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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3123 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3120 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 378, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 370, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)

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Journal Cover Animal Feed Science and Technology
  [SJR: 1.151]   [H-I: 83]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0377-8401 - ISSN (Online) 0377-8401
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Milk yield and composition from ewes fed raw soybeans and their
           lambs’ performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 238
      Author(s): Evandro M. Ferreira, Marcos V.C. Ferraz, Daniel M. Polizel, Fumi S. Urano, Ivanete Susin, Renato S. Gentil, Marcos V. Biehl, Janaina S. Biava, Alexandre V. Pires
      This trial aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of raw soybeans on milk yield, composition, and fatty acid profile in ewes, and their lambs’ performance. Fifty-six Santa Ines ewes (63.9 ± 0.76 kg BW) were assigned to a randomized complete block design to receive one of the four diets containing 0 (CONT), 70, 140 or 210 g/kg DM of raw soybeans. Isonitrogenous diets (150 g/kg DM of CP) were composed of 400 g/kg DM of in natura sugarcane bagasse as roughage source and 600 g/kg DM of concentrate. The experiment lasted from 14 to 56 days of lactation. Once a week the ewes were separated from their lambs and milked mechanically. DMI (1.3, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.2 kg/day) and milk yield (1.0, 1.1, 1.1 and 1.0 kg/day) presented a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) including 0, 70, 140 or 210 g/kg DM of raw soybeans on diets, respectively. However, milk yield corrected for fat or fat and protein, as well as content of milk fat, protein, lactose and total solids did not differ. Short (C4-C12) and medium (C14-C16) chain fatty acids decreased, whereas long-chain (C ≥ 17) fatty acids increased linearly (P < 0.05) with raw soybeans supply. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; cis-9 trans-11 and trans-10 cis-12) increased (P ≤ 0.01) and the atherogenicity index decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of raw soybeans in the diet. Unsaturated:saturated ratio, saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were similar among treatments. There was no difference in lambs’ performance in pre or post-weaning periods. Considering that the price of raw soybeans is generally lower than its meal, the inclusion of up to 140 g/kg DM of soybeans is recommended for increasing milk yield, with no detrimental effect on milk efficiency production, milk components and lambs’ performance. In addition, it is important to highlight that supplementation of up to 210 g/kg DM of raw soybeans made milk fat healthier for human consumption.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Effect of biochar produced from different biomass sources and at different
           process temperatures on methane production and ammonia concentrations in
           vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): I. Cabeza, T. Waterhouse, S. Sohi, J.A. Rooke
      The effects of different biochars on in vitro rumen gas production and fermentation characteristics were investigated using a two (biochar inclusion level, 10 and 100 g biochar/kg substrate) x two (process temperature, 550 or 700 °C) × five (biomass source, Miscanthus straw, oil seed rape straw, rice husk, soft wood pellets or wheat straw) factorial design. The amount of biochar included in incubations had no effect on in vitro fermentation. Overall, inclusion of biochar reduced total gas production to 0.96 (P < 0.001) and methane (CH4) production to 0.95 (P < 0.001) of that in control (no added biochar) incubations. There were no differences in gas or CH4 production between the biomass sources used to produce biochar but total gas (P = 0.058) and CH4 (P = 0.010) production were slightly greater when biochar was produced at 700 rather 550 °C. Addition of biochar to incubations did not change total amounts of volatile fatty acids (VFA) or acetic acid produced during in vitro fermentation; however, the amounts of propionate (0.94; P < 0.001) and butyrate (0.96; P = 0.021) were reduced when biochar was added to incubations. Process temperature had no effect on VFA produced; however, total VFA and the amounts of acetic and butyric acids produced were influenced by biochar biomass source. Ammonia concentrations at the end of incubations were overall 0.84 of control concentrations (P < 0.001)when biochar was added. Both process temperature and biochar biomass source influenced ammonia concentrations which were greater for biochar produced at 700 than 550 °C; concentrations were lowest for biochar produced from Miscanthus straw and greatest for rice husk with oil seed rape straw, soft wood pellets and wheat straw intermediate. Adding biochars with a range of compositions to in vitro assays produced only small reductions in CH4 production. However, the absence of any negative effects of biochar coupled with the observed reduction in ammonia concentrations makes it possible that including biochar in livestock feed could be a practical means of applying biochar to pasture and soil.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Progressive adaptation of sheep to a microencapsulated blend of essential
           oils: Ruminal fermentation, methane emission, nutrient digestibility, and
           microbial protein synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Y.A. Soltan, A.S. Natel, R.C. Araujo, A.S. Morsy, A.L. Abdalla
      The combination of various active components in essential oils (EO) may be highly effective as a natural dietary supplementation option to manipulate ruminal fermentation and decrease methane (CH4) emissions. Nine rumen cannulated Santa Inês sheep (55 ± 3.7 kg of body weight) were randomly divided into three groups to receive three experimental treatments: control (basal diet without additives); basal diet with 200 (EO200) mg of EO of a microencapsulated blend of essential oils (MBEO)/kg dietary DM offered; and basal diet with 400 (EO400) mg of EO of MBEO/kg dietary DM offered. The experiment was recorded in a triple 3 × 3 Latin Square design. The number of days necessary to observe the manipulation of rumen fermentation with MBEO was determined with an evaluation of nutrient digestibility, CH4 emissions, and microbial protein synthesis. Ruminal samples were collected at day zero (the day before starting the dietary treatments), and on days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 after MBEO introduction, while the subsequent 7 days were assigned for the nutrient digestibility trial and CH4 determination. On day 3, propionate concentrations began to increase (P < 0.01) for EO200 and EO400, which resulted in an associated decrease (P = 0.03) in the acetate: propionate ratio; this effect lasted until day 15. The enhancement (P = 0.003) in the overall mean of total short-chain fatty acids was consistent with the decrease (P = 0.06) in the overall mean of ruminal pH for both MBEO doses, compared to the control. A decline (P < 0.01) in the protozoal count was observed after a week in the EO400 treatment, whereas no differences were observed in the EO200 and control treatments. No significant differences among the three treatments were detected for ammonia concentration, dry matter intake, or total tract nutrient digestibility. A reduction (P = 0.009) in CH4 emissions was observed in the EO200 and EO400 [24.5 and 27.6 l/kg digestible organic matter (DOM), respectively] treatments, compared to the control (38.2 l/kg DOM). Among the treatments, EO400 resulted in the highest body nitrogen (N) retention (P = 0.03) and microbial protein synthesis (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the addition of MBEO favorably modifies the ruminal fermentation process, and 3 days of treatment is necessary before a stable and modified ruminal fermentation pattern can be observed. This pattern would last for a period of two weeks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Effects of branched-chain volatile fatty acids supplementation on growth
           performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, hepatic lipid
           content and gene expression of dairy calves
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Q. Liu, C. Wang, G. Guo, W.J. Huo, Y.L. Zhang, C.X. Pei, S.L. Zhang, H. Wang
      This study evaluated the effects of branched-chain volatile fatty acids (BCVFA) supplementation on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, hepatic lipid content and gene expression of dairy calves. Forty-eight Chinese Holstein male calves (10 months of age; 345 ± 6.4 kg of body weight [BW]) were assigned randomly to four treatments with 0, 60, 120 and 180 mg BCVFA per kg BW per day for each calf. Supplemental BCVFA was hand-mixed into the top third of the daily ration and fed to calves for 100 days to the experimental treatments. Supplementation of BCVFA in calves ration increased ADG and feed conversion linearly. Dry matter (DM) intake was unaffected, but digestibilitiy of DM, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre increased linearly with increasing levels of BCFVA supplementation. Similarly, Supplementation of BCVFA linearly decreased ruminal pH and ammonia-N but increased total VFAs. Molar proportion of acetate linearly increased, whereas propionate linearly decreased and the ratio of acetate to propionate increased linearly with increasing BCVFA in rations. Relative mRNA expressions of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 linearly increased with BCVFA levels. The results suggested that BCVFA supplementation improved ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and growth of calves with promoted hepatic lipid oxidation. Due to the unsignificant difference between 120 and 180 mg groups for all parameters, the optimum supplementary dose of BCVFA was 120 mg per kg BW per day.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Effects of dietary protein and energy intake on growth, body composition
           and nutrient utilisation in lambs reared artificially with milk replacers
           and pellet feeds
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): A.S. Danso, P.C.H. Morel, P.R. Kenyon, H.T. Blair
