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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3031 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Feed Science and Technology
  [SJR: 1.151]   [H-I: 83]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0377-8401 - ISSN (Online) 0377-8401
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Effect of supplementing exogenous protease in low protein poultry
           by-product meal based diets on growth performance and nutrient
           digestibility in broilers
    • Authors: T. Mahmood; M.A. Mirza; H. Nawaz; M. Shahid; M. Athar; M. Hussain
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 228
      Author(s): T. Mahmood, M.A. Mirza, H. Nawaz, M. Shahid, M. Athar, M. Hussain
      A 3×2×2 experiment using 3 levels (0, 30 and 60g/kg) of poultry by-product meal (PBM), two levels (180 and 190g/kg) of crude protein (CP) and two levels of exogenous protease (with and without) was undertaken using factorial arrangement under completely randomized design. The birds (n=1920) were randomly divided into 48 replicates with four replicates under each treatment (40 birds/replicate). Six isocaloric diets (ME 11.93MJ/kg) were formulated with 2 CP (180 and 190g/kg) levels. Each diet was supplemented with or without exogenous enzyme and fed to experimental birds from day 1–35. The dietary supplementation of exogenous protease increased feed intake (P< 0.001) and body weight gain (P< 0.001). The feed: gain was also improved by supplementation of protease during day 1–21 and day 1–35. However, feed intake and body weight gain (P< 0.001) decreased with decreasing level of CP during day 1–21 and day 1–35. Similarly increasing the level of PBM from 30 to 60g/kg decreased feed intake and body weight gain (P< 0.001) during day 1–21. The feed: gain was also poor (P< 0.05) during this period. No effect of reducing CP level on AME, apparent digestibility co-efficient for nitrogen, and AMEn was noted. However, nitrogen retention (Nret) was decreased (P< 0.001) when CP level was decreased. Inclusion of PBM also had no effect on nutrient digestibility. A significant interaction (P< 0.05) of PBM and CP was noted on AME, Nret and AMEn. However, addition of enzyme improved all these parameters. In conclusion, CP level can be reduced to 190g/kg with 30g/kg PBM inclusion by supplementing exogenous protease.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2017)
       
  • Influence of substitution of sunflower oil by different oils on the
           growth, survival rate and fatty acid composition of Jamaican field cricket
           (Gryllus assimilis)
    • Authors: Kristina Starčević; Aleksandar Gavrilović; Željko Gottstein; Tomislav Mašek
      Pages: 66 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 228
      Author(s): Kristina Starčević, Aleksandar Gavrilović, Željko Gottstein, Tomislav Mašek
      This study was performed to investigate the influence of linseed, fish, pumpkin seed and sunflower oil on the Jamaican field cricket’s survival rate, growth and fatty acid profile. Fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as fatty acid methyl esters in the homogenates of whole crickets. Survival rate was influenced by oil type and oil content. With an increase in the pumpkin seed and linseed oil percentage survival rate decreased (from 45.3 to 34.0% for the pumpkin and from 36.7 to 24.12% for linseed), while with an increase in fish oil, the survival rate increased (from 30.7 to 45.4%). Oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids had the strongest positive effect on cricket survival and polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids ratio had the highest negative correlation with cricket survival. The most abundant fatty acids in all groups were linoleic, oleic and palmitic. The levels of individual fatty acids varied considerably between different treatments. Linseed oil significantly increased the content of linolenic acid (7.32% for 3% supplementation to 11.27% for 5% supplementation) and strongly decreased the n6/n3 ratio, but the EPA and DHA content was not detectable. In the fish oil fed crickets EPA and DHA content was detectable ranging for EPA from 0.78 to 1.35% and for DHA from 0.16 to 0.29% and the n6/n3 ratio was decreased. In the pumpkin seed and sunflower oil treated insects the n6/n3 ratio was very high due to the high content of linoleic acid. In conclusion, dietary linseed and fish oil could be an interesting strategy to manipulate cricket fatty acid profile to make them more interesting from a nutritional standpoint. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a positive influence on cricket survival, and therefore, they should not be neglected in feed formulation for large scale cricket production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 228 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamine on the
           performance of rabbit does and their litters during the first three
           lactations
    • Authors: R. Delgado; R. Abad-Guamán; E. De la Mata; D. Menoyo; N. Nicodemus; J. García; R. Carabaño
      Pages: 84 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 227
      Author(s): R. Delgado, R. Abad-Guamán, E. De la Mata, D. Menoyo, N. Nicodemus, J. García, R. Carabaño
      The aim of this work was to study whether the dietary supplementation with arginine (Arg) and glutamine (Gln) or the combination of both influence the digestibility, body composition, and reproductive performance of rabbit does during the first three parturitions. A Control diet containing 29.8g nitrogen (N), 313g aNDFom per kg DM and 1.85g digestible N/MJ digestible energy (DN/DE) was formulated, and another 3 diets were obtained by adding (g/kg) 4 Arg, 4 Gln and a mixture of 4 Arg and 4 of Gln to the Control diet. Eighty nulliparous rabbit does were randomly assigned to the diets (20/diet) before the first insemination. After each parturition litter size were homogenized within each treatment and does inseminated 11d later. Chemical composition and energy content of rabbit does and their performance, litter growth and milk production were measured between birth and weaning (25d) along three parturitions. Amino acid supplementation increased the DN content (P =0.015) and tended to increase the DN/DE ratio compared to Control group (P =0.077) leading to an increase of digestible N intake during lactation (P =0.004). In this period, Gln group had a higher DE intake compared to Control and Arg+Gln groups (P =0.038). Total number kits born per litter tended to increase in rabbit does supplemented with Arg and Gln, compared to Control and Arg+Gln groups (P =0.095), but no effect of treatments on the number of weaned rabbits was observed (P =0.15). Single supplementation of Arg and Gln increased the weight of the litters at 20 and 25d respect to Control and Arg+Gln groups (P ≤0.021). Amino acid supplementation did not affect the milk production (P =0.16), although it was positively correlated with the DE and DN intake (P <0.001). There were no significant effects of treatments on body weight, chemical composition and energy content of rabbit does, but does supplemented with Arg or Gln tended to have a higher body energy content at the third insemination and at weaning than those from Control and Arg+Gln groups (P ≤0.099). Amino acid supplementation did not modify the replacement rate of rabbit does. In conclusion, the single supplementation of Arg and Gln had a positive effect on the weight of litters at weaning and litter size at birth, but no additive effect was observed for the combined supplementation of Arg and Gln.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 227 (2017)
       
  • Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with
           increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage
    • Authors: M. Johansen; A.L.F. Hellwing; P. Lund; M.R. Weisbjerg
      Pages: 95 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 227
      Author(s): M. Johansen, A.L.F. Hellwing, P. Lund, M.R. Weisbjerg
      The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass-clover swards grown by two Danish organic farmers were cut and pre-wilted to a planned DM concentration of 350 and 700g/kg, respectively, giving in total eight silages with DM concentrations ranging from 283 to 725g/kg. Four Holstein dairy cows in late lactation with fistulae in rumen, duodenum and ileum were included in a crossover design, with five periods of 21 d. The cows were fed ad libitum with the experimental silages without any concentrate, but with daily supply of minerals and vitamins. Feed intake was registered daily and in the last week of each period 12 subsamples of duodenal and ileal chyme and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines. Methane (CH4) production was measured the last two days in each period in open-circuit respiration chambers. Results were analysed using a linear random regression model with DM concentration as fixed effect, cow and cut number x farmer as random intercepts and with a cut number x farmer random slope. The amount of AA digested in the small intestine increased (P =0.024) by 5.59g/kg DM intake with each increase in silage DM concentration of 100g/kg. The increased digestion of AA in the small intestine was caused by a higher small intestinal digestibility of AA and a tendency towards a higher duodenal flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage can be improved by pre-wilting to a higher DM concentration before ensiling.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 227 (2017)
       
  • A review of the utility of potato by-products as a feed resource for
           smallholder pig production
    • Authors: C.N. Ncobela; A.T. Kanengoni; V.A. Hlatini; R.S. Thomas; M. Chimonyo
      Pages: 107 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 227
      Author(s): C.N. Ncobela, A.T. Kanengoni, V.A. Hlatini, R.S. Thomas, M. Chimonyo
      The use of potato by-product (PBP) as alternative feed, particularly for smallholder pig farmers requires exploration. Potato by-products are abundantly available and considered as debris and yet they have potential to be valuable feed ingredients. Chemical and bulk properties of PBPs vary largely with processing and type of PBP generated. Ordinarily, they are good sources of energy, starch, partly fibre and have low levels of protein. Drawbacks of utilising PBPs are that they are bulky with high levels of moisture that make them prone to putrefaction if unused in a short period. It is, therefore, worthwhile to process PBPs as a strategy to prolong their shelf life, to fill the gaps of feed shortages throughout the year. This promotes their usage as source of dietary energy and fibre for pigs and will, in turn, solve disposal problems facing the food processing industry. The methods used to process and preserve PBPs should be appropriate for farmers to maintain low cost of production whilst ensuring both environmental and financial sustainability. There is inconsistent data on the influence of PBPs on pig performance. This could be because of the different processing methods used, inclusion levels and pig breeds. The information on nutritive value, bulk properties and the impact of PBPs on feed intake and growth performance of pigs is inconclusive. Processing and preservative methods such as boiling, liquid fermenting, sun drying and ensiling are likely to be compatible methods for smallholder pig farmers. These methods are inexpensive, easy to access and are appropriate for the financial standing of smallholder famers. To maximise exploitation of these methods, challenges associated with them need to be identified and resolved.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 227 (2017)
       
  • Growth performance, nitrogen balance, and metabolism of calcium and
           phosphorus in growing pigs fed diets supplemented with alpha-ketoglutarate
           
    • Authors: J.S. Chen; F. Wu; H.S. Yang; F.N. Li; Q. Jiang; S.J. Liu; B.J. Kang; S. Li; T.O. Adebowale; N. Huang; H. Li; Y.L. Yin; C.X. Fu; K. Yao
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 226
      Author(s): J.S. Chen, F. Wu, H.S. Yang, F.N. Li, Q. Jiang, S.J. Liu, B.J. Kang, S. Li, T.O. Adebowale, N. Huang, H. Li, Y.L. Yin, C.X. Fu, K. Yao
      We investigated the effects of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) supplementation on growth performance, the nitrogen (N) balance, and metabolism of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in growing pigs. Sixteen healthy animals (Large×White×Landrace) of similar initial weight (40.08±0.78kg) were randomly assigned to two dietary groups. The pigs were fed a basic diet containing either 0 (control) or 10g AKGkg−1 for 28 d. Their faeces and urine were collected continuously from Days 23–25. On Day 28, all of them were killed and their right rear femurs and tibias were removed. Pigs fed diets with AKG tended to have higher average daily gain (ADG; P =0.088), but their urinary-N levels and excretion of total N were 24.50% (P =0.012) and 23.67% (P =0.011) lower, respectively, when compared with corresponding values measured from the control group. However, their apparent N-digestibility and net protein utilization were increased by 2.43% (P =0.044) and 11.84% (P =0.002), respectively, over the control. Furthermore, supplemental AKG decreased faecal- and urinary-Ca levels by 29.56% (P =0.045) and 24.54% (P =0.001), respectively, while enhancing P-retention, apparent Ca-digestibility, and apparent P-digestibility by 27.10% (P =0.002), 14.51% (P =0.041), and 16.62% (P =0.010), respectively. The addition of AKG also elevated the concentrations of ash, P, and Ca (P =0.012, P =0.002, and P =0.004, respectively) in the femur samples, and increased bone density (P =0.003), but did not affect those parameters in the tibias. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with AKG can improve the utilization of N, Ca, and P; while effectively reducing N, Ca, and P emissions; and promoting N-, Ca-, and P-metabolism in growing pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T22:01:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 226 (2017)
       
