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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3163 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3163 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 394, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 385, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 436, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)

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Journal Cover
Animal Feed Science and Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.937
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0377-8401 - ISSN (Online) 0377-8401
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Evaluating flushing procedures to prevent nicarbazin carryover during
           medicated feed manufacturing
    • Authors: A. Martinez; C.K. Jones; C.R. Stark; L.J. McKinney; K.C. Behnke; C.B. Paulk
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 242
      Author(s): A. Martinez, C.K. Jones, C.R. Stark, L.J. McKinney, K.C. Behnke, C.B. Paulk
      Carryover of medicated feed additives between batches of feed can potentially result in harmful drug residues in the edible tissues of food-animals. Flushing the equipment with an ingredient, such as ground grain, is one method used to remove any residual medicated feed from the system. It is generally recommended that the quantity of flush used be between 50 and 100 g/kg of the mixer’s capacity. However, there is little data that supports this recommendation. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the minimum quantity of flush material required to prevent drug carryover; and to quantify the interrelationship between flush size and drug concentration. The feed medicated with nicarbazin (Nicarb 250 g/kg®; 00.125 g/kg) was manufactured and conveyed from the mixer, through a drag conveyor and bucket elevator, and placed into a finished product bin. The system was then flushed using ground corn in the amount of 25, 50, 100, 150, or 200 g/kg of the mixer’s capacity (454.5 kg). Subsequently, a non-medicated diet was conveyed through the system and samples were collected and analyzed for nicarbazin. No differences were detected among the flush treatments, and all treatments were effective in reducing nicarbazin carryover to less than 2.2 mg/kg to the non-medicated diet. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that existing flushing guidelines meet or exceed what is required to prevent carryover of medicated feed additives.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 242 (2018)
       
  • Effects of limestone inclusion on growth performance, intestinal
           microbiota, and the jejunal transcriptomic profile when fed to weaning
           pigs
    • Authors: L. Blavi; J.F. Perez; C. Villodre; P. López; S.M. Martín-Orúe; V. Motta; D. Luise; P. Trevisi; D. Sola-Oriol
      Pages: 8 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 242
      Author(s): L. Blavi, J.F. Perez, C. Villodre, P. López, S.M. Martín-Orúe, V. Motta, D. Luise, P. Trevisi, D. Sola-Oriol
      Plant ingredients contain low Ca levels and 1/3 may be bound to P phytate. Therefore, Ca has to be supplemented with animal or mineral sources, such as limestone or calcium phosphates. However, growth performance and feed intake has been reported by other authors to decrease linearly with increasing dietary Ca. To better understand the possible mechanisms underlying detrimental effect of including limestone in weanling diets, two experimental trials were performed to evaluate its possible impact on growth performance, colonic microbiota and, jejunal gene expression. In Trial 1, a total of 240 piglets (26 ± 2 d old, average body weight (BW) = 7.7 ± 1.04 kg) were distributed into 3 dietary treatments: 0% limestone, 0.8% limestone, and 1.6% limestone to provide 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2% total Ca, respectively. Feed intake and individual BW were registered during the pre-starter phase (d 0–14 post-weaning). Pigs fed diet with 1.6% of limestone (1.2% of total Ca) had lower BW, average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) compared with pigs fed diets with 0.8 and 0% limestone (0.9 and 0.6% total Ca, respectively; P < 0.05). In Trial 2, a total of 18 pigs (28 ± 0 d old, average BW = 7.2 ± 0.24 kg) were allocated individually in cages and assigned to 2 dietary treatments: 0% limestone and 1.4% limestone to provide 0.6 and 1.2% total Ca, respectively. Piglets were fed for 14 d and then euthanized to obtain jejunum tissue for gene expression and colon digesta for 16SRNA gene microbiota analyses. Pigs fed 1.4% limestone (1.2% of total Ca) showed a higher beta-diversity and an increase on the Bacteroides genera in colon (P < 0.05). These animals also showed an up regulation of gene sets related to the cell cycle regulation, DNA and RNA transcription and inflammatory response in the jejunum. In conclusion, high levels of limestone inclusion in weaning diets, decreases growth performance without affecting feed intake in weaned pigs. Also, addition of limestone to diets for 14 d after weaning can upregulate the expression of genes related to the inflammatory response, and enlarge colonic beta-diversity with an increased Bacteroides genera.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 242 (2018)
       
  • Proposal and validation of new indexes to evaluate maize silage
           fermentative quality in lab-scale ensiling conditions through the use of a
           receiver operating characteristic analysis
    • Authors: Igino Andrighetto; Lorenzo Serva; Matteo Gazziero; Sandro Tenti; Massimo Mirisola; Elisabetta Garbin; Barbara Contiero; Daniel Grandis; Giorgio Marchesini
      Pages: 31 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 242
      Author(s): Igino Andrighetto, Lorenzo Serva, Matteo Gazziero, Sandro Tenti, Massimo Mirisola, Elisabetta Garbin, Barbara Contiero, Daniel Grandis, Giorgio Marchesini
      In the context of dairy cow feeding, it is increasingly important to know the quality of the maize silage used in the ration and therefore, it appears to be crucial optimizing the techniques necessary to assess it. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some reference indexes, like the Flieg-Zimmer’s (FZS), the German agricultural society’s (DLG) and Vanbelle’s scores, could properly estimate the quality of fermentations of maize silage made in a lab-scale ensiling system, and to calculate and validate new quality indexes suitable for lab-scale fermentations. The experimental dataset was obtained by analysing through near-infrared spectroscopy 522 samples of whole maize crop ensiled immediately after the harvest, using the vacuum-packing technique. The six (I1 – I6) new indexes were calculated on the basis of chemical and physical parameters as: pH, organic acids, ethanol, etc. All the indexes were tested for normality with the Shapiro–Wilk test. In order to define the accuracy with which the new indexes ranked the maize silage on the basis of its fermentation quality, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, using the FZS as gold standard test and dichotomizing the FZS in two levels according to a cut-off (FZS < 80, non-excellent vs. FZS ≥ 80, excellent). Accuracy was determined through the value of the area under the curve (AUC). Finally, a one-way ANOVA was used to compare the quality of maize silage with low (< 320 g/kg), medium (320–360 g/kg) and high (> 360 g/kg) dry matter (DM). In the lab-scale silages the new indexes were normally distributed, whereas the reference indexes were not. The new indexes showed values of AUC ranging between 0.76 and 0.89, with the I5 index showing the best combination of sensitivity (0.87) and specificity (0.77) in discriminating between good and poor quality silage. The cut-off of the new indexes ranged between 45.0 and 57.4 points. The lab-scale silages were all excellent, no matter the category of DM. However, while FZS and DLG did not differ among the 3 categories, I1 – I6 were significantly higher in silages with low DM (P < 0.001). Silages with low DM had the highest concentrations of lactic acid (56.4 g/kg DM, P < 0.001), ammonia (61.4 g/kg DM, P < 0.001) and butyric acid (0.62 g/kg DM, P < 0.001) as well. Data confirmed that the new proposed indexes are promising in describing the fermentation quality of maize silage in lab-scale conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 242 (2018)
       
  • Effects of source and level of dietary energy supplementation on in vitro
           digestibility and methane production from tall fescue-based diets
    • Authors: R.J. Trotta; J.L. Klotz; D.L. Harmon
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 242
      Author(s): R.J. Trotta, J.L. Klotz, D.L. Harmon
      There is a lack of information about the effect of different sources, levels, and the mixtures of energy supplements commonly fed to cattle grazing tall fescue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different common energy sources for beef cattle grazing tall fescue using an in vitro fermentation system. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (571 ± 16.1 kg BW) were fed tall fescue hay once daily and served as donors of rumen contents for an in vitro fermentation experiment. Treatments were tall fescue hay (CON), soybean hulls (SBH), corn gluten feed (CGF), corn (CORN), or combinations (SBH + CGF, SBH + CORN, CGF + CORN, SBH + CGF + CORN) of these. Flasks were incubated for 48 h and then assessed for digestion by measuring true DM digestibility, VFA and ammonia concentrations, and total gas and methane production. Supplemental energy sources did not affect total VFA concentration, ammonia concentration, valerate proportion, isobutyrate proportion, isovalerate proportion, or acetate:propionate ratio. True digestibility and digestible energy were generally greater than CON (Table 3; P < 0.001) in all CORN containing treatments. The CORN (P < 0.001) and CGF + CORN (P = 0.023) treatments had a lower acetate proportion than CON. Propionate proportion was reduced by CORN (P < 0.001). Corn grain supplementation increased butyrate proportion in all corn-containing treatments (P < 0.035). All treatments containing energy supplements increased methane production and CH4-E (P < 0.027). The DE loss from CH4-E was increased in CORN, SBH + CGF, SBH + CORN, CGF + CORN, and SBH + CGF + CORN (P < 0.01). Corn grain supplementation at low levels (≤0.20 diet DM) can improve diet utilization by increasing digestibility and energetic efficiency to improve beef cattle production.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 242 (2018)
       