      A growth simulation model demonstrated that the ratio between crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) intake (CP:ME) of lambs reared artificially with milk replacers and pellets feed did not adequately match their requirements and this mismatch would limit their growth in early life. The aim of this study was to test the effect of a modelled ratio between CP and ME intake on growth, body composition and nutrient utilization. A total of 28 Romney twin-born male lambs were allocated to a randomized 2 × 2 factorial design with seven lambs per treatment. Treatments consisted of two protein levels in iso-energetic milk replacer (normal CP:ME milk [NM] and high CP:ME milk [HM]) fed as a proportion of the lamb’s live weight (LW) and two protein levels in iso-energetic pellets (low-CP:ME pellets [LP] and high CP:ME pellets [HP]) fed ad libitum; resulting in four experimental groups (NMLP, NMHP, HMLP, HMHP). This design resulted in lambs having different CP intake to ME intake ratio during the experiment. Lambs were kept indoors in individual pens. Five lambs from each treatment were placed in metabolic cages at 9 kg and 16 kg live weight (LW) for 4 d to allow for total fecal and urine collection. All lambs were slaughtered at 18 kg LW. The weights and chemical composition of the carcass, organs, head and skin were determined. Lambs fed HM had greater (P < 0.01) CP intake, daily gain, gain to feed ratio and greater liver and kidney weights than lambs fed NM. Pellet treatment had no effect (P > 0.05) on any of the intake or growth measurements. Pellet intake was low and contributed only to 20% of the CP intake and 18% of the ME intake. Deposition of protein and water in the carcass, organs, and empty bodies were greater (P < 0.01) in HM than in NM lambs. Fat deposition and energy retention in carcass, organs, and empty bodies were greater (P < 0.05) in NM than in HM lambs. Pellet treatment had no effect (P > 0.05) on protein, fat and water deposition rates. A maximum protein deposition rate of 43 g per day was measured for lambs having a CP:ME intake ratio in excess of 14.2. In conclusion, increasing the CP:ME ratio of milk replacer is a way of improving lean growth rates in pre-weaned lambs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Treatment using white rot fungi changed the chemical composition of wheat
           straw and enhanced digestion by rumen microbiota in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Dongze Niu, Sasa Zuo, Di Jiang, Pengjiao Tian, Mingli Zheng, Chuncheng Xu
      Treatment with white rot fungi can effectively remove lignin and decompose the structure of biomass to enhance its nutritional value. The aim of this study is to identify high-performance fungi to improve the rumen degradability of wheat straw. In this study three species of white rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, Irpex lacteus) were inoculated and incubated under solid state conditions at 28 °C for 0–28 days to determine changes in chemical composition. Samples obtained after 28 days of incubation were assessed for in vitro gas production and rumen fermentation products. Results showed that P. chrysosporium and I. lacteus had similar ability to degrade lignin, while P. ostreatus and I. lacteus had similar selectivity in lignin degradation. After 28 days of incubation, I. lacteus resulted in moderate losses of dry matter, hemicellulose, and cellulose, which were 22%, 46% and 20%, respectively. But the straw treated with I. lacteus had the lowest (P < 0.001) content of lignin (sa) and a 5% increase in the absolute amount of neutral detergent solute. After 96 h of in vitro fermentation, the total volume of gas production from the straw treated with P. chrysosporium dropped by 24%, but that from the straw treated with P. ostreatus and I. lacteus respectively had a 5% and 33% increase. What’s more, the straw treated with I. lacteus not only improved the production of volatile fatty acids (P = 0.047) but also lowered the acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.001) in the fermentation fluid. However, all the treatments resulted in significantly lower (P < 0.001) concentration of ammonia nitrogen. It is concluded that I. lacteus has a great potential to improve the rumen fermentability and energy utilization of wheat straw, but the effect of fungal treatment on the utilization efficiency of nitrogen needs further research attention.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Effect of caloric restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on oxidative
           stress in the liver of Hu sheep ram lambs
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Guo-Min Zhang, Ting-Ting Zhang, Yu-Hang Jin, Jian-Ling Liu, Yi-Xuan Guo, Yi-Xuan Fan, M.A. El-Samahy, Fan-Xing Meng, Feng Wang, Zhi-Hai Lei
      Growing animals under moderate caloric restriction (CR) exhibit compensatory growth upon ad libitum feeding, while the influence of oxidative stress under this phonotype in ruminants is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant defenses and mitochondrial function in the liver of Hu sheep ram lamb in response to two months of CR (55% feeding) and subsequent three months of ad libitum. In this study, the expressions of antioxidase related genes (SOD2, CAT and GPX1) and mitochondrial biogenesis related genes (AMPK, PPARGC1A and TFAM) were examined in the liver, as well as the activities of antioxidase enzymes and the hepatic mitochondrial function. Results indicated that lambs tended to compensate for growth loss, and liver oxidative stress was limited by CR and subsequent re-alimentation. CR also activated PPARGC1A and TFAM, and elevated the relative mtDNA copy number, which could be recovered by subsequent re-alimentation. Likewise, re-alimentation restored the reduced complex I activity and H2O2 production associated with low mitochondrial potential with CR treatment. In addition, AMPK phosphorylation at Thr172 was activated and SIRT1 expression was enhanced in CR lambs, while showed a decreased tendency after re-alimentation. Altogether, our findings demonstrated that moderate CR and subsequent re-alimentation induced “efficient” mitochondria biogenesis as an adaptation mechanism, which maintained the dynamic balance of oxidant-antioxidant system by activating AMPK-PPARGC1A-TFAM pathway in the liver of Hu sheep ram lambs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Effects of biotin and nicotinamide supplementation on glucose and lipid
           metabolism and milk production of transition dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Xiao-Shi Wei, Chuan-Jiang Cai, Jia-Jun He, Chao Yu, Frank Mitloehner, Bao-Long Liu, Jun-Hu Yao, Yang-Chun Cao
      This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementing biotin (BIO), nicotinamide (NAM) and their interaction on feed intake, milk production, and energy metabolism of transition dairy cows. Forty multiparous Holsteins were assigned randomly within block to 1 of the following 4 treatments: control (no supplementation), 30 mg/d BIO, 45 g/d NAM (ruminally unprotected), and 30 mg/d BIO + 45 g/d NAM. Cows were fed the same basal diet and received the supplements in drenches daily from about d −14 to 35 relative to parturition. Feed intake, energy balance and calf birth weight were not affected by BIO supplementation whereas NAM supplementation tended to increase prepartum dry matter intake and decrease body weight loss. Tendencies of BIO × NAM × week interaction were observed on energy balance during prepartum and entire period. The interaction of BIO × NAM was found on milk lactose percentage and fat yield. Supplementation of BIO resulted in increased concentration of BIO in plasma and decreased triglyceride concentration. The BIO × week interaction effects were detected for triglyceride, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Supplementation of NAM increased plasma NAM and glucose while decreased nonesterified fatty acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein concentrations. The BIO × NAM × week interaction effect was observed on nonesterified fatty acid concentration during entire period. Blood insulin and total cholesterol concentrations were not affected. Supplementing BIO and NAM in a combination did not show additional benefits above those observed for BIO or NAM supplementation alone for most of the variables. In conclusion, drenching ruminally unprotected NAM at a high dose (45 g/d) is effective to provide utilizable NAM and elicit beneficial effects on the energy metabolism of transition dairy cows.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is
           affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): M. Johansen, P. Lund, M.R. Weisbjerg
      Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-clover silages with DM concentrations ranging from 283 to 725 g/kg were fed ad libitum to four multi-fistulated dairy cows in an incomplete balanced scheme over five periods. Individual AA were analysed in silages, in microbes isolated from the rumen, and in duodenal and ileal chyme, respectively. Proportion of arginine in silage AA increased, proportions of cysteine and proline in silage AA tended to increase, whereas proportions of alanine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, serine, threonine and valine in silage AA decreased with increased silage DM concentration. Crude protein (CP) and AA concentrations in DM and AA concentration in CP in microbial matter were not affected by silage DM concentration, but serine proportion in microbial AA increased and valine proportion in microbial AA decreased with increased silage DM concentration. In total duodenal AA profile, histidine proportion decreased, lysine proportion tended to decrease and glutamate proportion tended to increase with increased silage DM concentration, mostly driven by changes in duodenal feed + endogenous AA profile. Small intestinal digestibility and absolute amount digested of all individual AA increased, either numerically or significantly, with increased silage DM concentration. However, lysine proportion decreased, histidine proportion tended to decrease and glutamate proportion tended to increase in digested AA. The higher supply of MP with increased silage DM concentration would be expected to increase milk production, but the unfavourable effect on AA profile will probably diminish this potential increase, as either histidine or lysine often are the first limiting AA in grass based diets.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Dietary starch influences growth performance, nutrient utilisation and
           digestive dynamics of protein and amino acids in broiler chickens offered
           low-protein diets
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Amy F. Moss, Christine J. Sydenham, Ali Khoddami, Victor D. Naranjo, Sonia Yun Liu, Peter H. Selle