  • Modelling of lysine requirement in broiler breeder hens based on daily
           nitrogen retention and efficiency of dietary lysine utilization
    • Authors: Juliano Cesar De Paula Dorigam; Nilva Kazue Sakomura; Letícia Soares; João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes; Angela Sünder; Frank Liebert
      Pages: 29 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 226
      Author(s): Juliano Cesar De Paula Dorigam, Nilva Kazue Sakomura, Letícia Soares, João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes, Angela Sünder, Frank Liebert
      The current feeding programs used for broiler breeder hens need information on how to make use of the genetic potential more efficiently by modelling the amino acid (AA) requirements. Thus, this study aimed to determine the model parameters for maximum nitrogen retention (NRmaxT), nitrogen maintenance requirement (NMR) and the efficiency of lysine utilization (bc−1) to determine the lysine (Lys) requirements of broiler breeder hens. Nitrogen balance trials were performed in two periods (I: 31–35 wks and II: 46–50 wks). Seven dietary treatments were used with eight replicates and one hen per cage; the treatments consisted of seven diets with protein levels ranging from 58.8 to 311.9g/kg of feed, with Lys being limiting in the dietary protein (c=3.91g of Lys in 100g of CP). For each period, nitrogen intake (NI), nitrogen excretion (NEX), nitrogen in egg mass (NEM), nitrogen deposition (ND) and nitrogen retention (NR, NR=ND+NEM+NMR) were obtained in a N balance trial of 25days. The NMR was calculated as the intersection point of the exponential curve between NEX and NI at NI=0. The NRmaxT and b (slope related to protein quality) were estimated by the exponential fit between NR and NI. The Lys efficiency bc−1 was obtained dividing b by c. The likelihood ratio test for the model parameters yielded 255mg/BWkg 0.67 for NMR, 0.000117 for b and 1684mg/BWkg 0.67 (period I) and 1484mg/BWkg 0.67 (period II) for NRmaxT. The necessary Lys intake dependent on NR and Lys efficiency was derived by the equation Lys=(lnNRmaxT-ln(NRmaxT-NR))/(16×bc−1). Lys intakes required to achieve 0.80 times the maximum potential (NRmaxT) were 915mg and 876mg in the period I and II, respectively. For broiler breeder hens, assuming 0.80 times the NRmaxT value and average efficiency of Lys utilization, 6.02g/kg (31–35 wk) and 5.96g/kg (46–50 wk) digestible dietary Lys were observed as optimal digestible Lys concentration in the diet (corresponding to 152 and 147g of daily feed intake, respectively). Results of model calculations need verification in performance trials with evaluation of nitrogen deposition and varying dietary Lys efficiencies.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T22:01:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 226 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary cowpea (Vigna sinensis) hay and protein level on milk
           yield, milk composition, N efficiency and profitability of dairy cows
    • Authors: E.E. Corea; J.M. Aguilar; N.P. Alas; E.A. Alas; J.M. Flores; G.A. Broderick
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 226
      Author(s): E.E. Corea, J.M. Aguilar, N.P. Alas, E.A. Alas, J.M. Flores, G.A. Broderick
      Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows were grouped by days-in-milk into 8 blocks of 4 cows and fed 4 diets containing either (dry matter (DM) basis) 0 or 125g/kg of cowpea hay (Vigna sinensis), added at the expense of sorghum silage, with either low (155g/kg) or high (170g/kg) crude protein (CP) supplemented as soybean meal and distillers grains. Diets were balanced to be isoenergetic for cows weighing 540kg and producing 29kg/d of milk. Cows were milked and fed ad libitum 3 times a day. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments; periods were 21days long with 14days of adaptation and 7days of data collection and sampling. Effects of cowpea, CP and their interactions were evaluated using the mixed procedures of SAS, with either pen (traits related to intake) or cow (traits related to production) as the experimental unit. No significant effects of treatment were observed for DM intake (DMI), body weight (BW) gain, and yield of milk and milk components. However, substituting cowpea hay for a portion of the dietary sorghum silage increased milk/DMI and milk N/N intake and decreased milk urea N (MUN) and fecal N excretion, tended to decrease urinary N excretion, reduced feed cost and increased income over feed cost. Moreover, feeding of cowpea hay increased apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP and neutral detergent fiber. Decreasing dietary CP from 170 to 155g/kg increased Milk N/N intake and decreased MUN, urinary N, fecal N and urinary N/N intake, reduced feed cost and increased income over feed cost. Inclusion of cowpea hay in diets formulated under tropical conditions reduced the need to feed high-cost protein ingredients, improved feed and N efficiency, and reduced risk of N pollution.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T22:01:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 226 (2017)
       
  • Optimizing the use of spineless cactus in the diets of cattle: Total and
           partial digestibility, fiber dynamics and ruminal parameters
    • Authors: Michelle C.B. Siqueira; Marcelo de A. Ferreira; João Paulo I. dos S. Monnerat; Janaina de L. Silva; Cleber T.F. Costa; Maria G. da Conceição; Rafael de P.X. de Andrade; Leonardo J.A. Barros; Tobias T. de B. Melo
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 226
      Author(s): Michelle C.B. Siqueira, Marcelo de A. Ferreira, João Paulo I. dos S. Monnerat, Janaina de L. Silva, Cleber T.F. Costa, Maria G. da Conceição, Rafael de P.X. de Andrade, Leonardo J.A. Barros, Tobias T. de B. Melo
      The effects of the inclusion of spineless cactus (0; 147; 294; 441 and 588gkg−1) in replacement of Tifton hay on intake, total and partial (ruminal and intestinal) digestibility obtained from samples of digesta collected in reticulum and omasum, fiber dynamics, and rumen parameters were evaluated. Five rumen fistulated crossbred steers with an average body weight of 380±5.3kg were assigned to a 5×5 Latin square design. The nutrient intake showed a quadratic effect, with a maximum intake of dry matter (8.89kg d−1; P =0.012) and digestible organic matter (5.75kgd−1; P =0.013) estimated with 339 and 418gkg−1 of inclusion, respectively. The total (P <0.01) and ruminal (P <0.05) digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and degradation rate (Kd) of DM increased linearly. There was no effect on the total and ruminal digestibility, ingestion rate (Ki), passage rate (Kp) and Kd of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; P >0.05). The maximum pool of NDF (2.46kg; P <0.05) was estimated with 201gkg−1 of spineless cactus inclusion. Except for the proportion of volatile fatty acids that did not differ (P >0.05) with the inclusion of spineless cactus, there was a linear decrease (P =0.001) of rumen pH, and a quadratic effect (P <0.001) of ammonia nitrogen. It is recommended to include 418gkg−1 of spineless cactus on a DM basis as a replacement of Tifton hay in the diet of cattle to maximize energy intake.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:36:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 226 (2017)
       
  • Prediction of metabolisable energy content of commercial total mixed
           rations (TMR) for lactating dairy cows based on gas production measured
           into two TMR fractions
    • Authors: M. Spanghero; G. Magni; E. Boselli; M. Piombino; F. Mason; G. Cozzi
      Pages: 65 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 226
      Author(s): M. Spanghero, G. Magni, E. Boselli, M. Piombino, F. Mason, G. Cozzi
      The aim was to estimate the ME content of TMR samples for lactating dairy cows based on 24h gas production (GP) measured in two TMR fractions obtained by sieving that were considered proxy representations of their forage and concentrate contents. Samples of TMR for lactating cows, collected at 15 Italian dairy farms, were dried and fractionated using an apparatus composed of four sieves (mesh diam. of 6.00, 2.36, 1.18, 0.60mm) and a bottom pan. The particles retained by the 6.00, 2.36 and 1.18mm sieves were bulked to create a fraction named “Long” (L), while particles retained by the 0.60mm sieve and the bottom pan created a fraction named “Fine”(F). Samples of whole TMR and of F and L fractions were fermented in rumen fluid (220mg of dried sample into graduated 100ml glass syringes with 30ml of diluted rumen fluid) to measure GP at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72h of incubation, and GP at 24h was used in multiple equations to predict the ME content. The L fraction was the main part of the TMR (633±61.7g/kg DM) and contained more aNDFom (391 vs 185g/kg DM; P<0.01), less starch (213 vs 394g/kg DM; P<0.01) and less CP (132 vs 181g/kg DM; P<0.01) than the F fraction. The 24h GP measured on the F fraction was 17% higher (P<0.01) than in the L fraction lending to a 25% increase in the predicted ME content of the F fraction (12.1 vs 9.7MJ/kg DM, P<0.01). When the GP of the two fractions were summed on the basis of their relative weights in each TMR to obtain a calculated GP of the whole TMR, this did not differ from that directly measured on the original TMR sample. The ME values of the TMR had substantial variability among samples and the highest ME values measured for the F and L fractions were 13.23 and 10.82MJ/kg DM, respectively. The inclusion of these F and L fraction values in TMR samples that had the lowest ME concentrations (e.g. 10.0–10.4MJ/kg DM), as an hypothetical consequence of an improvement in nutritive quality of the dietary feed components, resulted in a calculated ME increment of about 0.5–0.6 and 0.8–1.0MJ/kg DM, respectively. These simulations suggest appreciable ME variations in cases of substituting nutritionally extreme forages and/or concentrates with corresponding feeds of different nutritive quality.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 226 (2017)
       
  • Reducing the dietary omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio
           attenuated inflammatory indices and sustained epithelial tight junction
           integrity in weaner pigs housed in a poor sanitation condition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): T.K. Shin, Y.J. Yi, J.C. Kim, J.R. Pluske, H.M. Cho, S.S. Wickramasuriya, E. Kim, S.M. Lee, J.M. Heo
      The present study was conducted to determine the effect of reducing dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on the performance, inflammatory response and gut morphology of PWD challenged with sanitary and poor sanitary conditions in weaned pigs, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to an poor sanitary environment will increase indices for inflammatory response; and (2) reducing n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio in diets for weaned pigs will attenuate the inflammatory response induced by the environmental challenge. A total of 108 male pigs [Duroc×(Yorkshire×Landrace); initial BW 7.1±0.5kg] weaned at 21days of age were randomly allocated to one of 3 dietary treatments and 2 environmental conditions (sanitary vs. poor sanitary) to give 6 replicate pens per treatment with 3 pigs per pen. The dietary treatments were 3 graded levels of n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio (i.e.,20:1, 10:1 and 4:1) formulated using tallow, safflower oil, and a vegetable and fish oil blended product. One pig per pen (n=6) was euthanized on d 0, d 7 and d 14, to collect blood and small intestinal tissue samples. Pigs exposed to a poor sanitary environment tended (P <0.10) to grow more slowly and utilized feed less efficiently (P <0.05) compared with the pigs housed in sanitary conditions. Housing weaned pigs in a poor sanitary environment increased (P <0.05) the incidence of diarrhoea. Furthermore, a poor sanitary environment increased (P <0.001) the occludin diffusion in the ileal epithelium of weaned pigs and increased plasma concentrations of TNF-α (P <0.05), COX-2 (P <0.05), PGE2 (P <0.01) and LTB4 (P <0.05) on d 14. Reducing the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio improved (P <0.05) both ADG and FCR but reduced (P <0.01) the incidence of diarrhoea over 14days after weaning, and they tended to attenuate (P <0.10) the diffusion of the transmembrane tight junction protein occludin at the apical intercellular region of the ileal epithelium. Moreover, reducing the n-6:n-3 ratio in the diet attenuated the increased inflammatory indices induced by the environmental challenge. Correlation analysis indicated that n-6 PUFA intake of individual pigs positively correlated with plasma concentrations of IL-1β (P <0.01), TNF-α (P <0.05), PGE2 (P <0.01) and COX-2 (P <0.05). Our results indicated that housing pigs in a poor sanitary environment after weaning increased inflammatory responses and reduced growth performance. Reducing the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio to 4:1 attenuated the inflammatory responses observed after weaning in both environment on d 7 and in the poor sanitary environment on d 14.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:11:36Z
       
  • Use of Jerusalem artichoke tops silage to replace corn silage in sheep
           diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Razmkhah, J. Rezaei, H. Fazaeli
      This study was performed to assess the effects of dietary substitution of different levels of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tops silage (JATS) for corn silage (CS) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen parameters, blood metabolites, microbial nitrogen (N) synthesis (MNS) and N retention in Shal sheep (live body weight of 65.3±2.3). Four iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated, in which CS was replaced by different levels (0, 180, 360 or 540g/kg of diet dry matter [DM]) of JATS. The diets were assigned randomly to one of the groups (5 sheep/group) in a completely randomized design for a 31-days period (21days for adaptation and 10days for sample collection). Diets were offered as total mixed ration to ensure 10% orts. Daily feed intake, diet digestibility, rumen and blood parameters, MNS and N retention were determined. The data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED of SAS. The DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility (DMD) were not affected by dietary treatments. With replacing CS by JATS, the ruminal ammonia-N concentration tended to increase (L, P=0.088), total volatile fatty acids (VFA) tended to decrease (L, P=0.089), but rumen protozoa, molar proportions of individual VFA and pH remained unchanged. Feeding sheep with diets containing JATS instead of CS had no effects on blood parameters, except urea-N, which was increased (L, P=0.032) as the level of JATS rose in diet. No difference was observed in urinary purine derivatives and MNS. Urinary N tended to enhance (L, P=0.080) and N retention tended to decrease (L, P=0.065) when the sheep received diets with the increasing levels of JATS. Overall, the partial substitution of JATS for CS, up to 540g/kg of DM, was possible in diet of Shal sheep without adverse effects on DMI, DMD, rumen fermentation, blood parameters and MNS, although blood urea-N raised slightly and total ruminal VFA and N retention somewhat declined. The aerial parts of the fresh JA can be preserved as a valuable silage to use in sheep diets.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:11:36Z
       
  • Complementarities between grasses and forage legumes from temperate and
           subtropical areas on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.G. Dal Pizzol, H.M.N. Ribeiro-Filho, A. Quereuil, A. Le Morvan, V. Niderkorn
      Associative effects between plants included in some mixtures with tropical and temperate species, which are able to grow in a wide range of temperature, deserve to be better investigated. The aim of this work was to assess the in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics when a tropical (peanut, Arachis pintoi) or temperate legume (sainfoin, Onobrychis viciifolia) with condensed tannins (CT), or a temperate legume without CT (alfalfa, Medicago sativa), were mixed with a tropical (axonopus, Axonopus catharinenses) or a temperate grass (tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea). Different proportions of each legume were mixed with each grass (in %, on dry matter (DM) basis, 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 75:25 and 100:0), and were tested using an in vitro rumen fermentation assay. The crude protein content in both tropical and temperate grasses ranged from 100 to 120g/kg DM, but the aNDF content was much higher in the tropical (617g/kg DM) than in the temperate grass (464g/kg DM). The ADF (+214g/kg DM) and lignin (+46.2g/kg DM) content was much higher in the alfalfa when compared with the average of two other legumes. Positive quadratic effects were detected on in vitro DM disappearance (IVDMD), total gas production, and volatile fatty acids production, when alfalfa was mixed with axonopus, but similar response was not observed when alfalfa was mixed with tall fescue. The IVDMD and total gas production linearly increased when the proportion of peanut or sainfoin increased in the mixtures containing axonopus, but did not change when these legumes were mixed with tall fescue. The ammonia production increased when the proportion of legume increased in all mixtures. Reductions on ammonia and methane (CH4) productions were observed in mixtures containing sainfoin without the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) compared to fermentation done with PEG, but this response was not observed in the mixtures containing peanut. We conclude that complementarities in terms of energy and protein content can create favourable conditions leading to positive associative effects on rumen digestive parameters when legume species were mixed with axonopus, but not when they are mixed with tall fescue, probably due to different fibre content of grasses. The CT of sainfoin allow to reduce ruminal protein degradability and mitigate CH4 emissions per kg of DM, while the CT content of peanut is not enough to have the same effects.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:11:36Z
       
