), EO diet (NC+30mg/kg EO), OA+EO diet (NC+1.5g/kg OA+30mg/kg EO). The experiment lasted 28 d (d 0 to 14 as for early period and d 14 to 28 as for later period). From d 0 to 14, EO had greater (P< 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) compared with NC, EO and OA+EO had a trend to improve ADG compared with PC. From d 14 to 28, OA improved (P< 0.05) ADG compared with NC and OA+EO had a trend to improve ADG compared with PC. From d 0 to 28, supplementation of OA or EO individually increased (P< 0.05) ADG compared with NC and OA+EO had a trend to increase ADG compared with PC. EO improved apparent digestibility of dry matter, calcium, phosphorus, crude protein and gross energy (P< 0.05). OA improved digestibility of calcium, phosphorus and crude protein (P< 0.05). Compared with NC, OA tended to decrease (P< 0.10) fecal score from d 0 to 7. OA, EO and OA+EO had greater Lactobacilli counts of feces (P< 0.05) than PC. OA and EO increased villous height of duodenum and OA increased villous height of jejunum (P< 0.05). OA increased butyric acid concentration of cecum and valeric acid concentration of colon (P< 0.05). Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities of jejunum were improved (P< 0.05) by EO supplementation. Overall, OA and EO had no interactive effects, but it improved performance by the different positive effects on intestinal health and digestive enzymes of weaned pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.012
       
  • The effect of dried apple pomace as a replacer for maize in the
           concentrate for Jersey cows grazing ryegrass pasture on production and
           rumen metabolism
    • Authors: L. Steyn; R. Meeske; C.W. Cruywagen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): L. Steyn, R. Meeske, C.W. Cruywagen
      Ryegrass pasture is characterised as having a high crude protein content (214–298g/kg DM) but a low fibre content (390–550g NDF/kg DM). Additional supplementation of energy based concentrates is provided to ensure profitable milk production. The high starch content in these supplements could negatively impact the rumen environment; lowering rumen pH and inhibiting pasture degradability. Dried apple pomace (DAP) is a possible alternative energy source to maize for dairy cows grazing pasture; however, little information is available on the effectiveness of this high fibre by-product for milk production from pastures. The aim of this study was to determine the potential use of DAP as an energy source for Jersey cows grazing ryegrass pasture. Seventy six lactating Jersey cows were blocked according to milk yield, days in milk and lactation number. Cows within blocks were randomly allocated to one of four treatments. Treatments were: NDAP-0% dried apple pomace and 75% maize; LDAP-25% dried apple pomace and 50% maize; MDAP-50% dried apple pomace and 25% maize; HDAP-75% dried apple pomace and 0% maize. Cows received 6kg as is of the allocated concentrate in the milking parlour daily. Cows of all four treatments strip grazed perennial ryegrass pasture over an area of 8.6ha. Additionally, four ruminally cannulated cows were used to monitor treatment effect on rumen activity and health. Each cow was randomly allocated to one of four treatments and subjected to a four period crossover. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was lower for cows in treatment HDAP than for cows in treatments NDAP and LDAP, differences ranging between 1.7 and 2.3kg/day. The milk protein content was lowest for cows in treatments NDAP and MDAP, showing a cubic trend (P=0.005), with milk fat content increasing as the level of maize substituted by DAP increased. Treatment had no effect on rumen metabolism parameters. Replacing maize with DAP is a viable option for cows grazing ryegrass pasture; however, the decrease in 4% fat corrected milk yield and the potential economic impact should not be overlooked.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.011
       
  • Sisal silage addition to feedlot sheep diets as a water and forage source
    • Authors: F.N.C. Souza; T.C. da Silva; C.V.D.M. Ribeiro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): F.N.C. Souza, T.C. da Silva, C.V.D.M. Ribeiro
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the water and nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, productive performance and carcass traits of sheep fed diets containing levels of sisal pulp silage (SPS) in substitution of tifton hay. Forty Santa Ines lambs (average initial body weight of 22±3.4kg) were randomly distributed among four diets containing 0, 167, 333, and 500g/kg of SPS in the total dietary dry matter (DM), containing 500g/kg of concentrate. The experimental period lasted 72 days, after 21days of adaptation to the diets. Linear and quadratic effects of SPS levels were analyzed using orthogonal contrast. Intake of DM and OM were not affected by the substitution of tifton hay with SPS (P>0.05). Intake of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral digestible fiber (NDF) and acid digestible fiber (ADF) decreased linearly as SPS increased (P<0.05). The inclusion of SPS in the diets decreased linearly the voluntary water intake (P<0.05). Apparent digestibility of nutrients increased linearly with increasing dietary SPS levels, except for non-fibrous carbohydrates. Productive performance and carcass characteristics did not show significant effects (P>0.05). Sisal pulp silage is a suitable source to feed sheep, since animals showed similar intake and performances and it can be a consistent water source in arid and semiarid regions. Because of moderate concentration of physically effective fiber in the 333g/kg SPS diet group, we recommend the inclusion of 333g/kg of SPS in dietary dry matter in combination with tifton hay.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.010
       
