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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3042 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 338, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 422, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Feed Science and Technology
  [SJR: 1.151]   [H-I: 83]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0377-8401 - ISSN (Online) 0377-8401
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Modulation of ruminal fermentation profile and microbial abundance in cows
           fed diets treated with lactic acid, without or with inorganic phosphorus
           supplementation
    • Authors: E. Mickdam; R. Khiaosa-ard; B.U. Metzler-Zebeli; E. Humer; H. Harder; A. Khol-Parisini; Q. Zebeli
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 230
      Author(s): E. Mickdam, R. Khiaosa-ard, B.U. Metzler-Zebeli, E. Humer, H. Harder, A. Khol-Parisini, Q. Zebeli
      This study evaluated the effects of lactic acid (LA) treatment of concentrates without or with inorganic P supplementation on ruminal fermentation profile and microbial abundances in non-lactating cows. Six rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were assigned to a double 3×3 Latin square design with 3 experimental periods. Each period lasted 14 d, whereby the measurements were performed during the last 2days. Cows were fed 3 diets containing untreated control concentrate supplemented with inorganic P, and two LA-treated concentrates, either without (LA−P) or with (LA+P) the inorganic P supplementation. The concentrate mixtures of the LA diets were soaked in 5% LA for 24h before feeding, whereas the concentrate of control diet was not. All diets were offered as a total mixed ration (forage to concentrate ratio of 53:47). Ruminal pH, ammonia and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were determined in free ruminal liquid (FRL) and particle associated ruminal liquid (PARL) that was collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12h post-morning feeding. Target ruminal microbes in FRL and rumen solid digesta collected at 2h post-feeding were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Cows consumed on average 17±1.0kg DM/d (mean±SEM), irrespective of the treatment. The concentration of total SCFA in FRL was increased by LA treatment (P < 0.001) without affecting the pH. Irrespective of P supplementation, feeding of LA-treated diets shifted SCFA profile towards more propionate in the FRL and PARL. The LA−P diet lowered ammonia concentration compared to the other diets (P < 0.05). The LA−P diet also reduced the fungal gene copies in solid digesta by 7.6% compared to the LA+P diet (P < 0.05). The total bacterial abundance in both ruminal fractions was not affected by diet; however, compared to the control, LA treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of genus Prevotella in FRL (18%) and in solid digesta (27%). In contrast, the same treatment decreased the abundances of Clostridium cluster IV (23%) in FRL and Selenomonas ruminantium group (30%) in solid digesta (P < 0.05). Abundances of fibrolytic microbes correlated with acetate and butyrate only in the rumen solid digesta. In conclusion, the LA treatment of concentrates caused major bacterial shifts, an increase of ruminal fermentation output, and enhancement of propionate fermentation without affecting ruminal pH. The lack of inorganic P supplementation did not impair rumen variables measured, but additional P supply and LA treatment of concentrates beneficially affected ruminal fungi. Lowered ruminal ammonia and branched-chain SCFA concentrations by the LA−P diet suggest lowered protein breakdown in the rumen by this treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T11:03:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary inclusion of dried or autoclaved sugarcane bagasse and
           vinasse on live performance and in vitro evaluations on growing rabbits
    • Authors: Felipe Norberto Alves Ferreira; Walter Motta Ferreira; Clarice Speridião Silva Neta; Diogo Felipe da Silva Inácio; Katiuscia Cristina das Neves Mota; Martolino Barbosa da Costa Júnior; Leonardo Francisco da Rocha; Leonardo Boscoli Lara; Dalton de Oliveira Fontes
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 230
      Author(s): Felipe Norberto Alves Ferreira, Walter Motta Ferreira, Clarice Speridião Silva Neta, Diogo Felipe da Silva Inácio, Katiuscia Cristina das Neves Mota, Martolino Barbosa da Costa Júnior, Leonardo Francisco da Rocha, Leonardo Boscoli Lara, Dalton de Oliveira Fontes
      The current study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of dried or autoclaved sugarcane bagasse, enriched or non-enriched with vinasse, in diets for growing rabbits, by assessing the growth and slaughtering performance, in vitro digestibility, degradability and fermentation parameters. A total of 110 rabbits were used, distributed in five groups with 22 animals each in a completely randomized design and fed diets containing: 100g/kg of dried sugarcane bagasse (DB); 100g/kg of dried sugarcane bagasse enriched with vinasse (DBV); 100g/kg of autoclaved sugarcane bagasse (AB); 100g/kg of autoclaved sugarcane bagasse enriched with vinasse (ABV); and a control diet, without bagasse or vinasse. The in vitro assays were conducted employing cecum inoculum on the same aforementioned dietary treatments. The results showed that all bagasses show high amounts of aNDF (742–900g/kg DM), ADF (493–616g/kg DM) and lignins (88.1–136g/kg DM), and low CP (22.6–30.3g/kg DM). The inclusion of vinasse increased the in vitro DM digestibility and in vitro DM degradability of the diets (0.72 and 0.67, respectively). The control diet presented higher in vitro DM degradability (0.68) when compared to DB (0.65) and AB (0.65), but was no significantly different to the DBV (0.67) and ABV (0.66) diets. For diets with autoclaved bagasse, vinasse inclusion increased the specific gas production rate from 4.33 to 4.74. Maximum fermentation rate was higher for ABV than for DBV diet (6.09 vs. 5.54mL/h, respectively), and the autoclaving of bagasse and inclusion of vinasse increased the lag time. Bagasse autoclaving increased FCR from 30 to 51days (2.26 vs. 2.44), and FCR from 51 to 72days was reduced by inclusion of vinasse (4.84 and 5.28). There were no significant differences to live weight, ADG, ADFI and slaughter weight among the groups. Autoclaving bagasse reduced the relative liver weight and increased caecal NNH3 content. Moreover, the NNH3 of the control group (3.71mmol/L) was lower than DBV (4.64mmol/L), AB (5.01mmol/L) and ABV (5.11mmol/L), but similar to the DB group (4.05mmol/L). The results of this study revealed that 100g/kg of sugarcane bagasse can be included in the diet of growing rabbits without adverse effects on growth performance. Additionally, autoclaving and vinasse inclusion promote higher rate and extent of in vitro digestion, which is reflected on the caecal activity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2017)
       
  • In vitro rumen gas and methane production of grass silages differing in
           plant maturity and nitrogen fertilisation, compared to in vivo enteric
           methane production
    • Authors: F.M. Macome; W.F. Pellikaan; J. Th. Schonewille; A. Bannink; H. van Laar; W.H. Hendriks; D. Warner; J.W. Cone
      Pages: 96 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 230
      Author(s): F.M. Macome, W.F. Pellikaan, J. Th. Schonewille, A. Bannink, H. van Laar, W.H. Hendriks, D. Warner, J.W. Cone
      The potential of an in vitro gas production (GP) system to predict the in vivo enteric methane (CH4) production for various ryegrass-based silages was evaluated, using adapted rumen fluid from cows. Rumen fluid from 12 lactating rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used for in vitro incubations and compared with in vivo CH4 production data derived from the same cows fed the same grass silages. The cows consumed a total mixed ration consisting of six different grass silages and concentrate at an 80:20 ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis. The grass silages differed in plant maturity at harvest (28, 41 and 62days of regrowth) and N fertilisation (65 and 150kg of N/ha). Rumen fluid from cows consuming each of the six grass silages was used to determine the in vitro organic matter (OM) fermentation and in vitro CH4 synthesis, using an automated GP technique. In vitro GP decreased with increasing maturity of the grass. In vitro CH4 production, expressed either in ml/g of OM, in ml/g of degraded OM (DOM) or as a% of the total GP, increased with increased N fertilisation (P<0.05). Maturity of grass at harvest did not affect the CH4 synthesis expressed in ml/g of DOM and CH4 expressed as% of the total gas, whereas N fertilisation increased the in vitro CH4 synthesis, expressed in any unit. The in vitro data correlated poorly with the in vivo data. Across the six grass silages tested, the in vitro CH4 production, expressed in ml/g of OM after 8, 12, 24, and 72h of incubation did not correlate with the in vivo enteric CH4 production, expressed in g/kg of DM intake (R2 =0.01–0.08). Stepwise multiple regression showed a weak, but positive correlation between the observed in vivo CH4 synthesis, expressed in g/kg FPCM and the predicted CH4 per kg FPCM, using the amount of in vitro organic matter degraded (R2 =0.40; P=0.036). In vitro gas and CH4 parameters did not improve the accuracy of the prediction of the in vivo CH4 data.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2017)
       
  • Coated compound proteases improve nitrogen utilization by decreasing
           manure nitrogen output for growing pigs fed sorghum soybean meal based
           diets
    • Authors: L. Pan; Q.H. Shang; X.K. Ma; Y. Wu; S.F. Long; Q.Q. Wang; X.S. Piao
      Pages: 136 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 230
      Author(s): L. Pan, Q.H. Shang, X.K. Ma, Y. Wu, S.F. Long, Q.Q. Wang, X.S. Piao
      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of coated compound proteases on performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP), serum urea nitrogen (SUN) content and manure nitrogen (N) output for growing pigs fed sorghum soybean meal based diets. Forty crossbred pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with initial body weight of 23.4±1.2kg were allotted to 2 diets with 5 replicate pens per treatment (2 barrows and 2 gilts per pen) according to sex and weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were sorghum soybean meal based diets supplemented with or without 250mg/kg of coated compound proteases. The experiment period lasting for 70 d was divided into 2 stages including phase 1 (d 1–35) and phase 2 (d 36–70). Proteases had no significant effects on average daily feed intake (ADFI) or average daily gain (ADG), and tended to increase feed conversion efficiency (ADG/ADFI) during phase 1 (P =0.06), phase 2 (P =0.09) or overall (P =0.08) compared with control. The ATTD of dry matter, organic matter and gross energy tended to be greater on d 35 (P =0.08), and was greater on d 70 (P< 0.05) in diets supplemented with proteases than control. Proteases increased the ATTD of CP by more than 8% (P< 0.05), and decreased the faecal N excretion per weight gain by more than 10% (P< 0.05) regardless of the experiment stages. The SUN concentration tended to be reduced by the protease supplementation on d 35 (P =0.09) or d 70 (P =0.06). Accordingly, coated compound proteases could improve N utilization by decreasing manure N output for growing pigs fed sorghum soybean meal based diets.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T14:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2017)
       
  • Substitution of fish meal by fermented soybean meal affects the growth
           
    • Authors: X.F. Liang; L. Hu; Y.C. Dong; X.F. Wu; Y.C. Qin; Y.H. Zheng; D.D. Shi; M. Xue; X.F. Liang
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 229
      Author(s): X.F. Liang, L. Hu, Y.C. Dong, X.F. Wu, Y.C. Qin, Y.H. Zheng, D.D. Shi, M. Xue, X.F. Liang
      A 16-week growth trial was conducted to study the effects of replacing dietary super prime fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) in Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus). The outcome of the trial was assessed using the digestible optimum amino acid (DIAA) profile of growth performance and flesh quality of the fish (initial body weight=13.3g±0.1g). Four diets that were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous were formulated. A commercial formula containing 36% FM was assigned as the control diet (named here FM). In the other 3 diets, 25%, 50% or 75% of the FM was replaced with FSM, in which lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), and threonine (Thr) were balanced as in the control diet using crystallized amino acids (these diets were named FSM25, FSM50 and FSM75, respectively). Fish were sampled at 8 and 16 weeks. Flesh quality clustering analysis was conducted by Near Infrared (NIR) Spectrometry. The analyses showed that the feeding rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein productive value, energy productive value, and body composition did not differ between the FM and FSM25 groups (P> 0.05); however, both groups performed significantly better than the other groups (P< 0.05). Fish fed the FSM75 diet showed a very low growth performance and a high mortality rate in the first 8 weeks, and this treatment was therefore discontinued. Japanese seabass adapted to the FSM50 diet (180gkg−1 FM) after 8 weeks of feeding, and compensatory feeding and growth occurred to give this group a higher growth rate; however, the flesh quality was poorer than those of the FM and FSM25 groups. There is a great potential to apply NIR spectrum to classify the flesh quality of fish fed with different protein sources.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T03:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2017)
       