  • Methionine Supplementation Augments Tissue n-3 Fatty Acid and Tocopherol
           Content in Broiler Birds Fed Flaxseed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M.H. Beheshti Moghadam, A. Shehab, G. Cherian
      Methionine (Met) is the first limiting amino acid in meat-type broiler chicken diets and serves as a lipotropic agent with antioxidant properties. The objectives of the current study is based on the hypothesis that Met supplementation will enhance n-3 fatty acid (FA) status, antioxidant content, lipid stability, and production indices in broilers fed flax. The effect of Met supplementation (50 and 100% above Cobb 500 requirement level) on tissue FA composition, tocopherol (Toc) content, lipid oxidation products, and growth performance of broilers fed flax is investigated. One hundred and twenty (n=120) day-old Cobb chicks were fed corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 0% flax, (Control), 15% flax (Diet 1), Diet 1+50% more Met (Diet 2), and Diet 1+100% more Met (Diet 3) for 42 days. Total lipids in liver and adipose tissue was lowest in Diet 3 (P<0.05). Feeding flax led to a reduction total lipids in breast muscle (P<0.05) and was not affected by Met level (P>0.05). α-Linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was highest in thigh muscle and liver of Diet 3 and adipose tissue of chickens fed Diet 2 and Diet 3 (P<0.05). Total long chain (>20C) n-3 FA was highest in the breast muscle of chickens fed Diet 2 and Diet 3 (P<0.05). Total saturated FA were lowest in the breast and thigh muscle of Diet 3 fed birds (P<0.05). Addition of Met led to an increase in α-Toc in breast muscle in birds fed Diet 2 and Diet 3 (P<0.05). Lipid oxidation products were lower in the thigh muscle and adipose tissue of birds fed Diet 2 and Diet 3 than Diet 1 and Control (P<0.05). Body weight gain was lowest in birds fed flax (P<0.05). Met supplementation had no effect on weight gain or feed conversion in birds fed flax (P>0.05). No effect of diet on feed consumption was observed (P>0.05). Overall, results from the current study demonstrate that Met supplementation is a novel way to enrich tissues with n-3 FA and Toc in chickens fed flax.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:11:36Z
       
  • Increasing dietary doses of an Aspergillus oryzae extract with
           alpha-amylase activity on nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation
           of lactating dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Caio S. Takiya, Gustavo D. Calomeni, Thiago Henrique Silva, Thiago Henrique A. Vendramini, Guilherme G. Silva, Carlos Eduardo C. Consentini, Jéssica Cristiane Bertoni, Elissandra Maiara C. Zilio, Francisco P. Rennó
      This study was designed to evaluate increasing dietary doses of an Aspergillus oryzae extract with alpha-amylase activity on nutrient intake and total tract digestion, sorting index, ruminal fermentation, milk yield and composition, blood metabolites and nitrogen utilization of mid- to late lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (162.3±107.9days in milk, 636±62kg of live weight, and 31.6±6.5kg/d of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Eight cows used in the experiment had rumen cannulas to assess ruminal fermentation variables. Periods had 21 days, in which 14days were allowed for treatment adaptation and 7days for sampling. Cows were randomly assigned to the following treatments: control (A0), and Aspergillus oryzae extract to supply 150, 300 or 450 FAU/kg DM. One FAU (fungal amylase unit) is the amount of enzyme which will dextrinize soluble starch at the rate of 1-mg per minute at 30°C and pH 4.8. Treatments did not affect DM and nutrient intake, as well as the sorting index of cows. Alpha-amylase supplementation linearly increased (P =0.031) crude protein digestibility and tended to linearly increase (P =0.060) DM digestibility. Treatments did not affect ruminal pH, acetate, butyrate, propionate and total branched-chain fatty acids. Alpha-amylase linearly increased (P =0.023) iso-valerate production and tended to quadratically affect (P =0.065) ammonia nitrogen concentration in rumen. Milk yield and composition, and efficiency of milk production were not affected (P ≥0.275) by alpha-amylase supplementation. Treatments tended to linearly decrease (P =0.061)N excreted in feces. Treatments linearly increased (P ≤0.039) live weight and body condition score of cows. Finally, alpha-amylase supplementation did not affect (P ≥0.234) serum glucose, urea, and hepatic enzymes concentration. Increasing doses of an Aspergillus oryzae extract up to 450 FAU/kg DM did not alter starch digestibility, ruminal propionate production, microbial protein synthesis, and milk yield and composition of mid-lactating cows.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:11:36Z
       
  • Influence of malic acid-heat treatment for protecting sunflower protein
           against ruminal degradation on in vitro methane production: a comparison
           with the use of malic acid as an additive
    • Authors: J.L. Vanegas; J. González; M.R. Alvir; M.D. Carro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.L. Vanegas, J. González, M.R. Alvir, M.D. Carro
      Batch cultures of rumen microorganisms were used to compare the fermentation of sunflower seed (SS) and meal (SM) treated with malic acid and heat (MAH; 150°C for 1h) to protect the protein from ruminal degradation with that of the untreated samples supplemented the same amount of malate (as additive), either as free acid (MA) or disodium malate (DSM). As previous studies have shown the influence of donors’ diet on in vitro fermentation, cultures were inoculated with ruminal fluid from four sheep fed a medium-concentrate diet (MC; 50:50 hay:concentrate) or a high-concentrate diet (HC; 15:85 barley straw:concentrate) in a cross-over experimental design. Cultures were sampled at 6 and 16.5h of fermentation. In 16.5h incubations, MAH treatment reduced (P< 0.001) CH4 production and ammonia-N concentrations for both substrates (by 60.3 and 45.3% for SS and by 23.7 and 17.2% for SM substrate, respectively). Whereas the MAH treatment reduced total volatile fatty (VFA) production by 16.5% for SS substrate, no effects were observed for SM substrate (P =0.441). For both substrates, adding the same amount of MA to untreated samples (as a feed additive) resulted in greater CH4 production and ammonia-N concentrations compared with the MAH treatment. A positive relationship (P <0.001) was observed between the concentrations of NH3-N and CH4 production at both incubation times for both substrates. Compared with the untreated feeds, MA and DSM did not affect (P >0.05) CH4 production for either substrate, but reduced ammonia-N concentrations (13.8%; P =0.004) for SM substrate. Compared with DSM, MA treatment resulted in greater (P< 0.05) production of gas, butyrate, isovalerate and valerate and tended (P< 0.10) to greater total VFA, and propionate production for SS substrate at 6h incubation, but most differences disappeared after 16.5h incubation. For some fermentation parameters, the response to MAH treatment was more pronounced by using fluid from sheep fed the HC diet than that from MC-fed sheep. In conclusion, the MAH treatment was more effective at reducing CH4 emissions and NH3-N concentrations than the supplementation of malic acid or disodium malate as a feed additive.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.015
       
  • Influence of dry-rolled corn processing and distiller’s grain inclusion
           rate on ruminal pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentration, in
           vitro methane production and enzyme activity
    • Authors: Faithe E. Keomanivong; Megan C. Ruch; Jeng-Hung Liu; James D. Kirsch; Marc L. Bauer; Carl R. Dahlen; Marsha Kapphahn; Md. S. Borhan; Shafiqur Rahman; Kendall C. Swanson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Faithe E. Keomanivong, Megan C. Ruch, Jeng-Hung Liu, James D. Kirsch, Marc L. Bauer, Carl R. Dahlen, Marsha Kapphahn, Md. S. Borhan, Shafiqur Rahman, Kendall C. Swanson
      The objective was to determine the effects of degree of dry-rolled corn processing and dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion rate on ruminal pH, NH3 and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, total in vitro gas and methane production, and enzyme activity in cattle fed high-concentrate diets. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (526±3.6kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement consisting of 1) 650g/kg coarse-rolled corn (2.5±0.008mm) with 200g/kg DDGS, 2) 450g/kg coarse-rolled corn with 400g/kg DDGS, 3) 650g/kg fine-rolled corn (1.7±0.002mm) with 200g/kg DDGS and 4) 450g/kg fine-rolled corn with 400g/kg DDGS. Diets met NRC recommendations and were offered for ad libitum intake. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square with 17-d periods allowing for 7 d of diet adaptation, 7 d of sample collection, and 3 d of rest in which all steers were offered an intermediate ration. There were no differences in ruminal pH among treatments. However, steers consuming 400g/kg DDGS tended (P =0.07) to have a pH less than 5.5 for a longer period of time (h/d) than those consuming 200g/kg DDGS. Ruminal NH3 was greater in steers receiving 200g/kg DDGS (P =0.02). Steers fed fine-rolled corn had greater (P =0.02) concentrations of butyric acid while those consuming coarse-rolled corn tended (P =0.06) to have greater concentrations of isovaleric acid. No difference in DM degradation rate was noted between treatments. In vitro methane concentration of the headspace was unaffected by treatment. Steers fed diets containing 200g/kg DDGS had greater (P< 0.001) ruminal α-amylase activity (U/L ruminal fluid; U/L/kg starch disappearance) while those fed 400g/kg DDGS had greater (P =0.01) trypsin activity (U/L/kg CP disappearance). An interaction between degree of corn processing×DDGS was noted for measurements of trypsin activity (U/L/kg CP disappearance; P =0.02) and maltase (U/L of ruminal fluid; P =0.004). In conclusion, the results are likely the result of the final nutrient profile of each treatment. Overall, there were minimal effects on ruminal fermentation and in vitro methane concentration with increasing degree of dry-rolling or DDGS inclusion indicating limited effects on ruminal health and environmental sustainability.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.016
       
  • Oxidative status of dairy cows fed flax meal and infused with sunflower
           oil in the abomasum
    • Authors: F.E. De Marchi; G.T. Santos; H.V. Petit; C. Benchaar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): F.E. De Marchi, G.T. Santos, H.V. Petit, C. Benchaar
      Flax products increase concentration of antioxidants in milk and plasma of dairy cows, which may reduce oxidative damage resulting from lipoperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flax meal on the antioxidant status of dairy cows infused with sunflower oil (SO), a source of omega-6 fatty acids (FA), in the abomasum. Eight rumen fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a double 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: (1) control diet with no flax meal and no infusion of SO (CO); (2) diet containing 137g/kg flax meal (FM); (3) CO and infusion of 250g SO/d; and (4) FM and infusion of 250g SO/d. Dry matter intake and milk production were similar among diets. Flax meal increased milk fat concentration. Dietary FM supplementation increased plasma concentration of saturated fatty acids, and tended to reduce the polyunsaturated to saturated FA ratio. The plasma peroxidizability index was not affected by FM supplementation or SO infusion. Infusion of SO increased antioxidant capacity and rate of diene production, and decreased the time to reach maximal amount of conjugated diene production in plasma. Production of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) in ruminal fluid was reduced by dietary FM. Milk and plasma TBARS production were not affected by FM supplementation. Sunflower oil had no effect on TBARS production in ruminal contents, milk and plasma. In conclusion, feeding FM to dairy cows receiving a source of omega-6 FA (250g/d) that bypasses the rumen did not protect cows and milk from lipoperoxidation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.013
       
  • Investigation of the postruminal methionine requirement of growing lambs
           by using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique
    • Authors: Gao Wei; Liu Chen; Gao Xinmei; Zhang Fan; Chen Daofu; Liu Chenli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Gao Wei, Liu Chen, Gao Xinmei, Zhang Fan, Chen Daofu, Liu Chenli
      Methionine was demonstrated to be the most limiting amino acid for growing sheep when microbial protein is the predominant source of absorbable AA, but its specific requirement was not well quantified. The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method is based on the concept that when the most limiting amino acid (LAA) is deficient for protein synthesis, then all other AAs will be oxidized. With increasing intakes of the LAA, IAAO will decrease until the requirement for the LAA is met, and there is no further change in the indicator oxidation afterwards. Therefore, the catabolism of 13C-Phe was used to indicate the effects of varying duodenal infusing levels of Met on the oxidation rate by 4-month-old Kazakh lambs (30.8 ± 0.4kg BW). After a 6-d adaptation period, the IAAO test was conducted on d 7. Each lamb received a priming dose of 0.67mg/kg BW of 13C-Phe injected via the jugular vein, together with 0.18mg/kg BW of NaH13CO3 at time 0. Then, constant infusions [1.33mg 13C-Phe/(kg·h)−1] were started. Breath samples were collected prior to and half-hourly between 90 and 210min after the start of the 13C-Phe infusions. An estimate of the mean Met requirement was determined by a breakpoint analysis of the rate of 13CO2 released by 13C-Phe oxidation, with a 2-phase linear regression model. The oxidation rate of 13C-Phe decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing amounts of methionine infused in a dose-dependent fashion up to 1.65g/day, and it was not different from 1.65 to 2.15g/day (P > 0.05). The mean Met requirement was estimated to be 1.28±0.11g/day of supplementation. The total postruminal minimum requirement of Met would be 2.02g/day when the basal passage of Met (0.74g/day) was summed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T13:39:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.010
       