  • Comparison of microalgae and rapeseed meal as supplementary protein in the
           grass silage based nutrition of dairy cows
    • Authors: M. Lamminen; A. Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau; T. Kokkonen; I. Simpura; S. Jaakkola; A. Vanhatalo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Lamminen, A. Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, T. Kokkonen, I. Simpura, S. Jaakkola, A. Vanhatalo
      Two experiments were conducted to evaluate microalgae as a protein supplement in the nutrition of lactating dairy cows in relation to unsupplemented and rapeseed meal supplemented diets. In both experiments multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows were fed separately fixed amount of cereal-sugar beet pulp based concentrate (11kg/d in Exp. 1 and 12kg/d in Exp. 2), and grass silage ad libitum. In Exp. 1, six cows (212days in milk; DIM) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Diets were supplemented isonitrogenously with rapeseed meal (pelleted rapeseed supplement, RSS), mixture of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae (1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis; ALG) or a mixture of RSS and ALG (1:1 on crude protein (CP) basis; RSS-ALG). In Exp. 2, four intact cows and four rumen cannulated cows (190 DIM) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square. Treatments consisted of basal diet without protein supplement (NEG) or supplemented similarly as in Exp. 1 with the exception of RSS-ALG and ALG containing only S. platensis. Protein supplementation increased fibre and N digestibility but did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) or milk yield. The substitution of rapeseed by microalgae did not affect total DMI or milk yield in neither of the experiments, but changed the quality of DMI in Exp.2 by linearly decreasing concentrate:forage ratio of the diet due to poorer palatability of microalgae. The efficiency of N utilisation (NUE) in milk production varied from moderate (Exp. 1) to high (Exp. 2), and in Exp. 2 was decreased by both protein supplementation and microalgae inclusion in the diet. Protein supplementation or microalgae inclusion in the diet did not affect ruminal pH or major volatile fatty acids in Exp. 2, but both increased ruminal NH3-N concentration. There was likely a shortage of N for rumen microbes on NEG in Exp. 2 as indicated by low milk urea N and increased microbial N flow on protein supplemented diets. In both experiments, only minor differences were observed in plasma metabolites when microalgae substituted rapeseed. Even though arterial histidine concentrations were high, arterial histidine and carnosine concentrations (Exp. 1 and 2) and milk protein yields (Exp. 2) decreased by microalgae inclusion suggesting that histidine supply may become suboptimal on microalgae supplemented diets. Experiments demonstrated the suitability of microalgae as protein supplement for dairy cows, however, the protein value of microalgae is likely slightly lower than that of rapeseed meal.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T23:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.002
       
  • Effects of fat sources in sow on the fatty acid profiles and fat globule
           size of milk and immunoglobulins of sows and piglets
    • Authors: Y.S. Bai; C.Q. Wang; X. Zhao; B.M. Shi; A.S. Shan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Y.S. Bai, C.Q. Wang, X. Zhao, B.M. Shi, A.S. Shan
      The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of adding different sources of fat to diets for sows on the performance, milk fatty acid (FA) profiles, fat globule size of milk, and immunoglobulins of sows and piglets during late gestation and lactation. Sixty sows were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments supplemented with 3% soybean oil, 3% coconut oil, 3% palm oil or 3% mixed oil, which included 1% soybean oil, 1% coconut oil and 1% palm oil, respectively, from day 107 of gestation to day 21 of lactation. The coconut oil contained lauric acid (C12); the palm oil contained palmitic acid (C16); and the soybean oil contained linoleic acid (C18). The results showed that supplementation of coconut oil, palm oil, soybean oil and mixed oil in sow had no effects on sow and litter performance (P>0.05). The addition of soybean oil to the diet increased the fat concentrations in colostrum compared with diets supplemented with palm oil and coconut oil (P<0.05). No differences between treatments were observed among the immunological variables of the colostrum and milk (P>0.05). However, the IgG and IgA levels increased in the plasma of sows and day 21 piglets after supplementation with soybean oil compared with diets supplemented with coconut oil and palm oil (P<0.05). Supplementation with coconut oil decreased the IgG and IgA concentrations in the plasma of sows compared with those of other groups (P<0.05). When coconut oil was included in the sow diet, increased concentrations of C12:0 and C14:0 were found. The addition of palm oil to the sow diet increased the content of C16:0 in the colostrum and milk (P<0.05). Increases in the concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 were more pronounced in the colostrum and milk from sows fed soybean oil than in the colostrum and milk from sows fed other dietary treatments. The pattern of FA in plasma of piglets was similar to that in the sows’ milk. Additionally, the sow diet containing soybean oil led to an increased fat globule size, whereas coconut oil and palm oil decreased the fat globule size (P<0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of soybean oil increased the colostrum fat and C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 concentrations as well as enhanced the immunoglobulin levels in the plasma of sows and piglets compared with the effects of supplementation with coconut oil and palm oil. The addition of coconut oil to the sow diet decreased the milk fat globule size, followed by palm oil and soybean oil.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T23:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.006
       
  • A computer-controlled simulated digestion system is a promising in vitro
           digestibility technique to predict digestible energy of corn grain for
           growing pigs
    • Authors: L. Pan; H. Ma; X.S. Piao; L. Liu; D.F. Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): L. Pan, H. Ma, X.S. Piao, L. Liu, D.F. Li
      An equation for digestible energy (DE) of corn grain fed to pigs has been established based on chemical composition or near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in our laboratory. And an in vitro digestibility technique to predict the DE value of feed ingredients is also applicable in practice. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) and digestibility of gross energy (GE) in 13 selected samples of corn grain with a wide range in nutrient profiles using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) and to generate prediction equations based on IVDE and IVDE/GE values for previously determined DE and digestibility of GE (DE/GE). Among the 13 samples, starch, DE and DE/GE content (dry matter basis) ranged from 603 to 662g/kg, 3843 to 4068kcal/kg, and 0.89 to 0.94, respectively. The IVDE (3440 to 3637kcal/kg) or IVDE/GE (0.80 to 0.84) showed a similar variation tendency with the DE or DE/GE value in the corn grains. There were highly positive correlations between IVDE and determined DE (r=0.99, P < 0.01) and between IVDE/GE and determined DE/GE (r=0.98, P < 0.01). Linear relationships were observed in the 13 corn samples: DE=1.14×IVDE − 89.56 (R 2 =0.97, P < 0.01) and DE/GE=1.12×IVDE/GE − 0.18 (R 2 =0.97, P < 0.01). All samples showed the differences of less than 25kcal/kg between observed and predicted DE and less than 0.005 between observed and predicted DE/GE. The slopes and R 2 for the linear relationship between observed and predicted values were both 1 and 0.97. Overall, CCSDS is a promising in vitro digestibility technique to predict DE and digestibility of GE in corn gain for pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T23:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.005
       