  • True ileal phosphorus digestibility of monocalcium phosphate,
           monodicalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate for broiler chickens
    • Authors: Tassanee Trairatapiwan; Yuwares Ruangpanit; Ornprapun Songserm; Seksom Attamangkune
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): T. Trairatapiwan, Y. Ruangpanit, O. Songserm, S. Attamangkune
      This study was conducted to determine the true ileal phosphorus (P) digestibility of monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP) and dicalcium phosphate from bones (DCP) for broiler chickens using the regression method. A corn-soy basal diet was formulated to contain 2.5 g/kg total P. Each test ingredient was then included at three levels to the basal diet to achieve graded concentrations of total P (3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 g/kg, respectively). The calcium (Ca):P ratio was maintained at 1.35 to 1.40:1 by the addition of limestone. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was included in all diets as an indigestible marker. Day-old male broiler chicks were fed a commercial broiler starter diet from 1 to 20 days of age. On day 21, birds were individually weighed and assigned to 60 cages (6 birds/cage) and the 10 experimental diets (basal diet and 9 diets with 3 inclusion levels of each test ingredient) were then randomly allocated to 6 replicate cages each. The birds were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for 8 days. On day 29, all birds were euthanized and ileal digesta were collected from the posterior half of the ileum. True P digestibility of MCP, MDCP and DCP were calculated by the linear regression analysis. True P digestibility of MCP, MDCP and DCP were determined to be 64.6, 60.2 and 69.3%, respectively. The present results suggest that the P digestibility from two inorganic sources (MCP and MDCP) and one organic source (DCP from bones) were lower than the values of available P currently assumed in poultry feed formulations.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • A small scale in vitro system for high throughput gas production analysis
           – a comparison with the Hohenheim gas test
    • Authors: Karola Elberg; Patrick Steuer; Ute Habermann; Jürgen Lenz; Michael Nelles; Karl-Heinz Südekum
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Karola Elberg, Patrick Steuer, Ute Habermann, Jürgen Lenz, Michael Nelles, Karl-Heinz Südekum
      An automated small scale in vitro system has been developed for the extensive examination of feedstuffs in high throughput screenings. This system was calibrated against the strictly standardized Hohenheim gas test (HGT). The automated system is suitable for gas-producing biological suspensions, e.g. ruminal fluid. Gas production is indirectly measured through pressure increase as a measure for digestibility. For functional characterisation of the micro gas system (MGS), a total number of 18 feedstuffs, including grass hay and a concentrate standard, were simultaneously incubated in the HGT and the MGS. The same inoculate and feed-inoculate ratio was applied for comparisons of kinetic parameters. Compared to HGT, the MGS resulted in significantly lower (p < 0.05) maximum gas production for all feedstuffs. Regarding the rate of gas production, the lag phase using the MGS was longer compared to HGT for 12 feeds. However, a strong relationship between the HGT and MGS gas production after 24 hours was observed. The regression analysis of feedstuff mean values of both methods resulted in the equation: y = 0.91 (SE = 0.0342; p < 0.0001) x -0.03 (SE = 1.3924; p = 0.9823) with R² = 0.98. The results indicate that the MGS is a suitable alternative method for high throughput screenings but also, with reservations, for questions which were formerly examined with the HGT.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Nutrient and energy digestibility, and microbial metabolites in weaned
           pigs fed diets containing Lactobacillus–fermented wheat
    • Authors: B. Koo; J.W. Kim; C.M. Nyachoti
      Pages: 27 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): B. Koo, J.W. Kim, C.M. Nyachoti
      The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nursery diets containing fermented wheat, with or without enzyme complex, on nutrient and energy digestibility as well as microbial metabolites in weaned pigs. Wheat was fermented using either L. plantarum (Homo) or L. buchneri (Hetero), with or without an enzyme complex (multicarbohydrases + phytase) for a 90-d of period. The Homo produces lactic acid during fermentation whereas Hetero can further convert the lactic acid into volatile fatty acids and alcohol. Control diets were formulated with unfermented wheat without (negative control) or with (positive control) 0.5 g/kg of the enzyme complex whereas the treatment diets contained fermented wheat at 437.5 g/kg without enzymes. A casein (50 g/kg)-corn starch-based diet was used to estimate the basal endogenous amino acids losses. Fourteen weaned piglets (7.8 ± 0.3 kg initial body weight) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum and allocated as per an incomplete replicated 7 × 3 Latin square design with 7 dietary treatments and 3 periods. The inclusion of fermented wheat increased (P < 0.05) the coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of GE and starch, and coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), gross energy (GE), and phosphorus. Further, pigs fed fermented wheat diets showed greater (P < 0.05) CAID of methionine, cysteine, and tyrosine, and coefficient of standardized ileal digestibility (CSID) of methionine, alanine, and proline than those fed unfermented wheat diets. Pigs fed Hetero-fermented wheat diets demonstrated greater (P < 0.05) CAID of DM, OM, and GE, and CATTD of calcium and phosphorus than those fed Homo-fermented wheat diets. However, no differences in amino acids digestibility were observed between the inoculants. The addition of an enzyme complex for wheat fermentation increased (P < 0.05) the CATTD of calcium and phosphorus; the CAID of isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, and tyrosine; as well as the CSID of isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, and tyrosine. However, any changes in the volatile fatty acids and lactic acid concentrations and pH of the feces or the ileal digesta were not observed among treatment. In conclusion, feeding a nursery diet comprising fermented wheat increased the nutrient and energy digestibility. Inoculating wheat with Hetero is more beneficial than inoculating it with Homo in terms of energy and mineral digestibility. The addition of an enzyme complex to wheat fermentation increased mineral and amino acids digestibility.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Ruminal fermentation, nutrient metabolism, and methane emissions of sheep
           in response to dietary supplementation with Bacillus licheniformis
    • Authors: K.D. Deng; Y. Xiao; T. Ma; Y. Tu; Q.Y. Diao; Y.H. Chen; J.J. Jiang
      Pages: 38 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): K.D. Deng, Y. Xiao, T. Ma, Y. Tu, Q.Y. Diao, Y.H. Chen, J.J. Jiang
      Some bacterial preparations have been used as rumen methane (CH4) mitigants, but the effect of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis on ruminal methanogenesis is unknown. In this study, twenty-four Dorper crossbred wethers (45.0 ± 1.96 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments (6 animals/treatment): a basal diet (control), or the basal diet supplemented with 2.5 × 108 (low; L), 2.5 × 109 (medium; M), or 2.5 × 1010 (high; H) colony-forming units of B. licheniformis per animal per day. Ruminal fermentation characteristics, apparent digestibility and metabolism of nutrients and gross energy, and in vivo methane emissions were measured. The L group had lower ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentrations than the control (78.5 vs. 100.8 mg/L; P = 0.001). Dietary B. licheniformis supplementation enhanced the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber (P < 0.001), improved the N retention and utilization efficiency (P = 0.005), and energy metabolizability (P < 0.001). Daily CH4 production in the L and M groups was lower than that in the control (39.9 and 39.8 vs. 42.5 L/d; P = 0.017 and 0.011, respectively), and these effects were also mirrored by relative CH4 production to dry matter (DM) intake (31.7 and 31.6 vs. 33.8 L/kg DM intake; P = 0.017 and 0.012, respectively). Relative CH4 production to digestible DM intake in the L, M, and H groups was lower than that in the control (P < 0.001). Dietary B. licheniformis supplementation effectively reduced in vivo methane emissions from sheep with concomitant improvement of their energy and protein utilization.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Performance and meat quality of Nellore bulls fed crude glycerin combined
           with soybean oil
    • Authors: G. Fiorentini; J.D. Messana; A. José Neto; E.G. Sgobi; P.S. Castagnino; T.T. Berchielli
      Pages: 45 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): G. Fiorentini, J.D. Messana, A. José Neto, E.G. Sgobi, P.S. Castagnino, T.T. Berchielli
      The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of crude glycerin combined with soybean oil on the performance and fatty acid composition of the longissimus muscle in Nellore bulls. Twenty-eight Nellore young bulls, each with an initial body weight (BW) of 408 ± 29 kg (age 20 ± 2 months), were used in a completely randomized design over a period of 84 days in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The treatments were diets with crude glycerin at 100 g/kg DM (CG+) or without crude glycerin (CG−); diet with inclusion of soybean oil at 60 g/kg DM (Oil+) or without soybean oil inclusion (Oil−). All diets were composed of corn silage (400 g/kg DM), used as the only source of roughage, and concentrate (600 g/kg DM). The intake of the dry matter (g/kg of body weight), neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein decreased with soybean oil inclusion, independent of crude glycerin addition. The aNDF digestibility decreased in diets with soybean oil and without crude glycerin. The DM and organic matter (OM) were most digestible in diets that added crude glycerin but excluded soybean oil. Animals fed soybean oil without crude glycerin exhibited higher intake of linoleic acids, total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than those fed other diets. There were no effects of oil or crude glycerin feeding on final body weight, average daily gain (ADG), hot carcass weight, subcutaneous fat thickness, or loin eye area (P > 0.05). Animals fed soybean oil incorporate into the muscle 40% more conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and 32% more linoleic acids compared to other diets. The addition of crude glycerin decreased the elongase index (P = 0.04) in the longissimus muscle. The combination of crude glycerin and soybean oil did not effectively increase performance or unsaturated fatty acid deposition in meat. However, the addition of soybean oil at 60 g/kg DM optimized feed efficiency and did not alter ADG.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Standardized ileal digestible lysine requirement of male broilers at the
           age of 0–10 days
    • Authors: Jinyoung Lee; Y. Sung; Changsu Kong
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): Jinyoung Lee, Y. Sung, Changsu Kong
      Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine requirement for 10-day-old male broilers. In experiment 1, 3 experimental diets including 2 diets composed of corn or soybean meal as the sole source of amino acids and an N-free diet were used to investigate standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in corn and soybean meal for 11-day-old broilers. A total of 480 birds were allocated to the 3 treatments with a randomized complete block design, and each treatment included 8 cages per treatment and 20 birds per cage. In experiment 2, a total of 720 1-day-old birds were used for 10 days. The birds were allocated to 6 diets and 8 blocks with a randomized complete block design to estimate the SID lysine requirements. The 6 experimental diets were based on corn-soybean meal, and the concentrations of SID lysine in the diets increased equally from 9.8 g/kg to 14.8 g/kg with a consistent ratio of other indispensable amino acids. As the SID lysine increased, the average daily gain and gain:feed ratio increased linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05). The SID lysine requirements for average daily gain and gain:feed ratio were 13.27 g/kg and 12.89 g/kg for the one-slope broken-line, 15.33 g/kg and 13.99 g/kg for the quadratic broken-line, 14.56 g/kg and 13.24 g/kg for 95% of the upper asymptote of the quadratic model, and 14.18 g/kg and 13.56 g/kg for the first intercept between the plateau of the one-slope broken-line and quadratic models, respectively. In conclusion, the SID lysine requirements for 10-day-old broiler chicks fed corn-SBM-based diets ranged from 13.27 g/kg to 15.33 g/kg for average daily gain and from 12.89 g/kg to 13.99 g/kg for gain:feed ratio.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.016
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Partial replacement of rapeseed oil with fish oil, and dietary
           antioxidants supplementation affects concentrations of biohydrogenation
           products and conjugated fatty acids in rumen and selected lamb tissues
    • Authors: Małgorzata Białek; Marian Czauderna; Agnieszka Białek
      Pages: 63 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): Małgorzata Białek, Marian Czauderna, Agnieszka Białek
      The purpose of this study was to assess if partial replacement of rapeseed oil (RO) with fish oil (FO) combined with dietary supplementation of various antioxidants (carnosic acid – CA, selenized yeast – SeY and selenate – Se(VI)) influences the profile of biohydrogenation products, intermediates and conjugated fatty acids (CFA) in the rumen content and selected tissues of lambs. Thirty Corriedale male lambs were divided into 5 groups and fed for 35 days isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets: basal diet enriched with 30 g RO/kg (Group 0 – control), diet enriched with 20 g RO/kg and 10 g FO/kg (Group I) or diets with combined addition of 20 g RO/kg, 10 g FO/kg and antioxidants (Group II supplemented with 1 g CA/kg; Group III with 1 g CA/kg and 0.35 mg/kg Se as SeY; Group IV with 0.35 mg/kg Se as Se(VI)). Applied dietary modification significantly affected the lipid transformation in the rumen. Replacement of RO by FO to the greater extent affected the profile of conjugated than non-conjugated intermediates in all samples. Collateral supplementation of antioxidants acted synergistically with FO in case of CFA content in the rumen content whereas in tissues the impact of antioxidants was antagonistic to FO. Se-compounds influenced CFA amounts in the most potent way, although dependent on their chemical form. Inorganic form (Se(VI)) reduced conjugated biohydrogenation intermediates contents in lamb livers while its organic chemical form (SeY) stimulated deposition of CFA and CD in femoral muscles. Partial replacement of RO by FO resulted in preferential incorporation of CFA isomers into liver and dorsal muscle. A complex insight into PUFA metabolism in the rumen was possible due to consideration of both steps (isomerisation and biohydrogenation) as well as plethora of possible intermediates and arising products (especially conjugated). Our results indicate that isomerisation and biohydrogenation are strongly affected by the Se-compounds. The influenced depended on the chemical form of these compounds: SeY strongly influenced the isomerization of both LA and ALA, whereas inorganic Se modified the biohydrogenation of ALA. So, it can be stated that aside from phytochemicals, Se-compounds have also an ability to modify processes occurring in rumen and thus may lead to favorable modification of FA profile of edible part of ruminant carcass, which is of utmost importance from the consumer point of view.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Feeding of molassed sugar beet pulp instead of maize enhances net food
           production of high-producing Simmental cows without impairing metabolic
           health
    • Authors: Matthias Münnich; Fenja Klevenhusen; Qendrim Zebeli
      Pages: 75 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): Matthias Münnich, Fenja Klevenhusen, Qendrim Zebeli
      Molassed sugar beet pulp (Bp) is a human inedible by-product of the sugar industry being a suitable dietary energy alternative to grains particularly in terms of increasing the net food production efficiency of high-producing dairy cattle. However, there are concerns that feeding large amounts of Bp can limit cow’s feed intake, jeopardizing both the production performance and metabolic health especially of high-producing dairy cows that have high energy needs. In the present study dietary inclusion of Bp as a substitute for maize grain was tested in a longitudinal block-randomized experimental design in early lactation high-yielding Simmental cows. The Bp inclusion rates were 0 g/kg (i.e., no Bp inclusion as control), 120 g/kg (12Bp), or 240 g/kg (24Bp) on a dry matter basis. The replacement of maize grain with Bp reduced the human edible input from 135.4 MJ GE/d in the control diet to 50.7 MJ GE/d in the 24Bp diet (P < 0.001). Feed and energy intake (P = 0.693), milk yield (P = 0.457) as well as energy corrected milk (P = 0.425) were maintained constant throughout the trial. As a result dietary inclusion of Bp turned a net food loss with feeding the control diet into a net food gain with dietary inclusion of 120 and 240 g/kg Bp (P < 0.001). The energy balance and blood metabolites were unaffected by the dietary treatments (P> 0.05), whereas dietary fibre digestibility was linearly improved (P = 0.038) with Bp  feeding, indicating enhanced rumen health and functioning with Bp feeding. In conclusion, feeding molassed sugar beet pulp as partial substitution of maize until 240 g/kg is a viable alternative that can improve net food production without impairing the cows’ production performance and the metabolic health status of cows while improving the digestibility of fibre.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Use of a live yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a
           high-concentrate diet fed to finishing Charolais bulls: effects on growth,
           slaughter performance, behavior, and rumen environment
    • Authors: Luisa Magrin; Flaviana Gottardo; Enrico Fiore; Matteo Gianesella; Bruno Martin; Eric Chevaux; Giulio Cozzi
      Pages: 84 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): Luisa Magrin, Flaviana Gottardo, Enrico Fiore, Matteo Gianesella, Bruno Martin, Eric Chevaux, Giulio Cozzi
      Aim of this study was to evaluate effects on growth, slaughter performance, behavior, and rumen environment parameters of dietary supplementation with a live yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a high-concentrate finishing diet fed to young Charolais bulls. A total 171 bulls (initial body weight (BW) = 442 ± 22.8 kg) were stratified by BW and assigned to one of two experimental groups: Control (85 bulls) and Yeast (86 bulls). Each group was allotted to 6 contiguous pens. All bulls were fed the same finishing diet ad libitum as a total mixed ration (TMR) at 0900 h. The live yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 was added to the Yeast bull premix to target a daily dose of 5 g/bull. Bull final BW (743 ± 18.7 kg) and average daily gain (1.64 ± 0.12 kg) did not differ between groups. However, yeast increased dry matter (DM) intake (11.0 versus 10.4 kg/d; P = 0.04) and tended to reduce (P = 0.08) the number of days required for finishing. The effect of yeast on DM intake was particularly relevant in the first weeks of fattening, possibly as a sign of better adaptation by bulls to the high-energy concentration of the finishing diet. Carcass weights and dressing did not differ between treatments, but the likelihood of producing a carcass graded as excellent by conformation score was 2.15 times higher for Yeast than Control bulls (Chi-Square = 14.7 and 95% confidence interval = 1.42–3.27; P < 0.001). Observation of bull behavior assessed during the 8 h after TMR delivery at the end of the 2nd and 4th mo of fattening showed a similar eating and ruminating pattern between treatments. However, yeast provision prevented from the drop in rumination rate (min/kg DM) recorded in Control bulls from the 2nd to the 4th mo of fattening. Physical and chemical analysis of TMR samples collected from the mangers at determined intervals after TMR delivery indicated that bulls of both treatments preferentially selected towards long fibrous particles. Rumen pH, lactic acid and total volatile fatty acid concentrations in samples collected before TMR feeding after the 3rd month of fattening were not affected by treatment but yeast increased acetate and butyrate concentrations as well as acetate:propionate ratio. Post mortem inspection of rumen wall showed that the occurrence of rumen papillae hyperkeratinization was lower for Yeast than Control bulls (relative risk = 0.51 and 95% confidence interval = 0.27–0.95; P = 0.02).