      A total of 288 day-old, male Ross 308 chicks were offered six dietary treatments from 7 to 28 days post-hatch. A standard maize-soy diet was compared with five low protein diets containing high inclusions of maize starch and various combinations of supplemental amino acids. The assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of starch, protein and amino acids in four small intestinal segments. Also, the effects of three dietary treatments on free plasma amino acid concentrations in the anterior mesenteric vein or portal circulation were determined. The transition from standard to low protein diets elevated feed intakes and compromised FCR. Overall, tangible differences in responses were not observed in birds offered the five low protein diets which effectively precluded meaningful comparisons between the various combinations of crystalline amino acids. Maize starch inclusions in low protein diets enhanced starch digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates and parameters of nutrient utilisation. However, maize starch also depressed protein digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates. Moreover, amino acid digestibility coefficients were depressed in the three posterior segments of the small intestine. Instructively, proximal ileal starch digestibility coefficients were negatively correlated with digestibility coefficients of twelve amino acids in the proximal ileum to significant extents. Significant differences in concentrations of free amino acids in plasma from the anterior mesenteric vein were observed for histidine, lysine, methionine, threonine and valine in birds offered the standard and two low protein diets. The possibility that glucose and amino acids were effectively competing for intestinal uptakes, especially from the ileum, is discussed. Also, it appears that the metabolic fates of amino acids in enterocytes of the gut mucosa can be manipulated by dietary strategies and that crystalline amino acids may be less prone to undergo catabolism in the gut mucosa.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea for turkey nutrition
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): F. Goodarzi Boroojeni, K. Kozłowski, J. Jankowski, M. Senz, M. Wiśniewska, D. Boros, A. Drażbo, J. Zentek
      The present study was conducted to investigate how fermentation (FE) and enzymatic treatment (ET) of pea affect standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of nutrients in diets with peas as the only protein source, and evaluate the consequences of inclusion of different pea products in turkey diets (100 g/kg) on growth performance and bird health. For FE process, Pisum sativum L. was mixed with water (1:1) containing 4.9 × 108 Bacillus subtilis and licheniformis spores/kg pea (BIOPLUS 2B®, Chr. Hansen, Denmark). The prepared dough was fermented for 48 h at 30 °C. For ET, the dough water contained three enzymes, AlphaGal™ (α-galactosidase – Kerry, USA), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases, respectively – DSM, Switzerland). The dough (500 g/kg DM) was incubated for 24 h at 30 °C. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. For standardized ileal digestibility (SID) assay, 288 turkeys were assigned to 24 pens and received four experimental diets including native (NP), fermented (FEP) and enzymatically treated peas (ETP) as well as a N-free diet (all supplemented with vitamins and minerals). The ETP had better SID of protein, Glu, Phe and Val compared with FEP and NP. Enzymatic treatment of pea also improved standardized ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, His, Ilu, Leu and Lys (P ≤ 0.05), however digestibility of these nutrients in fermented pea were similar to other two types of pea (P > 0.05). Both processes drastically improved ileal digestibility of starch (P ≤ 0.05). For performance trial, 960 turkeys were allocated into 60 pens and received 4 different diets consisted of a basal mash wheat-SBM diet (CON) and there experimental diets which were prepared by inclusion of each pea products NP (NPD), FEP (FEPD) and ETP (ETPD) in the basal diet at the rate of 100 g/kg. The experiment lasted 105 d. In general, in the most time periods of the performance trial, birds received ETPD or FEPD diets showed better growth performance than those fed NPD diet, while birds in ETPD group displayed similar performance to those fed CON diet. At the end of the trial, birds fed CON and ETPD diets had the best FCR and birds which received NPD diet had the worst one (P ≤ 0.05). Birds in ETPD group showed the best footpad dermatitis score and turkeys in the NPD group had the worst score (P ≤ 0.05). The footpad dermatitis scores for turkeys in CON and FEPD groups were identical and considerably different from those in ETPD and NPD groups (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, both processes could improve the nutritional quality of pea by reduction in ANF and increasing ileal starch digestibility. Furthermore, ET process considerably improved SID of protein and AAs in pea. Inclusion of ETP in turkey diets (100 g/kg) demonstrated neither positive nor negative impact on growth performance, while it remarkably improved footpad dermatitis score. The present data shows the feasibility of these processes, particularly ET, for improving the nutritional quality of pea as a protein source for turkey diets.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Including copper sulphate or dicopper oxide in the diet of broiler
           chickens affects performance and copper content in the liver
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): M. Hamdi, D. Solà, R. Franco, S. Durosoy, A. Roméo, J.F. Pérez
      Copper supplementation (125–250 ppm) in poultry diets is a common practice in many non-EU countries to enhance bird health, but high amounts of Cu may interact with phytate and affect animal performance. The effects could depend on the nature of the Cu source. Thus, the objective of this trial was to compare the effects of two sources of Cu, copper sulphate (CuSO4) and dicopper oxide (Cu2O, CoRouge®), at three levels of dietary Cu (15, 150, 300 ppm). A total of 576 one-day-old male broiler (Ross 308) were distributed into 6 experimental groups (8 pens/treatment, with 12 birds/pen). Body weight (BW) was individually monitored and feed disappearance was determined at 14, 28 and 35 d of age. On d 35 post-hatch, one bird per replicate was euthanized, the skin fat and breast muscle were sampled, and the liver and kidneys were collected. The two Cu sources were also evaluated in vitro to measure Cu and phytic phosphorus (PP) solubility, and PP hydrolysis by phytase at pH 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5. The use of 300 ppm of CuSO4 decreased (P = 0.001) BW on d 14, 28 and 35 and increased (P = 0.04) liver Cu content in comparison with the use of 300 ppm of Cu2O. The feed-conversion ratio increased for broilers of the 300 ppm CuSO4 group in comparison to the 300 ppm Cu2O group (2.19 vs. 1.84, P < 0.001). The use of the highest level of Cu (300 ppm), either of Cu2O or CuSO4, also increased (P < 0.001) Cu concentration in kidney and breast muscle in comparison to 15 and 150 ppm. In the in vitro trial, including a level of 300 ppm reduced PP solubility with CuSO4 (68.66%) in comparison to Cu2O (97.41%), and reduced PP hydrolysis by phytase at pH 4.5 and 6.5 with both sources. It can be concluded that dietary levels of 150 and 300 ppm Cu of Cu2O are adequate to ensure broiler growth performance and limit organ accumulation in comparison to CuSO4.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Measurement of the true ileal calcium digestibility of some feed
           ingredients for broiler chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): M.N. Anwar, V. Ravindran, P.C.H. Morel, G. Ravindran, A.J. Cowieson
      Results from three experiments relating to the measurement of ileal calcium (Ca) digestibility in feed ingredients for broiler chickens are presented herein. The first experiment was conducted to determine the true ileal Ca digestibility of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), poultry by-product meal (PBPM), fish meal (FM) and canola meal (CM). Five semi-purified diets containing DCP, MCP, PBPM and FM with a dietary Ca concentration of 9 g/kg, and CM with a dietary Ca concentration of 5.71 g/kg were generated. A Ca- and phosphorus (P)-free diet was used to determine the basal ileal endogenous Ca losses. Titanium dioxide was incorporated in all diets as an indigestible marker. Each diet was randomly allotted to six replicate cages (eight birds per cage) and fed from 21 to 24 days post-hatch. True Ca digestibility coefficients of DCP, MCP, PBPM, FM and CM were determined to be 0.28, 0.33, 0.29, 0.24 and 0.31, respectively. These lower digestibility coefficients were unexpected and it was speculated that this finding may be due to the length of adaptation to assay diets and/or assay methodology. To investigate these possibilities, two more experiments were conducted. In the second experiment, the influence of dietary adaptation length was examined with DCP and MCP. The assay diets with DCP and MCP, and the Ca- and P-free diet were similar to those used in Experiment 1. Each diet was randomly allocated to four replicate cages (15 birds per cage) and fed from 21 to 24 days post-hatch. Digesta samples of five birds from each replicate were collected after 24, 48 and 72 h of feeding. Dietary adaptation length had no influence (P > 0.05) on the true Ca digestibility of MCP, but increased that of DCP at 24 h. True ileal Ca digestibility of DCP and MCP after 24, 48 and 72 h of adaptation were 0.45, 0.36, and 0.35, and 0.30, 0.32 and 0.34, respectively. The third experiment was conducted to determine the effect of assay methodology (direct, regression and difference methods) and Ca:non-phytate P ratio (2:1 and 1.16:1) on the Ca digestibility of DCP. The true Ca digestibility coefficients of DCP determined by the direct, difference and regression methods with Ca:non-phytate P ratio of 1.16:1 were 0.34, 0.21 and 0.13, respectively. The true Ca digestibility of DCP determined by the direct method was higher (P < 0.05) than those determined by difference and regression methods The true Ca digestibility coefficient of DCP with Ca:non-phytate P ratios of 2:1 and 1.16:1 were 0.25 and 0.21, respectively, and was not influenced (P > 0.05) by the Ca to non-phytate P ratio.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Feed intake response of broilers: Impact of feed processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): M.R. Abdollahi, F. Zaefarian, V. Ravindran