  • The effect of dietary fat on fatty acid composition, gene expression and
           vitamin status in pre-ruminant calves
    • Authors: C.Y. Tsai; P. Rezamand; W.I. Loucks; C.M. Scholte; M.E. Doumit
      Pages: 32 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 229
      Author(s): C.Y. Tsai, P. Rezamand, W.I. Loucks, C.M. Scholte, M.E. Doumit
      Dietary saturated (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) alter fatty acid (FA) composition of various tissues, serum, and circulating immune cells. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary SFA and UFA on adipose, liver, serum, polymorphonuclear (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells’ (PBMC) FA profiles, gene expression of selected inflammatory mediators, and their relation with serum lipid-soluble vitamin in pre-ruminant calves. Twelve Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Starting at 3 d of age, six calves received 120mL palm oil/day (SFA), and six calves received 80mL flaxseed oil plus 40mL conjugated linoleic acid/day (UFA). After 50 d, all animals were euthanized and samples were obtained. Fatty acid composition of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), neutral lipid (NL), and phospholipids (PL) was analyzed by gas-chromatography. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect α-tocopherol and retinol in liver, as well as α-tocopherol, retinol, and β-carotene in serum. In addition, liver and adipose tissue were analyzed for gene expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon-γ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, TNF-α, retinol binding protein-4, and NF-κB. The PBMC were examined for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; PMN cells were analyzed for caspase-1, IL-8 receptor, and l-selectin (l-SEL) expression. Data were analyzed using the Proc TTEST of SAS with significance declared at P≤0.05. Results showed that the UFA had greater α-linolenic acid compared to SFA in all three (NEFA, NL, and PL) lipid fractions of liver, adipose and serum, as well as PBMC and PMN. The greater content of α-LA in calves fed UFA resulted in greater eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in all three lipid fractions of serum, as well as NL and PL in adipose tissue. The UFA however, had lower γ-linolenic acid compared with SFA in all three lipid fractions of liver, as well as NL and PL in serum. Dietary UFA also increased total PUFA in all lipid fractions of serum and adipose. In addition, PBMC and PMN had greater EPA in calves fed UFA. Lipid-soluble vitamins in serum were reduced by dietary UFA. In contrast, UFA resulted in upregulation of l-SEL expression in PMN. This may indicate that UFA elevated the substrate for PUFA biosynthesis, but possibly degraded lipid-soluble vitamins to protect these FA from oxidation. Greater circulating PUFA may influence the migration of PMN from the blood to tissues, affecting overall inflammatory responses.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T08:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2017)
       
  • Effect of protein restriction followed by realimentation on growth,
           nutrient digestibility, ruminal parameters, and transporter gene
           expression in lambs
    • Authors: T. Ma; B. Wang; N. Zhang; Y. Tu; B. Si; K. Cui; M. Qi; Q. Diao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): T. Ma, B. Wang, N. Zhang, Y. Tu, B. Si, K. Cui, M. Qi, Q. Diao
      We report the effects of a protein-restricted diet and realimentation with a milk replacer (MR) and starter on the growth, digestibility, fermentation, and expression of the genes involved in volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption in the lamb ruminal epithelium. Sixteen newborn twin Hu lamb pairs were used. Each pair was fed the MR and starter with a normal protein level (NPL, 250 and 210g/kg, respectively) or a low protein level (LPL, 190 and 150g/kg, respectively) from 15 to 60days of age (restriction period). Then, all lambs were fed the starter containing 210g crude protein/kg diet from 61 to 90days of age (realimentation period). Intake was measured daily, and body weight was measured at 15, 60, and 90days of age. Digestibility trials were carried out from 51 to 60 and from 81 to 90days of age with four lambs randomly selected from each group. Eight lambs from each group were slaughtered on 60 and 90days of age before morning feeding, and their ruminal fermentation parameters were measured. The expression levels of the genes involved in VFA absorption in ruminal epitheliums were measured. During the restriction period, feed intake did not differ between the groups (P =0.116). The final body weight (P =0.006) and the average daily gain (ADG; P =0.003) was greater, while the feed conversion ratio (P =0.011) was lower in the NPL group. No difference was observed in dry matter (P =0.894) and organic matter (P =0.495) digestibility, or the N retention/N intake (P =0.607). The ruminal pH of the lambs fed the LPL diets was greater (P =0.012). A decrease in ammonia content (P =0.023) and the total VFA concentration (P < 0.001) was found in the LPL lambs. The molecular acetate content was greater in the LPL group (P =0.002), but that of propionate was lower (P =0.034). Protein restriction decreased the mRNA abundance of the transporters, anion exchanger 2 (P =0.019) and was downregulated in adenoma (P =0.025), Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (P =0.017), 2 (P =0.025), and 3 (P =0.037). After realimentation, body weight (P =0.006) and ADG (P =0.013) were lower in the lambs fed the LPL diet. The feed conversion ratio (P =0.301) was the same in the two groups. Lambs fed a LPL diet had a greater N retention/N intake (P =0.031). No difference was determined in the ruminal pH or the total VFA concentration between the groups (P =0.572). A greater mRNA level of monocarboxylic acid transporter 4 (P =0.021) and Na+/H+ exchanger 2 (P =0.049) was observed in the LPL group. These results suggest that realimentation partially recovers nutrient requirements and ruminal function, but lambs subjected to protein restriction still physically lag behind those continuously fed the NPL diet, indicating a permanent effect on later growth owing to nutrient restriction during very early life.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T01:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.018
       
  • Fibrolytic enzyme supplementation through ruminal bolus on eating
           behavior, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation in Jersey
           heifers fed either corn silage- or sugarcane silage-based diets
    • Authors: J.R. Gandra; G.A. Miranda; R.H.T. Goes; C.S. Takiya; T.A. Del Valle; E.R. Oliveira; J.E. Freitas Junior; E.R.S. Gandra; H.M.C. Araki; A.L.A.V. Santos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.R. Gandra, G.A. Miranda, R.H.T. Goes, C.S. Takiya, T.A. Del Valle, E.R. Oliveira, J.E. Freitas Junior, E.R.S. Gandra, H.M.C. Araki, A.L.A.V. Santos
      Sugarcane is relatively affordable in subtropical regions and can be used as a forage source for cattle; however, its low fiber degradation in the rumen may impair diet digestibility and animal performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a fibrolytic enzyme product in dairy heifers fed either corn silage or sugarcane silage-based diets on nutrient intake and digestibility, eating behavior, energy and N utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and blood metabolites. Twelve Jersey heifers [8±2.5 mo age and 160±15kg of live weight (LW), mean±SD] were assigned to a Latin square design with 2×2 factorial treatment arrangement. Experimental periods had 14days for treatment adaptation, 6days for sampling, followed by 5days of wash out. Treatment sequences consisted of: 1) diet with 549g/kg DM sugarcane silage as forage source (SS); 2) diet with 653g/kg DM corn silage as forage source (CS); 3) sugarcane silage and enzyme product (SSE; Fibrozyme™, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY), SS diet providing heifers with 20g/d enzyme product through ruminal bolus; and 4) corn silage and enzyme product (CSE), CS diet providing heifers with 20g/d enzyme product through ruminal bolus. Enzyme product was supplied once a day before the morning feeding. Heifers fed SS showed lower (P=0.001) nutrient intake than those fed CS. Enzyme product had no effect on feed intake, but it increased (P≤0.048) DM digestibility in heifers. An effect of the interaction between forage and enzyme was observed (P=0.006) on NDF digestibility, in which enzyme supply increased NDF digestibility in 126g/kg DM for heifers fed sugarcane silage. Moreover, enzyme supply increased (P=0.030) the time spent eating of heifers, but it decreased (P=0.012) the efficiency of cud chewing − DM (g/h). No interaction effect was noticed between forage and enzyme on eating behavior measures. Enzyme supply decreased (P=0.012)N absorbed by heifers. An interaction between forage and enzyme was detected on urinary N, in which SSE treatment showed the lowest value of N in urine. Except for the higher (P=0.012) ruminal propionate molar proportion in cows fed CS than those fed SS, no effects (P≥0.212) of forage, enzyme, or forage and enzyme interaction were described on ruminal fermentation measures. Heifers fed sugarcane silage had lower (P=0.008) microbial protein synthesis estimation than those fed corn silage. Enzyme provision increased (P=0.045) urinary urea concentration and excretion (mg/kg LW), and decreased (P≤0.012) daily urea clearance in heifers. In addition, no effect of the interaction between forage and enzyme (P≥0.226) was described on N renal metabolism of heifers. Although the enzyme provision had no effect on NDF digestibility in heifers fed corn silage, it increased NDF digestibility in heifers fed sugarcane silage. The enzyme supply increased the time animals spent eating, but had no effect on ruminal fermentation of heifers.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T01:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.009
       
  • High-carotenoid biofortified maize is an alternative to color additives in
           poultry feed
    • Authors: J. Díaz-Gómez; J.A. Moreno; E. Angulo; G. Sandmann; C. Zhu; A.J. Ramos; T. Capell; P. Christou; C. Nogareda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J. Díaz-Gómez, J.A. Moreno, E. Angulo, G. Sandmann, C. Zhu, A.J. Ramos, T. Capell, P. Christou, C. Nogareda
      Skin color in poultry is achieved by the addition of natural or synthetic pigments to feed. Crops used routinely in feed formulations offer an alternative cost-effective strategy to replace color additives if they are biofortified with sufficient levels of carotenoids. We tested the hypothesis that high-carotenoid (HC) maize, which was genetically engineered to accumulate high levels of β‐carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin in the endosperm, can replace carotenoid additives in poultry feed by performing two feeding trials using diets incorporating different maize lines with diverse carotenoid compositions: control (wild-type M37W, the parental line), HC, and standard yellow commercial maize supplemented with color additives (marigold flowers and red paprika extracts). The effects of dietary treatments on growth performance, health parameters, color evolution and carotenoid distribution were determined. We found that chickens fed on the HC diet grew normally and developed similar pigmentation to animals fed on a commercial diet supplemented with color additives, although yellowness was significantly higher in the commercial diet due to the high concentration of yellow xanthophylls. Lightness scores in chickens fed on the control, HC and commercial diets were 45.88±1.31, 44.32±1.10 and 44.29±0.99, respectively, in breast muscle, and 51.62±1.33, 49.66±0.96 and 50.10±1.16, respectively, in thigh muscle. Redness scores in chickens fed on the control, HC, and commercial diets were 0.36±0.26, 3.25±0.29 and 3.58±0.29, respectively, in breast muscle, and 1.28±0.37, 4.79±0.39 and 4.85±0.34, respectively, in thigh muscle. Yellowness scores in chickens fed on the control, HC, and commercial diets were 2.45±0.47, 7.61±0.64 and 9.66±0.73, respectively, in breast muscle, and 3.38±0.64, 10.00±1.10 and 12.64±0.97, respectively, in thigh muscle. High-carotenoid maize is therefore a cost-effective alternative to feed supplementation in the poultry industry.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T14:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.007
       
  • Effect of the addition of protected sodium butyrate to the feed on
           Salmonella spp. infection dynamics in fattening pigs
    • Authors: Alejandro Casanova-Higes; Sara Andrés-Barranco; Raúl C. Mainar-Jaime
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Alejandro Casanova-Higes, Sara Andrés-Barranco, Raúl C. Mainar-Jaime
      Organic acids (OA) are seen as an alternative to antibiotics to reduce the burden of enteropathogens. Two replicates of a field trial were carried out to assess the effect of the addition of protected sodium butyrate (PSB) to the feed (dose of 3kg/T) along the fattening period on the dynamics of Salmonella spp. infection in pigs. In each trial, around 50 pigs were assigned to a treatment group (TG) and 50 kept as controls (CG). Pigs were serologically monitored monthly and on-farm fecal samples and fecal and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) samples at slaughter were collected. In the first replicate, pigs became probably infected with Salmonella before the addition of PSB to the feed, but despite of that an overall lower proportion of shedders along the end of fattening period and lower seroprevalence before slaughter (50% vs. 89.6%; P < 0.001) was observed in the TG. In the second replicate, few pigs shed Salmonella during the trial, which precluded the finding of significant differences between groups for both Salmonella infection and shedding, but the seroprevalence at slaughter in the CG was again significantly higher than in the TG (31.1% vs. 13.7%, respectively; P =0.02) and it was related to a higher proportion of shedders and MLN-positive pigs. When results from both trials were analyzed together, a significant increasing risk of shedding in the CG was observed at 90days of fattening and at slaughter, and an overall significant decreasing trend in OD% values and thus in seroprevalence was also observed when pigs approached to slaughter. In conclusion, the dietary administration of this PSB during the whole fattening period was able to reduce significantly the seroprevalence in the TG, which may reflect a positive effect on the control of Salmonella at the end of the fattening period.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T14:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.008
       
  • Effects of pelleting diets containing cereal ergot alkaloids on nutrient
           digestibility, growth performance and carcass traits of lambs
    • Authors: Stephanie Coufal-Majewski; Kim Stanford; Tim McAllister; Yuxi Wang; Barry Blakley; John McKinnon; Alexandre V. Chaves
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Stephanie Coufal-Majewski, Kim Stanford, Tim McAllister, Yuxi Wang, Barry Blakley, John McKinnon, Alexandre V. Chaves
      The effects of pelleting feed containing cereal ergot alkaloids was evaluated in performance and nutrient digestibility trials using growing lambs. Defined concentrations of ergot alkaloids [Control (C), no added alkaloids but background concentrations of ∼3 ppb; Low (L),∼169 ppb; High (H),∼433 ppb] were achieved by substituting barley grain for ergot-contaminated screenings containing (fed basis) approximately 538g/kg barley grain, 300g/kg alfalfa and 160g/kg canola meal. Diets were fed either as a mash or as a completely pelleted feed. Total alkaloid concentrations did not differ between corresponding mash and pelleted diets, but ergotamine and ergosine were 2-3 times greater in mash feeds, while ergocornine, ergocristine and ergometrine were 2-3 times greater in pelleted diets. The total collection digestibility experiment used 12 ram lambs in a crossover design with 3 experimental periods. Alkaloid dose did not affect digestibility of DM, OM, or CP, but NDF and ADF digestibilities were linearly reduced (P< 0.05) with increasing alkaloid dose. Alkaloid concentrations in feces depended upon the specific type of alkaloid measured. In preliminary results, ergocristine and ergotamine were the only alkaloids in higher concentrations (P< 0.001) in feces from lambs fed H as compared to C diets. In the growth experiment, ram and ewe lambs (live weight 24.6±1.08kg) were randomly assigned to diets, weighed weekly and fed to a slaughter weight of ≥45kg. Dietary treatments did not affect carcass characteristics, although serum prolactin concentration was linearly reduced (P< 0.001) by increasing alkaloid dosage and was lower (P =0.01) in lambs fed mash as compared to pelleted diets. Although pelleted diets had total alkaloid concentrations that were similar to mash diets, lambs fed pelleted diets had 60g/d greater (P< 0.001) ADG than those fed mash diets. For H diets, lambs had lower ADG and feed conversion (P = 0.03) than those fed C or L, Based on the results of this study, pelleting diets reduced negative impacts of ergot alkaloids possibly by changing alkaloid profiles.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.006
       