  • Prediction equations for metabolizable and digestible energy in feline
           diets
    • Authors: M.R. Montes de Oca; L.G. Ferreira; R.R. Lima; T.M. Gonçalves; F.M.O.B. Saad; M.G. Zangeronimo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M.R. Montes de Oca, L.G. Ferreira, R.R. Lima, T.M. Gonçalves, F.M.O.B. Saad, M.G. Zangeronimo
      Knowledge of the energy values and digestibility of food is important to correctly balance feline diets. Moreover, the dietary energy content directly affects its consumption, the amount of the diet offered to the cat and the ability to meet the nutritional requirements of these animals. In this sense, several methods have been developed to determine the dietary energy content, including the use of prediction equations from the chemical composition of the food. However, the prediction equations used to calculate the dietary energy values require improved accuracy due to changes in processing and chemical composition of foods and also in the emergence of new commercial diets. The objective of this study was to develop and validate the metabolizable energy prediction equations (ME) and digestible energy (DE) of complete and balanced feline diets. The chemical and energy composition of 38 complete and balanced diets for cats were obtained from different studies performed between 2010 and 2015. The equations were estimated using multiple linear regression via the Stepwise method. They were then evaluated along with equations from the literature. In order to select the best equations, the probability value (Student's t) for the null hypothesis, the coefficient of determination (R2), error values (mean absolute deviation, mean absolute percentage error and mean square error) and bias, were taken into consideration. Although most of the equations presented had a tendency to overestimate values, they can all be used to predict dietary energy values. The best-evaluated equations were DE=47.24×crude protein+32.52×ether extract−81.27×mineral matter+2532.76 presented in this study and the equation ME=75×ether extract+2766 presented in the literature.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.004
       
  • Combination of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides influences growth
           performance, gut morphology, digestive enzymes, serum biochemical indices
           and immune functions in broiler chickens
    • Authors: Ali Daneshmand; Hassan Kermanshahi; Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran; Annie J. King; Salam A. Ibrahim; Kirk C. Klasing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Ali Daneshmand, Hassan Kermanshahi, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Annie J. King, Salam A. Ibrahim, Kirk C. Klasing
      The objective of the current study was to investigate the cumulative effects of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides on performance, gut morphology, digestive enzymes and immune system in broilers from 0 to 21days of age. A total of 360 day-old male chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned to 4 experimental diets with 6 replications of 15 birds each in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were 1) control diet based on maize-soybean meal which supplemented with following nucleosides: 2) 0.05% Adenosine + 0.025% Uridine + 0.025% Cytidine (AUC); 3) 0.05% Guanosine + 0.025% Uridine + 0.025% Cytidine (GUC); 4) 0.025% Adenosine + 0.025% Guanosine + 0.025% Uridine + 0.025% Cytidine (AGUC). Body weight and feed intake of birds were measured on days 10 and 21 to calculate the average daily gain, average feed intake and FCR. On days 11 and 21, 2 birds per cage (12 birds/treatment) were selected to collect blood samples and euthanize to obtain jejunal, bursa and spleen samples. Results showed that AUC significantly increased body weight and average daily gain, intestinal villus height and width, activity of brush border enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase). AUC and AGUC significantly increased high density lipoprotein and uric acid, respectively, while dietary nucleosides did not affect cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in serum samples. AUC significantly improved immune indices such as the relative weight of the Bursa of Fabricius and the concentration of Ig A. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrated that combination of adenosine + uridine + cytidine could be useful feed additive for improving economically important traits in broilers.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.011
       
  • Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and energy utilization in heifers
           fed low-quality forage and Leucaena leucocephala
    • Authors: Angel T. Piñeiro-Vázquez; Guillermo O. Jiménez-Ferrer; Alfonso J. Chay-Canul; Fernando Casanova-Lugo; Víctor F. Díaz-Echeverría; Armin J. Ayala-Burgos; Francisco J. Solorio-Sánchez; Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez; Juan C. Ku-Vera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Angel T. Piñeiro-Vázquez, Guillermo O. Jiménez-Ferrer, Alfonso J. Chay-Canul, Fernando Casanova-Lugo, Víctor F. Díaz-Echeverría, Armin J. Ayala-Burgos, Francisco J. Solorio-Sánchez, Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez, Juan C. Ku-Vera
      The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala on dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance and energy utilization in cattle fed a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum and housed in metabolic crates. Five crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) heifers (BW: 295±6kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and five increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DM) in a 5×5 Latin square design. The intake of DM was similar (P>0.05) among treatments, with an average of 7.03kg of DM/day. While the crude protein intake (CPI) linearly increased (P<0.001) with the inclusion of L. leucocephala, the DM digestibility (average 492.3g/kg DM) and OM digestibility (average 501.6g/kg OM) were not affected (P>0.05) by the incorporation of L. leucocephala into the ration. The N intake and excretion in the urine increased linearly (P=0.0001, 0.0001) as the level of L. leucocephala in the ration increased. In addition, methane energy loss as a percentage of that in the control ration, was of only 61% (P=0.0005) with 80% incorporation of L. leucocephala in the ration. We concluded that the inclusion of L. leucocephala has the capacity to reduce energy losses in the form of methane emissions. Nevertheless, the energy losses in the urine increased with the addition of L. leucocephala to the ration, with the optimal levels of incorporation in the ration fluctuating between 20 and 40% of the ration DM, which had no effects on the dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI) or the digestibility of dry matter (DMD).

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.009
       
  • Effect of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids with different
           particle sizes on lactation performance and milk fatty acid profile in
           dairy cows
    • Authors: M. Leduc; R. Gervais; P.Y. Chouinard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Leduc, R. Gervais, P.Y. Chouinard
      The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of particle size of dietary Ca salts of fatty acids (FA) on their inertness in the rumen, animal performance and transfer efficiency of polyunsaturated FA from diet to milk fat. Commercially produced CS of unsaturated FA (166g/kg c9 18:1, 105g/kg c9c12 18:2, 317g/kg c9c12c15 18:3) were sieved through a 1.9-mm screen, and the retained particles were identified as coarse CS. The small particles were ground through a 0.864-mm sieve, and identified as fine CS. A mixture of unprotected FA, as triacylglycerols (TG), with a composition similar to that of the CS served as control. Eight Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were 14-day administration of FA at the rate of 600g/d in the form of: (1) coarse CS in the rumen; (2) fine CS in the rumen; (3) TG in the rumen; and (4) TG in the abomasum for 14 days. Pre-planned contrasts were used to compare coarse CS with: (i) fine CS (effect of particle size); (ii) TG in the rumen (negative control); and (iii) TG in the abomasum (positive control). Actual milk yield was lower with abomasal infusion of TG (26.3kg/d), but was not affected by ruminal supplies of TG (29.7kg/d) or fine CS (29.5kg/d) as compared with coarse CS (30.4). Milk fat yield was similar with coarse CS (1.05kg/d) and abomasal infusion of TG (1.02kg/d), but was lower with ruminal supply of fine CS (0.95kg/d; tendency) and TG (0.89kg/d). Accordingly, milk fat concentrations of t10c12 18:2 were similar with coarse CS (0.35g/kg) and abomasal infusion of TG (0.33g/kg), but were greater with ruminal supply of fine CS and TG (0.59g/kg for both treatments). The apparent transfer efficiency of c9c12c15 18:3, from diet and lipid supplements to milk fat, varied from 0.017 to 0.264g secreted/g consumed with ruminal and abomasal infusions of TG, respectively. The recovery of c9c12c15 18:3 in milk was greater with coarse CS (0.084g/g) than with fine CS (0.042g/g). Results confirm the hypothesis that large particles of CS improved protection against ruminal biohydrogenation of unsaturated FA and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.012
       
  • Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in phytase-containing diets on
           growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad
           dermatitis score in broiler chickens
    • Authors: Jong Hyuk Kim; Gi Ppeum Han; Ji Eun Shin; Dong Yong Kil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Jong Hyuk Kim, Gi Ppeum Han, Ji Eun Shin, Dong Yong Kil
      This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in phytase-containing diets on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) score in broiler chickens. A total of 2100 1-d-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used and allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 70 birds in a completely randomized design. Five commercial-type diets were formulated to contain increasing Ca concentrations of 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, or 10.0g/kg. All diets contained 3.5g/kg nonphytate phosphorus and 1000 FTU/kg phytase. Diets were fed to birds for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, birds were sacrificed for tibia sampling and litter samples were collected. The FPD score was measured visually based on a 6-point scale scoring system. Results indicated that increasing Ca concentrations in phytase-containing diets decreased (linear, P< 0.01) body weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens. The concentrations of ash, Ca, and P in the tibia, and tibia breaking strength were not affected by dietary Ca concentrations. Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on litter quality including pH and moisture and nitrogen contents. A tendency (linear, P =0.10) for increased FPD score was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. In conclusion, increasing Ca concentrations from 6.0 to 10.0g/kg in phytase-containing diets have negative effects on growth performance of broiler chickens during 21 d posthatch, possibly due to decreased FI and subsequent phytase intake. Increasing Ca concentrations in phytase-containing diets have little impact on litter quality but tend to increase FPD incidence in broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.008
       
  • Intake, digestibility, performance, and feeding behavior of lambs fed
           diets containing silages of different tropical forage species
    • Authors: G.G.P. de Carvalho; R.A. Rebouças; F.S. Campos; E.M. Santos; G.G.L. Araújo; G.C. Gois; J.S. de Oliveira; R.L. Oliveira; L.M.de A. Rufino; J.A.G. Azevedo; L.G.A. Cirne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): G.G.P. de Carvalho, R.A. Rebouças, F.S. Campos, E.M. Santos, G.G.L. Araújo, G.C. Gois, J.S. de Oliveira, R.L. Oliveira, L.M.de A. Rufino, J.A.G. Azevedo, L.G.A. Cirne
      The study evaluates the effects of including four silages of tropical forages in the diet of lambs in semi-arid region of Brazil on their intake, digestibility, production performance, and feeding behavior. Thirty-two crossbred lambs with an average age of six months and an average initial weight of 17.6±2.63kg were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments and eight replicates. Treatments consisted of diets with four forage plant species preserved in silage form: old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lindl), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliares L.), gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq)), and pornunça (Manihot sp.). Each treatment was composed of a different silage, containing 50% silage and 50% of a concentrate based on corn and soybean meal. The highest (P<0.05) dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes were obtained with the animals fed diets containing old man saltbush silage compared to the buffelgrass and gliricidia silages. The animals fed pornunça silage had similar (P>0.05) DM and OM intakes to those fed old man saltbush and gliricidia silages, but higher (P<0.05) than those consuming buffelgrass silage. Lambs fed diets based on different silages of tropical forages showed similar (P>0.05) digestibility coefficients of DM and neutral detergent fiber. The time expended ruminating and chewing in minutes/day was highest (P<0.05) with old man saltbush silage in comparison to gliricidia and pornunça silages. Lambs fed diets with buffelgrass silage expended similar amounts of time ruminating and chewing (P>0.05) to those fed the other silages (old man saltbush silage, gliricidia, and pornunça). The highest values (P<0.05) for daily weight gain were observed in the animals fed the old man saltbush silage. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to use the old man saltbush, gliricidia, and pornunça forage plants as silage in lamb diets.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.006
       
  • Effects of dietary methionine and betaine on slaughter performance,
           biochemical and enzymatic parameters in goose liver and hepatic
           composition
    • Authors: Z. Yang; Z.Y. Wang; H.M. Yang; L. Xu; D.Q. Gong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Z. Yang, Z.Y. Wang, H.M. Yang, L. Xu, D.Q. Gong
      The effects of dietary methionine (Met) and betaine (Bet) on slaughter performance, serum biochemical parameters, and liver betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) were investigated in geese. Six Met-deficient diets were prepared according to a 2×3 factorial design that included two levels of Bet (0 and 600mg/kg) and three levels of Met (0, 600, and 1200mg/kg). Three hundred 21-d-old healthy male Yangzhou geese with similar body weight were randomly distributed into 6 groups with 5 replicates per treatment and 10 geese per replicate. All geese had free access to diets and water for 49 d. slaughter performance were recorded at 70 d of age. Results showed that increasing dietary levels of methionine gave a linear (P <0.05) increase in body weight and average daily gain. No significant effect of dietary Met level was found on slaughter performance (P >0.05). Geese that received 600mg/kg Bet had a higher percentage of eviscerated yield than those that did not (P< 0.05). There were significant interaction effects between Met and Bet in dressing percentage, half-eviscerated yield, and eviscerated yield (P< 0.05). Increasing supplemental Met led to linear increases in serum concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and globulin (GLOB) and hepatic crude protein levels (P< 0.05). Bet supplementation also increased TP and ALB plus high- and low-density lipoprotein in serum and the mRNA level of BHMT (P< 0.05) in livers. In contrast, triglyceride and homocysteine were higher in geese that did not receive additional Bet than those in the Bet supplementation group (P< 0.05). The hepatic crude fat contents in the Bet supplementation group also decreased (P< 0.05). Significant interactions between Met and Bet supplementation (P< 0.05) were detected in several amino acids. In conclusion, optimal Met dietary supplementation could increase growth performance, serum TP, ALB, and GLOB and hepatic protein synthesis in growing goslings. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with Bet could possibly replace Met for slaughter performance through upregulation of BHMT gene expression.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.003
       