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.021
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Bioavailability of di-peptide dl-methionyl-dl-methionine in comparison to
           dl-methionine in weaned and growing pigs
    • Authors: L.S. Santos; J.K. Htoo; C. Fracaroli; W.C. Silva; J.P. Gobi; A.M. Veira; N.A.A. Barbosa; L. Hauschild
      Pages: 94 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): L.S. Santos, J.K. Htoo, C. Fracaroli, W.C. Silva, J.P. Gobi, A.M. Veira, N.A.A. Barbosa, L. Hauschild
      The relative bioavailability (RBV) of a dipeptide dl-methionyl-dl-methionine (dl-Met-Met) was compared with dl-methionine (dl-Met) in growing pigs (experiment 1; N-balance study) and in weaned pigs (experiment 2; performance study). In experiment 1, 42 barrows with an initial body weight (BW) of 21.0 ± 1.37 kg were assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 6 replicate/pigs per treatment in a nitrogen (N) balance study to evaluate the RBV of dl-Met-Met to dl-Met. A basal diet (BD) was formulated to be adequate for all amino acids with the exception of Met + Cys which was 68% of the requirement [4.7 g/kg standardized ileal digestible (SID) Met + Cys; 11.5 g/kg SID Lys] for 20–25 kg pigs. Three graded levels of dl-Met (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g/kg) and dl-Met-Met (0.306, 0.612 and 0.919 g/kg) were supplemented to the BD to create diets 2–7. In experiment 2, a total of 189 weaned pigs (initial BW of 10.2 ± 0.98 kg) were assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 9 replicates/pens of 3 pigs per treatment. The dietary treatments consisted of a Met-deficient BD (5.3 g/kg SID Met + Cys; 13.0 g/kg SID Lys) and the same 3 graded levels of dl-Met and dl-Met-Met as in Exp. 1. In experiment 1, supplementation with dl-Met or dl-Met-Met linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.01; linear) urinary N excretion and increased (P ≤ 0.02; linear) N retained (g/day), N retention (% of intake and % of absorbed). However, there was no effect of Met sources on all N balance parameters. Based on the slope-ratio regression the RBV for dl-Met-Met compared to dl-Met was estimated 111% [95% confidence interval (CI): 63-158%] for N retained (g/d), 109% (95% CI: 57-160%) for N retention (% of intake) and 98% (95% CI: 43–154%) for N retention (% of absorbed) on an equi-molar basis. In experiment 2, the overall average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed ratio (G:F) increased linearly (P < 0.01) by supplementation with dl-Met or dl-Met-Met. The average daily feed intake increased by supplementation with dl-Met (P = 0.02) and dl-Met-Met (P = 0.09). For ADG, the RBV for dl-Met-Met was estimated 104% (95% CI: 66-141%) on an equi-molar basis by the slope-ratio. Based on G:F, the RBV for dl-Met-Met was estimated 117% (95% CI: 61–174%) on an equi-molar basis. The results of both experiments indicate that the bioavailability dl-Met-Met is not different and at least equally bioavailable as dl-Met as a Met source for pigs.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Mid-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for forage feed
           composition prediction
    • Authors: Josiah D. Cleland; Ellie Johnson; Patrick C.H. Morel; Paul R. Kenyon; Mark R. Waterland
      Pages: 102 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): Josiah D. Cleland, Ellie Johnson, Patrick C.H. Morel, Paul R. Kenyon, Mark R. Waterland
      Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, in the Mid-infrared (MIR) region, has been evaluated for the prediction of chemical components in forage feeds using a modified Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) model. Regression regression models have been developed that predict the chemical composition from a MIR spectrum of a given forage feed sample. Data collection was carried out on 140 herbage samples consisting of 84 ryegrass - white clover samples and 56 herb mix samples containing different combinations of chicory, plantain, white clover and red clover. Several spectral data pre-treatments were explored, the best of which combined Standard Normal Variant scaling (SNV) with a first-order Savitzky-Golay (SG) spectral derivative and smoothing filter. Several of the resulting models illustrated high quality predictions (for hemicellulose, 156. 9 g / kg with a standard error of prediction (SEPc) 19.8 g / kg, R2 = 0.92, Relative Performance Deviation (RPD) = 3.54; for neutral detergent fibre, 382.8 g / kg with SEPc = 43.5 g / kg, R2 = 0.86, RPD = 2.60), at least on par with, or superior to, current near-infrared (NIR) methods. The SNV and SG pre-treatment almost completely reduces the contribution of strong water-based signals to the regression model, allowing the possibility of in situ prediction of forage feed composition with minimal sample preparation. ATR-FTIR spectrometers are available in a hand-held form, and the results of this research suggest that in situ forage quality analysis could be performed using MIR reflectance spectroscopy.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.022
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Effect of level of oat hay intake on apparent digestibility, rumen
           fermentation and urinary purine derivatives in Tibetan and fine-wool sheep
           