  • Influence of graded inclusion of raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum L.)
           meal on the performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens
    • Authors: M. Hejdysz; S.A. Kaczmarek; M. Adamski; A. Rutkowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Hejdysz, S.A. Kaczmarek, M. Adamski, A. Rutkowski
      This study was conducted with broiler chickens to investigate the effect of different levels of pea seeds, in raw and extruded form, on the performance, nutrient digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN) value as well as excretion of total and free sialic acids. In total, 960 1-day-old male broiler chicks of the Ross 308 strain were used in the experiment. The study consisted of a completely randomized experimental design with control group and a 5×2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and five levels of pea addition (100g/kg, 200g/kg, 300g/kg, 400g/kg, 500g/kg diet) in raw or extruded form. Extrusion had a positive impact, leading to a decrease in phytic P, NDF, ADF and resistant starch content in pea seeds. Birds receiving diets with different levels of pea in extruded form were characterized by lower feed intake (2385g) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1.41g/g) than broilers receiving diets with different levels of pea in raw form (feed intake 2504g; FCR 1.46g/g). Raw pea seeds did not have a negative effect on level of nutrient utilization and dietary AMEN. Raw pea levels had no significant effects on total sialic acid excreation, while extruded pea tended to affect total and free sialic acids quadratically. In conclusion, extrusion is one process, which can increase the use of pea seeds in broiler chicken nutrition.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.016
       
  • Enteric methane emissions and protozoa populations in Holstein steers fed
           spent mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) substrate silage-based diets
    • Authors: K.T. Rangubhet; M.C. Mangwe; V. Mlambo; Y.K. Fan; H.I. Chiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): K.T. Rangubhet, M.C. Mangwe, V. Mlambo, Y.K. Fan, H.I. Chiang
      Direct modification of rumen microbial fermentation could provide universal and cost-effective solutions to reduce methane emissions from ruminant livestock. In this study, the effect of feeding spent mushroom (golden needle mushroom, Flammulina velutipes) substrate (SMS)-based silage supplemented with or without urea on the enteric methane emission and total rumen protozoa populations in Holstein steers was investigated. Spent mushroom substrate and whole crop corn were ensiled for 60days with or without urea as follows: Silage 1 (SMS 900g/kg and whole crop corn 100g/kg); Silage 2 (SMS 900g/kg, urea 10g/kg and whole crop corn 90g/kg); Silage 3 (SMS 800g/kg and whole crop corn 200g/kg); Silage 4 (SMS 800g/kg, urea 10g/kg and whole crop corn 190g/kg) on dry matter (DM) basis. Five dietary treatments were prepared as follows: 1) a control diet made-up of 500g/kg of concentrate and 500g/kg of bermuda hay (Cynodon dectylon), and 2) four diets formulated by replacing 400g/kg of the bermuda hay in the control diet with the four SMS-based silages described above. Five Holstein steers (mean BW 542±72kg) were assigned to a 5×5 Latin square design in which the five dietary treatments were offered across 5 periods, with 14days of adaptation plus 7days of samples collection in each period. Holstein steers fed diets containing SMS-based silages had lower total protozoa population (3.37×105/mL vs. 6.09×105/mL), rumen acetate (55.43mM/L vs. 57.08mM/L) and methane emission (211g/day vs. 252g/day) (P <0.05) than Holstein steers fed control diet. When comparing the inclusion levels of SMS-based silages in the diets, cattle fed diets of lower levels of SMS-based silages (800g/kg of SMS) had higher acetate contents (56.61mM/L vs. 54.25), protozoa population (3.92×105/mL vs. 2.84×105/mL) and methane emission (226g/day vs. 196g/day) than heifers fed diets of higher levels of SMS-based silage (900g/kg of SMS). The study demonstrates that feeding Holstein steers with SMS-based silage significantly decreases protozoa populations in the rumen and enteric methane emission. Although the mechanisms are not fully understood, the phytochemicals in SMS could be responsible for the reduction in rumen protozoa populations and the inhibition of rumen methanogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.005
       
  • Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and
           rumen development of calves during transition from liquid to solid feed:
           Effects of physical form of starter feed and forage provision
    • Authors: A. Pazoki; G.R. Ghorbani; S. Kargar; A. Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi; M.H. Ghaffari; J.K. Drackley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): A. Pazoki, G.R. Ghorbani, S. Kargar, A. Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, M.H. Ghaffari, J.K. Drackley
      Fifty-two 3-d-old male Holstein dairy calves (41.3±0.4kg of BW) were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of physical form of starter feed on intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, structural growth, and rumen development. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly allocated (n=13 per treatment) to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) ground starter feed (mean particle size 0.72mm diameter), 2) textured starter feed (mean particle size 3.61mm diameter, includes steam flaked corn and barley), 3) pelleted starter feed (mean particle size 4.53mm diameter), and 4) ground starter feed with 10% chopped alfalfa hay (Ground+AH; mean particle size 1.02mm diameter). Calves received 6L/d of milk from d 3 to 47 and 2.5L/d from d 47 to 49; weaning occurred at the end of d 50 and the study lasted for 70 d. Calves fed Ground+AH had greater (P < 0.01) intake of starter feed, weaning BW, final BW, and ADG compared with other groups; the ground and textured groups both had greater (P < 0.01) starter intake than the pelleted group over the experimental period (d 1 to 70). Feed efficiency did not differ among treatments. Apparent digestibly of DM, OM, and CP were greater (P < 0.01) in calves fed the textured, pelleted, or ground+AH diets than the ground diet. No differences were observed in body length, hip height, hip width, withers height, or heart girth among treatments. Rumen fluid in calves fed ground+AH had higher (P < 0.01) pH and greater ruminal NH3-N concentration but lower total VFA (P < 0.01) concentrations and lower molar proportions of propionate (P < 0.05) compared with pelleted groups. Feeding ground+AH was able to maintain rumen pH and promote growth and rumen development compared to a ground or pelleted starter feed. Calves fed the ground+AH diet spent more (P < 0.01) time eating and ruminating and less (P < 0.01) time resting compared with calves fed the pelleted diet. In conclusion, compared with ground, textured, and pelleted starter feed, ground starter feed supplemented with 10% alfalfa hay benefitted performance and rumen pH, and positively influenced both the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the rumen wall.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.004
       
  • Interaction of forage provision (alfalfa hay) and sodium butyrate
           supplementation on performance, structural growth, blood metabolites and
           rumen fermentation characteristics of lambs during pre-weaning period
    • Authors: M. Soltani; M. Kazemi-Bonchenari; A.H. Khaltabadi-Farahani; O. Afsarian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Soltani, M. Kazemi-Bonchenari, A.H. Khaltabadi-Farahani, O. Afsarian
      The present study evaluated the interaction of forage provision (F) and sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in pre-weaning lambs on performance, structural growth, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics. Twenty eight 3-days old individually housed Chaal breed lambs averaging BW of 6.02±0.57kg were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (n=7 lambs/treatment: 4 males and 3 females). Experimental treatments were; 1) starter diet provided neither with F nor with SB (NF-NSB), 2) starter diet supplemented only with SB (NF-SB), 3) starter diet provided only with forage (F-NSB), and 4) starter diet simultaneously provided by forage and SB (F-SB). The F provision was 10% chopped alfalfa hay included in whole concentrate starter based diet (DM basis) and the SB supplementation was 3g of SB/kg of starter DM. The manual milk feeding was performed for all lambs. The lambs were weaned on d 59 of age but the study lasted until d 73 of age. Performance statistical analysis was carried out for pre-weaning (8 weeks), post-weaning (2 weeks) and entire experimental periods (10 weeks). The results show that starter intake influenced with SB (P=0.03) and weaning weight was greater in lambs supplemented with SB (P<0.01). Neither intake nor gain was influenced with forage provision (P>0.05). The interaction was observed between SB and F for gain in overall period of experiment (P=0.03). The interaction of SB and F caused the greatest wither height in F-SB treatment (P=0.03). Body barrel was greater in forage fed lambs (P=0.01). No blood parameter was influenced with separate or simultaneous provision of F and SB in the current study. The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration (P=0.02) as well as butyrate concentration (P<0.01) was increased by SB supplementation. Forage inclusion improved ruminal fluid pH (P=0.02) and increased acetate (P<0.01); however both butyrate (P=0.02) and propionate (P=0.01) concentrations were reduced. In conclusion we found that F provision was not efficient as maximum as whole concentrate starter diet but simultaneous providing of SB could alleviate the negative effects of provided forage in pre-weaning lambs. Future studies warranted to evaluate microscopic development of rumen papillae in simultaneous provision of forage and butyrate in pre-weaning lambs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:21:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.002
       
  • Effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides as potential prebiotics on
           performance, immune function and gut microbiota in weaned pigs
    • Authors: Y. Wu; L. Pan; Q.H. Shang; X.K. Ma; S.F. Long; Y.T. Xu; X.S. Piao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Y. Wu, L. Pan, Q.H. Shang, X.K. Ma, S.F. Long, Y.T. Xu, X.S. Piao
      This study evaluated the effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) in diet on the performance, fecal score, serum immunity, intestinal morphology, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and gut microbiota in cecum of weaned pigs. In a 28-day experiment, 72 healthy crossbred (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) weaned pigs with an average body weight of 8.76±1.04kg were assigned into 2 treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment (3 barrows and 3 gilts per pen) according to sex and weight in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet (CTR) or the basal diet supplemented with 6g/kg IMO at the expense of corn. Compared with CTR, IMO tended to increase average daily gain (ADG) during days 14 to 28 (P =0.06) and days 0 to 28 (P =0.07) rather than during days 0 to 14 for weaned pigs. The fecal score was lower for pigs fed IMO than CTR overall or during the first 2 weeks (P < 0.05). On day 28, IMO increased the apparent total track digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter and gross energy (P < 0.05), and tended to increase the ATTD of crude protein compared with CTR (P =0.06). On day 14, IMO decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, and tended to increase (P =0.06) superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in serum. The villus height of the ileum and the total VFA concentrations in cecum and colon were greater in pigs fed IMO than CTR (P < 0.05). Gene sequencing analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that IMO could regulate the gut microbiota according to unweighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analyses showed many different taxa between CTR and IMO, of which the abundance of relative beneficial bacteria including Streptococcaceae and Collinsella was increased by IMO supplementation (P < 0.05). Overall, IMO supplementation has positive effects on performance and serum immunity, and could regulate gut microbiota in cecum of weaned pigs. Accordingly, IMO could be potential prebiotics to improve performance by strengthening immune function and intestinal health in weaned pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:21:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.013
       
  • The use of Basidiomycota mushrooms in poultry nutrition–a review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): D. Bederska-Łojewska, S. Świątkiewicz, B. Muszyńska
      Recently, there has been a noticeable growth in interest in the potential of edible mushrooms and their application in prevention and therapy. The numerous health-promoting properties of edible mushrooms include: antioxidant, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral and hypocholesterolemic properties. Considering such a broad spectrum of action, and based on the recent literature data, the use of mushrooms is justified in the feeding of farm animals, including poultry. The aim of this review paper is to present the current state of knowledge concerning the use of edible mushrooms as a feed additive with dietary and health-promoting activities in the nutrition of broiler chickens and laying hens. Based on the results of studies presented in this article, it can be concluded that many mushroom species e.g. Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus blazei, Hericium caput-medusae, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Fomitella fraxinea, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps inensis and Cordyceps militaris can be the source of active substances that might positively affect poultry performance and health status.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:21:06Z
       
  • Intake, digestibility and milk production and composition of dairy cows
           fed different levels of Yerba Mate in the diet
    • Authors: F.S. Santos; L.M. Zeoula G.T. dos Santos L.S. Lima A.L.G.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): F.S. Santos, L.M. Zeoula, G.T. dos Santos, L.S. Lima, A.L.G. Dias, M.O.A. Rufino, A.L.B. Schogor, F.E. De Marchi, H.V. Petit
      Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas and averaging 84±18 (mean±SD) days in milk and 598±55kg of body weight were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding Yerba Mate (YM) on intake, digestibility, milk production, milk composition, and milk concentration of antioxidants when cows were fed a corn silage-based diet containing ground canola seed. The treatments fed for ad libitum intake were: a total mixed ration not supplemented (0g/d), or supplemented (250, 500 or 750g/d) with dried leaves of YM. Experimental periods consisted of 14 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Increased supplementation of the diet from 0 to 750g/d YM had no effect on milk production or yields of protein and fat, and decreased milk yields of lactose and total solids and milk urea N concentration. Digestibility of dry matter, protein and neutral detergent fibre was similar among diets and ether extract digestibility decreased with the level of YM supplementation. Concentrations of total polyphenols and production of conjugated diene hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in milk were similar among diets. The reducing power in milk increased with the inclusion level of YM in the diet, thus suggesting that antioxidant activity of milk can be enhanced with this feeding strategy although it was clearly insufficient to overcome the negative effects on milk fat synthesis probably caused by the high levels of fat added to diets as ground canola seed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T21:15:09Z
       