      Feed intake (FI) is the primary factor driving the growth rate of broilers. Amongst a broad spectrum of the factors affecting the FI, less attention has been paid to the impact of feed processing variables, such as particle size, feed form and whole grain feeding on the FI of the bird. Current poultry feed production involves various processing practices (or at least particle size reduction in the case of mash feed). To achieve the genetic potential of modern broilers that are more than ever susceptible to FI stressors, it is vital to recognise, minimise or even eliminate feed processing-related factors inducing FI suppression. Feed intake in broilers can be affected by feed particle size and, the effects vary with age of birds and the grain type being fed. Fine grinding of wheat should be avoided in broiler mash diets because of beak pasting caused by wheat gluten and possible increase in digesta viscosity with subsequent depressions in FI. The FI response of broilers fed mash diets varying in particle size cannot be extrapolated to pelleted or crumbled diets, because the differences in particle size are evened out during the pelleting process. Macro-structural characteristics of pellets such as proportion of intact pellets, durability, hardness, length and diameter have the ability to influence feed consumption and should also be considered. A wide diversity in experimental methodology used in broiler studies with whole grain feeding complicates drawing definite conclusions of the impact of this feeding strategy on FI. However, to prevent the suppression of FI and achieve the beneficial effects of whole grain feeding on feed efficiency, age of birds, proportion of whole grain in the diet and an adaptation period should be considered before any transition to this feeding strategy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl
           extract on growth performance, hemato-biochemical and innate immunity
           parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Kourosh Sarvi Moghanlou, Elyas Nasr Isfahani, Salar Dorafshan, Amir Tukmechi, Mohammad Sadegh Aramli
      A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of different doses of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl (wood betony) extract on growth performance, hemato-biochemical and innate immunity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout). A basal diet was supplemented with 0% (control), 2%, 4% and 8% of S. lavandulifolia extract to obtain four experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish with initial average weight of 16 ± 0.5 g. After 10 weeks of feeding trials, fish fed on diets of 2% and 8% S. lavandulifolia extract had the heaviest weight and highest specific growth rates and average daily growth. The red blood cell count was significantly higher in fish fed with 2% S. lavandulifolia. Meanwhile, the mean erythrocyte cell volume and mean erythrocyte cell hemoglobin content of fish on the 4% S. lavandulifolia diet were significantly higher than those of fish fed the other diets (P > 0.05). Compared to the control diet, white blood cell counts and hemoglobin increased with doses of S. lavandulifolia (up to 4% and 2% respectively). Among the biochemical parameters: blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels were greatest in fish fed 2% and 8% of S. lavandulifolia extract (P > 0.05); while the highest globulin levels were found in fish fed on 4% of S. lavandulifolia. Serum immunoglobulins, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity increased with increasing herbal inclusion of S. lavandulifolia in the diet. These results suggest that dietary S. lavandulifolia supplementation could enhance the growth performance and innate parameters of rainbow trout.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Strategies to prevent and reduce mycotoxins for compound feed
           manufacturing
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 237
      Author(s): W.-X. Peng, J.L.M. Marchal, A.F.B. van der Poel
      Mycotoxins are the secondary metabolites of fungi, especially moulds. They have over 300 types and can be easily produced ubiquitously by moulds. Many mycotoxins have been found to be toxic to most farmed animals through the diets. With the globalization of feed ingredient trade and the rapid climate changes, occurrence of mycotoxins become increasingly difficult to be predicted. Thus, the unnoticeable mycotoxin hazards can directly impact the animal production systems. Preventing or minimizing mycotoxins in feed ingredients has become an important topic from the aspect of feed manufacturing industry. The aim of this literature review is to summarize the effective strategies for feed manufacturers to minimize the mycotoxin hazards. Prevention methods, including pre-harvest field management and post-harvest storage management, are still the most effective strategies, since mycotoxins are hardly to be eliminated once they are present in the ingredients. Moreover, mycotoxin reducing effects of several feed manufacturing technologies are also reviewed. In this review, the mycotoxin reducing methods are mainly categorized into 4 methodologies: physical methods, thermal methods, chemical methods, and mycotoxin controlling feed additives. The first three methodologies mainly focus on how to reduce mycotoxins in feed ingredients during processes, while the last one on how to compensate the adverse impacts of mycotoxin-contaminated diets in animal bodies. The results showed that most of the methods reviewed show evident mycotoxin reducing effects, but of different consistencies. On the other hand, many practical factors that can affect the feasibility of each method in practical manufacturing are also discussed in this review. In conclusion, mycotoxin prevention management and the processing stage of cleaning and sorting are still the most efficient strategies to control mycotoxin hazards in current feed manufacturing.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Potential nitrogen to energy synchronization, rumen degradation kinetics,
           and intestinal digestibility of blend pelleted products of new co-products
           from bio-fuel processing, pulse screenings and lignosulfonate compound in
           dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Víctor H. Guevara-Oquendo, David A. Christensen, John J. McKinnon, Md. M. Rahman, Peiqiang Yu
      Recently, a new co-product (carinata meal) has been emerged from the bio-fuel processing industry, which nutritional value has not been yet fully understood and evaluated nor even registered as a feed for ruminants. So, it becomes an urgent need to explore the potential of this new coproduct in livestock feeds when blend with other feedstuffs. The aim of this project was to develop and test blend pelleted products based on combination of new and conventional co-products from bio-fuel (carinata meal) and bio-oil (canola meal) processing, pea screenings and lignosulfonate compound (feed additive) at different levels in order to efficiently utilize the new co-product and optimize various nutrient supply in dairy cows. The eight blend pelleted products were: BPP1: lignosulfonate 0.0% + carinata meal 50.0% + pea screenings 50.0%; BPP2: lignosulfonate 4.8% + carinata meal 47.6% + pea screenings 47.6%; BPP3: lignosulfonate 0.0% + carinata meal 75.0% + pea screenings 25.0%; BPP4: lignosulfonate 4.8% + carinata meal 71.4% + pea screenings 23.8%; BPP5: lignosulfonate 0.0% + canola meal 50.0% + pea screenings 50.0%; BPP6: lignosulfonate 4.8% + canola meal 47.6% + pea screenings 47.6%; BPP7: lignosulfonate 0.0% + canola meal 75.0% + pea screenings 25.0%; BPP8: lignosulfonate 4.8% + canola meal 71.4% + pea screenings 23.8%. All blended proportions were on dry matter (DM) basis. The results were compared between blend pelleted products based on new co-product carinata meal and conventional co-product canola meal; high and low level of inclusion of co-products (contrarily, low and high level of inclusion of pea screenings); and inclusion and no inclusion of lignosulfonate compound in terms of rumen degradation kinetics, indigestible neutral detergent fiber(NDF) at 288 h (iNDF), hourly effective rumen degradation ratios/potential nitrogen-to energy synchronization and intestinal digestion of rumen undegraded nutrients. The results showed that carinata based pelleted product BPP3 and BPP4 had higher (P < 0.05) level of rumen undegraded protein (BCPDVE: 233 and 239 g/kg DM; RUPNRC: 210 and 216 g/kg DM; respectively) than the other blend pelleted products. The BPP3 also showed higher (P < 0.05) effective degradation of NDF (EDNDF: 64 g/kg DM) than the other blend pelleted products except BPP4 and BPP7 (56 and 61 g/kg DM; respectively). The iNDF was higher in canola based pelleted product BPP7, while the values were ranged from 5.3 to 12.5% DM. Intestinal absorbable feed protein (IADP) was higher in BPP4 (168 g/kg DM) than the other pelleted products except BPP3; however, BPP3 showed higher (P < 0.05) total digestible protein (TDP: 405 g/kg DM) than the other blend pelleted products followed by BPP4 (383 g/kg DM) and BPP7 (370 g/kg DM). In addition, BPP3 showed higher (P < 0.05) total digestible NDF (TDNDF: 139 g/kg DM) than the other blend pelleted products. In summary, the new co-product (carinata meal) based pelleted products (BPP1 to BPP4) contained higher RUP (+56 g/kg DM), lower EDCP (–24 g/kg DM), higher EDNDF (+2.9%), lower iNDF (−4.2% DM), higher IADP (+55.7 g/kg DM) and higher TDP (+32 g/kg DM) than canola based pelleted products (BPP6 to BPP8). Therefore, the result of this study suggest that the Carinata meal based pelleted products BPP3 and BPP4 can be used as high quality protein supplements for dairy cows.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Influence of graded dietary levels of seeds of three species of lupin on
           growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology of
           broiler chickens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Hejdysz, S.A. Kaczmarek, A. Rogiewicz, A. Rutkowski