    • Authors: J.W. Zhou; X.P. Jing; A.A. Degen; H. Liu; Y. Zhang; G. Yang; R.J. Long
      Pages: 112 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): J.W. Zhou, X.P. Jing, A.A. Degen, H. Liu, Y. Zhang, G. Yang, R.J. Long
      Tibetan sheep are indigenous to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and are raised at an altitude between 3000–5000 m. In contrast, the crossbred fine-wool sheep were introduced to the plateau and are raised at an altitude between 2600 to 3500 m. Tibetan sheep graze grassland all year round while fine-wool sheep require feed supplements during the long cold season. Tibetan sheep were able to utilize dietary nutrients more efficiently than fine-wool sheep when offered adequate energy and protein diets. We questioned whether the responses would still favour Tibetan sheep with limited energy and protein intakes, as is often the case on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To answer this query, apparent nutrients digestibilities, rumen fermentation characteristics and urinary purine derivatives (PD) were compared between Tibetan and fine-wool sheep when fed oat hay at below maintenance levels: 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 voluntary intake. Five wethers of each breed of similar age and body weight (BW) were used in two concurrent 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibilities were higher in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep (P < 0.05), but were not affected by the level of oat hay intake (P > 0.10). As feed intake increased, ruminal pH decreased (P < 0.01) and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration increased, both linearly (P < 0.001). Moreover, ruminal total VFA concentration (P < 0.05), ruminal soluble protein nitrogen (N) and saliva urea-N concentrations (P < 0.01) were higher in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep. Urinary total PD and its fractions increased linearly with feeding level (P < 0.01). Estimated microbial N synthesis was greater in Tibetan than fine-wool sheep (P < 0.05) and increased linearly with the level of oat hay intake (P < 0.001). It was concluded that both energy and protein metabolism were used more efficiently in Tibetan than in fine-wool sheep when offered below maintenance intakes, which would allow Tibetan sheep to cope better with the harsh, winter foraging conditions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.023
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Effect of concentrate feeding level on methane emissions, production
           performance and rumen fermentation of Jersey cows grazing ryegrass pasture
           during spring
    • Authors: J.D.V. van Wyngaard; R. Meeske; L.J. Erasmus
      Pages: 121 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): J.D.V. van Wyngaard, R. Meeske, L.J. Erasmus
      Dietary supplementation has been well documented as an effective enteric methane (CH4) mitigation strategy. However, limited studies have demonstrated the effect of concentrate level on enteric CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cows, and to our knowledge none of these studies included a pasture-only diet or reported on rumen fermentation measures. Sixty multiparous (4.0 ± 1.51 SD) Jersey cows, of which six were rumen-cannulated, were used in a randomised complete block design, and the cannulated cows were used in a separate replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, to investigate the effect of concentrate supplementation (0, 4, and 8 kg/cow per day; as fed) on enteric CH4 emissions, milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and rumen fermentation of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass pasture during spring, following a 14-d adaptation period. The sulphur hexafluoride tracer gas technique was used to measure enteric CH4 emissions from 10 cows of each treatment group over a single 9-d measurement period. Parallel with the CH4 measurement period, pasture DMI was determined using TiO2 and indigestible neutral detergent fibre as external and internal markers, respectively, while milk yield, milk composition, cow condition, and pasture pre- and post-grazing measurements were also recorded. Total DMI (13.4 to 18.0 kg/d), milk yield (12.9 to 19.2 kg/d), energy corrected milk (14.6 to 20.7 kg/d), milk lactose content (46.2 to 48.1 g/kg) and gross energy intake (239 to 316 MJ/d) increased, while milk fat content (50.0 to 44.2 g/kg) decreased with increasing concentrate feeding level. Volatile fatty acid concentrations and ruminal pH were mostly unaffected by treatment, while dry matter disappearance decreased and NH3-N concentration increased with increasing concentrate feeding level. Methane production (258 to 302 g/d) and CH4 yield (20.6 to 16.9 g/kg of DMI) were similar for all cows, while pasture DMI (13.4 to 10.8 kg/d) and CH4 intensity (20.4 to 15.9 g of CH4/kg of milk yield) decreased linearly with increasing concentrate feeding level. Results indicate that concentrate supplementation on high quality pasture-only diets have the potential to effectively reduce CH4 emissions per unit of milk yield from grazing cows during spring.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.025
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Porcine in vitro degradation and fermentation characteristics of canola
           co-products without or with fiber-degrading enzymes
    • Authors: J.W. Lee; R. Patterson; T.A. Woyengo
      Pages: 133 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): J.W. Lee, R. Patterson, T.A. Woyengo
      An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing solvent-extracted canola meal (SECM) and cold-pressed canola cake (CPCC) with fiber-degrading enzymes (multi-enzyme) on porcine in vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics. Canola co-products without or with multi-enzyme (Superzyme-CS, Canadian Bio-Systems Inc., Calgary, AB, Canada) that supplied 24,000 U of xylanase, 3000 U of glucanase, 10,000 U of cellulase, 1200 U of mannanase, 14,000 U of invertase, 10,000 U of protease, 24,000 U of amylase and 8,500 U of pectinase/l of incubation medium were digested using porcine pepsin and pancreatin. Undigested residue was subjected to in vitro fermentation for 72 h. Accumulated gas production during microbial fermentation was recorded and modeled to estimate kinetics of gas production. Total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration per unit weight of DM of enzymatically unhydrolyzed residue incubated, and per unit weight of DM feedstuff that was enzymatically hydrolyzed and then fermented was also measured. On a DM basis, CPCC and SECM contained 318 and 451 g/kg CP, respectively. The in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDDM) for CPCC was greater (P < 0.05) than that for SECM (0.635 vs. 0.584, respectively). Multi-enzyme supplementation tended to improve (P = 0.060) the IVDDM regardless of canola co-product type. Total gas production for CPCC was less (P<0.05) than that for SECM (89.3 vs. 106.0 ml/g, respectively). Multi-enzyme reduced (P < 0.05) total gas production for CPCC and SECM. Total VFA production for CPCC was lower (P < 0.05) than that for SECM (2.89 vs. 4.43 mmol/g DM of enzymatically unhydrolyzed residue, respectively). Total VFA production for CPCC was also lower (P < 0.05) than that for SECM (1.07 vs. 1.82 mmol/g DM of feedstuff, respectively). Multi-enzyme did not affect total VFA concentration per unit weight of enzymatically unhydrolyzed for canola co-products but tended to reduce (P = 0.058) total VFA production per unit weight of feedstuff. In conclusion, CPCC was more digestible but less fermentable than SECM. Multi-enzyme supplementation improved the IVDDM and reduced total gas and VFA production for CPCC and SECM. Thus, multi-enzyme shifted the digestibility of CPCC and SECM from microbial fermentation towards enzymatic digestion, implying that the multi-enzyme improved efficiency of utilization of nutrients in the two canola co-products.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Effect of canola meal inclusion as a major protein source in gestation and
           lactation sow diets with or without enzymes on reproductive performance,
           milk composition, fecal bacterial profile and nutrient digestibility
    • Authors: D.E. Velayudhan; M.M. Hossain; A. Regassa; C.M. Nyachoti
      Pages: 141 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): D.E. Velayudhan, M.M. Hossain, A. Regassa, C.M. Nyachoti
      The aim was to determine the effects of high canola meal (CM) inclusion in gestation and lactation diets on reproductive performance, milk composition, fecal bacterial profile and nutrient and energy digestibility of sows. Forty-five sows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments consisting of a corn-soybean meal control diet, control diet containing 300 g/kg solvent-extracted CM with or without multi-enzyme complex (MC). Sows were individually housed and offered the experimental diets from day 60 of gestation until weaning on day 21. Sows were weighed and backfat thickness measured on days 60 and 111 of gestation, and on days 0 and 21 post-farrowing. Litters were weighed on days 0 and 21. Weaning to estrus interval in sows was recorded. Blood and milk samples were collected 2 h post-feeding from sows on days 0 and 21 to determine the plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) content and milk composition. Fecal samples were collected from sows during lactation to determine energy and nutrient digestibility, and during gestation and lactation to determine the fecal bacterial profile. There were no dietary effects on lactation feed intake, sow backfat loss, weaning to estrus interval and milk fat, protein and lactose composition, and suckling piglet performance except for sow body weight (BW) loss during lactation, wherein sows fed CM-containing diets with MC had lower (P < 0.05) BW loss than those fed the control diet. Sows fed diets containing CM (with and without MC) had lower (P < 0.05) PUN values compared with those fed the control diet on day 21 post-farrowing. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients showed no dietary effect except for ATTD of phosphorus (P), wherein sows fed CM-containing diets with MC showed higher (P < 0.05) P digestibility compared to those fed CM-containing diets without MC. Sows fed CM-containing diets with or without MC had greater (P < 0.05) abundances of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus and lower (P < 0.05) abundances of Firmicutes when compared to those fed the control diet on day 90 of gestation. In conclusion, inclusion of up to 300 g/kg CM in gestation and lactation diet can support satisfactory sow and suckling piglet performance without affecting energy and nutrient digestibility, along with an increase in the abundance of gut lactic acid bacteria in sows. Moreover, enzyme supplementation reduced the sow BW loss and improved P digestibility in CM diets.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Effects of dietary biofloc on growth, digestibility, protein turnover and
           energy budget of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)
    • Authors: Jinghua Chen; Peng Liu; Yuquan Li; Min Li; Bin Xia
      Pages: 151 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): Jinghua Chen, Peng Liu, Yuquan Li, Min Li, Bin Xia
      Bioflocs are not only rich in various bioactive compounds but also proven to be sustainable protein sources of aquafeed. A 60-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and capacity of dietary replacement of macroalgae Sargassum thunbergii with biofloc meal as an ingredient in the diet of Apostichopus japonicus. During the experiment, the sea cucumbers of initial wet weight ∼25.18 g were fed seven diets contained graded biofloc levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 45% and 60% (referred as group B0, B5, B10, B20, B30, B45 and B60, respectively) in a recirculating aquaculture system. Each group contained 150 sea cucumbers that were equally allocated into 3 cylinder aquaria. The results showed that dietary supplementation levels of 20% and 30% biofloc significantly enhanced specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of sea cucumber. Based on the second-order polynomial regression models of SGR and FCE, it was concluded that 27.74−30.75% were optimal dietary replacement levels of biofloc. Apparent digestibility coefficients and digestive enzyme activities all showed remarkable trends of the first increase and then decrease as dietary biofloc level increased with relatively higher values in diet B30, which might have stimulated the digestion and absorption of nutrients to maintain faster growth of sea cucumber. There were significant differences in parameters estimated by time-based turnover model of δ 15 N between the experimental diets, and the sea cucumbers in diets B30 and B45 exhibited faster nitrogen turnover rates. The average formula of energy allocation was 100C = 3.8G + 65.4F + 3.3U + 27.5R in the present study. The fluctuation in energy for growth and metabolism suggested that dietary biofloc modified their energy allocation strategy by balancing the energy accumulation of growth and energy consumption of feces, excretion and respiration. In conclusion, ca. 30% replacement of S. thunbergii with biofloc powder could improve growth performance of A. japonicus, by enhancing feeding utilization and digestibility, accelerating protein turnover and optimizing energy budget of sea cucumber.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Effects of dairy cow diets supplied with flaxseed oil and propolis
           extract, with or without vitamin E, on the ruminal microbiota,
           biohydrogenation, and digestion
    • Authors: E.H. Yoshimura; N.W. Santos; E. Machado; B.C. Agustinho; L.M. Pereira; S.C. de Aguiar; R. Franzolin; E. Gasparino; G.T. dos Santos; L.M. Zeoula
      Pages: 163 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): E.H. Yoshimura, N.W. Santos, E. Machado, B.C. Agustinho, L.M. Pereira, S.C. de Aguiar, R. Franzolin, E. Gasparino, G.T. dos Santos, L.M. Zeoula
      The effects of supplying diets with flaxseed oil and a propolis-based product, with or without vitamin E, on dry matter intake, ruminal and total digestibility, ruminal parameters, biohydrogenation, and bacterial and protozoal populations in dairy cows were evaluated. Four Holstein cows, with a mean weight of 584 ± 52 kg and 90 ± 39 days in milk, were randomly assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square. Diets were composed of 600 g/kg of dry matter (DM) as roughage and 400 g/kg of concentrate for the following diets: control diet; diet with 25 g flaxseed oil/kg DM (FO); diet with flaxseed oil, 1.2 g propolis-based product/kg DM (PBP); diet with flaxseed oil, PBP, and 375 IU vitamin E/kg DM. The flaxseed oil diet tended to reduce populations of Entodinium and total protozoa (P = 0.09) and significantly increased Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (P = 0.008) count. However, Anaerovibrio lipolytica (P < 0.001) and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium counts (P = 0.013) were significantly reduced with the flaxseed oil diet. The PBP diet, with or without vitamin E, tended to enhance Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (P = 0.09) count. The flaxseed oil diet tended to decrease the intake of organic matter (P = 0.09) and total carbohydrates (P = 0.05). Ruminal and total digestibility of crude protein and ether extract were higher with flaxseed oil. The PBP did not influence omasal nutrient flow, digestibility, short-chain fatty acid concentrations, pH, and ammonia in the rumen. Flaxseed oil addition in diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) the production of fatty acid (FA) cis3-18:3 and CLA cis9,trans11-18:2 in milk, and tended (P < 0.10) to increase FA 18:0 and cis9-18:1. PBP in diet significantly increased (P < 0.05) the production of CLA cis9,trans11-18:2 in milk. Among the ingredients added to the diets, flaxseed oil had the greatest effect on the parameters evaluated, and both PBP and PBP-E diets did not interfere with flaxseed oil activity in the rumen.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.024
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Inclusion of poultry by-product meal in the diet of Sparidentex hasta:
           Effects on production performance, digestibility and nutrient retention
    • Authors: Fatemeh Hekmatpour; Preeta Kochanian; Jasem Gh. Marammazi; Mohammad Zakeri; Seyed-Mohammad Mousavi
      Pages: 173 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): Fatemeh Hekmatpour, Preeta Kochanian, Jasem Gh. Marammazi, Mohammad Zakeri, Seyed-Mohammad Mousavi
      A 60-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of fish meal (FM) with poultry by-product meal (PBM) on growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile sobaity sea bream (Sparidentex hasta). PBM replaced 0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55% of dietary FM in the isoproteic (500 g kg−1) and isocaloric (21 kj g−1) experimental diets. Sobaity sea bream with an average initial weight of 29.27 ± 0.06 g were randomly assigned to 18 tanks (6 treatments with triplicates each) at an initial stocking density of 20 fish per tank. The final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency were higher in fish fed PBM15, 25 and 35 diets than in fish fed the control, PBM45 and 55 diets. Feed conversion ratio, nitrogen and phosphorus wastage did not show significant differences in PBM0, 35, 45 and 55. Increased retention of arginine, lysine, methionine, histidine and taurine was observed at lower dietary content of the respective amino acids. The morphometric indices, body proximate composition and amino acid profile were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, lipid and calcium in fish fed PBM diet did not show significant differences with PBM0. Protein ADC was significantly decreased with increased PBM level from 35%. Our results indicated that using fish meal and PBM in combination lead to improved growth and feed utilization of sobaity sea bream when compared to treatments using FM alone as the dietary protein source. Fish meal protein could be replaced up to 55% by PBM in the formulated diets of S. hasta juveniles without any negative effects on growth performance, feed utilization and whole body amino acid profile.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • The effects of rumen nitrogen balance on in vitro rumen fermentation and
           microbial protein synthesis vary with dietary carbohydrate and nitrogen
           sources
    • Authors: D. Kand; I. Bagus Raharjo; J. Castro-Montoya; U. Dickhoefer
      Pages: 184 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): D. Kand, I. Bagus Raharjo, J. Castro-Montoya, U. Dickhoefer
      The objectives were to understand the effects of different levels of rumen nitrogen balance (RNB) on carbohydrate (CHO) fermentation, protein degradation, and microbial crude protein synthesis and to determine whether these effects differ depending on the dietary CHO or nitrogen (N) sources. Three RNB levels RNB0 (i.e., RNB ∼ 0 g/kg dry matter), RNB-5 (i.e., RNB ∼ −5 g/kg dry matter), and RNB-9 (i.e., RNB ∼ −9 g/kg dry matter) were tested in two in vitro experiments. Three CHO sources (i.e., sucrose, corn starch, and cellulose) were incubated with urea as main source of N in experiment 1, whereas experiment 2 tested three N sources (i.e., wheat gluten, soy protein, and casein) with corn starch as main source of CHO. During three runs, 1 g each (as-fed basis) of grass hay and a mixture with different proportions of the N and CHO sources were incubated in duplicate in buffered rumen fluid for 24 h. Cumulative gas production was higher for RNB-9 than for RNB0 for all diets (P < 0.01; except sucrose), likely due to higher proportions of CHO in the diets. Yet, total SCFA concentrations in inoculum only increased with declining RNB for soy protein and casein (P ≤ 0.02), and there were no differences in proportions of acetate (P ≥ 0.31), butyrate (P ≥ 0.31), and propionate (P ≥ 0.33). Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations in inoculum decreased with declining RNB for all diets (P < 0.01), with greater differences in wheat gluten and soy protein than in casein diets. Proportions of branched-chain fatty acids increased in experiment 1 (P ≤ 0.03; except cellulose) and decreased from RNB0 to RNB-9 in experiment 2 (except wheat gluten; P < 0.01). Additionally, microbial crude protein synthesis was lower for RNB-9 than RNB0 in experiment 2 (P < 0.01; except casein), with no or only minor RNB effects observed in experiment 1. In conclusion, decreasing RNB has only minor effects on in vitro CHO fermentation. However, feed protein degradation and microbial crude protein synthesis decrease with declining RNB, with less pronounced effects in slowly degradable CHO and rapidly degradable N sources.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Effect of ensiling gliricidia with cassava on silage quality, growth
           performance, digestibility, ingestive behavior and carcass traits in lambs
           
    • Authors: A.P.D. Oliveira; A.R. Bagaldo; D.R.S. Loures; L.R. Bezerra; S.A. Moraes; S.M. Yamamoto; F.L. Araújo; L.G. Cirne; R.L. Oliveira
      Pages: 198 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 241
      Author(s): A.P.D. Oliveira, A.R. Bagaldo, D.R.S. Loures, L.R. Bezerra, S.A. Moraes, S.M. Yamamoto, F.L. Araújo, L.G. Cirne, R.L. Oliveira
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ensiling gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq.) with cassava on silage quality as well as the growth performance, digestibility, ingestive behavior and carcass traits in lambs. Gliricidia was ensiled with cassava leaves at varying proportions of inclusion (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg) for 75 days and fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) at 700 g/kg, while a concentrate mixture was fed at 300 g/kg to 32 castrated Santa Ines crossbred lambs with an average weight of 18.9 ± 2.0 kg. The pH, N-NH3, density, butyric and acetic acid contents and dry matter losses (DML) of the gliricidia silages decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with cassava inclusion, but there was a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the contents of dry matter (DM), non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), total carbohydrates (TC), and lactic and propionic acids. Including cassava leaves in the gliricidia silage increased (P < 0.05) the intake (g/d) of DM, CP, EE, NDFap and NDFap (%BW) by the lambs, but there was no effect on the digestibility of DM, CP, EE, and NDFap or the time spent feeding, ruminating, idling and chewing. There was a slight tendency toward a quadratic increase in the NFC digestibility coefficient (P = 0.084). The inclusion of cassava leaves in the gliricidia silage linearly increased (P < 0.05) the final weight, total weight gain, average daily gain, and hot and cold carcass weights of the lambs, but there was no influence on the carcass traits (P > 0.05). However, the weights of the commercial cuts and non-carcass components linearly increased (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of 600 g/kg of cassava in the gliricidia silage. Therefore, it is recommended to combine gliricidia with 600 g/kg of cassava leaves to improve the fermentation pattern and chemical composition of gliricidia-cassava silage, and offering the silage in lamb diets increases the nutrient intake, performance, morphometric measurements and carcass and non-carcass components as well as the yields of both prime commercial cuts, such as the loin and ham, and typical foods, such as sheep "buchada".