  • Effects of Acremonium terricola culture supplementation on apparent
           digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood parameters in dairy cows
    • Authors: Yang Yi-Zhen; Wang Guang-Ning Zhang Xing-Yi Zhang Cong Lin Xiao-Xiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Yang Li, Yi-Zhen Wang, Guang-Ning Zhang, Xing-Yi Zhang, Cong Lin, Xiao-Xiang Li, Yong-Gen Zhang
      This study was conducted to examine the effects of Acrermonium terricola culture (ATC) on feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood parameters in dairy cows. Six non-lactating ruminally and duodenally fistulated cows were evaluated in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design, with each period lasting 27 d. The cows were randomly assigned into three treatment groups: (1) basal diet (no additive); (2) basal diet plus 15g/cow per day ATC; and (3) basal diet plus 30g/cow per day ATC. Cows supplemented with ATC had a higher total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein, production of ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids, and relative population size of proteolytic bacteria than did unsupplemented cows. ATC supplementation decreased ruminal pH, concentration of urea nitrogen, aspartate transaminase, non-esterified fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in plasma and improved ruminal disappearance of roughage and blood glucose content. Overall, ATC is an effective feed additive and regulates apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolism for dairy cows.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T21:15:09Z
       
  • EFFECT OF DRIED FERMENTATION BIOMASS ON MICROBIAL FERMENTATION IN
           CONTINUOUS CULTURE AND IN VITRO INTESTINAL DIGESTIBILITY
    • Authors: A.J. Carpenter; Binversie Ruiz-Moreno M.D. Stern
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): A.J. Carpenter, E. Binversie, M. Ruiz-Moreno, M.D. Stern
      The objective of the current experiment was to determine if fermentation biomass (FB), a dried bacterial by-product derived from lysine production (Ajinomoto Heartland, Inc.) can be used as a protein source in ruminant diets. Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were inoculated with rumen fluid and used during one experimental period consisting of a 7-d adaptation period followed by 3 sampling days. Microbial substrate was provided by one of two isonitrogenous diets, CON or DFB. In CON, soybean meal (SBM) provided 57% of total CP, and in DFB, SBM and FB provided 12 and 45% of total CP, respectively. CON contained 3% molasses, 16% ground corn, 13% grass hay, 48% corn silage, and 20% SBM on a DM basis; DFB contained 3% molasses, 18.4% ground corn, 13% grass hay, 50% corn silage, 8.5% SBM, and 6.7% FB. On sampling days, liquid and solid effluent were collected, combined, and homogenized to be used for chemical analysis and in vitro estimation of intestinal digestibility (ID). Treatment did not affect average, maximum, or minimum fermenter pH. There was no effect on apparent or true OM, NDF, or ADF digestibility (%). Total and branched-chain VFA as well as acetate (mM) were higher in CON, and isobutyrate concentration (mol/100mol) tended to increase with CON treatment. Source of N had no effect on total, dietary, or bacterial-N flows. Addition of FB decreased NH3-N flow from 0.4 to 0.2±0.05g/d and tended to decrease effluent NH3-N concentration from 17.1 to 9.7±2.21mg/100mL. His and Met flows increased from 0.48 to 0.53±0.012 and 0.18 to 0.20±0.005g/d, respectively, when FB partially replaced SBM in the diet, but there were no effects on other AA or total AA flows. There was a trend in percent non-essential AA input (CON=73.6% vs. DFB=82.2%; SE=2.83) in effluent; however, there was no effect on percent of essential or total AA input in effluent. Effluent from the DFB treatment was higher in ID than CON (CON=70.4% vs. DFB=79.6%; SE=1.64), although there was no difference in estimated amount of protein available for intestinal absorption (g). These results indicate that FB elicited a similar response in N metabolism and AA flows to SBM but had a greater estimated ID and depressed VFA production, and has potential use as a protein source in ruminant diets.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T21:15:09Z
       
  • Combination of digestibility marker and fiber affect energy and nitrogen
           digestibility in growing pigs
    • Authors: T. Wang; D. Ragland; O. Adeola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): T. Wang, D. Ragland, O. Adeola
      This study was conducted to investigate if (i) the coefficient of ileal apparent digestibility (CIAD) of gross energy (GE) or nitrogen (N) was influenced by the type of digestibility marker (DMr) and dietary fiber, and (ii) the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of GE or N was influenced by the type of method (method i.e. total collection (TC) and DMr) and dietary fiber. Eighteen barrows fitted with a T-cannula at the end of the ileum were used in a 2-period randomized complete block design. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were formulated with corn starch, corn bran or oat bran at 100g/kg. All 3 diets contained 3 DMr, which were chromic oxide (Cr), titanium dioxide (Ti), and acid-insoluble ash (AIA). The ileal digesta were collected for 3 days, and the CIAD of GE and N were determined by measuring Cr, Ti or AIA. The feces were collected by using TC method, and the CTTAD of GE and N were determined by using Cr, Ti, AIA, or TC method. There were interactions between diet and DMr (P<0.001) for CIAD and DMr recovery (P<0.001), and between diet and method for CTTAD (P<0.001). The DMr had similar effect on CIAD of GE and N within each diet, but different effects among the 3 diets. For corn starch and corn bran, the greatest CIAD of GE or N was determined by Ti, while for oat bran, the greatest CIAD was determined by AIA. However, the CTTAD of GE or N of corn starch and the CTTAD of N of corn bran determined by the 3 DMr were not different. The greatest CTTAD of GE of corn bran was determined by Ti or AIA, while the greatest CTTAD of N or GE of oat bran was determined by Cr or AIA. For all 3 diets, the CTTAD of GE and N determined by the TC method was greater (P<0.001) than those determined by using DMr. The recovery of Ti in feces of pigs fed the oat bran was 78.3%, which was the least among all the 3 diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, the CIAD of GE or N was more influenced by the choice of DMr compared with CTTAD, and the Ti recovery of pigs fed oat bran was less than corn starch or corn bran.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T21:15:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.012
       
  • Response of turkeys fed wheat-barley-rye based diets to xylanase
           supplementation
    • Authors: Gemma González-Ortiz; Krzysztof Kozłowski; Aleksandra Drażbo; Michael R. Bedford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Gemma González-Ortiz, Krzysztof Kozłowski, Aleksandra Drażbo, Michael R. Bedford
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylanase on performance, nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), relative gastrointestinal (GIT) weights, caecal fermentation and microbiota profile of turkeys fed wheat-barley-rye based diets. Four hundred eighty female Hybrid Converter turkey poults (1-day-old) were placed in one of two experimental treatments: a control diet (CTR) formulated to be marginally deficient in metabolizable energy, and the same diet supplemented with 16,000 BXU/kg of xylanase (XYL). Treatments had fifteen replicate pens per diet, with 16 birds each. Feed was supplied in four phases of three weeks per phase. On d 1, 21, 42, 63 and 84 body weight was measured, and feed intake (FI) recorded. Body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were then calculated. On d 84 the last day of the study excreta samples were collected to determine AMEn. The profile of volatile fatty acids (VFA), lactic acid and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) in addition to the microbial community structure by the percentage of guanine plus cytosine (G+C) profile method in the caecal digesta were analysed on d 84. Statistical comparisons were performed using one-way ANOVA (JMP Pro 12). Xylanase supplementation over the 12 week study improved FCR (P <0.01) from 2.09 to 2.02. Birds supplemented with xylanase tended on average to be 163g heavier than the control birds, with no significant effects observed on FI. The AMEn in birds fed the XYL diets was numerically greater than that observed for CTR birds. No differences were found between treatments neither in VFA, lactic acid, BCFA concentrations nor in relative GIT weights. The percentage of G+C at 35-43, 50-56 and 66-70 regions differed significantly, indicating a shift in the microbial community structure between CTR and XYL-fed birds. Supplementation of turkey diets with xylanase improved performance, probably due to a better utilization of energy and the provision of oligosaccharides which specifically encourage proliferation of specific populations of bacteria in the caeca.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T20:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.005
       
  • Phytogenic feed additives as potential gut contractility modifiers—a
           review
    • Authors: Marta Mendel; Magdalena Chłopecka; Natalia Dziekan; Wojciech Karlik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Marta Mendel, Magdalena Chłopecka, Natalia Dziekan, Wojciech Karlik
      The increasing requirement for implementing new feed additives in livestock, especially ruminants, results predominantly from two issues: the urgent need of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the necessity of finding replacements of antibiotics which must not be preventively used in animals feeding. A group of additives that has gained a progressive interest in recent years consists of plant secondary metabolites and plant-derived extracts. There is extensive knowledge of the effects of phytogenic feed additives on rumen microbial fermentation, rumen methanogenesis and ruminant performance. However, there is little information about their systemic effects. In case of ruminants, the possible impact of employed additives on gut motility should be carefully analyzed due to the special anatomical and physiological features. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present available data on the effects of plant extracts and individual secondary plant metabolites which can be potentially used as feed additives on gastrointestinal motility. The review describes the impact of essential oils, tannins and saponins on gut smooth muscle activity in laboratory animals and livestock, particularly ruminants, under in vivo and in vitro conditions The analysis of gathered data allows to generalize that most essential oils, tannins and saponins which are under consideration as phytogenic feed additives generate myorelaxant effects towards gastrointestinal tissues. Significant antispasmodic effects of plant secondary metabolites can reduce the gastrointestinal smooth muscle basal tone and cause an impaired response of rumen and abomasal muscles to acetylcholine which reflect hypotony and subsequently predispose the animals to some gut disturbances, like abomasal displacement or rotation, and or indigestion. On the other hand, the revealed ability of various plant extracts to reduce acetylcholine-induced contraction could be used to contract gastrointestinal muscle spasm and consequently become beneficial in animals with diarrhea symptoms. Noteworthy, essential oils of numerous plants turned out to act spasmogenic if used in low doses and spasmolytic whenever tested in higher concentrations. This dual character of essential oils should be further analyzed and possible used to treat or prevent hypo- and hypermotility disorders. Bearing in mind, the process of gut microorganisms’ adaptation and their ability to decompose or neutralize various substances, including plant secondary metabolites, the effects of plant-derives substances on gastrointestinal motoric activity are especially expected in a short time after the introduction of a new phytocompound or plant extract to animal feed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T20:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.008
       
  • Available energy content, nutrients digestibility of chili meal and
           effects on performance of growing pigs
    • Authors: Y.F. Fan; Y.Y. Yang; P. Yang; T. Xia; Y.X. Ma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Y.F. Fan, Y.Y. Yang, P. Yang, T. Xia, Y.X. Ma
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in chili meal (CM), and to determine the effects of CM on the performance of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 barrows (Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire) with an initial body weight (BW) of 50.9±1.8kg were allocated to one of two treatments, corn-soybean meal basal diet or diet containing 194.2g/kg CM, which replaced corn and soybean meal in the basal diet. Pigs were placed in metabolism crates for a 7-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine to detect DE, ME and ATTD of nutrients in CM. Exp. 2 was conducted for 4 wk. to evaluate the effect of CM on performance of growing pigs. 150 growing pigs (58.4±1.2kg BW) were allocated to 1 of 5 treatments. Treatment: 1 was a corn-soybean meal basal diet met the DE requirement for growing pigs recommended by NRC (2012). Treatment: 2 or 3 were diets containing 50g/kg or 100g/kg CM respectively. Treatment: 4 or 5 were based on treatment 2 or 3, while soybean oil (SBO) was added to improve the DE content to that in treatment 1. In Exp. 1, the DE and ME content of CM were 9.08 and 8.48MJ/kg. The ATTD of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were 0.60, 0.54, 0.66 and 0.38, respectively. In Exp. 2, addition of CM linearly decreased (P< 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and the ATTD of DM, GE and OM while ATTD of crude protein (CP) had a quadratic (P< 0.05) change. When SBO was supplemented in diets containing CM, greater values (P< 0.05) of ATTD of most nutrients were observed. With the dietary inclusion of CM, the albumin/globulin ratio in serum had a quadratic change (P< 0.05), and the level of low-density cholesterol linearly (P< 0.05) increased. In treatments with 50g/kg CM, a significant reduction (P< 0.05) of total antioxidant capacity was found in diet formulated with SBO. In treatments with 100g/kg CM, the level of total cholesterol was lower (P< 0.05) in the diet with SBO. In conclusion, CM had moderate energy density and nutrients digestibility in pig diets. 50g/kg CM with SBO in diets could be fed to growing pigs with no significant negative effects.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T20:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.001
       