  • Prediction of the digestibility and energy contents of non-conventional
           by-products for pigs from their chemical composition and in vitro
           digestibility
    • Authors: Sol Castillejos; Gasa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): C. Sol, L. Castillejos, S. López-Vergé, J. Gasa
      The objective of the present study was to determine some prediction equations of gross energy content (GE), organic matter digestibility (OMd), gross energy digestibility (GEd) and the content of digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of agro-industrial by-products for pigs, using the chemical composition and an in vitro digestibility method. Mean values of chemical composition (dry matter, DM; organic matter, OM; gross energy, GE; crude protein, CP; ether extract, EE; crude fiber, CF; neutral detergent fiber, NDF, and acid detergent fiber, ADF) were available from previous work and an in vitro OM digestibility method (IN VITRO) was performed. A total of eight by-products (liquid bakery by-product, brewer’s by-product, hominy feed, high-moisture corn, mayonnaise, almond meal, cocoa meal and kiwi fruit) were used in this study, and their in vivo OMd and GEd were known from previous experiments. The best equation for GE prediction was: GE=9.58 EE+6.50 CP+4.28 carbohydrates (OM-CP-EE) (R2 =1.00; CV=5.52). When only the chemical composition was used as independent variables, NDF and ADF were the best predictors (R2 =0.65–0.78; CV=12.30–10.85) for OMd and GEd, and EE plus ADF for DE and ME (R2 =0.94–0.88; CV=13.10–16.64). However, the best-fitted equations were: OMd=30.90–0.302 ADF+0.639 IN VITRO (R2 =0.95; CV=4.99); GEd=34.81–0.493 ADF+0.589 IN VITRO (R2 =0.96; CV=4.93); DE=846.34+5.081 EE+3.045 IN VITRO (R2 =0.97; CV=8.57), and ME=687.45+5.057 EE+3.150 IN VITRO (R2 =0.97; CV=9.78). Additionally, when the two high EE by-products (mayonnaise and almond meal; EE >50%) were excluded, the most accurate equations for DE and ME were: DE=1415.96+2.764 IN VITRO (R2 =0.97; CV=3.10), and ME=1262.92+2.868 IN VITRO (R2 =0.97; CV=2.68). These results indicated that GE, OMd, GEd, DE and ME may be accurately predicted from chemical composition, and especially from the in vitro OM digestibility.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T08:24:53Z
       
  • Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 and Lactobacillus
           acidophilus BT1386 on total lactobacilli population in the
           
    • Authors: Bridget E. Fomenky; Johanne Chiquette; Nathalie Bissonnette; Guylaine Talbot; P. Yvan Chouinard; Eveline M. Ibeagha-Awemu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Bridget E. Fomenky, Johanne Chiquette, Nathalie Bissonnette, Guylaine Talbot, P. Yvan Chouinard, Eveline M. Ibeagha-Awemu
      There is interest in the use of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in farm animal production. However, little information exists on their effects in dairy calves. The aims of this study were to: 1) determine the viability of supplemental DFM in feed and throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of calves; 2) evaluate the effect of DFM on total lactobacilli population in the digestive tract and in feces of calves; and 3) examine the influence of DFM on colon histomorphology and overall calf performance. Forty eight calves (2 to 7days old) were randomly allocated to four treatments as follows: 1) Control (CTRL) fed milk replacer (MR) followed by starter feed (SF); 2) CTRL supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 (SCB; 7.5×108 colony forming units (CFU)/L MR+3×109 CFU/kg SF); 3) CTRL supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus BT1386 (LA; 2.5×108 CFU/L MR+1×109 CFU/kg SF); and 4) CTRL supplemented with antibiotics (ATB) chlortetracycline and neomycin (528 and 357mg/L MR, respectively), and chlortetracycline (55mg/kg SF). Four calves per treatment were euthanized on day 33 (pre-weaning) and an additional four calves per treatment on day 96 (post-weaning) to sample different sections of the GIT. The effects of treatments were analyzed following a completely randomized design with repeated measures and Tukey adjustments for multiple comparisons. The DFM (SCB and LA) remained viable in the commercial product throughout the period of the experiment. Viable SCB was recovered throughout the GIT and in the feces pre- and post-weaning. There was no effect of DFM on total lactobacilli population in the GIT of calves. However, feces of SCB-treated calves showed a greater lactobacilli population compared with CTRL (P<0.01). In the pre-weaning period, the distribution of lactobacilli population differed along the digestive tract (colon > ileum content > rumen > ileum mucosa; P<0.001). The lactobacilli population was significantly reduced in all compartments (P=0.02) post-weaning compared to pre-weaning, except in the rumen. Crypts depth and width of the colon decreased (P<0.01) whereas number of goblet cells containing neutral mucins tended to increase (P=0.058) while acidic mucins increased (P<0.05) in SCB- and ATB-treated calves compared with CTRL and LA-treated calves. Overall, growth performances were not affected by treatment. Feeding SCB stimulated total lactobacilli population around weaning and altered colon morphology with potential beneficial effects during the early period of growth in calves. Our findings suggest that SCB would deserve more attention as a modulator of the gastrointestinal health in young dairy calves.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.019
       
  • Effects of replacing dietary maize grains with increasing levels of sugar
           beet pulp on rumen fermentation constituents and performance of growing
           buffalo calves
    • Authors: H.M. Abo-Zeid; H.M. El-Zaiat; A.S. Morsy; M.F.A. Attia; M.A. Abaza; S.M.A. Sallam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): H.M. Abo-Zeid, H.M. El-Zaiat, A.S. Morsy, M.F.A. Attia, M.A. Abaza, S.M.A. Sallam
      This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing cracked maize with increasing levels of sugar beet pulp (SBP) on nutrients digestibility, blood biochemical and rumen fermentation constituents and animal performance of growing Egyptian buffalo calves. Forty male Egyptian buffalo calves (237.2±24.46kg of initial body weight, IBW) were allocated into a completely randomized design and stratified to one of four experimental diets. The basal diet was isonitrogenous (40:60 forage: concentrate) and was formulated to contain 60% of dietary DM cracked maize replaced by ascending levels of SBP (0, 333, 667, and 1000 g/kg respectively). The study lasted for a period of 143days from which 21days for adaptation while the remaining 122days were used for data collection. Increasing the level of SBP resulted in a quadratic increase (P=0.017) in the average daily gain (ADG) with a linear tendency of increase (P=0.064) in dietary dry matter intake. A quadratic decrease of feed conversion ratio (FCR, P=0.005) was observed with the ascending levels of SBP. In addition, the daily intake of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber assayed with heat stable α-amylase and corrected for ash (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber corrected for ash (ADFom) were quadratically (P<0.01) improved upon increasing the dietary SBP level while the daily intake and digestibility of ether extract were declined linearly (P<0.01). Replacing SBP for maize resulted in linear increase (P<0.01) in OM, aNDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility coefficients. Ruminal pH, total short chain fatty acids, proportions of acetate (C2) and butyrate were increased linearly (P<0.05). In contrast, the proportions of propionate (C3) and isobutyrate were decreased linearly (P<0.05) upon increasing the levels of SBP. In addition, the C2:C3 ratio and total protozoa were linearly (P<0.01) increased while the ruminal NH3-N concentration was quadratically (P=0.046) increased as SBP replaced maize in the diet. Furthermore, upon increasing the dietary SBP levels, the blood urea-N, cortisol and thyroxin (T4) concentrations were quadratically elevated (P<0.01). Conversely, linear decreases in creatinine, (P=0.027) and cholesterol (P=0.001) concentrations were found. In addition, blood insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration increased linearly (P=0.006) as SBP level increased. Feeding cost based on BW gain was linearly reduced (P=0.043) by 25%, causing the overall profits ($/head/d) to be quadratically (P<0.01) increased. Overall, the obtained results indicate that replacing maize grains with up to 667g SBP/kg diet resulted in a highest profit by 21%, enhanced ruminal fermentation, nutrients digestibility and ADG and reduced FCR. Therefore, this study could be economically feasible for use in fattening diets of growing Egyptian buffalo calves without impairing animal performance or health.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.011
       