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 241 (2018)
       
  • Use of protected zinc oxide in lower doses in weaned pigs in substitution
           for the conventional high dose zinc oxide
    • Authors: Santi Devi Upadhaya; Young Min Kim; Kwang Young Lee; In Ho Kim
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): Santi Devi Upadhaya, Young Min Kim, Kwang Young Lee, In Ho Kim
      This study tested the hypothesis that protected zinc oxide (ZnO) in lower doses can substitute the high dose conventional ZnO in weaned pigs for improved growth performance and alleviation of digestive disorders. A total of 150 crossbred weaning pigs (28 days old) with an average body weight (BW) of 6.48 ± 1.58 kg were blocked and stratified based on sex and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments [5 pigs per pen (2 barrows and 3 gilts); 5 pens per treatment] for a 6-wk trial in two phases. Treatments consisted of basal diet (NC); Basal diet without Zn in mineral premix with either 2500 ppm unprotected ZnO (PC) or 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm protected ZnO (PZ1, PZ2, PZ3 and PZ4 respectively). As a result of this experiment, the growth performance in pigs fed protected ZnO diets was comparable with PC diet during phase 1 and 2, except for G/F ratio in phase 1. There were cubic effects (P < 0.05) of protected ZnO dose on average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) during phase 2. The coefficient of apparent total tract (CAATD) nutrient digestibility in pigs fed protected ZnO diets was comparable with PC diet. The concentration of Zn in the serum of pigs fed PC diet was higher (P < 0.05) than protected ZnO diets during wk 1, 3 and 6. The faecal Zn concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed PC diets compared to NC and PZ diets during wk 1, 3 and 6. A linear response of protected ZnO dose was observed on faecal Zn concentration. The E.coli and Clostridium spp counts were lower (P < 0.05) in the digesta from colon of pigs fed PC diet than protected ZnO diets during wk 3. Quadratic and cubic effects (P < 0.05) of protected ZnO dose were observed on E.coli counts in the digesta of ileum and colon of pigs. Linear effects (P < 0.05) of protected ZnO dose were observed on Lactobacillus and Clostridium counts on the digesta of ileum and colon respectively. The faecal E.coli counts were greater in protected ZnO than in conventional ZnO during wk 1 and 3. The faecal Lactobacillus counts were greater (P < 0.05) and Salmonella counts were lower (P < 0.05) in PZ1 and PZ2 diets than PC diets during wk 6. Linear and quadratic effects (P < 0.05) of protected ZnO dose on E.coli counts during wk 3 and linear effects on Lactobacillus and Salmonella counts during wk 6 were observed. In conclusion, a lower dose of protected ZnO could replace the higher dose of conventional ZnO because it has comparable or better effects than conventional ZnO in a higher dose.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Size distribution analysis of wheat, maize and soybeans and energy
           efficiency using different methods for coarse grinding
    • Authors: M. Thomas; W.H. Hendriks; A.F.B van der Poel
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): M. Thomas, W.H. Hendriks, A.F.B van der Poel
      This research investigated three grinding technologies to reduce the size of maize, wheat and full fat soybeans to a course particle. To correct for the different mechanisms of particle size reduction between the different mills, the relationship between specific mechanical energy (SME) and its resulting mean particle size was expressed per ton of ground product. Analysis of co-variance was used to estimate differences between the treatment means after correction for energy consumption. Experimental results, obtained under pilot scale grinding tests, showed that type and conditions used for the three mill types affected size reduction ratios for maize, soybeans and wheat. The RR of particles was smallest for the roller mill and multicracker device and largest for the hammer mill for all feed materials studied and varied between 1.60 (roller mill, wheat) and 5.95 (hammer mill, maize). The mean particle size was smallest when grinding using a hammer mill with a 5 mm screen. The efficiency of energy use was calculated as effective SME (kJ/kg). Total energy use was shown to be the highest for the hammer mill. Soybeans required the largest amount of energy for grinding, with maize the smallest. The constant for Kick’s law (Ck values, kJ/kg) per grinding device was calculated to relate particle sizes and energy demand: both roller mill and multicracker device showed lower Ck values, indicating a better grinding efficiency of these devices. For coarse grinding, the roller mill was shown to be the most energy efficient device followed by the multicracker device and the hammer mill was the least efficient. For feed manufacturers it is important to use/combine these devices to ensure an efficient milling operation and to match the grinding device with its specific grinding objective (fine, coarse or with a specific particle size distribution). Tasks are different per animal species and were discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Responses in digestibilities of macro-minerals, trace minerals and amino
           acids generated by exogenous phytase and xylanase in canola meal diets
           offered to broiler chickens
    • Authors: Amy F. Moss; Peter V. Chrystal; Yueming Dersjant-Li; Peter H. Selle; Sonia Yun Liu
      Pages: 22 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): Amy F. Moss, Peter V. Chrystal, Yueming Dersjant-Li, Peter H. Selle, Sonia Yun Liu
      Atypical diets based on canola meal (584 g/kg) and dextrose, supplemented with phytase and xylanase individually and in combination, were offered to 120 male Ross 308 broiler chicks with six replicates for each of the four treatments. The objective was to determine the effects of phytase and xylanase on the apparent digestibility coefficients of macro-minerals, trace minerals and amino acids along the small intestine of broiler chickens. The combination increased phosphorus digestibility by a two-fold factor (0.694 versus 0.324), calcium digestibility by a three-fold factor (0.527 versus 0.178), increased zinc from -0.141 to 0.324 and increased sodium digestibility coefficients from -1.402 to -0.359 in comparison to the control diet. Similarly, phytase and xylanase in tandem generated better responses in the apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids. The enzyme combination significantly increased the digestibility of nine essential amino acids by from 5.47% (methionine) to 35.4% (threonine), and seven non-essential amino acids by from 13.9% (glutamic acid) to 32.9% (proline). The better responses in apparent ileal digestibilities of phosphorus, calcium, sodium, zinc and five other trace minerals in broiler chickens offered the combination diet was confounded by its higher enzyme recovery activities in comparison to the individual supplemented diets and the study may suggest that the inclusions of phytase and xylanase in tandem should be considered in diets containing canola meal for broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Digestible energy of sorghum grain for pigs could be predicted using a
           computer-controlled simulated digestion system
    • Authors: L. Pan; X.S. Piao; Y. Wu; H. Ma; X.K. Ma; Q.H. Shan; L. Liu; D.F. Li
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): L. Pan, X.S. Piao, Y. Wu, H. Ma, X.K. Ma, Q.H. Shan, L. Liu, D.F. Li
      Prediction equations for digestible energy (DE) of sorghum grains fed to pigs have been generated based on chemical composition in our study. However, an in vitro method mimicking gastrointestinal digestion of pigs is more applicable to predict DE of feed ingredients in practice. This study evaluated in vitro DE (IVDE) and digestibility of gross energy (GE) in 28 samples of sorghum grain with a wide range in nutrient profiles using a 3-step computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) and generated prediction equations based on IVDE and in vitro GE disappearance (IVGED) for previously determined DE and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE. The IVDE (3305–4068 kcal/kg), IVDE/GE (0.72–0.91), IVGED (0.72–0.90), and in vitro dry matter (DM) disappearance (0.73–0.89; IVDMD) were quite variable and had a high negative correlation with tannin content in sorghum grain (r ≤ −0.90, P < 0.01). The IVDE or IVDE/GE was highly positively correlated with determined DE or DE/GE (r = 0.97 or 0.96, both P < 0.01), and linear relationship between DE and IVDE (kcal/kg of DM) or between DE/GE and IVDE/GE was observed in 28 sorghum cultivars: DE = 0.62 × IVDE + 1462 (R 2 = 0.93, RMSE  = 40.9 kcal/kg, P < 0.001), or DE/GE = 0.626 × IVDE/GE + 0.331 (R 2 = 0.92, RMSE = 0.01, P < 0.001). Differences of less than 50 kcal/kg or 0.02 were observed in 23 or 24 of the 28 samples between determined and predicted DE or DE/GE. Similarly, the positive relationship between ATTD of GE or DM and IVGED or IVDMD was high (r = 0.95 and 0.93, respectively, both P < 0.01), and the prediction equations based on in vitro values were 0.595 × IVGED + 0.351 (R 2 = 0.90, RMSE = 0.01, P < 0.001) for ATTD of GE and 0.644 × IVDMD + 0.327 (R 2 = 0.87, RMSE = 0.01, P < 0.001) for ATTD of DM. Differences between determined and predicted values were smaller than 0.02 in 25 or 24 out of the 28 samples for ATTD of GE or DM. In conclusion, tannin negatively affects the in vitro enzyme digestion of energy content in sorghum grain. The 3-step enzymatic method using CCSDS could be a promising in vitro digestibility technique to predict DE and digestibility of GE in sorghum gain for pigs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Acremonium terricola culture on performance, milk composition,
           rumen fermentation and immune functions in dairy cows
    • Authors: Yang Li; Yu-Kun Sun; Xin Li; Guang-Ning Zhang; Hang-Shu Xin; Hong-Jian Xu; Li-Yang Zhang; Xiao-Xiang Li; Yong-Gen Zhang
      Pages: 40 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): Yang Li, Yu-Kun Sun, Xin Li, Guang-Ning Zhang, Hang-Shu Xin, Hong-Jian Xu, Li-Yang Zhang, Xiao-Xiang Li, Yong-Gen Zhang
      The effects of Acremonium terricola culture (ATC) on performance, rumen fermentation and microbiota, and antioxidant and immune functions in dairy cows were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were blocked for day in milk, somatic cell counts and milk production and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in an 8-week trial: a basal diet plus 0, 15 or 30 g/d ATC. The result of supplementing dairy cows with ATC was a linear increase in the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber, milk production, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, feed efficiency, milk fat and lactose yields, and milk fat percentage, but a linear decrease in the milk somatic cell count. In Experiment 2, five late-lactating dairy cows were fed the basal diet from d 1 to 14 (pre-trial period). From d 15 to 35 (trial period), the same cows were fed 30 g/d ATC. Supplementation with ATC was stopped from d 36 to 42 (post-trial period). Feed, rumen and blood samples were collected on d 13, 14, 34, 35, 41 and 42. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, the ruminal pH and molar proportion of butyrate decreased during the trial period. Additionally, the ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acid concentrations as well as the molar proportion of acetate were increased. For most of the rumen bacteria that were measured, the relative expression level increased during the trial period, but that of Fibrobacter succinogenes decreased. Moreover, ATC significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity as well as the activities of glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase during the trial period. The concentrations of blood glucose and immunoglobulins A, M, and G also increased in the plasma. By contrast, ATC resulted in a significant reduction in the plasma concentrations of aspartate transaminase, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and malondialdehyde. These results show that feeding ATC can increase performance, improve rumen fermentation, and increase antioxidant and immune functions in dairy cows, when fed up to 30 g/d.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Mycotoxin binder increases growth performance, nutrient digestibility and
           digestive health of finisher pigs offered wheat based diets grown under
           different agronomical conditions
    • Authors: L.C. Clarke; T. Sweeney; E. Curley; S.K. Duffy; S. Vigors; G. Rajauria; J.V. O’Doherty
      Pages: 52 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): L.C. Clarke, T. Sweeney, E. Curley, S.K. Duffy, S. Vigors, G. Rajauria, J.V. O’Doherty
      The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a wheat-based diet, exhibiting different levels of mycotoxin contamination and the presence of a mycotoxin binder on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and digestive health in finisher pigs. Sixty-four pigs (38.7 kg (SD 3.48 kg)) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments: (T1) low quality wheat diet, (T2) low quality wheat diet containing 2 g/kg of a mycotoxin binder, (T3) high quality wheat diet, (T4) high quality wheat diet containing 2 g/kg of a mycotoxin binder. The inclusion of wheat was 500 g/kg. The mycotoxin binder used was a Hydrated Sodium-Calcium-Aluminum-Silicate, which also included calcium propionate and calcium formate. The low quality wheat grain had a higher level of zearalenone (233.02 vs. 33.36 μg/kg), aflatoxin (4.08 vs. 2.94 μg/kg) and ochratoxin (28.20 vs. 4.23 μg/kg). Pigs offered the low quality wheat diet had a lower average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0.001) and had a reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) (P < 0.05) of nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) compared with pigs offered the high quality wheat diets. The inclusion of a mycotoxin binder improved ADG and ADFI (P < 0.05) and also increased the CATTD of N and GE compared to diets without a mycotoxin binder. Pigs offered the low quality wheat diets had increased (P < 0.05) expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the duodenum and colon and of claudin 2 (CLDN2) (P < 0.001) in the duodenum, compared to pigs offered the high quality wheat diets. Pigs offered diets containing a mycotoxin binder had increased expression of ghrelin (GHRL) (P < 0.05) in the duodenum compared to pigs offered diets without a mycotoxin binder. There was a wheat × mycotoxin binder interaction on the expression of peptide transporter 1 gene (SLC15A1/PEPT1) and sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 gene (SLC5A1/SGLT1) (P < 0.05) in the duodenum. Pigs offered the low quality wheat with a mycotoxin binder had lower expression of SLC15A1/PEPT1 and SLC5A1/SGLT1 expression compared to the low quality wheat diet only. However, there was no response to mycotoxin binder supplementation with the high quality wheat diet. In conclusion, the low quality wheat reduced ADG, ADFI, nutrient digestibility and modified the gene expression of genes involved in intestinal nutrient transport and inflammation. The supplementation of a mycotoxin binder improved ADG, ADFI, nutrient digestibility and also improved digestive health through increases in nutrient transporter and tight junction gene expression.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Yellow-seeded B. napus and B. juncea canola. Part 1. Nutritive value of
           the meal for broiler chickens
    • Authors: M. Rad-Spice; A. Rogiewicz; J. Jankowski; B.A. Slominski
      Pages: 66 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): M. Rad-Spice, A. Rogiewicz, J. Jankowski, B.A. Slominski
      Breeding attempts to increase the oil in the seed and to reduce the fibre content in the meal have led to the development of yellow-seeded B. napus canola and canola-quality B. juncea. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the chemical and nutritive composition of meals derived from yellow-seeded B. napus and B. juncea canola in comparison with the meal from conventional black-seeded B. napus canola. Apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn) and standardised ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of the three canola meals (CM) were determined with broiler chickens of 14 to 19 d of age (AMEn assay), or 14 to 21 d of age (SIAAD assay) using 6 cages of 6 birds each per treatment. The nutritive value of CM was further validated in a 35-day performance study using 7 cages of 50 broiler chickens per treatment, including a control group without CM. Birds were fed wheat/maize/soybean meal-based diets containing 150 g/kg of canola meals in the starter (1–10 d), grower (11–24 d), and finisher (25–36 d) phases of the experiment. In comparison with the conventional meal, these from yellow-seeded B. napus and B. juncea contained, on dry matter (DM) basis, more crude protein (434 and 472 vs. 411 g/kg), more sucrose (101 and 80 vs. 66 g/kg), and less total dietary fibre (298 and 289 vs. 350 g/kg), respectively. The highest content of all essential amino acids (except cysteine) was observed in B. juncea meal. The AMEn and mean SIAAD coefficients for yellow-seeded B. napus, B. juncea canola, and the conventional black-seeded B. napus were 7.80, 8.75 and 7.96 MJ/kg DM, and 0.83, 0.83, and 0.82, respectively. In the growth performance study, body weight gain (BWG) was significantly lower for the yellow-seed B. napus meal as compared with the Control and the black-seed B. napus and B. juncea meals (2.19, 2.32, 2.30, and 2.31 kg/bird, respectively). No significant difference in feed conversion ratio (FCR) between the Control and diets containing the three CM were observed indicating that all types of CM could be used effectively and replace soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chicken rations, providing that the diets are formulated based on digestible amino acids and available energy contents.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Extruded fish feed with high residual phytase activity and low mineral
           leaching increased P. mesopotamicus mineral retention
    • Authors: Raúl E. Cian; Carla Bacchetta; Jimena Cazenave; Silvina R. Drago
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): Raúl E. Cian, Carla Bacchetta, Jimena Cazenave, Silvina R. Drago