  • In vitro rumen gas and methane production of grass silages differing in
           plant maturity and nitrogen fertilisation, compared to in vivo enteric
           methane production
    • Authors: F.M. Macome; W.F. Pellikaan; J.Th. Schonewille; A. Bannink; H. van Laar; W.H. Hendriks; D. Warner; J.W. Cone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): F.M. Macome, W.F. Pellikaan, J.Th. Schonewille, A. Bannink, H. van Laar, W.H. Hendriks, D. Warner, J.W. Cone
      The potential of an in vitro gas production (GP) system to predict the in vivo enteric methane (CH4) production for various ryegrass-based silages was evaluated, using adapted rumen fluid from cows. Rumen fluid from 12 lactating rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used for in vitro incubations and compared with in vivo CH4 production data derived from the same cows fed the same grass silages. The cows consumed a total mixed ration consisting of six different grass silages and concentrate at an 80:20 ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis. The grass silages differed in plant maturity at harvest (28, 41 and 62days of regrowth) and N fertilisation (65 and 150kg of N/ha). Rumen fluid from cows consuming each of the six grass silages was used to determine in vitro organic matter (OM) fermentation and in vitro CH4 synthesis, using an automated GP technique. In vitro GP decreased with increasing maturity of the grass. In vitro CH4 production, expressed either in ml/g of OM, in ml/g of degraded OM (DOM) or as a % of total GP, increased with increased N fertilisation (P<0.05). Maturity of grass at harvest did not affect CH4 synthesis expressed in ml/g of DOM and CH4 expressed as % of the total gas, whereas N fertilisation increased the in vitro CH4 synthesis, expressed in any unit. The in vitro data correlated poorly with the in vivo data. Across the six grass silages tested, the in vitro CH4 production, expressed in ml/g of OM after 8, 12, 24, and 72hours of incubation did not correlate with the in vivo enteric CH4 production, expressed in g/kg of DM intake (R2 =0.01–0.08). Stepwise multiple regression showed a weak, but positive correlation between the observed in vivo CH4 synthesis, expressed in g/kg FPCM and the predicted CH4 per kg FPCM, using the amount of in vitro organic matter degraded (R2 =0.40; P=0.036). In vitro gas and CH4 parameters did not improve the accuracy of the prediction of the in vivo CH4 data.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.005
       
  • Use of metabolic profile in short-term studies for estimating optimum
           dietary isoleucine, leucine, and valine for pigs
    • Authors: J.V. Nørgaard; E.A. Soumeh; M. Curtasu; E. Corrent; J. van Milgen; M.S. Hedemann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.V. Nørgaard, E.A. Soumeh, M. Curtasu, E. Corrent, J. van Milgen, M.S. Hedemann
      Traditional AA dose-response studies utilize many animals for evaluation of growth performance, and it is hypothesized that a new experimental design based on modern analytical techniques can reduce the number of used animals. The objective was to evaluate a short-term approach with a low number of pigs based on plasma metabolites as a method to determine the dietary Ile, Leu, and Val requirements. Three separate 6×6 Latin square experiments having 6 replicates per treatment were conducted with 6 diets containing increasing concentrations of Ile, Leu, and Val which were fed to 6 pigs (BW 8 to 9kg) for 2 days, each without a wash-out period for a period of 12 days. The diets were prepared and used in 3 previous traditional-design dose-response studies and had been stored at −20°C. Blood samples were collected at the end of each 2-day period, and plasma was analyzed for AA and other metabolites using a metabolomics approach. Out of the 18 analyzed plasma AA, 11, 16, and 3 AA for Ile, Leu, or Val, respectively, showed linear or quadratic responses (P < 0.05) which could be linked to animal growth. The same was found for 4 non-AA metabolites in the Ile, and for 7 non-AA metabolites in the Leu study. 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, ketohexanoic acid, and α-ketoisovaleric acid were discriminating metabolites for both Ile and Leu. It was possible to fit least squares means of 5, 14, and 2 metabolites in the Ile, Leu, and Val experiments to curvilinear-plateau, broken-line, or quadratic models and thereby estimate an optimum dietary BCAA level. The average optimum BCAA levels across metabolites and models were 0.54 standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys, 1.04 SID Leu:Lys, and 0.68 SID Val:Lys which was close to optimums of 0.52, 0.93, and 0.70 found in the previous dose-response studies based on animal growth performance. In conclusion, certain plasma metabolites could be used to estimate Ile, Leu, and Val requirements, and 2days of adaptation to a new diet was sufficient to reflect relevant biological changes in the blood to different levels of dietary AA in the current study.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T18:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.002
       
  • Production performance, immunity, and heat stress resistance in Jersey
           cattle fed a concentrate fermented with probiotics in the presence of a
           Chinese herbal combination
    • Authors: Xiang Wang; Haijun Xie; Fu Liu; Yuhong Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Xiang Wang, Haijun Xie, Fu Liu, Yuhong Wang
      The goals of this study were to investigate the production performance, immunity, and heat stress resistance of Jersey cattle fed a concentrate fermented with compound probiotics in the presence of a Chinese herbal combination (CHC). First, the appropriate concentrations for the six Chinese herbs required to stimulate probiotic proliferation were investigated in vitro. Next, the optimal time and moisture content were determined for fermentation. We then tested the feeding effect of our fermented product on 36 growing cattle and 36 milking cows. The animals were randomly assigned to receive the product or not, resulting in half of each group receiving the treatment or serving as the control group. For 60 days, the experimental group was fed with the fermented product and the control group was fed with a basic concentrate that did not contain the probiotics or the Chinese herbs. The results showed that the cattle that received the fermented concentrate showed improved weight gain and milking cows that received the fermented concentrate showed increased average milk yield, milk fat content, and solid-not-fat content (P<0. 05). In addition, the serum levels of growth hormone, the 70kDa heat shock protein (HPS70), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) of the cattle in the experimental group were significantly higher than the levels of cattle in the control group. A similar increase in the serum levels of HPS70, IgG, immunoglobulin A, and interferon γ was observed in milking cows that received the treatment (P<0. 05). No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the serum levels of interleukin-2. Moreover, milking cows that received the fermented concentrate showed increased apparent digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, and crude fiber (P<0.05). For the growing cattle, only crude protein digestibility was significantly increased in the experimental group (P<0. 05). Finally, we found that the ammonia content in the barn was decreased after the animals received the fermented concentrate. These results demonstrated that our fermented concentrate improved production performance, immunity, and heat stress resistance in Jersey cattle. We also demonstrated that this CHC and a mixture of probiotic strains acted as an ideal leavening agent for cattle’s concentrate.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T15:08:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.015
       
  • Comparison of non-encapsulated and encapsulated active dried yeast on
           ruminal pH and fermentation, and site and extent of feed digestion in beef
           heifers fed high-grain diets
    • Authors: P.X. Jiao; L.Y. Wei; N.D. Walker; F.Z. Liu; L.Y. Chen; K.A. Beauchemin; W.Z. Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): P.X. Jiao, L.Y. Wei, N.D. Walker, F.Z. Liu, L.Y. Chen, K.A. Beauchemin, W.Z. Yang
      The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding ruminally protected active dried yeast (ADY) exhibits postruminal activity in comparison with feeding non-protected ADY assessed by measuring feed intake, ruminal pH and fermentation, and site and extent of feed digestion in finishing heifers. A combination antibiotic was used as a positive control. Five Angus beef heifers with ruminal cannulas (body weight of 650±48.8kg) were used in a 5×5 Latin square design with 21-d periods and 1 week of washout between each period. The five treatments were: 1) control (no ADY and no antibiotics), 2) antibiotics (ANT; 300mg monensin+110mg tylosin/d), 3) ADY (1.5g ADY/d), 4) encapsulated ADY (EDY; 3.5g/d containing 1.5g ADY and 2g capsule), and 5) mixture of ADY and EDY (MDY; 1.5g ADY+3.5g EDY/d). The ADY was encapsulated using barley hordein and glutelin extracted from barley grain. The stability of encapsulated yeast in the rumen and its release in the intestine were validated in vitro. Intake (kg/d) of dry matter (DM) was not affected by treatments. Ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, and NH3-N concentration did not differ among treatments, whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate were greater with yeast addition than ANT. No treatment effects on flows of organic matter (OM) and starch to the omasum were observed, whereas flows of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were greatest with ANT, lowest with EDY and intermediate with control, ADY and MDY (P<0.02). Digestibility of OM in the rumen tended (P<0.09) to be less with EDY or MDY than control or ANT, but no difference in ruminal digestibility of NDF and starch was observed among treatments. In contrast, greater postruminal digestibility of OM (P<0.01) and NDF (P<0.03) was observed with either EDY or MDY versus control and ANT. Digestibility of OM and NDF in the total digestive tract was also greater (P<0.01) with EDY or MDY than control. No treatment effect was observed on the flows of N to the omasum or microbial protein synthesis. Although digestibility of N in the rumen was not different, the digestibility of N in the total digestive tract was greater (P<0.02) with EDY or MDY than control or ANT. Supplementation of ADY or MDY tended (P<0.10) to have greater gene copy numbers of R. flavefaciens compared with ANT. Total protozoa counts were greater (P<0.01) in the rumen of heifers supplemented with ADY or MDY compared with control or ANT. These results demonstrate the postruminal activity of ADY and indicate the potential of feeding protected yeast to ruminants to increase intestinal digestibility of nutrients.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T15:08:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.001
       
  • The effects of dietary supplementation with α-ketoglutarate on the
           intestinal microbiota, metabolic profiles, and ammonia levels in growing
           pigs
    • Authors: Jiashun Chen; Huansheng Yang; Lina Long; Yurong Zhao; Qian Jiang; Fei Wu; Baoju Kang; Shaojuan Liu; Tolulope Oluwadamilare Adebowale; Chenxing Fu; Kang Yao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Jiashun Chen, Huansheng Yang, Lina Long, Yurong Zhao, Qian Jiang, Fei Wu, Baoju Kang, Shaojuan Liu, Tolulope Oluwadamilare Adebowale, Chenxing Fu, Kang Yao
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with α-ketoglutarate (AKG) on the intestinal microbiota and metabolites using the growing pig model. Sixteen healthy animals (Large White×Landrace; 84±1d of age) of similar initial weight (40.08±0.78kg) were randomly assigned to two dietary groups (n=8). The pigs were fed a basic diet containing either 0 (control) or 10g AKG kg−1 (supplemental diet). After a 28-d trial period, the luminal digesta of the cecum and ileum were collected to analyze the amounts of short-chain fatty acids and ammonia, as well as populations of gut microbiota. Supplementation with AKG decreased (P = 0.043) the pH value of the digesta in the ileum. Moreover, the AKG concentration in the ileal digesta was significantly higher in pigs fed the supplemented diet than in control pigs (P =0.009). The addition of AKG also significantly increased the amounts of Lactobacillus (P =0.002) and Bifidobacterium (P =0.021) in the cecum, and Lactobacillus (P =0.029) and Firmicutes (P =0.045) in the ileum, but decreased the amounts of Escherichia coli in the ileum (P =0.034) and in the cecum (P =0.082) when compared with the control group. Dietary AKG also increased the concentrations of valerate (P =0.026) in the caecal digesta and butyrate in both the caecal digesta (P =0.017) and the ileal digesta (P =0.022). Concentrations of ammonia also declined in the caecal (P =0.042) and ileal (P =0.038) digesta in response to AKG. Therefore, our results suggest that this dietary supplement has the potential to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria, improve intestinal microbial populations, increase the concentrations of butyrate and valerate, and decrease the level of ammonia in the gut of growing pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T15:08:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.017
       
  • Relative toxicity of dietary free gossypol concentration in ducklings from
           1 to 21 d of age
    • Authors: Y.W. Zhu; Z.Y. Pan; J.F. Qin; W.J. Zhong; W.C. Wang; L. Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Y.W. Zhu, Z.Y. Pan, J.F. Qin, W.J. Zhong, W.C. Wang, L. Yang
      The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal on the growth performance, serum characteristics and tissue gossypol residues in Shanshui White Ducklings. A total of 750 1-d-old ducklings (375 males and 375 females) was randomly divided into 5 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 30 birds in each pen (15 males and 15 females). The experimental diets were formulated with raw cottonseed meal, de gossypol cottonseed meal and cottonseed powder as free gossypol (FG) sources. The final FG concentrations in the 5 diets were 0, 80, 160, 240 and 320mg/kg feed. Feeding the diet with 320mg FG/kg decreased (P < 0.0003) body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of ducklings during the periods of d 1-10 and 1-21, and increased (P < 0.0003) feed: gain ratio (F:G) of ducklings during the period of d 1-10. Gossypol concentration in liver and muscle of ducklings measured at d 10 and 21 linearly increased (P < 0.001) with the increase of dietary FG levels. Notably, the diet containing 320mg FG/kg increased (P < 0.05) liver index and serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities at d 10, as well as decreased (P < 0.05) thymus index and serum total protein and albumin contents at d 10 and the body protein deposition at d 21. Our results indicated that ducklings fed the diet with 320mg FG/kg resulted in an accumulation of gossypol in liver and then induced hepatic damage in the ducklings at d 10. Subsequently, the serum total protein concentrations and body protein deposition were reduced and growth rate were depressed in the ducklings at d 10 and 21 (or from d 10 to 21). Therefore, dietary FG concentration should be controlled at below 320mg/kg to prevent an economic loss from the toxicity of FG in Shanshui White ducklings from 1 to 21 d of age.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T15:08:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.013
       