  • Effect of increasing Buttiauxella phytase dose on nutrient digestibility
           and performance in weaned piglets fed corn or wheat based diets
    • Authors: Y. Dersjant-Li; A.L. Wealleans; L.P. Barnard; S. Lane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Y. Dersjant-Li, A.L. Wealleans, L.P. Barnard, S. Lane
      Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of increasing phytase levels on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, P and Ca retention and growth performance in weaned piglets fed corn or wheat based diets. Five treatments were tested including a positive control (PC) meeting piglet nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) formulated with a reduction in digestible P (−1.4g/kg and −1.5g/kg in Exp. 1 and 2 respectively) and Ca (−1.5g/kg in both studies); and NC supplemented with a Buttiauxella phytase at 500, 1000 or 2000 phytase units (FTU)/kg feed. One FTU is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release 1μmol of iP (inorganic phosphorus) per minute from sodium phytate at pH 5.5 at 37°C. A complete randomized design was used in both studies, with individual piglets housed in metabolic crates as the experimental unit. There were 2 runs in Exp. 1 and 4 runs in Exp. 2. Each treatment consisted of 8 replicates (1 piglet/replicate) in Exp. 1 and 12 replicates in Exp. 2. Diets based on wheat and soybean meal in Exp. 1 and corn and soybean meal in Exp. 2 were fed in pelleted form; feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the piglets (mean initial BW of 11±1.5kg) during the 14day period. Urine and feces production were collected from each crate during d 10 to14. The ATTD of P, Ca, DM, N and energy, and retention of P and Ca were measured using TiO2 as an indirect marker. In both Exp, increasing phytase dose from 0 (NC) to 2000 FTU/kg linearly increased (P< 0.05) ADG and G:F. Phytase at 2000 FTU/kg improved ADG and G:F compared to NC. A linear response was seen for ATTD of P, Ca and GE (P< 0.05) in Exp. 1, and for ATTD P and Ca in Exp. 2, with increasing phytase dose. Also there was a tendency for increasing phytase dose to result in a linear increase (P ≤0.10) in ATTD of DM in Exp.1, and ATTD of DM and N in Exp. 2. Increasing phytase dose linearly reduced P and Ca excretion and increased the retention of these nutrients in both experiments. The results showed that increasing Buttiauxella phytase dose up to 2000 FTU/kg may provide environmental and production benefits in weaned piglets fed either wheat or corn based diets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.008
       
  • Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy value of macadamia nut
           
    • Authors: Julio D. Berrocoso; Sudhir Yadav; Rajesh Jha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Julio D. Berrocoso, Sudhir Yadav, Rajesh Jha
      Two energy balance experiments were conducted to determine the AMEn value of Macadamia nut cake (MNC) for broiler chickens at different ages. In experiment 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 10 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (no MNC) and a diet containing 60g/kg of MNC (940g/kg of basal diet+60g/kg of MNC). In experiment 2, four dietary treatments were provided from 17 to 23 d of age. Diets in second experiment were 1) basal control diet (no MNC); 2) 30g/kg of MNC (970g/kg of basal diet+30g/kg of MNC); 3) 60g/kg of MNC (940g/kg of basal diet+60g/kg of MNC); and 4) 90g/kg of MNC (910g/kg of basal diet+90g/kg of MNC). In experiment 2, broilers were restricted feeding in such a way that all the birds received the same amounts of basal diet, so that differences in AMEn consumption were only due to MNC. A single source of MNC was used in both experiments. Feed intake, body weight, energy intake, energy excretion, N intake, N excretion, AMEn intake and AMEn were determined in both experiments. In experiment 1, the AMEn was estimated using the difference method by subtracting AMEn of the basal diet from AMEn of the test diet. In experiment 2, AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake with the slope estimating AMEn of MNC. Regression equation used was Y=2,908.2x − 122.73 (P < 0.001; SEM of the slope=11.7; r2 =0.93). The AMEn of MNC was found to be 12.09 and 12.17MJ/kg in experiment 1 and 2, respectively with an average of 12.13MJ/kg on DM basis. The results indicate that AMEn of MNC is comparable to conventional feedstuffs with similar nutrient profile, thus can be incorporated in broiler diets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.009
       
  • Gastrointestinal functionality in animal nutrition and health: new
           opportunities for sustainable animal production
    • Authors: P. Celi; A.J. Cowieson; F. Fru-Nji; R.E. Steinert; A.-M. Kluenter; V. Verlhac
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): P. Celi, A.J. Cowieson, F. Fru-Nji, R.E. Steinert, A.-M. Kluenter, V. Verlhac
      Effective functionality of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its health, are important factors in determining animal performance. Several, complex mechanisms are involved in the regulation of GIT functionality and health, therefore it is crucial to deepen our knowledge of these interactions so that strategies for the modulation of GIT functionality and health, in context of improved animal performance, can be developed. The concept of “gut health” has started to attract significant interest within the animal science community, however a clear definition of gastrointestinal health and functionality and how it can be measured is lacking. Therefore, this review will present a new definition of gastrointestinal functionality and will address how optimal gastrointestinal functionality can promote animal performances and welfare. The key components of gastrointestinal functionality reviewed in this article are: diet, effective structure and function of the gastrointestinal barrier, host interaction with the gastrointestinal microbiota, effective digestion and absorption of feed and effective immune status. While the relationships between these areas is extremely complex, a multidisciplinary approach is needed to develop nutritional strategies that would allow farm animals to become more resilient to the environmental and physiological challenges that they will have to endure during their productive career. As the demand of animal products from the rapidly growing world human population is ever-growing, the aim of this review is to present animal and veterinary scientists and nutritionists, a new definition of gastrointestinal functionality that can be used to establish a multidisciplinary approach to increase animal health, welfare and performance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.012
       