      This study attempts to provide valuable information about optimization of extrusion process in order to have a fish feed with maximum residual phytase activity, minimum mineral leaching and good mechanical characteristics. Also, the effects on mineral retention of extruded feed obtained in optimal condition, using a juvenile Piaractus mesopotamicus model was determined. In order to study the simultaneous effect of blend moisture (M) and extrusion temperature (T) on specific volume (SV), water resistance (WR), floatability (F), residual phytase activity (RPA), leached phosphorus (LP), calcium (LCa), zinc (LZn), and iron (LFe) a central composite design (32) was used. The levels of each variable were: T: 160–180–200 °C and M: 140–160–180 g/kg. A multiple response optimization of physicochemical properties of extruded feed (WR, F, RPA and mineral leaching) was performed using the Derringer’s desirability function. The global desirability function value was 0.8990, and the obtained optimal conditions were 183.6 °C and 158 g/kg of moisture content. Phytase extruded feed (PEF) was obtained at such conditions and it had the following physical properties: WR: 81.8 ± 2.5%, F: 94.5 ± 0.72%, LP: 9.40 ± 0.61%, LCa: 2.20 ± 0.2%, LZn: 2.00 ± 0.15%, and LFe: 11.2 ± 2.8%. Fish consuming PEF with RPA of 3934.9 ± 47.7 UP/kg had higher iron, zinc, and phosphorus retention than those fed with control extruded feed (CEF) obtained under the same optimal conditions (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference in final body weight was detected between dietary treatments (p > 0.05) after 38 days of feeding trial at 25 °C. Extrusion process can be optimized to obtain fish feed based on vegetable meals with high residual phytase activity and low mineral leaching, increasing P. mesopotamicus mineral retention.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Biodegradation characteristics and nutrient availability of newly
           developed carinata seeds in comparison with canola seeds in dairy cattle
    • Authors: Yajing Ban; Luciana L. Prates; Peiqiang Yu
      Pages: 88 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): Yajing Ban, Luciana L. Prates, Peiqiang Yu
      This study aimed to investigate physiochemical and nutritional characteristics of newly developed yellow and brown carinata seeds in comparison with newly developed yellow and brown canola seeds provided by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (Saskatchewan, Canada), and commercial canola seeds (COMM) accounting 4 new lines and 1 commercial line. Each line obtained from two different sources was used to determine dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), NDF, ADF and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). The CNCPS was used to predict rumen degraded and undegraded organic matter (OM), CP and NDF, the in situ degradation and intestinal digestibility of the nutrients were determined in order to establish the nutritional values of carinata and canola seeds for dairy cattle. The results showed that CP and NPN contents were greater (P < 0.05), while EE, NDF, ADF and ADL were lower (P < 0.05) for carinata than canola seeds. Total glucosinolates were greater (P < 0.01) in carinata than canola seeds. The digestible energy at a production level (DEp3x) and metabolizable energy at a production level (MEp3x) were lower (P < 0.05) for carinata than canola seeds. Carinata showed greatest rumen undegraded protein (RUP) and effective degradability (ED) of OM and CP. Considering seed coat color, yellow carinata seed had higher EDCP (232 g/kg DM) than brown carinata (191 g/kg DM). Higher truly absorbed rumen-synthesised microbial protein in small intestine (AMCP) was obtained for carinata seeds, while truly absorbed rumen-undegraded feed protein in small intestine (ARUP) was similar between carinata and canola seeds, but lower for commercial canola. Metabolizable protein (MP) was greater for carinata (137 g/kg DM) than canola (125 g/kg DM) and commercial (116 g/kg DM) regardless seed coat color. Carinata seeds showed higher feed milk value (FMV) (2.8 kg milk/kg feed) than canola (new and commercial) seeds. There was no effect of seed coat color (P > 0.05) on ARUP, MP and FMV, but yellow seed showed greater EE content than brown seeds (P = 0.20). In conclusion, newly developed carinata seeds showed higher CP and glucosinolates, but lower EE and fibre contents comparing to canola (new and commercial) seeds. Carinata seeds could be considered as a ruminant feed due to higher CP, energy, digested protein supply, AMCP, MP and FMV.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Yellow-seeded B. napus and B. juncea canola. Part 2. Nutritive value of
           the meal for turkeys
    • Authors: K. Kozlowski; D. Mikulski; A. Rogiewicz; Z. Zdunczyk; M. Rad-Spice; H. Jeroch; J. Jankowski; B.A. Slominski
      Pages: 102 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): K. Kozlowski, D. Mikulski, A. Rogiewicz, Z. Zdunczyk, M. Rad-Spice, H. Jeroch, J. Jankowski, B.A. Slominski
      For the effective utilization of meals derived from the newly developed yellow-seeded canola varieties in turkeys’ diets, it is critical to determine their nutritive value and their impact on growth and digestive physiological responses and the potential benefit of enzyme supplementation. Thus, the standardised ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn ) content of B. napus yellow, B. juncea yellow and B. napus black canola meal (CM) and the effect of feeding 200 g/kg of the meals on growth performance and gut physiological responses with or without a multi-carbohydrase enzyme we determined. For the SIAAD assay, semi-purified diets containing the CM types were fed to turkeys of 21–28 d of age. For the AMEn assay, diets containing 300 g/kg of the CM types without or with a multi-carbohydrase enzyme were fed to turkeys of 35–40 d of age. The growth performance study was a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement to evaluate the effects of feeding 200 g/kg of the CM types (i.e., Control, B. napus black from Canada and Poland, B. napus yellow, and B. juncea yellow) without or with enzyme on growth performance and gut physiological responses of turkeys. There were no differences among CM types in the SIAAD coefficients and AMEn content. Standardised ileal digestible amino acids contents were higher in B. juncea meal (28.3, 15.5 and 14.6 g/kg for arginine, lysine, and threonine, respectively) compared to B. napus yellow (23.7, 18.5, and 14.6 g/kg) and B. napus black (21.5, 17.5, and 13.3 g/kg) meals. The AMEn contents of B. juncea, B. napus yellow, and conventional B. napus black were 9.51, 9.28, and 8.97 MJ/kg, respectively. In the growth performance study, feed intake and body weight gain did not differ among treatments. However, during the starter phase, there was an effect of diet on the feed conversion ratio with B. napus black (Canada and Poland) having the highest. Feed conversion was improved by enzyme supplementation. There was a significant effect of enzyme supplementation on the content of short chain fatty acids in cecal digesta with an increase in acetic and butyric acids, the latter one known to be beneficial in controlling enteric pathogens and in improving gut health. In conclusion, 200 g/kg of all the CM types can be used effectively to replace soybean meal in diets for turkeys when diets are formulated on digestible amino acids and AMEn basis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Effects of modifications to retain protozoa in continuous-culture
           fermenters on ruminal fermentation, microbial populations, and microbial
           biomass assessed by two different methods
    • Authors: I. Cabeza-Luna; M.D. Carro; J. Fernández-Yepes; E. Molina-Alcaide
      Pages: 117 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): I. Cabeza-Luna, M.D. Carro, J. Fernández-Yepes, E. Molina-Alcaide
      An important limitation of continuous-culture fermenters is their inability of maintaining microbial populations similar to those observed in the rumen, especially protozoa numbers, which usually decrease markedly or even disappear. Two approaches (a polyurethane-sponge (SP) and a filter system (FIL) for additionally retaining protozoa were tested in continuous culture system already designed to retain protozoa (Muetzel et al., 2009), and their effects on microbial populations, fermentation parameters and microbial biomass were assessed. Two 14-day incubation runs were carried out with 6 fermenters, and in each run two fermenters were randomly assigned to each of the experimental treatments (control, SP and FIL). Total protozoa numbers assessed by microscopic counting were 1.7 and 2.1 times greater in SP and FIL fermenters than in control ones on day 14, although differences did not reach the significance level (P = 0.855). Protozoal DNA concentration on day 14 were 1.6 and 1.4 times greater in SP and FIL fermenters, respectively, than in control ones, but differences were not significant (P = 0.524). Results from protozoal DNA concentrations determined in each fermenter on the different sampling days (n = 48) were positively correlated (P < 0.001) with the numbers of total (r = 0.826), entodiniomorphid (r = 0.824) and holotrich (r = 0.675) protozoa determined by microscopic counting, indicating that both methods are valid to assess protozoa populations. The proportion of holotrich in FIL-fermenters was relatively constant over the incubation period (ranging from 10.5 to 13.3% of total protozoa), but decreased with time in control (from 10.9% at day 2 to 6.7% at day 14) and SP (from 10.9 to 6.9%) fermenters. Neither the bacterial DNA concentration nor the relative abundance of fungal and archaeal DNA were influenced by any of the modifications tested, but values changed over the sampling period (days 10–14). Bacterial DNA concentration increased (P < 0.001) from day 10 to 14 in all fermenters, whereas the relative abundance of fungal and archaeal DNA decreased (P < 0.001). The tested modifications did not affect (P > 0.05) fermentation parameters, which reached a steady-state after 6 days of incubation. Values of microbial biomass determined using purine bases as a microbial marker were significantly correlated with the amount of bacterial plus protozoal DNA (r = 0.794; P = 0.002; n = 12) in each fermenter. In conclusion, the two tested modifications increased the protozoa numbers in continuous-culture fermenters, and the FIL allowed maintaining a proportion of holotrich protozoa similar to that in the ruminal fluid used as inoculum.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • On the specificity of different methods for neutral detergent fiber and
           related problems
    • Authors: Renata Soares Tavares da Silva; Alberto Magno Fernandes; Raphael dos Santos Gomes; Laila Cecília Ramos Bendia; Luciano da Costa e Silva; Ricardo Augusto Mendonça Vieira
      Pages: 128 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): Renata Soares Tavares da Silva, Alberto Magno Fernandes, Raphael dos Santos Gomes, Laila Cecília Ramos Bendia, Luciano da Costa e Silva, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça Vieira
      We compared alternative methods for analyzing Neutral Detergent Fiber with the reference AOAC 2002.04 method for specificity. We reported the chemical composition of major nutrients for the matrixes of 19 feeds and one non-feed (sawdust). Two independent matrixes were from animal origin: meat and bone meal, and milk powder. All fiber residues were ash and blank-corrected to yield values comparable to the reference aNDFom obtained with the reflux in crucibles (Fibertec, method 1) or in Berzelius beakers without spouts (method 2). The alternative fiber methods were as follow: reflux in Berzelius beakers with spouts (method 3), the ANKOM pressurized filter bag system (method 4), a non-pressurized filter bags (nonwoven tissue) immersion system (TECNAL, method 5), and micro-NDF digestion in crimp-sealed penicillin flasks deposited in an autoclave (method 6). The major nutrients were fractional mass proportions described as Beta-distributed variables. Assuming aNDFom as normally distributed because of negative fiber values recorded, an information-theoretic approach identified the relevance of the random effects of analyst (three analysts of the same laboratory) and their interactions with matrix, method, and matrix-method interaction as fixed effects. We also challenged the traditional homoscedastic assumption. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS was used to fit the models. In sequence, we chose the model without all random effects except for the analyst-method-matrix interaction defined as the subject and a complete heteroscedastic structure with one variance estimate for each method-matrix group. We removed milk powder from the dataset to fit the same model by assuming that aNDFom/1000 was Beta-distributed, and Pearson residuals demonstrated a comparable fit to the normal assumption. Within the limits of the experimental error, the ADFom was entirely formed by Lignin (sa) for meat and bone meal and for powdered milk. We observed a significant method-matrix interaction for aNDFom. Therefore, effect slices for methods within matrix and vice-versa revealed several significant contrasts between reference and alternative methods for aNDFom. Methods 1 and 2 were not different. With powdered milk removed from the analysis, the fit under Beta-distributed aNDFom resulted in an increased number of significant contrasts; however, contrasts between methods 1 and 2 remained non-significant, regardless of the matrix analyzed. Significant contrasts demonstrated the lack of specificity of the alternative methods used to measure insoluble fiber compared with the reference methods. In terms of variability, within-laboratory variance for aNDFom corresponded to the method-matrix-analyst component, and the variation introduced by different analysts in the same laboratory was negligible.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Production performance of lambs on milk replacer during pre-weaning
           followed by post-weaning linseed and calcium soap supplementation
    • Authors: R.S. Bhatt; A. Sahoo; Y.P. Gadekar
      Pages: 145 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): R.S. Bhatt, A. Sahoo, Y. Gadekar
      Thirty-six male Malpura lambs (14 d old) were taken to assess the effect of milk replacer (MR) during preweaning followed by linseed and calcium soap (Ca-soap) supplementation post weaning on lamb performance. The lambs in control group were allowed free suckling of dam and were offered ad lib concentrate, dry cowpea hay and fresh Ardu (Ailanthus excelsa) leaves during pre-weaning period. The lambs in other two experimental groups, viz. MRg-Linseed and MRng-Ca-soap were offered additional gelatinized and non-gelatinized MR, respectively. Prior to blending, the MR was boiled for five minutes to make the carbohydrate moiety gelatinized. The lambs were individually bottle fed with liquid MR after blending with warm water (42 °C). During post weaning, lambs in control group were offered ad libitum control ration whereas the test groups were fed crushed linseed (MRg-Linseed) and Ca-soap (MRng-Ca-soap) supplemented ration. Plane of nutrition revealed higher (P < 0.05) DM, DCP and ME intake in test groups during pre- and post-weaning periods. Digestibility of nutrients was similar during pre-weaning whereas during post-weaning, digestibility of CP was higher (P < 0.05) and that of NDF and ADF was lower (P < 0.05) in MRg-Linseed compared to control. Proportion of propionic and butyric acids was higher (P < 0.05) and population of protozoa was lower (P < 0.05) in MRg-Linseed and MRng-Ca-soap group as compared to control. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in MRg-Linseed and MRng-Ca-soap as compared to control during both pre- and post-weaning periods with an overall 16.3 and 12.2 percent improvement in weight gain and 7.5 percent higher efficiency in FCR, respectively. Carcass attributes revealed low (P < 0.05) intermuscular fat and shear force value in MRg-Linseed and MRng-Ca-soap. Wool production and staple length was higher (P < 0.05) in MRg-Linseed and MRng-Ca-soap groups compared to control. It may thus be concluded that milk replacer during pre-weaning and energy supplements in the form of crushed linseed and Ca-soap during post-weaning would be considered as a useful strategy for achieving higher body weight with better carcass and wool quality.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of a synthetic emulsifier product supplementation on broiler
           chicks
    • Authors: V. Bontempo; M. Comi; X.R. Jiang; R. Rebucci; V. Caprarulo; C. Giromini; D. Gottardo; E. Fusi; S. Stella; E. Tirloni; D. Cattaneo; A. Baldi
      Pages: 157 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): V. Bontempo, M. Comi, X.R. Jiang, R. Rebucci, V. Caprarulo, C. Giromini, D. Gottardo, E. Fusi, S. Stella, E. Tirloni, D. Cattaneo, A. Baldi
      The digestive physiology of young chickens is characterized by inefficient digestion and absorption of fat due to a low level of natural endogenous lipase production. These evidences have increased the interest on the use of emulsifiers to improve utilization of fats in young chickens and growth performance of broiler. The effect of a synthetic emulsifier on growth performance, meat quality, caecum microbial count, plasma metabolites and hepatic apolipoprotein gene expression was investigated in male broiler chicks. A total of 600 one-day-old ROSS 308 broiler chicks were assigned to 2 experimental groups consisting of 15 pens with 20 birds/ per pen each, to compare the different dietary treatments: control diet (CTR) or diet supplemented with AVI-MUL TOP (AMT) at 1 g/kg from day 0 to 12, 0.75 g/kg from day 12 to 22 and 0.5 g/kg from day 22 to 44. Growth performance was determined on days 0, 12, 22, and 44. At the end of the trial (day 44), one chick from each pen was chosen on body weight (BW) basis and sacrificed and samples of blood, liver, caecum content and breast were collected for analysis. AMT supplementation increased BW on days 12 and 22 (P = 0.02; P = 0.02) and ADG from day 0 to 12 (P = 0.02), while reduced FCR from day 22 to 44 (P = 0.047) and from day 0 to 44 (P = 0.02). AMT supplementation modified carcass and meat characteristics, increasing dressing percentage (P = 0.01) and b* (yellowness) (P = 0.01) compared to control group. Moreover, AMT dietary supplementation increased total cholesterol (P = 0.02) and HDL cholesterol (P = 0.02) plasma concentrations. No differences between the two treatments were observed in caecum microbial counts and hepatic apolipoprotein gene expression. In conclusion, our findings show that AMT supplementation to broiler chicks may have a beneficial effect on growth performances (BW, ADG and FCR) and carcass dressing and may affect meat colour (b* yellowness) and lipid metabolism (cholesterol and HDL).