  • Ileal amino acid digestibility in micronized full fat soybean meal and
           textured soy flour fed to piglets with or without multicarbohydrase and
           phytase supplementation
    • Authors: J.C. Dadalt; C. Gallardo; G.V. Polycarpo; D.A. Berto; M.A.Trindade Neto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.C. Dadalt, C. Gallardo, G.V. Polycarpo, D.A. Berto, M.A.Trindade Neto
      Most amino acid (AA) digestibility values for feed ingredients are obtained using ileal-cannulated pigs. The ileal-cannulated pig model is not used with pigs younger than six weeks of age due to difficulties related to T-cannula implantation in the distal ileum and potential problems related to post-surgical recovery. Thus, the present experiment aimed to determine the digestibility of two ingredients in young pigs using the slaughter method. Fifty 23-d-old weaned pigs were divided into two experiments to evaluate the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal amino acid digestibility in micronized full fat soybean meal (MFFS) and textured soy flour (TS) with or without phytase (Phy) and multi-carbohydrase (MC) supplementation. Each piglet was individually housed in a metabolic cage in a completely randomized experimental design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effects of MC (0 and 0.2%) and Phy (0 and 0.05%). During the first 8 d, a diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient specifications for piglets. Subsequently, the animals were introduced to experimental diets for 10 d (a 6-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d faeces and urine total collection). A corn/dry-whey/milk-powder diet was used as a reference diet (RD). Ileal digesta was collected at slaughter (45 d of age) after a 4-d adaptation period with a low protein diet (5% casein). There was no effect of MC or Phy supplementation on nutrient and energy digestibility in MFFS. The SID of AA in MFFS without enzymes was on average 6% lower than in published data in the literature (NRC, 2012). Similarly, in TS, no interactions (P > 0.05) between enzymes were observed on AID or SID of essential AA. However, Phy supplementation improved the ATTD of crude protein (CP) and the SID of Arg, His, Glu and Pro (P < 0.05), while MC improved the SID (P < 0.01) of His, Cys, Glu, and Gly. It was difficult to compare these results with values from literature due to a lack of information regarding TS. As hypothesized, the results of experiments reported here suggest that the digestibility of nutrients and energy in MFFS is lower compared with literature values. However, since digestibility of raw materials differs from batch to batch and from experiment to experiment, more researches should be conducted to compare the digestibility of ingredients for piglets in different ages.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T20:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.006
       
  • Relative partitioning of N from alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain
           and soybean meal into milk, urine, and feces, using stable 15N isotope
    • Authors: T. Barros; J.M. Powell; M.A.C. Danes; M.J. Aguerre; M.A. Wattiaux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): T. Barros, J.M. Powell, M.A.C. Danes, M.J. Aguerre, M.A. Wattiaux
      The objective of this study was to determine the relative partitioning of N in individual feed within a diet (alfalfa silage [AS], corn silage [CS], corn grain [CG] and soybean meal [SBM]) into milk, urinary and fecal N in lactating dairy cows. For 11 days, twelve multiparous Holstein cows (means±SD; 264±18 DIM) were fed once a day an unlabeled TMR formulated to contain (DM basis) 335, 325, 190, 125 and 25g/kg of CS, AS, CG, SBM and a mineral-and-vitamin premix, respectively. On the morning of day 12, cows were blocked by milk yield and randomly assigned within block to one of four dietary treatments constructed by replacing one feed ingredient of the unlabeled TMR with its corresponding 15N-labeled ingredient (grown with 15N-labeled fertilizers). Cows were fed dietary treatments for four days (day 12 to 15) and the unlabeled TMR from day 16 to 19. Feed intake and lactation performance were measured daily whereas total fecal and urinary collections were conducted on each cow every 6h from day 12 to 19. Feeding 15N-labeled ingredients had no effect on DMI (mean±SD; 22.0±2.0kg/d), milk yield (26.4±5.2kg/d),N intake (631±25g/d), milk protein concentration (34.7±3.3g/kg), and N use efficiency (milkN/intakeN; 235±46g/kg). By the end of sampling, 61% of 15N was recovered in milk (13.6%), urine (24.1%) and feces (23.3%) suggesting substantial distribution of 15N in tissues with slow turnover rates or growing actively (e.g., fetal tissues). The ratio of 15N atom % excess (APE) in urine to 15N APE in milk and the ratio of 15N APE in feces to 15N APE in milk measured on the fourth day of feeding the treatment TMR were used as indicators of relative N partitioning. The 15N APE urine/milk ratio was greater for AS (1.51) than for CS (1.30), which in turn was greater than for the concentrates (1.02 for CG and 0.94 for SBM). In addition, the APE 15N feces/milk ratio was greater in silages than concentrates (2.12 vs. 1.20, respectively). Interestingly, the main route of 15N excretion from AS was fecal rather than urinary. Overall results suggested more excretion of urinary N and fecal N relative to milk N secretion for silages than for concentrates.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T08:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.009
       
  • Selection of prebiotic oligosaccharides suitable for synbiotic use in
           calves
    • Authors: Martina Geigerová; Věra Bunešová; Eva Vlková; Hana Salmonová; Vojtěch Rada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Martina Geigerová, Věra Bunešová, Eva Vlková, Hana Salmonová, Vojtěch Rada
      The aims of this experiment were to identify suitable commercial prebiotic substrates for bifidobacteria of calf origin and to verify in vivo the effects of the selected prebiotics on survival of applied and naturally occurring bifidobacteria in calf intestines. First, in vitro utilization of selected fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and inulin by Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. animalis (two strains), B. choerinum, B. thermophilum, and B. longum ssp. suis was investigated. The highest specific growth rates were observed with Vivinal® (galactooligosaccharides) and Raftilose P85 (fructooligosaccharides); therefore, these prebiotics were used for in vivo tests. Three groups of calves were investigated. A single dose of a probiotic mixture of five strains of rifampicin-resistant variants of bifidobacteria (RRBs) in form of fermented milk was fed to 2-days-old calves in the first experimental group (PROB). In the second group (SYNB), a single dose of probiotics was administered to calves at the same age, but a prebiotic mixture containing selected substrates was fed to the calves every day until 7 weeks of age (the end of the study). The third group, which did not receive any treatment, was used as a control. The survival of applied and naturally-occurring bifidobacteria and the numbers of selected faecal bacterial groups were determined by cultivation. Our results showed that the fed RRBs were able to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract, with counts of more than 107 CFU/g in the PROB group. Significantly higher numbers of RRBs (more than 108 CFU/g) were found in the SYNB group at age 4 days. RRBs persisted in intestines for at least 49days in both experimental groups without further significant differences. Counts of other determined bacteria were not significantly affected by the treatments. Our results showed that the selected prebiotics improve the survival of bifidobacteria passing through the digestive tract. Selected combination of pro- and prebiotics seems to be promising synbiotic in term of promoting survival of administered bacteria in intestine. However its effect on animal performance must be verified in other experiment with larger groups of animals.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T08:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.011
       
  • Within plant variation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)
           produced from multiple raw materials in varying proportions: chemical
           composition and in vitro evaluation of feeding value for ruminants
    • Authors: K.-H.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): C. Böttger, K.-H. Südekum
      Chemical composition and feeding value of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) differ among types of raw material and ethanol production plants. Possibly more challenging, variation does as well occur between batches from the same plant. Although some comprehensive studies on within plant variation of DDGS exist, they are limited to DDGS produced from maize as the sole raw material. Nevertheless, the use of raw material blends may increase variability, particularly if proportions of raw materials vary over time. In the current study, 28 samples of blend DDGS were obtained from one ethanol plant over 420days in around 14day intervals. The raw material blend contained varying proportions of barley, maize, wheat and sugar beet syrup. Samples were analyzed in terms of chemical composition including minerals. Energy and protein values for ruminants were estimated based on chemical composition and in vitro methods Descriptive statistics were calculated to describe within plant variation, which affected DDGS characteristics to different extents. Coefficients of variation (CV) ranged from approximately 3% for crude protein and metabolizable energy to >25% for starch, sugar and Na. Regarding protein value, predicted ruminally undegraded feed crude protein (RUP) varied considerably (CV approximately 13%), whilst in vitro results for intestinal digestibility of RUP and utilizable crude protein at the duodenum displayed consistency (CV<5%). Differing methodology impeded comparison with previous research, but results indicate that varying proportions of raw materials did not result in increased variability compared with DDGS produced from a single raw material. In addition, regression analysis was performed to examine correlations between raw material proportions and DDGS characteristics. Resulting equations have to be considered specific for the current set of samples and ethanol plant. However, equations generally reflected the proportions and ascribed quality of the raw materials. Particularly, reasonable correlations were found for proximate constituents, energy concentrations and minerals K and Mn. In contrast, other macro and trace elements either could not be predicted by raw material proportions or equations were difficult to interpret. Similarly, characteristics of the protein value displayed very limited correlation to raw material proportions. These findings were likely because minerals as well as composition, degradability and digestibility of crude protein are more prone to be affected by processing details. Thus, results suggest a limited potential to predict chemical composition of blend DDGS from raw material proportions and, on the other hand, indicate the considerable impact of processing on DDGS characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T08:52:11Z
       
  • The effect of increased crude protein level and/or dietary supplementation
           with herbal extract blend on the performance of chickens vaccinated
           against coccidiosis
    • Authors: Kowal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): A. Arczewska-Włosek, S. Świątkiewicz, J. Kowal, D. Józefiak, J. Długosz
      The experiment was designed as a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement with 6 replicate pens per treatment (8 male Ross 308 chicks per pen) conducted from 1 to 42 d of age to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein level (CP) and herbal extract blend on performance indices, results of slaughter analysis, and oocyst shedding in broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis. Treatments included a lack or single dose of live anticoccidial vaccine (LivacoxT®, administered at 1 d of age, VAC), normative (21.6 and 20% in the starter and grower-finisher feeding phase, respectively) or increased (23.6 and 21.6% in the starter and grower-finisher feeding phase, respectively) dietary crude protein level, with or without supplementation with an herbal extract blend (Echinacea purpurea, Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, Allium sativum, Origanum vulgare; HE, 0 or 2g/1kg of feed). Each dose of vaccine contained 300–500 sporulated oocysts of each Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella which are specific to different sections of the intestinal tract. Wood shavings as a bedding guaranteed vaccine oocyst recirculation. A negative effect of VAC on FI, BWG or FCR (P <0.05) was found in the starter feeding phase and remained noticeable (P <0.05) till the end of the rearing period. There was no significant effect of CP or HE on performance in the starter feeding phase period. The increased CP level decreased fat deposition in the carcass and improved the BWG (P <0.05) of vaccinated birds in the second and entire experimental period, while HE positively influenced the 1-42 FCR (P <0.05) in vaccinated birds. The dietary treatment did not interfere with recirculation of the vaccine’s oocysts, which is necessary for building up immunity. It can be concluded that an increased CP level or HE supplementation may be considered as support tools in terms of vaccination.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T03:53:20Z
       
  • Paraffin-wax-coated nitrate salt inhibits short-term methane production in
           sheep and reduces the risk of nitrite toxicity
    • Authors: V. de Raphélis-Soissan; J.V. Nolan; I.R. Godwin; J.R. Newbold; H.B. Perdok; R.S. Hegarty
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): V. de Raphélis-Soissan, J.V. Nolan, I.R. Godwin, J.R. Newbold, H.B. Perdok, R.S. Hegarty
      Inclusion of nitrate in the diet of ruminants has been effective in reducing enteric emission of the greenhouse gas methane, but increases the risk of nitrate toxicity in the animal. An experiment was conducted to investigate if coating nitrate salts with lipid would reduce risks of nitrite toxicity in sheep without compromising the methane mitigating effect achieved using uncoated nitrate. Three forms of nitrate (uncoated nitrate; coated with palm oil or coated with paraffin wax) were administered intraruminally to sheep, with nitrate toxicity risk being evaluated by determining blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) levels. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in plasma and rumen fluid, as well as methane and nitrous oxide production were also evaluated. Sheep supplemented with isonitrogenous amounts of urea were used as negative controls. There was no significant effect of palm oil coating on MetHb but coating with paraffin wax lowered MetHb levels, rumen and plasma nitrate concentrations (P < 0.05) relative to concentrations in urea-supplemented sheep. Total VFA concentrations in rumen fluid were unaffected by coating nitrate, but acetate proportion increased while butyrate and propionate proportions declined over time in all treatments after intraruminal nitrate administration (P < 0.05). It is suggested that these changes were caused by the strong capacity of nitrate to act as an electron acceptor. There was substantial variation between animals in ruminal nitrate and nitrite concentrations and in blood MetHb when the same mass of nitrate was administered directly into the rumen, showing that individuals differ in their ability to metabolize nitrate. Whereas methane production over the 22h period of measurement was unaffected by the treatments, methane production during the first 3h of measurement post-feeding was reduced similarly by both coated and uncoated nitrate supplements compared to urea. The small amount of supplemented nitrate introduced and the rapidity of nitrate reduction may both explain why methane mitigation was only observed for a short period after administering the treatments. Over 22h in respiration chambers, nitrous oxide emissions were significantly increased by uncoated nitrate supplements compared to urea (P < 0.05). Nitrous oxide emissions by sheep fed coated nitrate did not differ from those of sheep fed urea. It is concluded that coating dietary nitrate can protect sheep against nitrite toxicity without adversely affecting methane mitigation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T03:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.026
       