  • Effects of caprylic acid and β-cyclodextrin complexes on digestibility,
           energy balance, and methane production in Korean Hanwoo heifers
    • Authors: Bharanidharan Rajaraman; Yong Joo Seol; Young Kyoon Oh; Sun Sik Chang; Jong Geun Kim; In Sik Nam; Kyoung Hoon Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Bharanidharan Rajaraman, Yong Joo Seol, Young Kyoon Oh, Sun Sik Chang, Jong Geun Kim, In Sik Nam, Kyoung Hoon Kim
      The cyclodextrin (CD) complex with guest materials appears to be a promising solution to mitigate methane emissions without reducing energy intake. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of caprylic acid (C8)-CD complex on methane production in vitro and in vivo. The C8-CD complex was added to diluted ruminal fluid (60ml) at different levels (0, 0.17, 0.33, and 0.67g/L) in triplicate and incubated anaerobically at 39°C for 9h. The pH (P<0.001) and methane production (P <0.05) decreased linearly but total VFA and total gas increased (P<0.01) when the C8-CD complex supplementation was increased. Methane production decreased significantly (P<0.05) by 28% at 0.67g/L C8-CD complex when compared to the control. The effects of C8-CD complex supplementation at the level of 2% DMI on nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and methane production were further investigated using four Korean Hanwoo heifers (292±3kg) in a replicated 2×2 Latin square design. Each period consisted of 10 d of adaption and 4 d of measurement using four head hood respiratory chambers. Heifers were fed 4.8kg of timothy hay and supplemented with 1.2kg/d of ground corn grain and 130g/d of corn gluten meal, on an as-fed basis, at 09:00 and 17:00h. Nutrient digestibility and energy balance were not affected by the addition of the C8-CD complex. Supplementation of C8-CD complex decreased mean daily methane production up to 10%, but no significance compared to control. In conclusion, the effectiveness of C8-CD complex supplementation was observed in vitro but not in vivo. Therefore, further research is required to determine whether higher supplementation of C8-CD complex than 2.0% of DMI reduce methane production in vivo.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.010
       
  • Effects of phytase inclusions in diets containing ground wheat or 12.5%
           whole wheat (pre- and post-pellet) and phytase and protease additions,
           individually and in combination, to diets containing 12.5% pre-pellet
           whole wheat on the performance of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Amy F. Moss; Peter V. Chrystal; Ha H. Truong; Sonia Yun Liu; Peter H. Selle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Amy F. Moss, Peter V. Chrystal, Ha H. Truong, Sonia Yun Liu, Peter H. Selle
      Each of eight dietary treatments was offered to seven replicates (six birds per cage) of male Ross 308 chicks from 7 to 28days post-hatch. The diets contained 741g/kg wheat incorporated as ground (3.2mm hammer-mill screen) wheat or 125g/kg whole wheat included in diets, either pre- or post-pelleting. In Experiment 1 of the study, ground grain, pre-pellet and post-pellet whole grain diets were offered with and without phytase as a 3×2 factorial array of treatments. The effects of dietary treatments on gizzard and pancreas weights, bone mineralisation, excreta dry matter, growth performance, nutrient utilisation, digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of starch and protein (N) in four small intestinal segments were determined. Post-pellet whole grain addition significantly increased gizzard weight by 12.5% (18.17 versus 16.15g/kg; P <0.001). Pre- and post-pellet whole grain additions improved FCR (P <0.10) by 1.40% and 2.28%, respectively. Exogenous phytase significantly enhanced weight gain by 4.76% (1519 versus 1450g/bird; P <0.001) and FCR by 1.99% (1.332 versus 1.359; P <0.03) irrespective of the context. Significant interactions between grain and phytase treatments were observed for energy utilisation parameters. However, pre- and post-pellet whole grain additions to non-supplemented diets significantly improved AMEn by 0.31MJ (11.89 versus 11.58MJ/kg; P <0.04) and 0.48MJ (12.06 versus 11.58MJ/kg; P <0.001), respectively. Post-pellet whole grain addition to non-supplemented diets significantly improved AME (13.49 versus 12.99MJ/kg; P <0.001) and ME:GE ratios (0.79 versus 0.77; P <0.003). Phytase addition significantly improved AME in ground grain and pre-pellet whole grain diets by 0.43MJ and 0.30MJ, respectively. Phytase addition improved AMEn by 0.49MJ in ground grain diets but this was not significant and otherwise did not influence AMEn. In Experiment 2, phytase and protease, individually and in combination, were included in diets containing 12.5% pre-pellet whole wheat as a 2×2 factorial treatment array. There was a significant interaction (P <0.015) for weight gain following phytase and protease additions to pre-pellet whole grain diets where phytase significantly increased weight gain by 6.91% (1548 versus 1448g/bird). Protease supplementation alone numerically increased weight gain, but in combination with phytase, numerically decreased weight gain. Phytase improved FCR by 2.15% (1.319 versus 1.348; P <0.01) and protease improved FCR by 1.41% (1.324 versus 1.343; P <0.05), but in combination, both feed enzymes improved FCR by 3.52% (1.317 versus 1.365; P <0.005) relative to the negative control. It is noteworthy that in the first experiment, whole wheat inclusions did not significantly influence starch digestibility but phytase inclusions increased distal ileal starch digestibility by 5.10% (0.948 versus 0.902; P <0.05) in pre-pellet and by 3.85% (0.943 versus 0.908; P <0.05) in post-pellet whole grain treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.007
       