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Effects of replacing soybean oil with selected insect fats on broilers
    • Authors: Bartosz Kierończyk; Mateusz Rawski; Agata Józefiak; Jan Mazurkiewicz; Sylwester Świątkiewicz; Maria Siwek; Marek Bednarczyk; Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel; Adam Cieślak; Abdelbasset Benzertiha; Damian Józefiak
      Pages: 170 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Bartosz Kierończyk, Mateusz Rawski, Agata Józefiak, Jan Mazurkiewicz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Maria Siwek, Marek Bednarczyk, Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel, Adam Cieślak, Abdelbasset Benzertiha, Damian Józefiak
      The aim of this study was to investigate how oil obtained via super-critical CO2 extraction from Tenebrio molitor (TM) and Zophobas morio (ZM) larvae affect the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, lipid fatty acid composition of liver and breast tissue, and the expression of selected genes in the liver of broiler chickens. Two independent experiments were conducted on 72 and 108 one-day-old female Ross 308 chicks, respectively. Birds were fed soybean-maize diets developed by replacing 50 g/kg of the basal diet with various fats i.e., soybean oil (SO) and TM (Exp. 1), or SO, TM, and ZM (Exp. 2). In both trials, birds were kept in metabolic cages over a 28 day period. The fatty acid profile of used energy sources was determined. Both insect oils had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations comparing to SO. The addition of TM and ZM oil to the basal diet showed similar or better growth performance results compared to the SO diet over the entire experimental period. Insects’ oils addition increased nitrogen retention and the apparent digestibility of the ether extract in the total tract at days 7, 14, and 21 during TM administration. Similar effects on the apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and ether extract or on AMEN were recorded among all groups in the second trial. The usage of selected insect oils significantly affected the fatty acid compositions of liver and breast tissue. Only TM addition had a positive effect on the PUFA (P = 0.004), MUFA (P < 0.001), UFA (P = 0.016), and SFA (P = 0.016) of breast muscle. Simultaneously, the TM treatment lowered the thrombogenic (P = 0.011) and atherogenic (P = 0.001) indices in the breast. The positive influence of insect oils addition to the basal diet on selected gene (HNF4a; APOA1; GIMAP5) expression in the liver was observed. Overall, these results highlight the possibility of completely replacing SO with TM and ZM oils in broiler diets without adverse influences on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. Moreover, the results of the present study suggest that TM oil positively affect meat quality which is a key factor for the modern consumer. It should be emphasized that both insect oils used in the study may be considered as a biologically active compounds modify molecular pattern at the mRNA level.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Effects of dietary inclusion of high- and low-tannin faba bean (Vicia faba
           L.) seeds on microbiota, histology and fermentation processes of the
           gastrointestinal tract in finisher turkeys
    • Authors: Z. Zdunczyk; D. Mikulski; J. Jankowski; B. Przybylska-Gornowicz; E. Sosnowska; J. Juskiewicz; R. Amarowicz; B.A. Slominski
      Pages: 184 - 196
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Z. Zdunczyk, D. Mikulski, J. Jankowski, B. Przybylska-Gornowicz, E. Sosnowska, J. Juskiewicz, R. Amarowicz, B.A. Slominski
      This study evaluated the effects of dietary replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with graded levels of faba bean (FB) seeds with high or low tannin content (HT or LT) on the gastrointestinal function and growth performance of turkeys at 13 – 18 weeks of age. Hybrid Converter turkeys were distributed into 7 treatments corresponding to 7 different finisher diets: a control wheat-soybean meal-based (FB0) diet and experimental diets where SBM was partially replaced with HT or LT seeds at 100, 200 and 300 g/kg. Each treatment comprised 210 turkeys, with seven replicate pens and 30 birds per pen. The LT treatment decreased jejunal crypt depth (vs. FB0; P = 0.049) and the experimental factors had no significant effect on the analysed caecal histological parameters. In comparison with the FB0 diet, diets containing HT and LT FB contributed to an increase in the total bacterial counts (P = 0.001 and P = 0.033) and Bacteria domain (P = 0.001 and P = 0.060), and a decrease in the counts of Bacteroides (P = 0.002 and P = 0.013). Diets containing LT FB reduced the abundance of Salmonella bacteria, relative to the FB0 diet (P = 0.011) and diets with HT FB (P = 0.023). The LT treatment decreased the counts of total bacteria and Bacteria domain (P = 0.005), in comparison with the HT treatment. The highest ileal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were observed in response to the LT200 diet. LT diets stimulated increased SCFA production in the caeca, relative to the FB0 diet (P = 0.022), and the opposite effect was noted when HT and SBM dietary treatments were compared. In comparison with HT diets, LT diets led to a desirable increase in the concentrations of all major fatty acids (acetic, propionic and butyric) in the caecal contents. It can be concluded that FB seeds enhanced fermentation processes in the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys. In comparison with HT FB, LT seeds improved selected parameters of intestinal function, including a decrease in the counts of Salmonella bacteria (P = 0.023), increased SCFA production (including butyrate; P = 0.001), and a decrease in the pH of intestinal digesta (P = 0.105). In conclusion, both LT and HT FB seeds, the latter containing up to 7.1 g/kg tannins, can be included in finisher turkey diets at up to 300 g/kg as a safe and effective substitute for SBM.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 240 (2018)
       
  • Feed Evaluation Science, Paul J. Moughan, Wouter H. Hendriks, (Eds.),
           Wageningen Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 220, 6700 AE Wageningen, The
           Netherlands (2018). 524 pp., hardback, EUR 85, USD 120 ex VAT, eISBN:
           978-90-8686-854-4, ISBN: 978-90-8686-309-9.
    • Authors: Gerhard Flachowsky
      Pages: 11 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): Gerhard Flachowsky


      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 239 (2018)
       