      Study was conducted to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of seeds of three lupin species (narrow-leaved, yellow, and white) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, excretion of total and free sialic acids, morphology of the ileum of broiler chickens and AMEN value of the diets. A corn-soybean meal control diet and diets containing 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g/kg of three lupin species were fed to 10 replicate cages of 8 broiler chickens per treatment throughout the 35-day study. Growth performance of birds fed yellow and white lupin diets was similar to the control group. The use of narrow-leaved lupin decreased growth performance, nutrient utilization, and AMEN of the diet. There was a quadratic effect of narrow-leaved lupin level on the increase of sialic acid excretion. Excretion of sialic acid was negatively correlated with AMEN value and retention of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen. The DM of excreta quadratically increased as dietary level of yellow lupin was increased. The viscosity of ileal digesta linearly and quadratically increased as narrow-leaved lupin inclusion was increased. All diets containing lupin seeds decreased crypt depth, and diets with narrow-leaved and yellow lupins increased ileum villus height. To conclude, yellow and white lupins could be alternative ingredients for soybean meal in broiler chicken diets without any adverse effect on growth performance. The narrow-leaved counterpart did not provide the satisfactory outcome.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Effect of variety and environment on the amount of thiamine and riboflavin
           in cereals and grain legumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Stephanie Witten, Karen Aulrich
      Comprehensive information on B vitamin contents in cereals and grain legumes used for animal feeding is scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the contents of thiamine and riboflavin uniformly in a selection of cereals and grain legumes. Additionally, the evaluation of varietal and environmental effects on the amounts of both B vitamins was targeted. We analysed contents of thiamine and riboflavin with HPLC in 855 samples of ten different organically cultivated cereal and grain legume cultivars. Since the sample set was unbalanced, it had to be adapted for further statistical analyses. Data of 541 samples of the cereal and grain legume cultivars was used to assess the influence of variety and environment with generalized linear models. Cereal grains contained 1.27–3.53 mg thiamine and 0.62–1.58 mg riboflavin/kg DM, which was less than expected from table values. Thiamine and riboflavin contents of grain legumes were mostly comparable with table values. Their thiamine contents ranged from 2.55 to 8.97 mg and their riboflavin contents from 1.00 to 3.84 mg/kg DM. Furthermore, variety, harvest site, and/or year affected B vitamin contents in all cultivars of our sample set. Due to wide variations of the contents of thiamine and riboflavin, we recommend to express values in food- and feed tables as ranges and to mention the number of underlying analysed samples. It must be considered that thiamine contents of cereal grains might be lower than expected from food- and feed tables.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • The influence of selenium and selenoproteins on immune responses of
           poultry and pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Tina S. Dalgaard, Mickaël Briens, Ricarda M. Engberg, Charlotte Lauridsen
      Selenium is an essential nutrient for poultry and pigs, and is important for a number of physiological processes including regulation and function of the immune system. Through its incorporation into selenoproteins, Se is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, redox mechanisms, and other crucial cellular processes involved in innate and adaptive immune response. This review provides current knowledge on the mechanisms by which selenium can modulate the resilience to infectious diseases, and how this micronutrient can influence the capacity of the bird or the pig to maintain its productivity during an infectious challenge. In relation to the most frequent and economically important infectious diseases in poultry and pig production, the present paper considers the influence of different selenium sources (organic vs. inorganic Se) as well as dietary concentrations on the immune responses of poultry and pigs with major emphasis on the potential beneficial impact on animal resilience to common infectious diseases.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:35:52Z
       
  • Enzyme pre-treatment of soybean meal: Effects on non-starch carbohydrates,
           protein, phytic acid, and saponin biotransformation and digestibility in
           mink (Neovison vison)
    • Authors: Hans Jákup Jacobsen; Katerina Kousoulaki; Ann-Sofie Sandberg; Nils-Gunnar Carlsson; Øystein Ahlstrøm; Åge Oterhals
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Hans Jákup Jacobsen, Katerina Kousoulaki, Ann-Sofie Sandberg, Nils-Gunnar Carlsson, Øystein Ahlstrøm, Åge Oterhals
      The study was conducted to examine if crude enzymes (E) produced from Aspergillus niger by solid state fermentation could bio-transform carbohydrates, proteins, inositol phosphate (InsP) and saponins in soybean meal (SBM) under low moisture conditions. Two experiments were performed to determine the effect of mixing, moisture content, treatment time and E levels during enzyme hydrolysis. 1) A single replicate 23 full factorial screening design was used to determine the effect of the independent continuous variables time (30 and 70min), moisture (350 and 450gkg−1 DM), and the category variable mixing (i.e. effect of static conditions vs. active mixing (X3, S/M)) during the enzyme hydrolysis. 2) A three factorial central composite design (CCD) was used to study the effects of moisture content (316–484gkg−1 DM), time of hydrolysis (16.4–83.6min), and E content (0.32-3.68gkg−1 SBM dry matter (DM)). The first experiment demonstrated that hydrolysis of InsP6 was significantly affected by time (P<0.01), moisture content (P<0.0001) and static vs. mixing (P<0.01). The hydrolysis of Bb-DDMP was also significantly affected by static vs. mixing (P<0.05). The second experiment demonstrated that the hydrolysis of InsP6 was significantly affected by time (P<0.001), moisture (P˂0.001) and enzyme content (P˂0.01). The InsP6 content was reduced 84% after 70min, at a moisture content of 450gkg−1 DM with the addition of 3g enzyme kg−1 SBM DM, the InsP5-InsP3 were not accumulated at these parameter settings. The hydrolysis of the saponin group Bb was explained by the enzyme square regressor (P<0.001) and the interaction between moisture and enzyme (P<0.001) reaching a maximum by the addition of 2.5g enzymes kg−1 SBM DM at 484gkg−1 moisture content. No significant effects on soluble protein and dietary fiber were observed. Mink were fed three diets containing 50% of the protein from SBM, SBM treated without enzymes or treated with enzymes. There was a trend of improved ash apparent digestibility in mink by the enzyme treatment (P=0.07), but not for phosphorous. The apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids (AA) in mink was improved by the heat treatment used to inactivate the enzymes (P<0.001), however, not by the enzyme treatment itself.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • High lipid microalgae (Schizochytrium sp.) inclusion as a sustainable
           source of n-3 long-chain PUFA in fish feed—Effects on the extrusion
           process and physical pellet quality
    • Authors: T.A. Samuelsen; Å. Oterhals; K. Kousoulaki
      Pages: 14 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): T.A. Samuelsen, Å. Oterhals, K. Kousoulaki
      The aim of this research was to investigate effects on the extrusion process and physical pellet quality of high lipid microalgae (HL-microalgae) inclusion level as a source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) in fish feed. The experiment was based on a 3-component mixture design on commercially relevant feed blends by varying the content of dried HL-microalgae Schizochytrium sp. meal, vital wheat gluten (WG), and soy protein concentrate (SPC). Mixture models with R2 in the range of 0.881–0.998 (P<0.01) were established for specific mechanical energy (SME), feed melt viscosity and temperature behind die, expansion parameters, and pellet hardness and durability. The mixture components affected SME, melt viscosity and viscous heat dissipation with the highest values observed for SPC followed by WG, and lowest for HL-microalgae rich blends. Increase in viscous heat dissipation and feed melt temperature increased the steam flashing rate and consequently pellet expansion and fat adsorption capacity. Lowest pellet hardness and durability were found for blends high in HL-microalgae or SPC level due to incomplete cooking. HL-microalgae addition up to 132g/kg DM in SPC rich blends gave favourable processing effects with respect to improved plasticisation and physical pellet quality. This study documents that HL-microalgae has a potential to be used as an alternative and sustainable source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquaculture feeds without compromising physical pellet attributes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Effect of additives on fatty acid profile of high moisture alfalfa silage
           during ensiling and after exposure to air
    • Authors: Q.H. Liu; Z.H. Dong; T. Shao
      Pages: 29 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Q.H. Liu, Z.H. Dong, T. Shao
      The objective of present study was to investigate the changes of total fatty acid (FA) content and fatty acid composition in high moisture alfalfa (DM=229g/kg fresh weight) silage treated without (Control) or with Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), L. plantarum (LP), propionic acid additive (PA) and tea polyphenols (TP) during ensiling and after exposure to air. A 750g of alfalfa material was filled into the experimental silo (polyvinyl chloride bottle, 1000mL capacity). After ensiling for 65days at room temperature, a part of silages (200g) was sampled and the others (450g) were exposed to air for 6days. Butyric acid (>30g/kg DM) was more than lactic acid (<1g/kg DM) in the control and TP silages due to the low contents of DM and water-soluble carbohydrates, and high buffer capacity, indicating poor fermentation quality. LB, LP, and PA promoted lactic fermentation, restrained butyric fermentation and thus improved fermentation quality of silages. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) lipolysis and saturated fatty acids (SFA) synthesis occurred in the control silage during ensiling, mainly the lipolysis of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 and synthesis of C6:0. Compared with the control, LB, LP, and PA restrained butyric fermentation and synthesis of C6:0, meanwhile LB and LP did not relieve the lipolysis of UFA while PA relieved it; TP relieved synthesis of C6:0 and had a slight lipolysis of UFA. After exposure to air for 6days, the control, LB, PA, and TP silages had better aerobic stability than LP silage, supported by higher temperature in LP silage than in the control, LB, PA, and TP silages. Like volatile FA, most of the FA composition had a positive correlation with aerobic stability. PA silage had the highest total FA content (33.8g/kg DM), the proportions of UFA, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3 due to its lower pH (<4.60) and amounts of aerobic bacteria (<5.0lgcfu/g FM) and yeasts (<2.6lgcfu/g FM) than the control, LB and LP silages, and its lower pH and aerobic bacteria number than TP silage. Therefore, PA kept silage aerobic stability and was a good additive to conserve FA of silage after exposure to air for 6days.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Different essential oils in diets of broiler chickens: 2. Gut microbes and