  • Increasing dietary levels of citral oil on nutrient total tract
           
    • Authors: Taíssa S. Canaes; Filipe Zanferari; Bruna L. Maganhe; Caio S. Takiya; Thiago H. Silva; Tiago A. Del Valle; Francisco P. Rennó
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Taíssa S. Canaes, Filipe Zanferari, Bruna L. Maganhe, Caio S. Takiya, Thiago H. Silva, Tiago A. Del Valle, Francisco P. Rennó
      This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary doses of high purity citral oil on nutrient total tract digestibility, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, milk yield and composition, and N utilization in dairy goats. Twenty-four Saanen goats [62±1.4kg of body weight (BW), 75±20days in milk, and 3.0±0.27kg/d of milk yield, at the start of experiment], being eight of them rumen-cannulated, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods in which the first 14 d were allowed to treatment adaptation. Animals were assigned to the following treatments: control, with no citral supply; and dietary addition of 0.08, 0.16 or 0.24mL of citral oil per kg of BW. Increasing doses of citral oil did not affect dry matter (DM) and nutrient intake, but it linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber total tract digestion in dairy goats. Treatments neither affected ruminal pH nor NH3-N, but citral oil linearly increased butyrate proportion in ruminal fluid of goats. Citral oil consumption had a positive quadratic effect on ruminal propionate (mmol/dL and mmol/100mmol) and butyrate (mmol/dL) in goats. Treatments had a negative quadratic effect on ruminal acetate to propionate ratio and acetate proportion. Citral consumption by dairy goats linearly decreased blood urea concentration. Although treatments did not affect milk and fat-corrected milk yield, citral oil linearly decreased milk fat production in goats. Citral had no effect on milk fatty acid profile and N utilization in goats. Citral consumption had no effect on DM and nutrient intake as well as on fat-corrected milk yield, but it may increase ruminal propionate concentration in dairy goats.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T03:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.002
       
  • Foliar fungicide (pyraclostrobin) application on corn and its effects on
           corn silage composition
    • Authors: C.C. Kalebich; M.E. Weatherly; K.N. Robinson; G.M. Fellows; M.R. Murphy; F.C. Cardoso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): C.C. Kalebich, M.E. Weatherly, K.N. Robinson, G.M. Fellows, M.R. Murphy, F.C. Cardoso
      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various applications of foliar fungicide on corn ensiled as corn silage. Treatments were replicated once and assigned to one of eight 0.4-ha plots of corn as follows: control (CON), plants receiving no foliar fungicide application; treatment 1 (V5), where plants received a mixture of pyraclotrobin and fluxapyroxad foliar fungicide (Priaxor, BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5 (V5); treatment 2 (V5 + R1), where plants received two applications of foliar fungicide, a mixture of pyraclotrobin and fluxapyroxad at V5 and a mixture of pyraclostrobin+metconazole foliar fungicide (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 (R1); treatment 3 (R1), in which plants received one application of pyraclostrobin+metconazole foliar fungicide at R1. Samples of corn for corn silage were collected at harvest, prepared as 0.9-kg mini-silos and vacuum sealed. These were ensiled for 0, 30, 90, and 150 d postharvest then frozen for later analysis. Applications of fungicide on corn, later ensiled as corn silage resulted in less (P < 0.001) DM content (319, 315, and 317g/kg for V5, V5+R1, and R1, respectively) compared with untreated corn silage (CON; 335g/kg). Corn silage from R1 resulted in a lower (P =0.03) concentration of lignin (20g/kg DM) and greater (P =0.001) concentration of lactic acid (55.0g/kg DM) when compared with corn silage from other treatments (lignin: 24, 24, and 26g/kg DM for CON, V5, and V5+R1, respectively; and lactic acid: 46.5, 50.1, and 50.9g/kg DM for CON, V5, and V5+R1, respectively). Treatment R1 had a greater (P =0.03) concentration of water soluble carbohydrates at 0 and 150 d postharvest (123 and 31.5g/kg DM for 0 and 150 d, respectively; and an increased lactic acid concentration at 90 d (71.1g/kg DM for R1 vs. 63.4, 68.4, and 69.2g/kg DM for CON, V5, and V5+R1, respectively) when compared to the other treatments. Results suggested that fungicide application on corn at V5 or R1 may enhance the nutritive and fermentative profile when ensiled for feeding ruminants.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T08:06:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.025
       
  • The effects of feeding cut plantain and perennial ryegrass-white clover
           pasture on dairy heifer feed and water intake, apparent nutrient
           digestibility and nitrogen excretion in urine
    • Authors: L. Cheng; H.G. Judson; R.H. Bryant; H. Mowat; L. Guinot; H. Hague; S. Taylor; G.R. Edwards
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): L. Cheng, H.G. Judson, R.H. Bryant, H. Mowat, L. Guinot, H. Hague, S. Taylor, G.R. Edwards
      Urinary nitrogen concentration (UNcc ) and urinary N excretion (UN) are directly associated with the nitrogen (N) leaching potential of soil and greenhouse gas emissions from grazing ruminants’ urine patches. This study was carried out to examine the effects of feeding cut plantain (PL) and perennial ryegrass-white clover pasture (PW) on dairy heifer feed and water intake, apparent nutrient digestibility and N excretion in urine. Twelve Jersey-Friesian heifers aged 9-10 months with an average body weight of 200±18.8kg (mean±standard deviation (SD)) and breeding worth of NZ$162±16.9 (mean±SD) were randomly allocated to one of two treatments (six heifers per treatment): PW and PL. No difference was observed in dry matter intake (P =0.117) and N intake (P =0.370) between PW- and PL-fed heifers. The dry matter digestibility and digestible organic matter in the dry matter were similar between PL- and PW-fed heifers (P> 0.05). Heifers consuming PL had lower UNcc and UN than those consuming PW (P< 0.01). Estimated urine volume and total water intake were higher for PL-fed heifers than those fed PW (P< 0.01). Further, in comparison with PW-fed heifers, PL-fed heifers had lower plasma urea N (P< 0.001) and tended to have lower plasma δ15N – feed δ15N (P =0.086). The findings suggest that feeding PL to dairy heifers may reduce UNcc and UN in comparison with those on conventional pastures; therefore it provides an opportunity to mitigate on-farm N pollution.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T08:06:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.023
       
  • Use of Jerusalem artichoke tops silage to replace corn silage in sheep
           diet
    • Authors: M. Razmkhah; J. Rezaei; H. Fazaeli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Razmkhah, J. Rezaei, H. Fazaeli
      This study was performed to assess the effects of dietary substitution of different levels of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tops silage (JATS) for corn silage (CS) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen parameters, blood metabolites, microbial nitrogen (N) synthesis (MNS) and N retention in Shal sheep (live body weight of 65.3±2.3). Four iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated, in which CS was replaced by different levels (0, 180, 360 or 540g/kg of diet dry matter [DM]) of JATS. The diets were assigned randomly to one of the groups (5 sheep/group) in a completely randomized design for a 31-days period (21days for adaptation and 10days for sample collection). Diets were offered as total mixed ration to ensure 10% orts. Daily feed intake, diet digestibility, rumen and blood parameters, MNS and N retention were determined. The data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED of SAS. The DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility (DMD) were not affected by dietary treatments. With replacing CS by JATS, the ruminal ammonia-N concentration tended to increase (L, P=0.088), total volatile fatty acids (VFA) tended to decrease (L, P=0.089), but rumen protozoa, molar proportions of individual VFA and pH remained unchanged. Feeding sheep with diets containing JATS instead of CS had no effects on blood parameters, except urea-N, which was increased (L, P=0.032) as the level of JATS rose in diet. No difference was observed in urinary purine derivatives and MNS. Urinary N tended to enhance (L, P=0.080) and N retention tended to decrease (L, P=0.065) when the sheep received diets with the increasing levels of JATS. Overall, the partial substitution of JATS for CS, up to 540g/kg of DM, was possible in diet of Shal sheep without adverse effects on DMI, DMD, rumen fermentation, blood parameters and MNS, although blood urea-N raised slightly and total ruminal VFA and N retention somewhat declined. The aerial parts of the fresh JA can be preserved as a valuable silage to use in sheep diets.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.019
       
  • Complementarities between grasses and forage legumes from temperate and
           subtropical areas on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics
    • Authors: J.G. Dal Pizzol; H.M.N. Ribeiro-Filho; A. Quereuil; A. Le Morvan; V. Niderkorn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.G. Dal Pizzol, H.M.N. Ribeiro-Filho, A. Quereuil, A. Le Morvan, V. Niderkorn
      Associative effects between plants included in some mixtures with tropical and temperate species, which are able to grow in a wide range of temperature, deserve to be better investigated. The aim of this work was to assess the in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics when a tropical (peanut, Arachis pintoi) or temperate legume (sainfoin, Onobrychis viciifolia) with condensed tannins (CT), or a temperate legume without CT (alfalfa, Medicago sativa), were mixed with a tropical (axonopus, Axonopus catharinenses) or a temperate grass (tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea). Different proportions of each legume were mixed with each grass (in %, on dry matter (DM) basis, 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 75:25 and 100:0), and were tested using an in vitro rumen fermentation assay. The crude protein content in both tropical and temperate grasses ranged from 100 to 120g/kg DM, but the aNDF content was much higher in the tropical (617g/kg DM) than in the temperate grass (464g/kg DM). The ADF (+214g/kg DM) and lignin (+46.2g/kg DM) content was much higher in the alfalfa when compared with the average of two other legumes. Positive quadratic effects were detected on in vitro DM disappearance (IVDMD), total gas production, and volatile fatty acids production, when alfalfa was mixed with axonopus, but similar response was not observed when alfalfa was mixed with tall fescue. The IVDMD and total gas production linearly increased when the proportion of peanut or sainfoin increased in the mixtures containing axonopus, but did not change when these legumes were mixed with tall fescue. The ammonia production increased when the proportion of legume increased in all mixtures. Reductions on ammonia and methane (CH4) productions were observed in mixtures containing sainfoin without the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) compared to fermentation done with PEG, but this response was not observed in the mixtures containing peanut. We conclude that complementarities in terms of energy and protein content can create favourable conditions leading to positive associative effects on rumen digestive parameters when legume species were mixed with axonopus, but not when they are mixed with tall fescue, probably due to different fibre content of grasses. The CT of sainfoin allow to reduce ruminal protein degradability and mitigate CH4 emissions per kg of DM, while the CT content of peanut is not enough to have the same effects.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.020
       
  • Increasing dietary doses of an Aspergillus oryzae extract with
           alpha-amylase activity on nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation
           of lactating dairy cows
    • Authors: Caio S. Takiya; Gustavo D. Calomeni; Thiago Henrique Silva; Thiago Henrique A. Vendramini; Guilherme G. Silva; Carlos Eduardo C. Consentini; Jéssica Cristiane Bertoni; Elissandra Maiara C. Zilio; Francisco P. Rennó
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Caio S. Takiya, Gustavo D. Calomeni, Thiago Henrique Silva, Thiago Henrique A. Vendramini, Guilherme G. Silva, Carlos Eduardo C. Consentini, Jéssica Cristiane Bertoni, Elissandra Maiara C. Zilio, Francisco P. Rennó
      This study was designed to evaluate increasing dietary doses of an Aspergillus oryzae extract with alpha-amylase activity on nutrient intake and total tract digestion, sorting index, ruminal fermentation, milk yield and composition, blood metabolites and nitrogen utilization of mid- to late lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (162.3±107.9days in milk, 636±62kg of live weight, and 31.6±6.5kg/d of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Eight cows used in the experiment had rumen cannulas to assess ruminal fermentation variables. Periods had 21 days, in which 14days were allowed for treatment adaptation and 7days for sampling. Cows were randomly assigned to the following treatments: control (A0), and Aspergillus oryzae extract to supply 150, 300 or 450 FAU/kg DM. One FAU (fungal amylase unit) is the amount of enzyme which will dextrinize soluble starch at the rate of 1-mg per minute at 30°C and pH 4.8. Treatments did not affect DM and nutrient intake, as well as the sorting index of cows. Alpha-amylase supplementation linearly increased (P =0.031) crude protein digestibility and tended to linearly increase (P =0.060) DM digestibility. Treatments did not affect ruminal pH, acetate, butyrate, propionate and total branched-chain fatty acids. Alpha-amylase linearly increased (P =0.023) iso-valerate production and tended to quadratically affect (P =0.065) ammonia nitrogen concentration in rumen. Milk yield and composition, and efficiency of milk production were not affected (P ≥0.275) by alpha-amylase supplementation. Treatments tended to linearly decrease (P =0.061)N excreted in feces. Treatments linearly increased (P ≤0.039) live weight and body condition score of cows. Finally, alpha-amylase supplementation did not affect (P ≥0.234) serum glucose, urea, and hepatic enzymes concentration. Increasing doses of an Aspergillus oryzae extract up to 450 FAU/kg DM did not alter starch digestibility, ruminal propionate production, microbial protein synthesis, and milk yield and composition of mid-lactating cows.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.017
       