  • Immunomodulant feed supplement to support dairy cows health and milk
           quality evaluated in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production
    • Authors: L.M.E. Mammi; Palmonari Fustini Cavallini Canestrari J.D. Chapman D.J. McLean
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 242
      Author(s): L.M.E. Mammi, A. Palmonari, M. Fustini, D. Cavallini, G. Canestrari, J.D. Chapman, D.J. McLean, A. Formigoni
      The effects of an immunomodulant feed supplement (OmniGen-AF®) were evaluated on cow health, composition and quality of milk produced for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production. One hundred-ninety primiparous and multiparous Holstein and Crossbred dairy cows were randomly assigned to either a control (CTR, n = 95) or a group fed 55 g/h/d of the supplement (TRT, n = 95), from dry off to 150 days in milk (DIM). Individual milk yield (MY) was recorded daily, and individual milk quality was analyzed monthly. Health events and involuntary culling were recorded. Daily feeding of the supplement did not produce any negative effect on composition and cheese making properties of milk used to produce Parmigiano Reggiano cheese. Casein content in the milk of primiparous TRT cows increased after 90 DIM, and milk cheese-making properties, like coagulation time (LDG, r’) and aptitude (LDG, type) of cows fed the supplement were enhanced. TRT cows had fewer health related events (−21%) compared to CTR group, and multiparous TRT cows tended to have a lower somatic cell score (SCS) in the first 60 DIM than CTR (−0.6 pts). The incidence of clinical mastitis was observed to be lower in the TRT Holsteins cows than CTR (4 vs 11 cases). Involuntary culling was reduced in TRT group: supplemented cows had a lower culling rate within 60 DIM (1% TRT vs 7.4% CTR) and time of culling (DIM) occurred later (102.6 and 57 DIM for TRT and CTR, respectively). These results suggest that cow health and milk quality can be improved through an appropriate nutritional strategy and the use of an immunomodulator supplement like OmniGen-AF®. This combined nutritional strategy could have important implications for strictly regulated products like Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, other PDO cheese or organic products. This strategy may provide a feeding option to better control animal health that is fundamental to satisfy the uprising consumer’s expectations in minimizing the utilization of antimicrobials.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
       
  • INRA Feeding System for Ruminants, INRA (Ed.), Wageningen Academic
           Publishers, P.O. Box 220, NL-6700 AE Wageningen, The Netherlands (2018).
           640 pp., paperback, EUR 79.00, USD 99 ex VAT, ISBN: 978-90-8686-292-4.
    • Authors: Gerhard Flachowsky
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 240
      Author(s): Gerhard Flachowsky


      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
       
  • Diet nutrient and energy digestibility and growth performance of weaned
           pigs fed hulled or hull-less barley differing in fermentable starch and
           fibre to replace wheat grain
    • Authors: L.F. Wang; H. Zhang; E. Beltranena; R.T. Zijlstra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): L.F. Wang, H. Zhang, E. Beltranena, R.T. Zijlstra
      Starch and fibre composition of feed grain may alter site of digestion and fermentation of energy-yielding nutrients within the swine gut. Especially dietary amylose and β-glucan increase fermentation; however, their effect on growth performance has not been well defined. Starting 1 week post-weaning (BW, 7.3 kg), 240 pigs were fed 5 diets that contained 630–706 g cereal grain/kg differing in fermentable carbohydrates: high-fermentable β-glucan hull-less barley (HFB), high-fermentable amylose hull-less barley (HFA), moderate-fermentable hull-less barley (MFB); low-fermentable hulled barley (LFB) or low-fermentable hard red spring wheat (LFW). Diets were formulated to provide 9.7 and 9.4 MJ net energy (NE)/kg and 1.32 and 1.22 g standardised ileal digestible lysine/MJ NE for Phase 1 (day 1–14) and Phase 2 (day 15–35), respectively. The coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy (GE) was greatest (P < 0.05) for MFB and LFW for both phases and was lower (P < 0.05) for LFB than HFB and HFA for Phase 1 and HFA for Phase 2. The CATTD of crude protein (CP) was greater (P < 0.05) for LFW than the 4 barley diets for both phases. The CATTD of CP was greater (P < 0.05) for HFA and LFB than HFB and MFB for Phase 2. Calculated NE value for Phase 1 was greatest (P < 0.05) for MFB, greater (P < 0.05) for LFW than LFB and HFB and greater (P < 0.05) for HFA than HFB. Calculated NE value for Phase 2 was greater (P < 0.05) for MFB than LFB, HFB and HFA and greater (P < 0.05) for LFW than HFA. For the entire trial (day 1–35), gain:feed (G:F) did not differ (P > 0.05) among diets. Average daily feed intake (ADFI) was greater (P < 0.05) for LFB, LFW or MFB than HFA. The ADFI was greater (P < 0.05) for LFB than HFB. Average daily gain tended to be greater (P = 0.07) for LFB than HFA. Faeces consistency was greater (P < 0.05) for LFW than HFB or HFA and greater (P < 0.05) for LFB than HFB. In conclusion, moderate dietary fermentable carbohydrates did not alter feed intake, gain and G:F of weaned pigs; however, high dietary fermentable carbohydrates may reduce feed intake, gain and faeces consistency. Nevertheless, hulled and hull-less barley replacing wheat grain in diets did not affect feed intake, gain and G:F in weaned pigs.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.012
       
  • Changes in ruminal fermentation and microbial population of feedlot
           Nellore cattle fed crude glycerin and virginiamycin
    • Authors: Pablo S. Castagnino; Erick E. Dallantonia; Giovani Fiorentini; Elias San Vito; Juliana D. Messana; Laís O. Lima; Tiago A. Simioni; Telma T. Berchielli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Pablo S. Castagnino, Erick E. Dallantonia, Giovani Fiorentini, Elias San Vito, Juliana D. Messana, Laís O. Lima, Tiago A. Simioni, Telma T. Berchielli
      The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin (CG) and virginiamycin (VM) diets on ruminal fermentation and microbial population of feedlot Nellore cattle. Eight rumen fistulated bulls (BW = 600 ± 34 kg; 26 ± 3 months) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square (21-d periods) with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: diets without virginiamycin (VM-) or virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM (VM+) combined with diets without crude glycerin (CG-) or CG (80% glycerol) at 100 g/kg DM (CG+). The sugar cane bagasse was used as the exclusive roughage in the proportion of 200 g/kg in dry matter of diet and crude glycerin replaced corn in the diet formulation. Ruminal samples were collected immediately before feeding and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 h post feeding on days 20 and 21 of the sampling week. Data were analyzed in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC). There were no CG × VM interactions for any variable measured (P ≥ 0.10). The intake of DM had a tendency to be greater in CG + than CG- diets (P = 0.07). Apparent total tract digestibilities of nutrients were similar among diets (P ≥ 0.10). Diets with CG or VM had similar values of pH (mean = 6.15; P ≥ 0.10). Data showed that CG or VM did not affect the concentration of total VFA (116.92 mM; P ≥ 0.10). The proportion of propionate increased 27.5% in CG + diets, regardless of VM inclusion (P = 0.01). Acetate:propionate ratio was lower in CG + compared to CG- diets (3.58 vs. 2.12; P ≥ 0.10). Valerate and butyrate proportion was greater in CG + than CG- diets (P < 0.05). The inclusion of VM or CG did not alter the relative abundance of fibrolityc bacteria (P ≥ 0.10). Total protozoa counts (P = 0.052) and Metadinium spp. (P = 0.058) had a tendency to decrease in VM + than VM- diets (P < 0.10). Crude glycerin had positive effects on rumen fermentation products and can replace virginiamycin with increment of Megasphaera elsdenii abundance. However, combining virginiamycin and glycerin does not affect positively rumen fermentation and growth of bacteria that metabolize lactate.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.007
       
  • Enzymatic digestion turns food waste into feed for growing pigs
    • Authors: Cynthia Jinno; Yijie He; Dan Morash; Emily McNamara; Steve Zicari; Annie King; Hans H. Stein; Yanhong Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Cynthia Jinno, Yijie He, Dan Morash, Emily McNamara, Steve Zicari, Annie King, Hans H. Stein, Yanhong Liu
      Fruit, vegetable, meat, and dairy food waste were collected from supermarkets and enzymatically digested to generate food waste products, containing 90% smaller particles of food waste (SPFW) and 10% larger particles of food waste (LPFW). The objectives of this experiment were to determine the chemical composition of the enzymatically digested food waste products and to evaluate if these products may be used in diets for growing-finishing pigs. On average, SPFW contained 220.5 g/kg dry matter (DM), whereas LPFW contained 289.8 g/kg DM. On a DM basis, SPFW contained 220.5 g/kg crude protein, 365.8 g/kg crude fat, 4.8 g/kg Ca, and 3.3 g/kg P. Larger particle food waste contained 195.3 g/kg crude protein, 344.3 g/kg crude fat, 26.9 g/kg Ca, and 11.2 g/kg P. On a DM basis, total indispensable amino acids were 100.7 g/kg in SPFW and 79.9 g/kg in LPSF, whereas total dispensable amino acids were 117.6 g/kg in SPFW and 95.7 g/kg in LPSF, respectively. A relatively high variability was observed in concentrations of minerals and fiber among batches of LPFW than SPFW. Fifty-six crossbred pigs (approximately 32.99 kg initial body weight (BW)) were randomly allotted to one of 2 dietary treatments with 7 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen (2 barrows and 2 gilts). A 3-phase feeding program was used with day 0 to 28 as phase 1, d 28 to 53 as phase 2, and d 53 to 79 as phase 3. The 2 dietary treatments were a control diet based on corn and soybean meal and a liquid diet with the mixture of SPFW and LPFW (90:10, vol:vol). In phases 1 and 2, pigs were fed control or liquid diets, whereas all pigs were fed the control diet in phase 3. Compared with the control diet, pigs fed the liquid diet had lower (P < 0.05) body weights throughout the experiment due to reduced (P < 0.05) DM intake. Pigs fed the liquid diet tended to have increased (P = 0.082) gain:feed in phase 3. In conclusion, the enzymatically digested food waste may provide nutrients on a DM basis that are close to the nutrient content in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing-finishing pigs.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.05.006
       
  • Contribution of exogenous enzymes to potentiate the removal of antibiotic
           growth promoters in poultry production
    • Authors: A.J. Cowieson; A.M. Kluenter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): A.J. Cowieson, A.M. Kluenter
      Removal of prophylactic in-feed antibiotics from the diets of animals that enter the human food chain is increasing on a global basis. This removal is motivated by a range of factors including legislative compliance, consumer and retailer pressure and for ethical reasons. However, whilst this shift in approach to the rearing of production animals has benefits, there are also significant challenges for animal husbandry, disease control, nutritional optimization and food safety and security. For example, the use of in-feed antibiotics generates increases in weight gain and feed conversion ratio in the region of 4% and so, axiomatically, their removal introduces significant efficiency cost for producers. The vacuum created by the removal of in-feed antibiotics has led to a sustained body of research into alternative additives such as plant secondary metabolites, pro- and pre-biotics, acidifiers and enzymes. Whilst no single alternative to date can claim to demonstrably and consistently replace the antibiotics, many of these additives have substantial value and can form part of successful ‘anti-biotic free’ production programs. It is therefore the purpose of this review article to summarise the consequences of removal of in-feed antibiotics and to highlight the potential of feed enzymes as part of a displacement strategy.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T14:26:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.026
       
  • Effects of feeding level and dietary supplementation with crystalline
           amino acids on digestible, metabolizable and net energy values of corn in
           growing pigs
    • Authors: Yakui Li; Zhiqian Lv; Zhongchao Li; Ling Liu; Fenglai Wang; Defa Li; Changhua Lai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Yakui Li, Zhiqian Lv, Zhongchao Li, Ling Liu, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Changhua Lai
      The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding level and dietary supplementation with crystalline amino acids (AA) on the determination of energy contents in corn for growing pigs. A total of 36 barrows with an average initial body weight of 41.4 ± 2.0 kg were allocated across six treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement that included 2 feeding levels (2,400 kJ ME/kg BW0.6 per day or ad libitum) and 3 dietary AA supplementation patterns (corn diet with no AA; corn+3AA diet with addition of lysine, threonine and tryptophan; corn+5AA diet with greater levels of crystalline lysine, threonine and tryptophan supplementation than those in corn+3AA diet plus crystalline methionine and isoleucine supplementation). The experiment was conducted in 6 consecutive periods. During each period, 6 pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 treatments, and each treatment corresponded to 1 of 6 respiration chambers. In each period, pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed their respective diets at two feeding levels for 13 d, including 7 d adaptation to the feed, metabolism crate and environmental conditions. On d 8, the pigs were transferred to respiration chambers. Total feces and urine samples were collected and heat production was measured from d 8 to 12. On the last day of each period, the pigs were fasted for 24 h and fasting heat production was subsequently measured. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and gross energy (GE) in diets and corn were not affected by feeding level; however, increasing feeding level tended (P = 0.09) to decrease the ATTD of crude protein (CP). Nitrogen retention increased (P < 0.05) with increasing feeding level and dietary AA supplementation. The heat production (HP) and retention of energy (RE) were increased (P < 0.05) and the fasting heat production (FHP) tended (P = 0.09) to increase with increasing feeding level. Feeding level did not affect the DE, ME and NE in corn. Dietary AA supplementation tended to increase ME intake (P = 0.05) and significantly (P < 0.05) increased HP and energy retained as protein (REP). Dietary supplementation with AA did not influence the DE and ME values in the corn but tended (P = 0.07) to increase NE values in the corn.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T06:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.04.009
       
 
 
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