  • Dietary tryptophan requirements of juvenile Nile tilapia fed corn-soybean
           meal-based diets
    • Authors: Micheli Zaminhan; Wilson Rogério Boscolo; Dacley Hertes Neu; Aldi Feiden; Valéria Rossetto Barriviera Furuya; Wilson MassamituFuruya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Micheli Zaminhan, Wilson Rogério Boscolo, Dacley Hertes Neu, Aldi Feiden, Valéria Rossetto Barriviera Furuya, Wilson MassamituFuruya
      The objective of this study was to determine the dietary tryptophan (Trp) requirements to optimize growth performance of juvenile Nile tilapia. A hundred and eighty fish (38.2±0.09g) were fed to extruded isonitrogenous (28% crude protein) and isoenergetic (14.5MJ/kg digestible energy) diets, containing graded levels of dietary Trp (1.8, 2.3, 2.7, 3.2, and 3.7g/kg). Fish were hand fed to triplicate groups of 12 fish, three times a day to apparent satiety for 45 days. The relationship between body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and fish uniformity against dietary Trp levels could be expressed as a second-order polynomial regression analysis, where the best Trp levels were estimated to be 2.9, 3.1, 3.1, and 2.9g/kg, respectively. No effects of dietary Trp on hepatosomatic index, visceral fat, survival, or body composition were observed. Whole body retentions of arginine, phenylalanine, and lysine were highest in fish fed 3.0, 3.1, and 3.1g/kg Trp, respectively. The dietary Trp requirement of juvenile Nile tilapia was estimated to be 2.9g/kg for maximum weight gain of fish.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.010
       
  • In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed
           species
    • Authors: E. Molina-Alcaide; M.D. Carro; M.Y. Rodela; M.R. Weisbjerg; V. Lind; M. Novoa-Garrido
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): E. Molina-Alcaide, M.D. Carro, M.Y. Rodela, M.R. Weisbjerg, V. Lind, M. Novoa-Garrido
      Seaweeds have potentials as alternative feed for ruminants, but there is a limited knowledge on their nutritive value. Seven seaweed species collected along the coast above the Arctic circle of Norway, both in spring and autumn, were assessed for nutrients and total polyphenols (TEP) content, gas production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species (Acrosiphonia sp.). Additionally, the abundance and diversity of total bacteria, protozoa and archaea in the cultures with the three red seaweeds collected in spring were analyzed by quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. The crude protein (CP) content varied widely. Pelvetia had the greatest (P< 0.001) ether extract (EE) content. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) content varied from 135 to 541g/kg DM with brown seaweeds having the greatest values. Ash and CP contents were higher in spring than in autumn (P=0.020 and 0.003, respectively), whereas concentrations of EE and NSC were not affected by collecting season (P=0.208 to 0.341). The TEP values ranged from 1.46 to 50.3mg/g dry matter (DM), and differed (P< 0.001) among seaweed species and collecting season, being greater in autumn than in spring. The DM effective degradability (DMED), estimated from gas production parameters for a rumen passage rate of 3.0% per h, ranged from 424 to 652g/kg, the highest values were recorded for Mastocarpus stellatus and Porphyra sp. The lowest DMED values were registered for Pelvetia canaliculata and Acrosiphonia sp. In 24-h incubations (500mg DM), Palmaria palmata had the highest (P< 0.05) volatile fatty acids (VFA) and methane production (4.34 and 0.761mmol, respectively) and the lowest (P <0.05) final pH values and acetate to propionate ratios (6.57 and 2.34, respectively). There were no differences (P >0.05) among the other seaweeds in VFA production, but Porphyra sp. had the second highest methane production (P <0.05; 0.491mmol) compared with the other seaweeds (0.361mmol; averaged value). The methane/total VFA ratio was not affected (P >0.05) by either seaweed species or the collection season. Higher final pH (P< 0.05) and lower (P< 0.05) methane and VFA production, ammonia-N concentrations and DMED values were promoted by the fermentation of seaweed collected in autumn compared with those from spring. Among the red seaweeds, there were no species-specific differences (P> 0.05) in the abundance or the diversity of total bacteria, protozoa and archaea. In the PCR-DGGE analysis, samples were separated by the incubation run for all microbial populations analyzed, but not by seaweed species. The results indicate that seaweed species differ markedly in their in vitro rumen degradation, and that samples collected in autumn had lower rumen degradability than those collected in spring.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.012
       
  • Effects of conservation method and crushing method of rice grain on rumen
           fermentation and nutrient digestibility in steers
    • Authors: Makoto Miyaji; Hidehiko Inoue; Tetsuo Kawaide; Masanori Tohno; Yuko Kamiya; Kazuhisa Nonaka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Makoto Miyaji, Hidehiko Inoue, Tetsuo Kawaide, Masanori Tohno, Yuko Kamiya, Kazuhisa Nonaka
      We evaluated the effects of different methods for conserving and crushing rice grain on rumen fermentation characteristics and whole-tract apparent digestibility in steers. The preparation of dietary treatments followed a 2×2 factorial design with conservation method (drying vs. ensiling) and crushing method (using an impeller crusher vs. a double–roller crusher) of rice grain as main effects. Rice grain was crushed by the impeller crusher (volume weight: 490.4g/L, mean particle size: 1,382μm) or the double–roller crusher (volume weight: 373.9g/L, mean particle size: 2,043μm). Dried rice was prepared by drying to adjust the moisture to 100gkg−1. Ensiled rice was prepared by sealing crushed rice with the addition of water and lactic acid bacteria to adjust the moisture to 300gkg−1, and stored for 4 months. Eight ruminally cannulated steers (366±32.2kg initial body weight [BW]) were randomly assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The experimental diets contained 434gkg−1 grass silage, 96gkg−1 soybean meal and 470gkg−1 treated rice grain (dry matter [DM] basis). Steers were offered experimental diets at 1.55kg DM/100kg of BW/day. The conservation method had a large impact on the ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility. The ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility (except for starch digestibility) were not affected by the crushing method. No significant interactions were observed between the conservation and crushing methods of rice grain for all fermentation and digestion measurements. The ruminal pH was lower (P < 0.01) and the lactic acid and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were higher (P < 0.01 and P =0.02, respectively) for the steers fed ensiled rice than those fed dried rice. The proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were not affected by ensiling treatment. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of organic matter, crude protein and starch were increased (P =0.04, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively) and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were decreased (P =0.046 and P =0.03, respectively) by replacing dried rice with ensiled rice. The starch digestibility was higher (P < 0.01) for steers fed rice crushed by the impeller crusher compared to the double-roller crusher. These results show that the feeding of ensiled instead of dried rice increases the likelihood of decreasing fiber digestibility because it reduces ruminal pH, but it improves organic matter, crude protein and starch digestion, and thus an ensiling process can be a strategy to improve the nutrient value of rice grain.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.014
       
  • Including chicory or plantain in a perennial ryegrass/white clover-based
           diet of dairy cattle in late lactation: Feed intake, milk production and
           rumen digestion
    • Authors: E.M.K. Minneé; G.C. Waghorn; J.M. Lee; C.E.F. Clark
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): E.M.K. Minneé, G.C. Waghorn, J.M. Lee, C.E.F. Clark
      In temperate grass-based dairy cattle grazing systems, summer dry conditions can reduce feed availability and quality, and limit milk production. This study reports the effects of including high nutritive value, drought tolerant forbs, chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.), in a grass-based diet of dairy cattle on intake, milk production and digestion. Forty-two mixed aged cattle in late lactation were randomly allocated to one of five dietary treatments in late summer: perennial ryegrass/white clover (PRG) or ryegrass/white clover (ryegrass) with either chicory (CHI) or plantain (PLA) comprising either 20 or 40% of the daily dry matter intake (DMI). Each treatment group included three cattle with a permanent rumen fistula. The experiment was conducted in an indoor feeding facility to allow individual intakes to be determined and comprised of two independent measurement weeks (Week I and Week II). Over the two measurement weeks, milk production and DMI were similar across diets and there were only minor differences in milk composition. Different effects of including chicory or plantain in the diet were observed, however, between measurement weeks. In Week I, DMI of cattle offered chicory or plantain (forbs) was 10% less than cattle offered PRG (14.7 vs. 16.4kg dry matter (DM)/cow/d, p =0.039) but milk yield (12.3±0.53kg/cow/d) and milk component (fat+protein) yield (1.01±0.05kg/cow/d) were similar across diets. In Week II, DMI was similar (14.2kg DM/cow/d), but cattle offered forbs produced 19% more milk and 17% more milk component yield than those offered PRG. The decrease in DMI and milk production from Week I to II on the PRG treatment was accompanied by a decline in the estimated nutritive value of the ryegrass in the diets. In sacco incubations of fresh forages showed slower rates of DM degradation of ryegrass, relative to chicory or plantain (0.11 vs. 0.22 and 0.19%/h respectively; p< 0.001). Total rumen volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions measured in 6-hourly spot samplings was similar across diets. Rumen ammonia (NH3) and urine nitrogen (N) concentrations, however, were reduced by up to 37 and 38% in cattle where forb was included in the diet, with greater reductions observed with increasing percentage of forb in the diet (p< 0.01). This study suggests that chicory and plantain are suitable species to include in the diet of cattle grazing temperate grass-based swards to maintain or improve milk production in summer. Furthermore, the reductions in rumen NH3 and urine N observed, indicate potential environmental benefits could be gained from feeding forbs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.008
       
  • The influence of oil extraction process of different rapeseed varieties on
           the ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids in broiler
           chickens
    • Authors: M.M. Kasprzak; J.G.M. Houdijk; O.A. Olukosi; H. Appleyard; S.P.J. Kightley; P. Carre; J. Wiseman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M.M. Kasprzak, J.G.M. Houdijk, O.A. Olukosi, H. Appleyard, S.P.J. Kightley, P. Carre, J. Wiseman
      The current study assessed the effect of rapeseed variety and oil extraction process on the apparent and standardised ileal digestibility (AID, SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in rapeseed co-products in broiler chickens. PR46W21 and DK Cabernet rapeseed varieties were de-oiled by soft and standard hexane extraction, producing soft rapeseed meal (SRSM) and rapeseed meal (RSM), respectively. The soft, non-standard hexane extraction method was designed to reduce heat treatment that occurs prior to hexane extraction in order to maximise potential genetic differences in digestibility values of rapeseed co-products. The test meals were incorporated into semi-synthetic diets at a level of 500g/kg; diets were fed to 14-day old paired chickens (n=6 pairs) for ten days, when ileal digesta was collected post-slaughter from Meckel’s diverticulum to the ileal-caecal junction. The AID and SID of CP and AA were determined using titanium dioxide as inert dietary marker. The variety PR46W21 showed a greater AID and SID of CP, arginine, leucine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine, valine and lysine in RSM compared to the DK Cabernet RSM (p <0.05). The soft processing increased AID and SID of CP, histidine and lysine in SRSM of PR46W21 and DK Cabernet compared to their RSM counterparts (p <0.05). An interaction between variety and processing was only observed for AID and SID of tryptophan (p <0.001), as only in PR46W21 standard processing reduced the tryptophan SID compared to its soft processed counterpart. The data support the view that the selection of rapeseed variety and modification of thermal treatment during the oil extraction might improve nutritional value of rapeseed meals.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.009
       
  • Nutritional evaluation of different varieties of sorghum stovers in sheep
    • Authors: Sultan Singh; B. Venktesh Bhat; G.P. Shukla; Deepika Gaharana; U.Y. Anele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Sultan Singh, B. Venktesh Bhat, G.P. Shukla, Deepika Gaharana, U.Y. Anele
      Nutritive value of stovers from 4 sorghum varieties (Pant Chari 5, PKV 809, CSV 17 and CSV 20) that were selected from a previous breeding program for their relative nutritive value was assessed using the in vitro and in vivo methods Samples for in vitro and in vivo studies were harvested separately. For the in vivo studies, 16 adult Jalauni sheep (19.1±0.35kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=4) and offered chopped stover from CSV 20, PKV 809, Pant Chari 5 and CSV 17 varieties, respectively along with 200g concentrate mixture. After a 30-day feeding, 5days of metabolism trial was conducted to determine dry matter intake (DMI), nutrients digestibility and nitrogen balance. For in vitro study, crude protein (CP) concentration of CSV 20 was lowest (P<0.05) compared with the other varieties. The NDF and hemicellulose contents were highest (P<0.001) in SVC 20. The CP content in chaffed stover used for the animal study increased marginally for all varieties except for Pant Chari 5 (45.3g/kg DM) which had the lowest CP content. Buffer soluble protein (PB1), PA and PC fractions of the stovers were higher (P=0.006) in CSV 17 compared with the other stovers. Although CSV 20 had the lowest (P<0.001) PA and PC fractions, it had similar (P>0.05) PB1, PB2 and PB3 fractions with one or more of the other stovers. In vitro dry matter digestibility was highest (P=0.002) for CSV 17 and lowest for Pant Chari 5. Stover estimated DMI values varied between 0.0156 to 0.0164 of BW of the sheep with lower (P<0.001) DMI noted for CSV 20 versus the other varieties. Greater (P<0.05) cumulative gas production and rate of gas production (k) were noted for CSV 20 and Pant Chari 5 compared with others. Similar trend was also noted in the in vitro methane production, PF and SCFA concentration of the stovers. No difference was noted in the intake and digestibility of DM of the stover varieties. Sheep fed CSV 17 had significantly higher (P<0.05) nitrogen intake and fecal nitrogen (11.2 and 4.18g/d, respectively), and a tendency (P=0.07) for higher urinary nitrogen and nitrogen balance. Overall, results showed that sheep had higher stover intake and better nutrients digestibility, more nitrogen balance and higher nutritive value (digestible CP and metabolizable energy) from CSV 17 and PKV 809 sorghum stover based diets.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.011
       