  • Influence of malic acid-heat treatment for protecting sunflower protein
           against ruminal degradation on in vitro methane production: a comparison
           with the use of malic acid as an additive
    • Authors: J.L. Vanegas; J. González; M.R. Alvir; M.D. Carro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.L. Vanegas, J. González, M.R. Alvir, M.D. Carro
      Batch cultures of rumen microorganisms were used to compare the fermentation of sunflower seed (SS) and meal (SM) treated with malic acid and heat (MAH; 150°C for 1h) to protect the protein from ruminal degradation with that of the untreated samples supplemented the same amount of malate (as additive), either as free acid (MA) or disodium malate (DSM). As previous studies have shown the influence of donors’ diet on in vitro fermentation, cultures were inoculated with ruminal fluid from four sheep fed a medium-concentrate diet (MC; 50:50 hay:concentrate) or a high-concentrate diet (HC; 15:85 barley straw:concentrate) in a cross-over experimental design. Cultures were sampled at 6 and 16.5h of fermentation. In 16.5h incubations, MAH treatment reduced (P< 0.001) CH4 production and ammonia-N concentrations for both substrates (by 60.3 and 45.3% for SS and by 23.7 and 17.2% for SM substrate, respectively). Whereas the MAH treatment reduced total volatile fatty (VFA) production by 16.5% for SS substrate, no effects were observed for SM substrate (P =0.441). For both substrates, adding the same amount of MA to untreated samples (as a feed additive) resulted in greater CH4 production and ammonia-N concentrations compared with the MAH treatment. A positive relationship (P <0.001) was observed between the concentrations of NH3-N and CH4 production at both incubation times for both substrates. Compared with the untreated feeds, MA and DSM did not affect (P >0.05) CH4 production for either substrate, but reduced ammonia-N concentrations (13.8%; P =0.004) for SM substrate. Compared with DSM, MA treatment resulted in greater (P< 0.05) production of gas, butyrate, isovalerate and valerate and tended (P< 0.10) to greater total VFA, and propionate production for SS substrate at 6h incubation, but most differences disappeared after 16.5h incubation. For some fermentation parameters, the response to MAH treatment was more pronounced by using fluid from sheep fed the HC diet than that from MC-fed sheep. In conclusion, the MAH treatment was more effective at reducing CH4 emissions and NH3-N concentrations than the supplementation of malic acid or disodium malate as a feed additive.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.015
       
  • Influence of dry-rolled corn processing and distiller’s grain inclusion
           rate on ruminal pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentration, in
           vitro methane production and enzyme activity
    • Authors: Faithe E. Keomanivong; Megan C. Ruch; Jeng-Hung Liu; James D. Kirsch; Marc L. Bauer; Carl R. Dahlen; Marsha Kapphahn; Md. S. Borhan; Shafiqur Rahman; Kendall C. Swanson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Faithe E. Keomanivong, Megan C. Ruch, Jeng-Hung Liu, James D. Kirsch, Marc L. Bauer, Carl R. Dahlen, Marsha Kapphahn, Md. S. Borhan, Shafiqur Rahman, Kendall C. Swanson
      The objective was to determine the effects of degree of dry-rolled corn processing and dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion rate on ruminal pH, NH3 and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, total in vitro gas and methane production, and enzyme activity in cattle fed high-concentrate diets. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (526±3.6kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement consisting of 1) 650g/kg coarse-rolled corn (2.5±0.008mm) with 200g/kg DDGS, 2) 450g/kg coarse-rolled corn with 400g/kg DDGS, 3) 650g/kg fine-rolled corn (1.7±0.002mm) with 200g/kg DDGS and 4) 450g/kg fine-rolled corn with 400g/kg DDGS. Diets met NRC recommendations and were offered for ad libitum intake. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square with 17-d periods allowing for 7 d of diet adaptation, 7 d of sample collection, and 3 d of rest in which all steers were offered an intermediate ration. There were no differences in ruminal pH among treatments. However, steers consuming 400g/kg DDGS tended (P =0.07) to have a pH less than 5.5 for a longer period of time (h/d) than those consuming 200g/kg DDGS. Ruminal NH3 was greater in steers receiving 200g/kg DDGS (P =0.02). Steers fed fine-rolled corn had greater (P =0.02) concentrations of butyric acid while those consuming coarse-rolled corn tended (P =0.06) to have greater concentrations of isovaleric acid. No difference in DM degradation rate was noted between treatments. In vitro methane concentration of the headspace was unaffected by treatment. Steers fed diets containing 200g/kg DDGS had greater (P< 0.001) ruminal α-amylase activity (U/L ruminal fluid; U/L/kg starch disappearance) while those fed 400g/kg DDGS had greater (P =0.01) trypsin activity (U/L/kg CP disappearance). An interaction between degree of corn processing×DDGS was noted for measurements of trypsin activity (U/L/kg CP disappearance; P =0.02) and maltase (U/L of ruminal fluid; P =0.004). In conclusion, the results are likely the result of the final nutrient profile of each treatment. Overall, there were minimal effects on ruminal fermentation and in vitro methane concentration with increasing degree of dry-rolling or DDGS inclusion indicating limited effects on ruminal health and environmental sustainability.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.016
       
  • Oxidative status of dairy cows fed flax meal and infused with sunflower
           oil in the abomasum
    • Authors: F.E. De Marchi; G.T. Santos; H.V. Petit; C. Benchaar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): F.E. De Marchi, G.T. Santos, H.V. Petit, C. Benchaar
      Flax products increase concentration of antioxidants in milk and plasma of dairy cows, which may reduce oxidative damage resulting from lipoperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flax meal on the antioxidant status of dairy cows infused with sunflower oil (SO), a source of omega-6 fatty acids (FA), in the abomasum. Eight rumen fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a double 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) control diet with no flax meal and no infusion of SO (CO); (2) diet containing 137g/kg flax meal (FM); (3) CO and infusion of 250g SO/d; and (4) FM and infusion of 250g SO/d. Dry matter intake and milk production were similar among diets. Flax meal increased milk fat concentration. Dietary FM supplementation increased plasma concentration of saturated fatty acids, and tended to reduce the polyunsaturated to saturated FA ratio. The plasma peroxidizability index was not affected by FM supplementation or SO infusion. Infusion of SO increased antioxidant capacity and rate of diene production, and decreased the time to reach maximal amount of conjugated diene production in plasma. Production of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) in ruminal fluid was reduced by dietary FM. Milk and plasma TBARS production were not affected by FM supplementation. Sunflower oil had no effect on TBARS production in ruminal contents, milk and plasma. In conclusion, feeding FM to dairy cows receiving a source of omega-6 FA (250g/d) that bypasses the rumen did not protect cows and milk from lipoperoxidation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.013
       
  • Investigation of the postruminal methionine requirement of growing lambs
           by using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique
    • Authors: Gao Wei; Liu Chen; Gao Xinmei; Zhang Fan; Chen Daofu; Liu Chenli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Gao Wei, Liu Chen, Gao Xinmei, Zhang Fan, Chen Daofu, Liu Chenli
      Methionine was demonstrated to be the most limiting amino acid for growing sheep when microbial protein is the predominant source of absorbable AA, but its specific requirement was not well quantified. The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method is based on the concept that when the most limiting amino acid (LAA) is deficient for protein synthesis, then all other AAs will be oxidized. With increasing intakes of the LAA, IAAO will decrease until the requirement for the LAA is met, and there is no further change in the indicator oxidation afterwards. Therefore, the catabolism of 13C-Phe was used to indicate the effects of varying duodenal infusing levels of Met on the oxidation rate by 4-month-old Kazakh lambs (30.8 ± 0.4kg BW). After a 6-d adaptation period, the IAAO test was conducted on d 7. Each lamb received a priming dose of 0.67mg/kg BW of 13C-Phe injected via the jugular vein, together with 0.18mg/kg BW of NaH13CO3 at time 0. Then, constant infusions [1.33mg 13C-Phe/(kg·h)−1] were started. Breath samples were collected prior to and half-hourly between 90 and 210min after the start of the 13C-Phe infusions. An estimate of the mean Met requirement was determined by a breakpoint analysis of the rate of 13CO2 released by 13C-Phe oxidation, with a 2-phase linear regression model. The oxidation rate of 13C-Phe decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing amounts of methionine infused in a dose-dependent fashion up to 1.65g/day, and it was not different from 1.65 to 2.15g/day (P > 0.05). The mean Met requirement was estimated to be 1.28±0.11g/day of supplementation. The total postruminal minimum requirement of Met would be 2.02g/day when the basal passage of Met (0.74g/day) was summed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.010
       
  • Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and energy utilization in heifers
           fed low-quality forage and Leucaena leucocephala
    • Authors: Angel T. Piñeiro-Vázquez; Guillermo O. Jiménez-Ferrer; Alfonso J. Chay-Canul; Fernando Casanova-Lugo; Víctor F. Díaz-Echeverría; Armin J. Ayala-Burgos; Francisco J. Solorio-Sánchez; Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez; Juan C. Ku-Vera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Angel T. Piñeiro-Vázquez, Guillermo O. Jiménez-Ferrer, Alfonso J. Chay-Canul, Fernando Casanova-Lugo, Víctor F. Díaz-Echeverría, Armin J. Ayala-Burgos, Francisco J. Solorio-Sánchez, Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez, Juan C. Ku-Vera
      The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala on dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum and housed in metabolic crates. Five crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) heifers (BW: 295±6kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and five increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DM) in a 5×5 Latin square design. The intake of DM was similar (P>0.05) among treatments, with an average of 7.03kg of DM/day. While the crude protein intake (CPI) linearly increased (P<0.001) with the inclusion of L. leucocephala, the DM digestibility (average 492.3g/kg DM) and OM digestibility (average 501.6g/kg OM) were not affected (P>0.05) by the incorporation of L. leucocephala into the ration. The N intake and excretion in the urine increased linearly (P=0.0001, 0.0001) as the level of L. leucocephala in the ration increased. In addition, methane energy loss as a percentage of that in the control ration, was of only 61% (P=0.0005) with 80% incorporation of L. leucocephala in the ration. We concluded that the inclusion of L. leucocephala has the capacity to reduce energy losses in the form of methane emissions. Nevertheless, the energy losses in the urine increased with the addition of L. leucocephala to the ration, with the optimal levels of incorporation in the ration fluctuating between 20 and 40% of the ration DM, which had no effects on the dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI) or the digestibility of dry matter (DMD).

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.009
       
  • Effect of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids with different
           particle sizes on lactation performance and milk fatty acid profile in
           dairy cows
    • Authors: M. Leduc; R. Gervais; P.Y. Chouinard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Leduc, R. Gervais, P.Y. Chouinard
      The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of particle size of dietary Ca salts of fatty acids (FA) on their inertness in the rumen, animal performance and transfer efficiency of polyunsaturated FA from diet to milk fat. Commercially produced CS of unsaturated FA (166g/kg c9 18:1, 105g/kg c9c12 18:2, 317g/kg c9c12c15 18:3) were sieved through a 1.9-mm screen, and the retained particles were identified as coarse CS. The small particles were ground through a 0.864-mm sieve, and identified as fine CS. A mixture of unprotected FA, as triacylglycerols (TG), with a composition similar to that of the CS served as control. Eight Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were 14-day administration of FA at the rate of 600g/d in the form of: (1) coarse CS in the rumen; (2) fine CS in the rumen; (3) TG in the rumen; and (4) TG in the abomasum for 14 days. Pre-planned contrasts were used to compare coarse CS with: (i) fine CS (effect of particle size); (ii) TG in the rumen (negative control); and (iii) TG in the abomasum (positive control). Actual milk yield was lower with abomasal infusion of TG (26.3kg/d), but was not affected by ruminal supplies of TG (29.7kg/d) or fine CS (29.5kg/d) as compared with coarse CS (30.4). Milk fat yield was similar with coarse CS (1.05kg/d) and abomasal infusion of TG (1.02kg/d), but was lower with ruminal supply of fine CS (0.95kg/d; tendency) and TG (0.89kg/d). Accordingly, milk fat concentrations of t10c12 18:2 were similar with coarse CS (0.35g/kg) and abomasal infusion of TG (0.33g/kg), but were greater with ruminal supply of fine CS and TG (0.59g/kg for both treatments). The apparent transfer efficiency of c9c12c15 18:3, from diet and lipid supplements to milk fat, varied from 0.017 to 0.264g secreted/g consumed with ruminal and abomasal infusions of TG, respectively. The recovery of c9c12c15 18:3 in milk was greater with coarse CS (0.084g/g) than with fine CS (0.042g/g). Results confirm the hypothesis that large particles of CS improved protection against ruminal biohydrogenation of unsaturated FA and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.012
       
  • Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in phytase-containing diets on
           growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad
           dermatitis score in broiler chickens
    • Authors: Jong Hyuk Kim; Gi Ppeum Han; Ji Eun Shin; Dong Yong Kil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Jong Hyuk Kim, Gi Ppeum Han, Ji Eun Shin, Dong Yong Kil
      This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in phytase-containing diets on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) score in broiler chickens. A total of 2100 1-d-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used and allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 70 birds in a completely randomized design. Five commercial-type diets were formulated to contain increasing Ca concentrations of 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, or 10.0g/kg. All diets contained 3.5g/kg nonphytate phosphorus and 1000 FTU/kg phytase. Diets were fed to birds for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, birds were sacrificed for tibia sampling and litter samples were collected. The FPD score was measured visually based on a 6-point scale scoring system. Results indicated that increasing Ca concentrations in phytase-containing diets decreased (linear, P< 0.01) body weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens. The concentrations of ash, Ca, and P in the tibia, and tibia breaking strength were not affected by dietary Ca concentrations. Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on litter quality including pH and moisture and nitrogen contents. A tendency (linear, P =0.10) for increased FPD score was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. In conclusion, increasing Ca concentrations from 6.0 to 10.0g/kg in phytase-containing diets have negative effects on growth performance of broiler chickens during 21 d posthatch, possibly due to decreased FI and subsequent phytase intake. Increasing Ca concentrations in phytase-containing diets have little impact on litter quality but tend to increase FPD incidence in broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.008
       