  • Optimization of single screw extrusion process for producing fish feeds
           based on vegetable meals and evaluation of nutritional effects using a
           juvenile Piaractus mesopotamicus model
    • Authors: Raúl E. Cian; Carla Bachetta; Jimena Cazenave; Silvina R. Drago
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Raúl E. Cian, Carla Bachetta, Jimena Cazenave, Silvina R. Drago
      Optimization of extrusion process for producing extruded feeds based on vegetable meals using a single screw extruder was study. Also growth performance of extruded feed obtained in optimal conditions using a juvenile P mesopotamicus model was evaluated. In order to study the simultaneous effect of blend moisture (M) and extrusion temperature (T) on expansion (E), bulk density (BD), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), and floatability (F) a central composite design (32) was used. The levels of each variable were: T: 160–180–200°C and M: 14–16–18g/100g. A multiple response optimization of physical properties of experimental extruded feed (E, F, BD and WSI) was performed using the Derringer’s desirability function. The global desirability function value was 0.8805, and the obtained optimal conditions were 181.5°C and 15.8g/100g of moisture content. Experimental extruded feed (EF) obtained at such conditions presented the following physical properties: E: 2.23±0.03, F: 99.0±1.0%, BD: 270.9±13.8g/L, and WSI: 12.9±1.5g/100g. Crude protein content of EF was higher than that of control feed (CF). However, no significant difference for crude lipid (∼37.9g/kg) and total starch content was found. Gelatinized starch for EF (430.5±7.0g/kg) was higher than that obtained for CF (378.9±6.7g/kg), corresponding to 97.0±2.1 and 88.1±2.2% of degree of gelatinization, respectively. Chemical score of CF was 93.3%, lysine being the limiting amino acid. However, in the case of EF no limiting amino acid was found. Both diets presented a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids of C18 series (C18:1 and C18:2 (n–6)). EF showed higher content of oleic, linolenic, cis-11-eicosenoic and di-homo-γ-linolenic acid than CF. Nevertheless, only for CF, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid were detected. Significant differences in final fish body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and condition factor were not detected between dietary treatments after 120days of feeding trial. Extrusion using a single screw extruder in optimal process conditions could be used to obtain fish feed based in vegetable meals and good physical properties with proper growth performance on juvenile P. mesopotamicus.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.004
       
  • The inclusion of low quantities of lipids in the diet of ruminants fed low
           quality forages has little effect on rumen function
    • Authors: D.F.A. Costa; S.P. Quigley; P. Isherwood; S.R. McLennan; X.Q. Sun; S.J. Gibbs; D.P. Poppi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): D.F.A. Costa, S.P. Quigley, P. Isherwood, S.R. McLennan, X.Q. Sun, S.J. Gibbs, D.P. Poppi
      Biohydrogenation within rumen fluid (RF) proceeds to varying degrees depending on retention time (RT) and type of basal diet, especially the profile of fatty acid (FA) being hydrogenised. The objective of this study was to examine the FA profile and the RT of liquid in the rumen of steers fed a low crude protein (CP) tropical grass (Chloris gayana hay, 38g CP, 17g crude lipid and 752g neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom)/kg dry matter (DM)) supplemented with various lipids. Five rumen cannulated Bos indicus cross, five-year-old steers (799±15kg live weight (LW)) were allocated to a 5×5 Latin square design. The treatments were control, hay only, or the addition of 30g/kg hay DM of lipid sources: Coconut (high lauric acid), cottonseed and soybean (high linoleic acid) or fish oil (high long chain FA (LCFA)). Retention time decreased with addition of soybean oil (14h) but no differences between other treatments (mean 17h). Coconut oil increased lauric and myristic acids in RF. There were no changes in total saturated FA (TSFA) in RF, with exception of a lower concentration for fish oil treatment. Addition of fish oil also decreased the concentration in RF of stearic and linolenic acid, but no differences to coconut and cottonseed treatments for linolenic acid. Fish oil also resulted in higher LCFA, linoleic and total unsaturated FA (TUFA), but no differences to soybean oil for the latter two acids. The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was only different in RF between cottonseed and fish oil treatments. Differences in FA profile of oils were only partially translated into the FA profile in RF of steers fed a tropical hay, without great changes in the proportion of CLA isomers observed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.003
       
  • Age and dietary xylanase supplementation affects ileal sugar residues and
           short chain fatty acid concentration in the ileum and caecum of broiler
           chickens
    • Authors: S.A. Lee; J. Apajalahti; K. Vienola; G. González-Ortiz; C.M.G.A. Fontes; M.R. Bedford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): S.A. Lee, J. Apajalahti, K. Vienola, G. González-Ortiz, C.M.G.A. Fontes, M.R. Bedford
      The objective of this study was to investigate how xylanase-induced changes in soluble sugar, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial content of the gut might be linked to broiler performance. A 42-day experiment was conducted using 328 male Ross 508 broiler chicks divided into two treatment groups, fed wheat-based diets with or without xylanase (0 or 16,000 BXU/kg). Each group had 8 replicate pens (13 birds per pen), with 3 additional replicate sampling pens per treatment (20 chicks per pen). Early body weight differences were shown, with xylanase-fed birds being 21g (P =0.02) and 39g (P =0.10) heavier at days 11 and 21 than control birds. Over the entire 42day experimental period, body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) with xylanase supplementation were not significantly different from the control, possibly due to the high performance of birds in both treatments. Xylanase supplementation increased (P< 0.05) soluble arabinose and xylose residues in the ileum and decreased ileal viscosity of birds at all ages, suggesting arabinoxylan degradation to soluble oligosaccharides. Xylanase had no significant effect on soluble sugar residue concentration in the caecum at any age. Irrespective of treatment, caecal soluble sugar residue content was considerably higher in 11 day-old birds, possibly illustrating poorer nutrient digestion and absorptive capacity of young birds. The proportion of xylose and arabinose residues in total caecal soluble sugars decreased (P< 0.001) at day 21, suggesting greater utilisation by resident bacteria. At day 42, compared to the controls, xylanase-fed birds had higher (P =0.01) Bifidobacterium spp. levels (5.7 e+10 versus 8.1 e+9), increased quantities of acetic (P =0.002) and butyric acids (P<0.001), and lower (P =0.03) lactic acid levels in the caeca. At all ages, xylanase treatment reduced (P =0.04) the proportion of branched chain volatile fatty acids in total SCFA, suggesting a reduction in protein fermentation. These findings suggest that greater degradation of wheat arabinoxylan with xylanase can enhance colonisation of specific bacteria and production of SCFAs in the caeca, an event that may relate to improved broiler performance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.017
       