           morphology, immune response, and some blood profile and antioxidant
           enzymes
    • Authors: Subrata Chowdhury; Guru Prasad Mandal; Amlan Kumar Patra; Pawan Kumar; Indranil Samanta; Saktipada Pradhan; Arup Kumar Samanta
      Pages: 39 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Subrata Chowdhury, Guru Prasad Mandal, Amlan Kumar Patra, Pawan Kumar, Indranil Samanta, Saktipada Pradhan, Arup Kumar Samanta
      A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three essential oils with different main chemical structures, i.e., cinnamon bark oil (CNO), clove bud oil (CLO) and ajwain seed oil (AJO) as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) on intestinal health, immune response and antioxidant status in broiler chickens. Four hundred one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into five dietary groups comprising of eight replicates (n=8) in each group. Each replicate contained ten chicks. Five dietary groups consisted of: 1) a basal diet (control; without any antibiotic and essential oils); 2) the basal diet+bacitracin methylene disalicylate added at a dose of 50mg/kg diet (AGP); 3) the basal diet+CNO at 300mg/kg diet (CNO); 4) the basal diet+CLO at 600mg/kg diet (CLO); and 5) the basal diet+AJO at 400mg/kg diet (AJO). Both AGP and CNO significantly increased the villi height in duodenum (P =0.004), jejunum (P =0.008) or ileuim (P =0.003) compared with the control. The counts of Escherichia coli in pre-caecal contents decreased (P =0.006) in the groups receiving AGP and CNO and the counts of Clostridium spp. decreased (P =0.029) in the AGP group compared with the control. Population of Lactobacilli spp. was not affected (P =0.39) by any diets. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus increased with CNO, CLO and AJO supplementation (P< 0.001) compared with the control and AGP. The concentrations of cholesterol in serum reduced (P =0.030) in CNO, CLO and AJO groups compared with the control and AGP groups. Supplementation of CNO and CLO increased (P =0.001) the superoxide dismutase activity in serum compared with the AGP. In conclusion, supplementation of CNO could be more advantageous than the AGPs in diets due to its combined beneficial effects on immune response, gut health, antioxidant status and blood cholesterol in broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)
           saponins on lamb growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and plasma
           parameters
    • Authors: Ce Liu; Yang-hua Qu; Ping-ting Guo; Chen-chen Xu; Yong Ma; Hai-ling Luo
      Pages: 98 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Ce Liu, Yang-hua Qu, Ping-ting Guo, Chen-chen Xu, Yong Ma, Hai-ling Luo
      Fifty Hu male lambs (aged three to four months with a body weight of 22.3 ± 0.15 kg) were chosen to study the effects of supplementation with dietary alfalfa saponins (AS) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and plasma parameters. Lambs were assigned to five groups with 10 lambs per group in a completely randomized design. Different diets were offered at a 50:50 forage to concentrate ratio in which different amounts of AS were provided (0, 500, 1000, 2000, or 4000 mg/kg of dry matter intake). Diets were offered twice daily (at 08:30 and 16:30) for a period of 90 days (three months). Growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, body measurement indexes, and plasma parameters were determined each month. The final body weight differed among treatment groups during the initial (P = 0.011) and final months (P = 0.039) of the trial, respectively. However, no detectable effects of AS treatment on average daily gain (P = 0.072) or feed conversion ratio (P = 0.113) were found. Nutrient digestibility increased with AS dose, especially the digestibility of dry matter (P = 0.005), crude protein (P = 0.005), and acid detergent fiber (P = 0.013) on average. No significant differences were found among treatments for all body measurement indexes. Plasma glucose (P = 0.016), triglyceride (P = 0.018), and alanine transaminase (P = 0.002) levels decreased with increasing AS dose on average. These results indicated that AS plays an important role for increasing both nutrient digestibility and levels of plasma metabolites.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Nitrocompounds as potential methanogenic inhibitors in ruminant animals: A
           review
    • Authors: Zhen-Wei Zhang; Zhi-Jun Cao; Yan-Lu Wang; Ya-Jing Wang; Hong-Jian Yang; Sheng-Li Li
      Pages: 107 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Zhen-Wei Zhang, Zhi-Jun Cao, Yan-Lu Wang, Ya-Jing Wang, Hong-Jian Yang, Sheng-Li Li
      Methane production by ruminant husbandry, a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, has been increasingly regarded as an enormous threat to global climate warming. In the last few decades, a great number of researches have been done to mitigate methane emission in ruminant animals. More recently, as potential antimethanogenic additives, nitrocompounds have attracted extensive attention, and progressive and prospective advances have been achieved. In this review, the additive dietary effects of nitroethane, 2-nitroalcohol, 2-nitro-1-propanol, 3-nitrooxypropanol, 3-nitro-1-propanol, and 3-nitro-1-propionic acid were considered regarding their antimethanogenic role based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Along with this review, the possible inhibition action mode of these nitrocompounds in the rumen were discussed and summarized with the aim to provide scientific insights for mitigating methane emission in ruminant animals. Most rumen microbes have been reported to tolerate relatively high concentrations of nitrotoxins, and the nitrocompounds are considered to serve as alternative electron acceptors; their competitive consumption of reducing equivalents and the inhibitory effect on H2 and formate oxidation are currently well accepted regarding their inhibiting roles in ruminal methane production. Until now, the published data on the metabolic mechanism of the nitrocompounds mainly focus on their tolerance in ruminal systems that metabolized to major fraction of their corresponding amines and less fraction of nitrite. However, less research has been conducted to determine the metabolic fate of a diverse group of nitrocompounds biotransformed by rumen microbes. In addition, coenzyme M methyl-transferase (MTR) and methyl–coenzyme M reductase (MCR) have been considered as two key enzymes in the methanogenic process responsible for methyl-group transfer and hydrogen-electron transfer, respectively. However, how the nitrocompounds could affect these coenzymes’ activities during the inhibition of ruminal methanogenesis is presently unknown. Different methane emission responses to dietary nitrocompounds and their association with the methanogen community variation, coenzyme activities of MTR and MCR, and metabolic fate of the nitrogenous compounds derived from nitrocompounds by rumen microbes obviously need further investigation in future research to provide a scientific, concrete reference for the practical application of these nitrocompounds in reducing methane emission in ruminant animals.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary high non-phytate phosphorus level on growth performance
           and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in Lion-head geese
    • Authors: Y.W. Zhu; C.Y. Wang; J. Wen; W.C. Wang; L. Yang
      Pages: 115 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Y.W. Zhu, C.Y. Wang, J. Wen, W.C. Wang, L. Yang
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary high non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) level on the growth performance and metabolism of Ca and P in Lion-head geese during starter and grower-finisher periods. A total of 384 goslings at d 1 and 240 geese at d 29 were divided into 3 treatments with 4 replicate pens each treatment for Exp. 1 (the starter period for d 1–21) and Exp. 2 (the grower-finisher period for d 29–72), respectively. The 3 supplemental NPP levels (Ca: NPP ratio) in diets were 0.40% (2.38), 0.60% (1.58) and 0.80% (1.19) for Exp. 1 and were 0.30% (2.83), 0.50% (1.70) and 0.70% (1.21) for Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, final body weight, average daily gain and average daily feed intake of goslings fed a diet containing 0.80% NPP (Ca: NPP ratio,1.19) were decreased (P < 0.05) compared to birds fed a diet containing 0.60% NPP (Ca: NPP ratio, 1.58) at the starter period, with no difference (P > 0.05) between the two diets containing NPP of 0.40% (Ca: NPP ratio, 2.38) and 0.80% (Ca: NPP ratio,1.19). At d 21 of goslings, the concentrations of Ca, P, parathyroid hormone and bone gla-protein, and alkaline phosphatase activity in serum were decreased (P < 0.05) linearly in response to the increasing NPP level and decreasing Ca: NPP ratio in diets. At d 72 of geese, tibia bone Ca content was decreased (P < 0.05) linearly as dietary NPP level increased and Ca: NPP ratio decreased. Our results indicated that dietary high NPP level along with low Ca: NPP ratio can reduce growth performance and disrupt Ca and P metabolism together with the changes of serum characteristics in goslings at the starter period.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Effects of extruder die head temperature and pre-gelatinized taro and
           broken rice flour level on physical properties of floating fish pellets
    • Authors: M.S. Kamarudin; C.R. de Cruz; C.R. Saad; N. Romano; E. Ramezani-Fard
      Pages: 122 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): M.S. Kamarudin, C.R. de Cruz, C.R. Saad, N. Romano, E. Ramezani-Fard
      Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of pre-gelatinized (PG) taro and broken rice and extruder die temperatures on the physical properties of extruded pellets. The first experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of PG taro and extruder die head temperature (125, 140, 155 and 170 °C) and a subsequent experiment was conducted using PG broken rice instead. All the blends were preconditioned to a 40% moisture content and then extruded using a single screw extruder. The three zones of the barrel temperature profile (70, 90 and 100 °C) and screw speed (150 rpm) of the extruder were constant throughout the extrusion cooking process. The physical properties of the pellets included floatability, expansion ratio, bulk density, pellet durability, water absorption and solubility, moisture content and pellet microstructure. The findings showed in both experiments that PG taro and broken rice inclusion levels and die temperature had significant effects on most of the physical properties of the pellets except for pellet durability index. Changing the inclusion rate of PG taro and broken rice from 15 to 25% significantly increased the expansion ratio and floatability of the extruded pellets. Similarly, as the die temperature was elevated in both experiment, the floatability of the extruded pellets in diet containing PG taro and broken rice increased by 114.62% and 21.88%, respectively. It was also noted that use of PG taro and broken rice resulted in highly durable pellets in all treatments. Further, microstructure analysis of the extruded pellets revealed that using PG taro and broken rice, the surface of the extruded pellets became coarser when the die temperature was elevated from 125 to 170 °C and the PG taro and broken rice inclusion level was at 15%. In conclusion, pre-gelatinized taro and broken rice could be used to manufacture higher quality floating pellets.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Nutritional value of crude and partially defatted olive cake in finishing
           pigs and effects on nitrogen balance and gaseous emissions
    • Authors: P. Ferrer; P. García-Rebollar; A. Cerisuelo; M.A. Ibáñez; C.A. Rodríguez; S. Calvet; C. De Blas
      Pages: 131 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): P. Ferrer, P. García-Rebollar, A. Cerisuelo, M.A. Ibáñez, C.A. Rodríguez, S. Calvet, C. De Blas
      By-products from the food industry can be valuable ingredients in animal feeds. One example is olive cake (OC), generated in large amounts by the olive oil industry, which contains oil with a high proportion of oleic acid and polyphenols. An experiment was performed using pigs to determine the nutritional value of crude (COC) and partially defatted (PDOC) olive cake, and to evaluate their effect on nutrient balance, slurry properties and potential ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions. Five experimental feeds were designed; a basal diet and another four diets produced by substituting 100 or 200 g/kg of the basal diet with either COC or PDOC. Thirty finishing male pigs (76.1 ± 4.2 kg initial BW) were used in the experiment (6 animals/treatment). After a 14-day adaptation period, faeces and urine were collected separately for 7 days to measure nutrient digestibility and the excretory patterns of nitrogen. Potential NH3 and CH4 emissions were measured in reconstituted slurry samples over 11 and 100 days, respectively. The dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), cellulose, starch and energy coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) were negative and linearly (P < 0.05) affected by OC inclusion level. However, the type of OC did not influence any of the digestion efficiencies studied. The energy digestibility of the ingredients tested, estimated by substitution, were 0.479 (±0.040, SEM) and 0.327 (±0.049) for COC and PDOC, respectively. Overall, the results indicate a digestible energy (DE) value from COC and PDOC that account respectively for around 80 or 60% of the DE provided by barley grain in pigs. Faecal content of cellulose, polyphenols and gross energy (GE) increased linearly with OC inclusion, whereas ash content decreased. The total N content of urine decreased linearly with OC inclusion, but benzoic and hippuric acid contents increased, which resulted in lower pH values for the OC diets. The ratio between faecal and urine N excretion decreased from 2.48 in the basal diet to 1.01 on average in the 200 g/kg OC diets. As a result, increasing both COC and PDOC levels in diets resulted in lower NH3 emissions per volume of slurry and in a lower biochemical CH4 potential. Although slurry excretion increased with OC inclusion, daily NH3 emissions still decreased with increasing OC inclusion. However, potential CH4 emissions per animal increased. A global perspective throughout the production chain is needed to assess the impact of including OC in pig diets on gaseous emissions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Live yeast supplementation improves rumen fibre degradation in cattle
           grazing tropical pastures throughout the year
    • Authors: D.O. Sousa; C.A. Oliveira; A.V. Velasquez; J.M. Souza; E. Chevaux; L.J. Mari; L.F.P. Silva
      Pages: 149 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): D.O. Sousa, C.A. Oliveira, A.V. Velasquez, J.M. Souza, E. Chevaux, L.J. Mari, L.F.P. Silva
      The effect of live yeast (LY - Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077) on in situ fibre digestibility, rumen fermentation, and rumen cellulolytic bacteria population of grazing Nellore cattle was evaluated throughout the year. Eight rumen cannulated steers were used in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments: with or without LY, and the four seasons of the year. Yeast was given daily to provide 8 × 109 CFU per animal. Animals were kept on a rotational grazing system with mineral supplementation. Every 45 d, in situ rumen aNDF digestibility of 5 reference forages was determined after 24 and 48 h incubation. Rumen fluid was collected to measure yeast count and fermentation parameters, and rumen contents collected for quantitative PCR of cellulolytic bacteria. Although pasture composition varied greatly throughout the year, there was no LY*season interaction. Yeast supplementation increased aNDF digestibility in all seasons, but only when measured after 24 h of incubation. Among the four rumen bacteria evaluated, R. flavefaciens was the most prevalent and LY increased R. flavefaciens population in the summer and spring. However, LY decreased F. Succinogenes population in autumn and spring. Yeast supplementation increased total SCFA in autumn, decreased acetate proportion and increase propionate proportion during summer. There was a tendency for greater valerate proportion when steers were fed LY. No significant effect on rumen pH, butyrate, and branched-chain fatty acids was observed. Supplementing LY can benefit fibre-degrading bacteria and increase fibre digestibility of grazing animals, independently of the season.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Combined endo-β-1,4-xylanase and α-l-arabinofuranosidase increases
           butyrate concentration during broiler cecal fermentation of maize
           glucurono-arabinoxylan
    • Authors: J.L. Ravn; V. Glitsø; D. Pettersson; R. Ducatelle; F. Van Immerseel; N.R. Pedersen
      Pages: 159 - 169
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): J.L. Ravn, V. Glitsø, D. Pettersson, R. Ducatelle, F. Van Immerseel, N.R. Pedersen
      Solubilisation of prebiotic arabinoxylooligosaccharides from complex arabinoxylans in e.g. maize by xylanases may be increased by addition of auxiliary debranching enzymes. In this study, the hydrolysis and fermentation of maize fibre was investigated in vitro using a xylanase and an α-l-arabinofuranosidase. Combining the enzymes induced a higher (P < .001) xylose solubilisation and higher (P < .05) butyrate production during in vitro fermentation of maize fibre with cecal broiler inoculum compared to applying enzymes separately after 48 h. Subsequently, fibre degradation and fermentation was investigated in ROSS 308 broiler chickens supplemented with the enzyme combination to test the effects on gut morphology and microbiota composition along with performance. However, to address the relevance of combining the enzymes in vivo, further full factorial studies using individual enzymes at lower dosages are needed. Birds were fed a maize/soy based diet with 100 g/kg maize DDGS and 50 g/kg rapeseed meal. Enzymes supplementation increased (P < .001) body weight (+5.4%) and improved (P < .001) feed conversion ratio (−5.8%) after 29 days compared to control birds. Non-starch polysaccharide analysis and confocal microscopy of jejunum digesta visualised and confirmed solubilisation of the insoluble maize (glucurono)arabinoxylan. Birds receiving enzyme supplementation had increased (P < .001) duodenum villi length (+120 μm) and reduced (P < .002) CD3 T-cell infiltration (−22.1%) after 29 days. Cecal butyrate levels were increased (P < .05) compared to controls. Although the microbiota composition was not significantly altered, numerical increases in cecal Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae genera were observed in birds supplemented with enzymes.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Effects of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme supplementation to diets with
           different NFC/NDF ratios on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility
           and ruminal fermentation in Chinese domesticated black goats
    • Authors: S.D. Song; G.J. Chen; C.H. Guo; K.Q. Rao; Y.H. Gao; Z.L. Peng; Z.F. Zhang; X. Bai; Y. Wang; B.X. Wang; Z.H. Chen; X.S. Fu; W.L. Zhu
      Pages: 170 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 236
      Author(s): S.D. Song, G.J. Chen, C.H. Guo, K.Q. Rao, Y.H. Gao, Z.L. Peng, Z.F. Zhang, X. Bai, Y. Wang, B.X. Wang, Z.H. Chen, X.S. Fu, W.L. Zhu