  • Variability in susceptibility to acidosis among high producing
           mid-lactation dairy cows is associated with rumen pH, fermentation, feed
           intake, sorting activity, and milk fat percentage
    • Authors: S.M. Nasrollahi; A. Zali; G.R. Ghorbani; M. Moradi Shahrbabak; M. Heydari Soltan Abadi; L.A. Krueger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): S.M. Nasrollahi, A. Zali, G.R. Ghorbani, M. Moradi Shahrbabak, M. Heydari Soltan Abadi, L.A. Krueger
      The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the variation in susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) among high producing, mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows fed a high-grain diet and to characterize animals that are rumen pH-tolerant to high-concentrate diets. Lactating dairy cows (n =78, days in milk=103±26.5; body weight=630±76.8kg) were fed a high-concentrate diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate. Cows were adapted for 14 d and then were sampled for 10 d. Rumen pH was measured by rumenocentesis for all cows at approximately 4h after the morning feeding and reticuloruminal pH was measured for 14 cows via indwelling sensors. Although all cows were fed the same diet, rumenocentesis pH and minimum reticuloruminal pH values ranged from 5.05 to 6.98 and 4.78 to 6.08, respectively, and the acidosis index ranged from 0 to 28 pH×min/kg of dry matter intake (DMI). Cows were classified according to rumenocentesis pH as tolerant (pH≥6.0; n=26), marginal (5.8≤pH<6; n=21), and susceptible (pH<5.8; n=31). Cows were also classified according to reticuloruminal pH as susceptible if duration of an acidotic condition (pH<5.8) exceeded 330min/d (an average of 920min/d; n=9) and tolerant if the acidotic condition persisted <330min/d (an average of 78min/d; n=5). The classification based on rumenocentesis pH revealed that DMI during first 2h after morning feeding decreased with increasing SARA susceptibility (6.32 vs. 5.87 and 5.47kg/d±0.28 for tolerant, marginal, and susceptible cows, respectively; P< 0.01). This result was associated with greater daily DMI of tolerant cows which also were of greater body weight, so intake per kg of body weight was not different among tolerant, marginal, and susceptible groups. Sorting against long particles and in favor of fine particles during the morning feeding (0–6h) also increased with increasing SARA susceptibility (P< 0.01). However, when cows were classified according to reticuloruminal pH, DMI and sorting activity were not significant. Milk fat percentage was greater in tolerant cows, whereas total yield and yield of other components was not significant (P ≤0.01). The proportions of isovalerate and valerate were correlated with increased SARA susceptibility in cows classified according to rumenocentesis pH (P =0.03), but the rumen volatile fatty acid profile was not affected by SARA susceptibility when cows were classified by reticuloruminal pH. We conclude that DMI during the first 2h after feeding, milk fat percentage, and valerate proportion in the ruminal fluid were the variables with the greatest correlation with ruminal pH (P ≤0.05). These results indicate that substantial variation exists in SARA susceptibility among high producing, mid-lactation dairy cows, and that cows characterized as tolerant to the high-grain diet exhibit greater DMI and milk fat percentage, but decreased sorting behavior and proportion of isovalerate in the rumen.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T14:46:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.007
       
  • Urinary purine derivatives excretion, rumen microbial nitrogen synthesis
           and the efficiency of utilization of recycled urea in Tibetan and
           fine-wool sheep
    • Authors: J.W. Zhou; J.D. Mi; A.A. Degen; L.M. Ding; X.S. Guo; Z.H. Shang; W.W. Wang; R.J. Long
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.W. Zhou, J.D. Mi, A.A. Degen, L.M. Ding, X.S. Guo, Z.H. Shang, W.W. Wang, R.J. Long
      Urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, rumen bacterial purine bases and nitrogen (N) variations, estimated microbial N synthesis and the efficiency of utilization of recycled urea-N were determined in Tibetan and Gansu Alpine fine-wool sheep offered 4 diets with different N concentrations [11.0, 16.7, 23.1 and 29.2gN/kg dry matter (DM)] in 2 concurrent 4×4 Latin square designs. Urine output increased linearly with increasing dietary N concentration (P <0.001), and was lower in Tibetan than in fine-wool sheep (P <0.05). With an increase in dietary N, urinary PD and the components increased linearly (P <0.05), except for uric acid (P >0.10); however, the purine nitrogen index (PNI) decreased (P< 0.001). For the lowest N diet, allantoin, total PD and PNI were greater in Tibetan sheep than in fine-wool sheep (linear dietary N×breed, P< 0.05). As dietary N increased, rumen bacterial purine bases [ribonucleic acid (RNA) equivalent] decreased linearly (P< 0.05), whereas total N content increased (P< 0.05). Compared to fine-wool sheep, rumen bacteria of Tibetan sheep contained higher RNA and lower N content (P <0.01). Total microbial N production and microbial N from recycled urea-N increased linearly with dietary N but did not differ between breeds at low N diets (P >0.05). As a proportion of total microbial N synthesis or hepatic urea-N production, recycled urea-N was utilized more efficiently in Tibetan than in fine-wool sheep (P< 0.05). These results suggest that Tibetan sheep are better able to cope with a low protein diet, which is characteristic of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the long-cold season, than are Gansu Alpine fine-wool sheep.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T21:27:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.005
       
  • Fishmeal and maize starch inclusions in sorghum-soybean meal diets
           generate different responses in growth performance, nutrient utilisation,
           starch and protein digestive dynamics of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Christine J. Sydenham; Ha H. Truong; Amy F. Moss; Peter H. Selle; Sonia Yun Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Christine J. Sydenham, Ha H. Truong, Amy F. Moss, Peter H. Selle, Sonia Yun Liu
      This study comprised a 2×2 factorial array of dietary treatments offered to male Ross 308 broiler chicks from 15 to 28days post-hatch. The dietary treatments consisted of a sorghum-soybean meal diet in which either sorghum was partially substituted by maize starch (200g/kg) or soybean meal was partially substituted by fishmeal (175g/kg). Growth performance, nutrient utilisation, digesta retention times in four small intestinal segments, starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates (g/bird/day) and starch:protein disappearance rate ratios in four small intestinal segments were determined. The partial substitution of soybean meal by fishmeal had the more profound effects on the parameters assessed as fishmeal inclusions improved weight gain by 12.1% (1260 versus 1124g/bird, P<0.001) and FCR by 8.13% (1.299 versus 1.414, P<0.001). This substitution significantly enhanced starch digestibility coefficients in four small intestinal segments culminating in an increase of 18.9% (0.937 versus 0.788; P<0.001) in the distal ileum. The partial substitution of soybean meal by fishmeal significantly increased digesta retention time in the small intestine from 210 to 289minutes. Starch digestibility was significantly correlated with growth performance (weight gain, FCR) and energy utilisation (AME, ME:GE ratios, AMEn) and these parameters were all significantly enhanced by the fishmeal substitution. Consideration is given to the possible mechanisms whereby the partial substitution of soybean meal by fishmeal promoted starch digestibility and energy utilisation and growth performance. Instructively, starch:protein disappearance rate ratios in the proximal jejunum were quadratically related to weight gain (r=0.849; P<0.001) and FCR (r=0.838; P<0.001) such that a ratio of 3.59:1 would generate the maximum weight gain of 1265g/bird and a ratio of 3.88:1 would generate the minimum FCR of 1.287. These relationships emphasise the importance of digestive dynamics and in these examples there was an ideal balance between the bilateral bioavailabilities of starch and protein.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:56:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.003
       
  • Dietary zinc oxide nanoparticles as growth promoter for weanling pigs
    • Authors: N.C. Milani; M. Sbardella; N.Y. Ikeda; A. Arno; B.C. Mascarenhas; V.S. Miyada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): N.C. Milani, M. Sbardella, N.Y. Ikeda, A. Arno, B.C. Mascarenhas, V.S. Miyada
      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary graded levels of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-N) on weanling pigs’ growth performance, nutrient and energy digestibility, fecal Zn excretion, diarrhea occurrence, blood parameters, organ weights, and intestinal bacteria count. One hundred and sixty 21-d weaned castrated male and female pigs (5.89±0.82kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with 5 treatments, 8 replications per treatment, and 4 pigs per experimental unit (pen). The treatments were: negative control − corn-soybean meal basal diets with 125mg ZnO/kg; positive control − basal diet with 3,000mg conventional ZnO/kg (150±82.5nm); and basal diet with 15, 30 or 60mg ZnO-N/kg (70±38.6nm). Pigs were fed dietary treatments from 1–21 d, followed by a common diet (same diet for all treatments) from 21–35 d feeding period. On d 19 of the experiment, blood samples were collected from one castrated male of each pen to determine blood parameters. On d 21 of the experiment, the animal used in blood collection was slaughtered to evaluate organ weights and intestinal bacterial count. ANOVA and orthogonal contrasts were performed to determine the dose-response of each variable to dietary ZnO-N levels (0, 15, 30 and 60mg/kg), and to compare positive control with negative control and with each dietary ZnO-N level. No effects of dietary ZnO-N levels were observed on growth performance, except for G:F and diarrhea occurrence that improved linearly during 1–7 d. Fecal Zn excretion, blood parameters, organ weights, and intestine bacteria count were not affected by dietary ZnO-N-levels, but linearly increased plasma Zn concentration. Increasing dietary ZnO-N levels linearly increased nutrient and energy digestibility, as well as the pharmacological dose of conventional ZnO control. From 1–21 d experimental period lower ADFI was observed for ZnO-N levels and negative control compared to positive control, while no differences among treatments were observed on performance and diarrhea occurrence during the 21–35 d experimental period. Lower fecal Zn excretion and lower plasma Zn concentration were observed for ZnO-N levels and negative control compared to positive control. Overall, both low dietary ZnO-N levels and pharmacological conventional ZnO dose were not effective in improving performance of weanling pigs, although some post-weaning diarrhea control was observed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:36:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.001
       
  • The interactions of exogenous phytase with whole grain feeding and effects
           of barley as the whole grain component in broiler diets based on wheat,
           sorghum and wheat-sorghum blends
    • Authors: Amy F. Moss; Christine J. Sydenham; Ha H. Truong; Sonia Yun Liu; Peter H. Selle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Amy F. Moss, Christine J. Sydenham, Ha H. Truong, Sonia Yun Liu, Peter H. Selle
      The objectives of this experiment were two-fold; the first was to evaluate exogenous phytase in either conventional or whole grain diets as a 2×2 factorial treatment array. Wheat-sorghum blended rations containing 12.5% ground or whole barley were offered without and with 1000 FTU/kg exogenous phytase. The second objective was to evaluate barley as the whole grain component in diets based on wheat, sorghum and equal wheat-sorghum blends as a 3×2 factorial treatment array. Rations based on wheat, sorghum and wheat-sorghum blends were offered as an intact pellet containing 12.5% ground barley or offered as a mix of 12.5% whole barley and a pelleted concentrate. Each of the dietary treatments was offered to 7 replicates (6 birds per cage) of male Ross 308 chicks from 7 to 28days post-hatch. Treatment effects on growth performance, gizzard and pancreas weights, gizzard pH, bone mineralisation, nutrient utilisation, digestibility coefficients of starch and protein (N) and starch:protein disappearance rate ratios in four small intestinal segments (proximal and distal jejunum, proximal and distal ileum), excreta dry matter and incidence of dilated proventriculi were determined. In the 2×2 analysis there was a significant (P<0.025) treatment interaction for FCR. Phytase addition to whole barley diets improved FCR by 3.20% (1.362 versus 1.407) but phytase compromised FCR by 3.11% (1.391 versus 1.349) in ground barley diets. Similarly, treatment interactions (P<0.002–<0.001) were also observed for energy utilisation (AME, ME:GE ratios, AMEn) where phytase generated positive responses in the context of whole grain feeding but not in conventional diets. In the 3×2 analysis, whole barley significantly increased relative gizzard weights by 22.5% (16.96 versus 20.77g/kg; P<0.001) and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the incidence of dilated proventriculi from 4.76% to zero. However, whole barley compromised growth performance. There were significant treatment interactions (P<0.001) for parameters of energy utilisation as whole barley significantly enhanced energy utilisation (AME, ME:GE ratios, AMEn) in birds offered sorghum-based diets but this was not the case with wheat or blended diets. Wheat-based diets generally supported better protein and starch digestibility coefficients with significant advantages being observed in some small intestinal segments in comparison to sorghum and blended diets. For example, wheat-based diets generated significantly higher protein digestibility in the ileum (P<0.001) than birds offered sorghum or blended diets. Likewise, wheat-based diets generated significantly higher starch digestibilities in the proximal jejunum and distal ileum (P<0.001) than birds offered sorghum or blended diets. Whole barley reduced water intakes by 9.72% (325 versus 360g/bird/day; P<0.01) and significantly increased excreta dry matter in wheat-based diets from 22.1 to 25.1% (P<0.001) but there was a decrease from 26.08 to 24.50% (P<0.05) in sorghum-based diets. Therefore, it may be concluded that phytase is more effective in whole grain diets than conventional diets. Whole barley increased gizzard weights, reduced the incidence of dilated proventriculi and significantly improved energy utilisation in sorghum based diets.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:36:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.013
       