  • Changes in broiler performance, duodenal histomorphometry, and caeca
           microbiota composition in response to wheat-barley based diets
           supplemented with non-antibiotic additives
    • Authors: Carolina Pineda-Quiroga; Amélia Camarinha-Silva; Raquel Atxaerandio; Roberto Ruiz; Aser García-Rodríguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Carolina Pineda-Quiroga, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Raquel Atxaerandio, Roberto Ruiz, Aser García-Rodríguez
      The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing wheat-barley based diets with dry whey powder (DWP), chitosan (CHIT), a mixture of DWP-CHIT, and inulin (INU) on productive performance, duodenal histomorphometry and caeca microbial composition of chickens. A total of 1500 one-day-old male birds were allocated to floor pens and assigned to one of the following treatments: control diet (no additive supplementation), 60-DWP (60g/kg of DWP), 5-CHIT (5g/kg of CHIT), DWP-CHIT (60-DWP plus 5-CHIT), and 20-INU (20g/kg of INU). Each treatment had 10 replicate pens, with 30 birds per pen. Measurements of productive performance were made during the starter period (day 1-21) and for the entire feeding period (day 1-42), while duodenal measurements were registered at day 21. Caeca microbiota composition was determined using Illumina amplicon sequencing at days 21 and 42. During the starter period, feeding chickens with any of the tested additives diminished their body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (FI) as compared to control diet (P <0.05). This was also observed during the entire feeding period (P <0.05), except for INU supplementation that showed similar values to control birds. None of treatments affected duodenal histomorphometry. Caeca microbiota composition was influenced by diet at every stage of the productive period (P=0.001), although no clear association between microbiota and performance was detected. At day 21, no differences in microbiota composition of control, 60-DWP, 5-CHIT and 20-INU birds were found, which caeca were highly harboured by Lactobacillus gallinarum, although only control promoted greater BW, ADG, and FI. Control and 60-DWP treatments did not differ in their caeca communities at day 42, although only control increased BW, ADG, and FI. In both cases, caeca showed higher abundance of Lactobacillus gallinarum and Bacteroides vulgatus, and lower abundance of Escherichia coli/Shigella flexneri and Bacteroides fragilis. DWP-CHIT diet promoted an increase of Klebsiella pneumoniae at day 21, and of Streptococcus gallolyticus at day 42, together with a performance reduction as compared to control diet. The present findings indicate that chicken growth is reduced by supplementing wheat-barley based diets with DWP, CHIT, DWP plus CHIT, and INU, at the tested doses, as a consequence of a reduction in FI. Caeca microbiota composition and diversity varied in a diet-dependent manner during both sampled ages, although a linkage between microbiota and performance was not clear.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.002
       
  • Effect of Delonix regia seed meal supplementation in Thai native beef
           cattle on feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics and methane
           production
    • Authors: Supapong Cherdthong; Seankamsorn Khonkhaeng Wanapat Gunun Gunun Chanjula Polyorach
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): C. Supapong, A. Cherdthong, A. Seankamsorn, B. Khonkhaeng, M. Wanapat, N. Gunun, P. Gunun, P. Chanjula, S. Polyorach
      The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of supplementing Delonix regia (DR) seed meal on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, nitrogen balance and CH4 production in Thai native beef cattle fed on rice straw. Four Thai native beef cattle with the initial body weight (BW) of 100±5.0kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive DR seed meal supplementation at 0, 90, 180 and 270g/d. The present results revealed that the total intake (g/kg BW0.75) was significantly increased with the inclusion of dry matter (DM) seed meal at 270g (P<0.05). DM and OM digestibility were decreased when increasing DR seed meal levels (P<0.05). Ruminal NH3-N concentration increased in beef cattle receiving DR seed meal. Supplementation of DR seed meal did not alter fungal zoospores’ concentration (P>0.05), whereas the protozoal population was at 0, 4h post feeding, and the mean values reduced when increasing the levels of DR seed meal supplemented (P<0.05). The concentration of propionic acid at 4h post feeding and its average concentration were significantly highest when 270g DR seed meal was supplemented (P<0.05). Estimation of CH4 concentrations and CH4 per dry matter intake were found reduced when increasing its DR seed meal concentration. In addition, N absorption, N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake were enhanced when 270g DR seed meal was supplemented (P<0.05). Thus, the inclusion of DR seed meal at 270g/d resulted in improving total feed intake, rumen fermentation and N balance whereas there was reduced DM digestibility, protozoal population and CH4 production in beef cattle fed rice straw base.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
       
  • Effects of dietary protein levels and rumen-protected pantothenate on
           ruminal fermentation, microbial enzyme activity and bacteria population in
           Blonde d'Aquitaine x Simmental beef steers
    • Authors: Q. Liu; C. Wang; H.Q. Li; G. Guo; W.J. Huo; C.X. Pei; S.L. Zhang; H. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Q. Liu, C. Wang, H.Q. Li, G. Guo, W.J. Huo, C.X. Pei, S.L. Zhang, H. Wang
      This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and rumen-protected pantothenate (RPP) supplementation on ruminal digestion kinetics, fermentation, microbial enzymatic activity, and selected bacterial species relative abundance in beef steers. Eight ruminally cannulated crossbred beef steers, with 15 months of age and 462±9kg of body weight (BW), were used in a duplicated 4×4 Latin square design by a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (113.7g/kg of CP [LP] or high protein (133.9g/kg of CP [HP]) diets were fed with or without RPP supplementation (0g [RP-] or 0.48g per kg dietary dry matter (DM) [RP+]). Steers were fed a total mixed ration containing dietary concentrate to corn silage ratio of 50:50 on a DM basis. There were no RPP×CP interactions for ruminal digestion kinetics, fermentation, microbial enzymatic activity, and selected bacterial species relative abundance, except for Ruminobacter amylophilus. Mean ruminal pH decreased with RPP supplementation, but was unaffected by dietary CP levels. Ruminal total VFA concentration increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Ruminal acetate percentage was similar among treatments, whereas propionate percentage decreased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Consequently, the acetate to propionate ratio increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Ruminal ammonia-N content was unchanged among treatments. Both in situ ruminal DM degradability of corn silage and CP degradability of concentrate increased with RPP supplementation and tended to increase with increasing dietary CP levels, while NDF degradability of corn silage and DM degradability of concentrate increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, α-amylase and protease, populations of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Prevotella ruminicola, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation, but populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and R. amylophilus increased with RPP supplementation, and decreased with increasing dietary CP levels. The results showed that increasing dietary CP levels from 113.7g to 133.9g or with 0.48g RPP supplementation improved ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis by increasing microbial populations and enzymes activities.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.014
       