  • Intake, digestibility, performance, and feeding behavior of lambs fed
           diets containing silages of different tropical forage species
    • Authors: G.G.P. de Carvalho; R.A. Rebouças; F.S. Campos; E.M. Santos; G.G.L. Araújo; G.C. Gois; J.S. de Oliveira; R.L. Oliveira; L.M.de A. Rufino; J.A.G. Azevedo; L.G.A. Cirne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): G.G.P. de Carvalho, R.A. Rebouças, F.S. Campos, E.M. Santos, G.G.L. Araújo, G.C. Gois, J.S. de Oliveira, R.L. Oliveira, L.M.de A. Rufino, J.A.G. Azevedo, L.G.A. Cirne
      The study evaluates the effects of including four silages of tropical forages in the diet of lambs in semi-arid region of Brazil on their intake, digestibility, production performance, and feeding behavior. Thirty-two crossbred lambs with an average age of six months and an average initial weight of 17.6±2.63kg were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and eight replicates. Treatments consisted of diets with four forage plant species preserved in silage form: old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliares L.), gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq)), and pornunça (Manihot sp.). Each treatment was composed of a different silage, containing 50% silage and 50% of a concentrate based on corn and soybean meal. The highest (P<0.05) dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes were obtained with the animals fed diets containing old man saltbush silage compared to the buffelgrass and gliricidia silages. The animals fed pornunça silage had similar (P>0.05) DM and OM intakes to those fed old man saltbush and gliricidia silages, but higher (P<0.05) than those consuming buffelgrass silage. Lambs fed diets based on different silages of tropical forages showed similar (P>0.05) digestibility coefficients of DM and neutral detergent fiber. The time expended ruminating and chewing in minutes/day was highest (P<0.05) with old man saltbush silage in comparison to gliricidia and pornunça silages. Lambs fed diets with buffelgrass silage expended similar amounts of time ruminating and chewing (P>0.05) to those fed the other silages (old man saltbush silage, gliricidia, and pornunça). The highest values (P<0.05) for daily weight gain were observed in the animals fed the old man saltbush silage. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to use the old man saltbush, gliricidia, and pornunça forage plants as silage in lamb diets.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.006
       
  • Production performance, immunity, and heat stress resistance in Jersey
           cattle fed a concentrate fermented with probiotics in the presence of a
           Chinese herbal combination
    • Authors: Xiang Wang; Haijun Xie; Fu Liu; Yuhong Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Xiang Wang, Haijun Xie, Fu Liu, Yuhong Wang
      The goals of this study were to investigate the production performance, immunity, and heat stress resistance of Jersey cattle fed a concentrate fermented with compound probiotics in the presence of a Chinese herbal combination (CHC). First, the appropriate concentrations for the six Chinese herbs required to stimulate probiotic proliferation were investigated in vitro. Next, the optimal time and moisture content were determined for fermentation. We then tested the feeding effect of our fermented product on 36 growing cattle and 36 milking cows. The animals were randomly assigned to receive the product or not, resulting in half of each group receiving the treatment or serving as the control group. For 60 days, the experimental group was fed with the fermented product and the control group was fed with a basic concentrate that did not contain the probiotics or the Chinese herbs. The results showed that the cattle that received the fermented concentrate showed improved weight gain and milking cows that received the fermented concentrate showed increased average milk yield, milk fat content, and solid-not-fat content (P<0. 05). In addition, the serum levels of growth hormone, the 70kDa heat shock protein (HPS70), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) of the cattle in the experimental group were significantly higher than the levels of cattle in the control group. A similar increase in the serum levels of HPS70, IgG, immunoglobulin A, and interferon γ was observed in milking cows that received the treatment (P<0. 05). No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the serum levels of interleukin-2. Moreover, milking cows that received the fermented concentrate showed increased apparent digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, and crude fiber (P<0.05). For the growing cattle, only crude protein digestibility was significantly increased in the experimental group (P<0. 05). Finally, we found that the ammonia content in the barn was decreased after the animals received the fermented concentrate. These results demonstrated that our fermented concentrate improved production performance, immunity, and heat stress resistance in Jersey cattle. We also demonstrated that this CHC and a mixture of probiotic strains acted as an ideal leavening agent for cattle’s concentrate.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T15:08:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.015
       
  • Comparison of non-encapsulated and encapsulated active dried yeast on
           ruminal pH and fermentation, and site and extent of feed digestion in beef
           heifers fed high-grain diets
    • Authors: P.X. Jiao; L.Y. Wei; N.D. Walker; F.Z. Liu; L.Y. Chen; K.A. Beauchemin; W.Z. Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): P.X. Jiao, L.Y. Wei, N.D. Walker, F.Z. Liu, L.Y. Chen, K.A. Beauchemin, W.Z. Yang
      The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding ruminally protected active dried yeast (ADY) exhibits postruminal activity in comparison with feeding non-protected ADY assessed by measuring feed intake, ruminal pH and fermentation, and site and extent of feed digestion in finishing heifers. A combination antibiotic was used as a positive control. Five Angus beef heifers with ruminal cannulas (body weight of 650±48.8kg) were used in a 5×5 Latin square design with 21-d periods and 1 week of washout between each period. The five treatments were: 1) control (no ADY and no antibiotics), 2) antibiotics (ANT; 300mg monensin+110mg tylosin/d), 3) ADY (1.5g ADY/d), 4) encapsulated ADY (EDY; 3.5g/d containing 1.5g ADY and 2g capsule), and 5) mixture of ADY and EDY (MDY; 1.5g ADY+3.5g EDY/d). The ADY was encapsulated using barley hordein and glutelin extracted from barley grain. The stability of encapsulated yeast in the rumen and its release in the intestine were validated in vitro. Intake (kg/d) of dry matter (DM) was not affected by treatments. Ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, and NH3-N concentration did not differ among treatments, whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate were greater with yeast addition than ANT. No treatment effects on flows of organic matter (OM) and starch to the omasum were observed, whereas flows of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were greatest with ANT, lowest with EDY and intermediate with control, ADY and MDY (P<0.02). Digestibility of OM in the rumen tended (P<0.09) to be less with EDY or MDY than control or ANT, but no difference in ruminal digestibility of NDF and starch was observed among treatments. In contrast, greater postruminal digestibility of OM (P<0.01) and NDF (P<0.03) was observed with either EDY or MDY versus control and ANT. Digestibility of OM and NDF in the total digestive tract was also greater (P<0.01) with EDY or MDY than control. No treatment effect was observed on the flows of N to the omasum or microbial protein synthesis. Although digestibility of N in the rumen was not different, the digestibility of N in the total digestive tract was greater (P<0.02) with EDY or MDY than control or ANT. Supplementation of ADY or MDY tended (P<0.10) to have greater gene copy numbers of R. flavefaciens compared with ANT. Total protozoa counts were greater (P<0.01) in the rumen of heifers supplemented with ADY or MDY compared with control or ANT. These results demonstrate the postruminal activity of ADY and indicate the potential of feeding protected yeast to ruminants to increase intestinal digestibility of nutrients.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T15:08:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.001
       
  • In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed
           species
    • Authors: E. Molina-Alcaide; M.D. Carro; M.Y. Rodela; M.R. Weisbjerg; V. Lind; M. Novoa-Garrido
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): E. Molina-Alcaide, M.D. Carro, M.Y. Rodela, M.R. Weisbjerg, V. Lind, M. Novoa-Garrido
      Seaweeds have potentials as alternative feed for ruminants, but there is a limited knowledge on their nutritive value. Seven seaweed species collected along the coast above the Arctic circle of Norway, both in spring and autumn, were assessed for nutrients and total polyphenols (TEP) content, gas production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species (Acrosiphonia sp.). Additionally, the abundance and diversity of total bacteria, protozoa and archaea in the cultures with the three red seaweeds collected in spring were analyzed by quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. The crude protein (CP) content varied widely. Pelvetia had the greatest (P< 0.001) ether extract (EE) content. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) content varied from 135 to 541g/kg DM with brown seaweeds having the greatest values. Ash and CP contents were higher in spring than in autumn (P=0.020 and 0.003, respectively), whereas concentrations of EE and NSC were not affected by collecting season (P=0.208 to 0.341). The TEP values ranged from 1.46 to 50.3mg/g dry matter (DM), and differed (P< 0.001) among seaweed species and collecting season, being greater in autumn than in spring. The DM effective degradability (DMED), estimated from gas production parameters for a rumen passage rate of 3.0% per h, ranged from 424 to 652g/kg, the highest values were recorded for Mastocarpus stellatus and Porphyra sp. The lowest DMED values were registered for Pelvetia canaliculata and Acrosiphonia sp. In 24-h incubations (500mg DM), Palmaria palmata had the highest (P< 0.05) volatile fatty acids (VFA) and methane production (4.34 and 0.761mmol, respectively) and the lowest (P <0.05) final pH values and acetate to propionate ratios (6.57 and 2.34, respectively). There were no differences (P >0.05) among the other seaweeds in VFA production, but Porphyra sp. had the second highest methane production (P <0.05; 0.491mmol) compared with the other seaweeds (0.361mmol; averaged value). The methane/total VFA ratio was not affected (P >0.05) by either seaweed species or the collection season. Higher final pH (P< 0.05) and lower (P< 0.05) methane and VFA production, ammonia-N concentrations and DMED values were promoted by the fermentation of seaweed collected in autumn compared with those from spring. Among the red seaweeds, there were no species-specific differences (P> 0.05) in the abundance or the diversity of total bacteria, protozoa and archaea. In the PCR-DGGE analysis, samples were separated by the incubation run for all microbial populations analyzed, but not by seaweed species. The results indicate that seaweed species differ markedly in their in vitro rumen degradation, and that samples collected in autumn had lower rumen degradability than those collected in spring.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.012
       
  • Variability in susceptibility to acidosis among high producing
           mid-lactation dairy cows is associated with rumen pH, fermentation, feed
           intake, sorting activity, and milk fat percentage
    • Authors: S.M. Nasrollahi; A. Zali; G.R. Ghorbani; M. Moradi Shahrbabak; M. Heydari Soltan Abadi; L.A. Krueger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): S.M. Nasrollahi, A. Zali, G.R. Ghorbani, M. Moradi Shahrbabak, M. Heydari Soltan Abadi, L.A. Krueger
      The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the variation in susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) among high producing, mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows fed a high-grain diet and to characterize animals that are rumen pH-tolerant to high-concentrate diets. Lactating dairy cows (n =78, days in milk=103±26.5; body weight=630±76.8kg) were fed a high-concentrate diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate. Cows were adapted for 14 d and then were sampled for 10 d. Rumen pH was measured by rumenocentesis for all cows at approximately 4h after the morning feeding and reticuloruminal pH was measured for 14 cows via indwelling sensors. Although all cows were fed the same diet, rumenocentesis pH and minimum reticuloruminal pH values ranged from 5.05 to 6.98 and 4.78 to 6.08, respectively, and the acidosis index ranged from 0 to 28 pH×min/kg of dry matter intake (DMI). Cows were classified according to rumenocentesis pH as tolerant (pH≥6.0; n=26), marginal (5.8≤pH<6; n=21), and susceptible (pH<5.8; n=31). Cows were also classified according to reticuloruminal pH as susceptible if duration of an acidotic condition (pH<5.8) exceeded 330min/d (an average of 920min/d; n=9) and tolerant if the acidotic condition persisted <330min/d (an average of 78min/d; n=5). The classification based on rumenocentesis pH revealed that DMI during first 2h after morning feeding decreased with increasing SARA susceptibility (6.32 vs. 5.87 and 5.47kg/d±0.28 for tolerant, marginal, and susceptible cows, respectively; P< 0.01). This result was associated with greater daily DMI of tolerant cows which also were of greater body weight, so intake per kg of body weight was not different among tolerant, marginal, and susceptible groups. Sorting against long particles and in favor of fine particles during the morning feeding (0–6h) also increased with increasing SARA susceptibility (P< 0.01). However, when cows were classified according to reticuloruminal pH, DMI and sorting activity were not significant. Milk fat percentage was greater in tolerant cows, whereas total yield and yield of other components was not significant (P ≤0.01). The proportions of isovalerate and valerate were correlated with increased SARA susceptibility in cows classified according to rumenocentesis pH (P =0.03), but the rumen volatile fatty acid profile was not affected by SARA susceptibility when cows were classified by reticuloruminal pH. We conclude that DMI during the first 2h after feeding, milk fat percentage, and valerate proportion in the ruminal fluid were the variables with the greatest correlation with ruminal pH (P ≤0.05). These results indicate that substantial variation exists in SARA susceptibility among high producing, mid-lactation dairy cows, and that cows characterized as tolerant to the high-grain diet exhibit greater DMI and milk fat percentage, but decreased sorting behavior and proportion of isovalerate in the rumen.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.007
       
 
 
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