  • Restricting the time of access to fresh forage reduces intake and energy
           balance but does not affect the digestive utilization of nutrients in beef
           heifers
    • Authors: Alicia Félix; José Luis Repetto; Natalia Hernández; Analía Pérez-Ruchel; Cecilia Cajarville
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Alicia Félix, José Luis Repetto, Natalia Hernández, Analía Pérez-Ruchel, Cecilia Cajarville
      The effect of restricting the time of access to a high-quality fresh forage on the intake and digestion of nutrients was studied in heifers. Twenty-four Hereford heifers (body weight (BW) 153±18kg) housed in metabolic cages were randomized according to a BW-based block design and were randomly assigned to receive one of the four following treatments: 24, 8, 6 or 4h of daily access to freshly cut pasture (Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens) (T24, T8, T6 and T4, respectively). Their feeding behavior (classified according to the categories of ‘eating', ‘ruminating' or ‘other'), intake rate, intake and digestibility of nutrients, ruminal environment, microbial protein synthesis and blood markers of energy and protein metabolism were assessed. The intake for all of the feed fractions decreased at an increasing rate (from 6hours of access) as the time of access to forage decreased (linear: P < 0.001; quadratic: P < 0.035). During the first 4h of feeding, animals linearly increased the eating time and the intake rate (P < 0.001 and P =0.006, respectively), and decreased the ruminating time (P =0.014) as the time of access to forage decreased. Neither forage digestibility, nor ruminal microbial protein synthesis efficiency, were affected by the restrictions. The metabolizable energy balance linearly decreased (P < 0.001) and N retention decreased at an increasing rate (from 8hours of access; linear: P < 0.003, quadratic P < 0.030), with decreasing time of access to forage. The ruminal pH and NH3-N concentration were affected by treatment and time (P < 0.001). Ruminal pH increased at an increasing rate (from 8hours of access) as the time of access to forage decreased. Meanwhile, NH3-N concentration linearly decreased as the time of access to forage decreased. There was a significant interaction between treatment and time for pH and NH3-N (P < 0.001), being both variables less stable during the day in restricted animals than in unrestricted ones. The concentrations of blood glucose, urea and insulin were not affected by the restrictions. In general, the effects of the restriction seem to have been less evident on digestion than on ingestion. Fasting beef heifers led to behavioral changes in order to maintain the dry matter intake, but these changes resulted insufficient when the time of access to forage drops below 6hours per day.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T10:01:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.016
       
  • Performance of lactating Friesian cows fed a diet supplemented with
           coriander oil as an alternative to antibiotic feed additives: Feed intake,
           nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, blood chemistry, and milk
           production
    • Authors: O.H. Matloup; A.M. Abd El-Tawab; A.A. Hassan; F.I. Hadhoud; M.S.A. Khattab; M.S. Khalel; S.M. Sallam; A.E. Kholif
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): O.H. Matloup, A.M. Abd El-Tawab, A.A. Hassan, F.I. Hadhoud, M.S.A. Khattab, M.S. Khalel, S.M. Sallam, A.E. Kholif
      Thirty multiparous lactating Friesian cows (523±8.9kg BW) were used to study the effect of feeding coriander oil, a natural feed additive, versus salinomycin; an ionophore. Early lactation Friesian cows were used for 63days in a completely randomized experimental design with repeated measures. Cows were randomly assigned to three treatments and fed a basal diet of concentrates, berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) and rice straw in a ratio of 40:40:20 DM basis. The treatments were: (1) the basal diet with no additive (control treatment); (2) the basal diet supplemented with 4g/cow daily of salinomycin (salinomycin treatment); and (3) the basal diet supplemented with 14mL coriander oil/cow daily (coriander treatment). Cows in the salinomycin and coriander groups had greater feed intake (P< 0.001) and nutrient digestibility (P< 0.01) than control cows. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lowered (P <0.001) with coriander versus the other two treatments. Concentrations of total and individual short-chain fatty acids were not affected (P >0.05) by the salinomycin and coriander treatments. Greater serum glucose concentration (P = 0.013), without affecting other blood measurements, was noted with coriander and salinomycin treatments. Similarly, coriander and salinomycin resulted in greater (P< 0.05) daily outputs of milk, energy corrected milk, fat, and milk energy, and both salinomycin and coriander improved milk efficiency (P< 0.05) compared with control. It is concluded that coriander oil at 14mL/cow daily can replace ionophore salinomycin in the diet of early lactating Friesian cows. Enhanced feed utilization and lactational performance were observed with coriander oil supplementation without any negative effect on animal health.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T22:01:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.012
       
  • Supplementing a yeast probiotic to pre-weaning Holstein calves: feed
           intake, growth and fecal biomarkers of gut health
    • Authors: Z.X. He; B. Ferlisi; E. Eckert; H.E. Brown; A. Aguilar; M.A. Steele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Z.X. He, B. Ferlisi, E. Eckert, H.E. Brown, A. Aguilar, M.A. Steele
      Diarrhea, resulting from gastrointestinal infection by pathogens, is a common cause of the high mortality and morbidity of neonatal calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a yeast product in milk replacer (MR) on growth and health of calves, and on fecal populations of some targeted microorganisms related to calf health and growth (i.e., total bacteria, Escherichia coli, Clostridium cluster XIVa, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium spp.). We hypothesized that feeding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae var boulardii (SCB) product would improve gastrointestinal health and growth performance of calves. Forty-two Holstein bull calves (42.6±0.77kg at birth) were randomly assigned on day 2 of age to either a control or SCB treatment. The SCB was supplemented in MR and fed at 5g/d per head to supply 10 billion colony-forming units per day. All calves received high quality colostrum (>50mg/mL of immunoglobulin G) during the first 24h of life, and were fed with 8L MR (150g/L mixed with 40°C water) daily from day 2 to 35, and 4L daily from day 35 to 42. Calves were also fed calf starter ad libitum from day 7 to 56. Daily MR and starter offered and refused, daily fecal scores, nasal scores, ear scores, and weekly body weight of calves were recorded. Fecal samples were collected on day 7, 35 and 56 after the first feeding of that day for microbial targets analysis. Overall, there is no serious disease challenge for all the calves during the entire experimental period. No differences were observed in MR intake, starter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, average daily gain, ME intake to gain ratio, fecal score, nasal score, eye score or any targeted microorganisms between treatments throughout the experiment. These results suggest that supplementing SCB in MR has no additive effects on animal growth or fecal biomarkers of gut health when calves do not show deteriorated health status.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T22:01:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.010
       
  • Effects of increasing palm kernel cake inclusion in supplements fed to
           grazing lambs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty
           acid profile1
    • Authors: T.B. Freitas; T.L. Felix; M.S. Pedreira; R.R. Silva; F.F. Silva; H.G.O. Silva; B.S. Moreira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): T.B. Freitas, T.L. Felix, M.S. Pedreira, R.R. Silva, F.F. Silva, H.G.O. Silva, B.S. Moreira
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of palm kernel cake (PKC) in the supplement composition for grazing lambs on intake, digestibility, growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of the meat. Thirty-one non-castrated Santa Inês-crossed male lambs (age=120±15 d; initial body weight=20±3.9kg) were divided into 4 groups, following a completely randomized design. Treatments were 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% PKC substitution for ground corn and wheat bran in the supplement. Animals were stratified to equalize body weight: 8 animals in treatment 0%; 8 in treatment 10%; 6 in treatment 20%; and 9 in treatment 30%. Lambs were fed for 84 d and grazed a predominantly braquiarão grass (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu) and Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon) grass pasture. The remainder of the supplement contained soybean meal, wheat bran, ground corn, urea, and mineral salt. The level of supplementation was 1.6% BW per animal/d. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.01) for total DM intake and pasture intake as the inclusion of PKC in the supplement was increased. Feeding increasing PKC in the supplement did not affect (P ≥0.35) lamb growth performance nor did it affect most carcass characteristics (P ≥0.16). However, it did lower conformation (P =0.02) and carcass shrink (P =0.03). Palmitic fatty acid decreased (linear; P =0.04) as PKC fed to lambs increased in the supplement. No other fatty acids were affected (P ≥0.10). Feeding up to 30% PKC in a supplement for grazing lambs reduced DMI without altering average daily gain or economic traits of carcass characteristic.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T21:37:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.009
       
  • Grains in ruminant rations and potentials to enhance their nutritive and
           health value by chemical processing
    • Authors: E. Humer; Q. Zebeli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): E. Humer, Q. Zebeli
      Cereal grains have long been an important component of the diet in ruminants. The primary aim of feeding grains to ruminants is that their high starch content enables high energy density of ruminant’s diets to support production. Grains differ among them in their starch content and ruminal effective degradability. The digestibility and utilisation of starch is instrumental for the nutritive value of grains in ruminants. Therefore, attempts were initially made to enhance starch digestibility and utilisation using mechanical or thermal processing methods. However, extensive grain processing also accelerates ruminal starch degradation, enhancing the risk of rumen fermentation disorders. Research has shown that treatment of whole grains with alkaline substances like sodium hydroxide increases degradability of the seed coat and subsequently whole grain degradation within the rumen, saving the costs for grinding. The same treatment has also been shown to slower the rate of starch degradation in the rumen and improve fibre digestibility with potential beneficial effects on intake and production. Furthermore, treatment of milled grains with formaldehyde has been used to retard the rate of starch and protein degradation in the rumen of cereal starch and protein. Decreasing ruminal starch degradation and enhancing ruminally undegraded starch in grains is important to lower the risk of rumen fermentation disorders when grains are fed in large amounts. A major drawback of sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde are however the high corrosiveness and health risks for the users. Ammonia has also been used to lessen ruminal nutrient degradation of grains including starch and protein degradation. Furthermore, this treatment elicits positive effects in enhancing the crude protein content of the treated grain for ruminants, especially of maize. Moreover, ammonia has shown promising effects for preservation of whole high moisture grains. Increasing research efforts have also been done to identify new chemical grain processing techniques, mainly by using mild organic acids. Besides affecting the rate and site of starch digestion, the use of lactic acid has shown to improve the utilisation of organically bound phospate (P). Indeed, in addition to starch and protein grains also are important sources of minerals, especially of P, in ruminant diets. Increased availability of this key mineral for rumen microbes, and the host metabolism, by chemical treatments enhances the nutritive value of grains and saves inorganic P sources. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge regarding the effects of different chemical processing techniques of cereal grains in ruminant nutrition related to the effects on nutritive and health value of grains.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T08:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.005
       
  • Effect of ground soybean and starch on intake, digestibility, performance,
           and methane production of Nellore bulls
    • Authors: L.G. Rossi; G. Fiorentini; B.R. Vieira; A. José Neto; J.D. Messana; E.B. Malheiros; T.T. Berchielli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): L.G. Rossi, G. Fiorentini, B.R. Vieira, A. José Neto, J.D. Messana, E.B. Malheiros, T.T. Berchielli
      It was hypothesized that replacement of corn with soybean hulls as the energy source, combined with ground soybean as the lipid source, would reduce methane emissions from feedlot animals without affecting their performance. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including ground soybean combined with either a high or a low level of starch on intake, digestibility, performance, and methane emission of young Nellore bulls (n=28, initial weight=395±32kg) in the feedlot during the finishing phase. Diet treatments consisted of high (HS; approx. 250g/kg) or low (LS; approx. 110g/kg) starch levels, with (WSB) or without (NSB) soybean. Ground soybean was added as a lipid source to diets HS-WSB, LS-WSB, HS-NSB, and LS-NSB, representing 58.7, 64.6, 24.8, and 31.4g/kg ether extract in the total dry matter, respectively. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, with means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% level of significance. After 119 days, the animals were slaughtered. Animals fed soybean demonstrated an average reduction of 11% in their intakes of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (P=0.01). There was a significant effect of the association between starch and soybean on neutral detergent fiber intake (P=0.01). Diets containing soybean affected the digestibility of the animals, reducing the apparent digestibility of dry matter by 3% (P=0.02) and the digestibility of organic matter by 2.8% (P=0.03). A significant interaction was detected between starch and soybean on the apparent digestibility of ether extract (P=0.02) and neutral detergent fiber (P=0.04); the lowest values for ether extract (750g/kg) and neutral detergent fiber (432g/kg) were obtained with HS-WSB. The animals that received WSB had their feed efficiency increased by 17% (P=0.01). The enteric CH4 emissions of the animals fed WSB reduced significantly (P=0.01), with 28% decrease in g CH4/d and g CH4/y, 16% decrease in g CH4 per kg of dry matter intake, and 23% decrease in CH4 losses per percent of gross energy intake. The inclusion of approximately 250g/kg of soybean in the diet of young Nellore bulls in the feedlot provides an increase in their feed efficiency and reduces their enteric methane emission, regardless of the level of starch in the concentrate.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T23:20:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.004
       
 
 
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