  • Bioavailability of zinc hydroxychloride relative to zinc sulfate in
           growing cattle fed a corn-cottonseed hull-based diet
    • Authors: G.L. Shaeffer; K.E. Lloyd; J.W. Spears
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): G.L. Shaeffer, K.E. Lloyd, J.W. Spears
      A study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc hydroxychloride (ZnOHCl) relative to Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) in growing steers. Sixteen Angus and Simmental steers (371kg average initial weight) were fed a corn-cottonseed hull-based diet without supplemental Zn for 14 d. At the end of the 14-d depletion phase steers were randomly assigned within a breed to treatments consisting of supplemental Zn at 25mg/kg DM from either ZnSO4 or ZnOHCl. Seven days after the initiation of Zn supplementation a 5-d total collection of feces and urine was conducted. Jugular blood samples were obtained on d 0 (prior to initiation of Zn treatments) and on d 40 of the study for plasma Zn determination. Dry matter intake, Zn intake and urinary Zn excretion were not affected (P >0.10) during the metabolism phase. Apparent absorption and retention of Zn were greater (P <0.01) in steers supplemented with ZnOHCl than in those supplemented with Zn SO4. Plasma Zn concentrations were similar across treatments on d 0 of the study. On d 40 of the study plasma Zn concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in steers supplemented with Zn OHCl compared to those fed ZnSO4. Results of this study indicated that ZnOHCl is a more bioavailable source of Zn than ZnSO4 for growing cattle when supplemented to a diet with relatively low Zn bioavailability.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.013
       
  • Effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate dietary supplementation on
           growth performance and intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens
           infected with necrotic enteritis
    • Authors: Bochen Song; Huixian Li; Yuanyuan Wu; Wenrui Zhen; Zhong Wang; Zhaofei Xia; Yuming Guo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Bochen Song, Huixian Li, Yuanyuan Wu, Wenrui Zhen, Zhong Wang, Zhaofei Xia, Yuming Guo
      Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxigenic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens that results in substantial economic losses to the global poultry industry. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) on the growth performance and intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens co-infected with Eimeria spp. and C. perfringens. Chickens were fed, from hatch, either a diet supplemented with MSB, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and were either left uninfected or orally infected with mixed strains of Eimeria species at 12 d of age, followed by an oral inoculation with C. perfringens at 16, 17, and 18 d of age. NE-infected chickens fed MSB-supplemented diets had greater body weight (BW), improved average daily gains (ADG), and higher feed conversion ratios (FCR) than NE-infected birds fed unsupplemented diets. Increased jejunal villus height, reduced duodenal lesion scores, reduced cecal Escherichia coli and C. perfringens counts, and reduced liver C. perfringens load were also observed in the NE-infected, MSB-supplemented chickens as compared to the NE-infected, unsupplemented birds. NE infection downregulated claudin-4, ZO-1, occludin, LEAP-2, and mucin-2 in the jejunum. However, MSB-fed birds infected with NE had significantly upregulated claudin-1, claudin-4, ZO-1, occludin, LEAP-2, and mucin-2 levels in the jejunum as compared with infected birds fed the non-supplemented diet. We have thus demonstrated that the administration of MSB alleviates intestinal mucosal barrier injury of broiler chickens infected with NE.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.009
       
  • Effect of feeder design and concentrate presentation form on performance,
           carcass characteristics, and behavior of fattening Holstein bulls fed
           high-concentrate diets
    • Authors: M. Verdú; A. Bach; M. Devant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Verdú, A. Bach, M. Devant
      The study objective was to evaluate the effect of feeder design and concentrate presentation form on performance, carcass characteristics, and animal behavior in fattening Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. A total of 294 bulls (175±6.5kg of BW and 139±0.7days of age) were randomly allotted to one of 16 pens (18-19 bulls per pen) distributed in 2 barns (8 pens per barn). Each pen was assigned to one of 4 treatments following a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: feeder design (collective vs. single) and concentrate presentation form (meal vs. pellet). Collective feeder consisted of three feeding spaces with a concentrate feeder capacity of 40kg; and single feeder consisted of one single-space feeder with lateral protections, forming a chute, with a feeder capacity of 10kg. Pen concentrate consumption was registered daily, straw consumption weekly, and BW fortnightly. Animal behavior was registered at day -6, 1, 3, 6, 9, 13, 29, and every 28days thereafter. The chute of the single-space feeder was not placed to facilitate the feed access for the first 28days of study (receiving period). During this period, only the concentrate presentation form was evaluated. Animals were slaughtered after 182 days, and HCW, carcass quality and liver lesions were recorded. Three fattening periods were established according to days of the study and animal BW: receiving (28 days; from 175 to 220kg), growing (98 days; from 220 to 360kg), and finishing (56 days; from 360 to 430kg). The effects of feeder design and concentrate presentation form on performance differed depending on fattening period; however, no relevant effects on animal behavior were observed. During the receiving period, calves fed pellet exhibited greater (P< 0.01) growth than those fed meal. Throughout the growing period, concentrate efficiency tended (P =0.09) to be greater in animals fed pellets in collective feeder, followed by those fed pellets in a single feeder, and, lastly, by those fed meal regardless of the feeder design. During the finishing period, concentrate intake was lesser (P< 0.01) and concentrate efficiency tended (P =0.07) to be greater in bulls fed pellets compared with those fed meal. Bulls fed pellets in collective feeders tended (P =0.10) to have greater HCW. In conclusion, the best strategy to improve performance and concentrate efficiency is to feed animals in a collective feeder and present the concentrate in pellet form. Moreover, a single-space feeder with lateral protections was not a good strategy to diminish concentrate wastage, observed in a reduction of total concentrate intake, and improve concentrate efficiency during the finishing period when feeding meal.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.003
       
 
 
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