      This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) supplementation into diets with different non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC)/neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ratios on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and microbiome in Chinese domesticated Lezhi black goats. Treatments were 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of diets using low vs. high NFC/NDF ratios (1.06 or 1.66) and with or without EFE supplementation (0 or 0.4 g cellulase and xylanase/kg dry matter of diet). Sixty four Lezhi black goats (11 ± 0.8 kg of live weight) were randomly assigned to the four treatments. High NFC/NDF ratio and EFE supplementation achieved greater average daily gain and improve feed conversion ratio (P < .05). The same treatments also significantly increased digestibility of organic matter (OM), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and NDF. In addition, the high NFC/NDF ratio diet, but not the EFE supplement, improved digestibility of crude protein (CP) and reduced ruminal pH (P < .001). Both high NFC/NDF ratio and EFE supplement decreased ruminal NH3-N concentrations significantly (P < .001), and increased the production of rumen total volatile fatty acids (VFA, P < .001), especially the molar proportion of propionate (P < .05). They reduced the molar proportion of acetate and thus the ratio of acetate to propionate (A: P) (P < .05). Both the high NFC/NDF ratio and the EFE supplement elevated the levels of microbial crude proteins (P < .01). Importantly, the combination of high NFC/NDF ratio and the EFE supplement diet raised the content of the microbial crude proteins to the highest levels among the 4 different treatment groups (P = .012). However, the high NFC/NDF ratio and the EFE supplementation had different impacts on fiber degrading activities. The high NFC/NDF ratio diet decreased, while EFE supplementation increased, the activities of cellulase and xylanase (P < .05). Among the three cellulytic bacteria detected (Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes), only the abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes was significantly decreased with the high NFC/NDF ratio (P = .004). These results illustrate that the diet with a high NFC/NDF ratio and EFE supplementation can improve ADG, feed conversion ratio and nutrient utilization in Lezhi black goats. These improvements are likely attributed to the elevated production of microbial crude proteins and a shift in the molar proportions of VFA in the rumen, rather than increase of cellulolytic bacteria in the rumen microbiota.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 236 (2017)
       
  • Effect of different levels of pomegranate marc with or without
           polyethylene glycol on performance, nutrients digestibility and protozoal
           population in growing lambs
    • Authors: Ali Hatami; Daryoush Alipour; Fardin Hozhabri; Meysam Tabatabaei
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Ali Hatami, Daryoush Alipour, Fardin Hozhabri, Meysam Tabatabaei
      This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of pomegranate marc (PM) supplemented with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG) on performance, intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention, ruminal ammonia concentration and protozoal population in growing lambs. Thirty Mehraban male lambs (4–5 months of age; 29.5±1.19kg initial body weight (BW)) were assigned randomly to five treatments (6 lambs per treatment) which were different levels of PM with or without PEG: without PM (Control), 80g PM/kg DM (PM80), PM80 with PEG (PM80+PEG), 160g PM/kg DM (PM160), and PM160 with PEG (PM160+PEG). On day 61 of the fattening period, four animals from each group were selected randomly and housed individually in metabolism crates to evaluate nutrient digestibility by total collection method. Control animals had a greater dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) compared with PM160 (P<0.05). However, lambs fed the high level of PM showed decreased DMI and ADG compared with those fed the low level of PM (P<0.05). The addition of PEG to the PM diets increased DMI (P<0.05), but did not affect the ADG (P>0.05) of lambs. The PM160 diet had lower crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibities compared with other treatments (P>0.05). The addition of PEG to the PM diets increased the digestibilities of OM, CP, NDF and ADF (P<0.05) by lambs. There were no differences among treatments for N intake, fecal N output and N retention (P>0.05). Addition of PEG to the PM diets increased urinary N output and the ratio of urinary to fecal N (P<0.05). Ruminal ammonia concentration, numbers of Entodinium spp. and total protozoa population were higher in control-fed lambs than lambs fed other treatments. Inclusion of PEG in diets containing PM increased ruminal ammonia concentration, blood urea nitrogen, numbers of Entodinium spp. and total protozoa population (p<0.05). In conclusion, addition of 80g PM/kg DM of diet or tannins up to 1.62% of DM had no adverse effect on DMI, ADG, FCR, nutrient digestibility and N retention by lambs but it decreased protozoal population, ruminal ammonia concentration and blood urea nitrogen in lambs fed concentration based diets.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Lambs fed cassava silage with added tamarind residue: Silage quality,
           intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, growth performance and carcass
           quality
    • Authors: C.M. Souza; R.L. Oliveira; T.V. Voltolini; D.R. Menezes; N.J.A. dos Santos; A.M. Barbosa; T.M. Silva; E.S. Pereira; L.R. Bezerra
      Pages: 50 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): C.M. Souza, R.L. Oliveira, T.V. Voltolini, D.R. Menezes, N.J.A. dos Santos, A.M. Barbosa, T.M. Silva, E.S. Pereira, L.R. Bezerra
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects adding tamarind residue to cassava silage on the quality of the silage and its in vitro ruminal fermentation, as well as the growth performance and carcass quality of lambs. A completely randomized design with four inclusion levels (0.00, 100, 200 and 300g/kg) of tamarind residue (Tamarindus indica L.) added to cassava silage was used. Twenty mini-silos were used to prepare samples of the four treatments (five replicates each), which were opened after 56days. Forty male lambs were fed cassava silage with added tamarind residue as the roughage and a concentrate (500:500g/kg of feed) over 85days. There was no effect of the tamarind residue-added cassava silage on effluent losses and dry matter (DM) recovery rates. However, there were linear and quadratic reductions in pH (P< 0.001) and the crude protein (CP) (P< 0.001), ether extract (EE) (P< 0.001) and ash (P< 0.001) contents and linear and quadratic increases in the DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (P< 0.001), acid detergent fiber (ADF) (P< 0.001), non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) (P< 0.001), acid detergent lignin (ADL) (P< 0.001), and tannin (P< 0.001) contents. There was a linear increase in the maximum potential gas production from total carbohydrates and the gas production rate from NFCs (P< 0.001). The production rate of total gases (P< 0.001), lag phase duration (P< 0.001) and DM in vitro degradability (P< 0.001) were all reduced with the addition of tamarind residue in silage. There was no effect of the tamarind residue-added cassava silage on DM, CP, NFC or total digestible nutrient (TDN) intakes (g/d). However, there was a linear increase in the NDF intake (P =0.042) and a linear reduction in the EE (P =0.038) intake by lambs. There was an increase in the DM (P< 0.001), CP (P< 0.001), and NDF (P< 0.001) contents. There was linear effect on the DM (P< 0.001), CP (P< 0.001), and NDF (P< 0.001) contents and a positive quadratic on EE (P =0.018) digestibility. There was linear increase in nitrogen (N) fecal excretion (P< 0.001) and a quadratic decrease in N urinary (P =0.018) excretion and N retention (P< 0.001). There was an increase in the hot and cold carcass weights and yields (P< 0.001) and in the Longissimus dorsi area (LDA) (P< 0.001) of the lambs. The addition of 300g/kg tamarind residue to cassava silage is recommended because it reduces the production of gases and improves the DM content of the diet. In addition, this diet increases the DM in vitro digestibility and intake (DMI), N retention, hot and cold carcass yields, and LDA of lambs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T14:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus) with high residual feed intake have
           increased the expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in
           rumen epithelium
    • Authors: P. Del Bianco Benedeti; E. Detmann; H.C. Mantovani; S.F.M. Bonilha; N.V.L. Serão; D.R.G. Lopes; W. Silva; C.J. Newbold; M.S. Duarte
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): P. Del Bianco Benedeti, E. Detmann, H.C. Mantovani, S.F.M. Bonilha, N.V.L. Serão, D.R.G. Lopes, W. Silva, C.J. Newbold, M.S. Duarte
      The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and urea transport in rumen epithelium of bulls with different feed efficiency based on residual feed intake (RFI). Twenty-seven Nellore bulls (age=22.5±0.8 mo; initial body weight=401±42kg) were classified as either Low, Medium, and High (n=9 per group) RFI and finished in individual pens. During the finishing phase animals were fed the same diet formulated to meet the requirements of 1.3kg daily gain with a target finish weight of 550kg. At the end of the trial, bulls were slaughtered and ruminal fluid was collected for further VFA analyses. Samples of rumen epithelium from ventral sac were rapidly excised, rinsed with phosphate buffered saline solution (pH=7.04) and immediately immerged in RNA later solution within 2mL tubes. After 48h, rumen epithelium samples were placed at −80°C until total RNA isolation and qPCR analysis. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4 with α=0.05; trends were determined as 0.10> P> 0.05. The concentrations of total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and acetate: propionate ratio did not differ (P> 0.05) among RFI groups. The mRNA abundance of UQCR10 (P <0.01) and NDUFB4 (trend; P =0.07) were greatest for High RFI animals. However, the mRNA abundance of ATP5H, COX10, and SDHF2 did not differ (P >0.05) among treatments. No differences (P> 0.05) were observed for mRNA abundance of genes associated with ion pumping (ATP1B1, ATP1B2, ATP1B3), protein turnover (IGF1R, MKI67, UBA1), heat production (UCP2), butyrate metabolism (BDH1, BDH2, HMGCL, HMGS1), and VFA (CA7, DRA, NHE2, MCT1, and PAT1) and urea transport (AQP3, AQP7, AQP8, AQP10, and SLC14A1) in rumen epithelium of bulls classified as High, Medium, and Low RFI. These findings may indicate that more efficient animals (Low and Medium RFI) have lower energy expenditure in this tissue, which likely contribute for their better efficiency compared to the less efficient (High RFI) bulls.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Physiological responses to a yeast and clay-based adsorbent during an
           aflatoxin challenge in Holstein cows
    • Authors: M.E. Weatherly; R.T. Pate; G.E. Rottinghaus; F.O. Roberti Filho; F.C. Cardoso
      Pages: 147 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): M.E. Weatherly, R.T. Pate, G.E. Rottinghaus, F.O. Roberti Filho, F.C. Cardoso
      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 different adsorbents (AD) composed of yeast fractions and bentonite (AD1 and AD2) during an aflatoxin (AF) challenge on the health and performance of lactating dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows [(n=76); BW (mean±SD)=698±72kg; DIM=153±83 d] were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design. The trial lasted 28 d and measurements were made from d 22 to 28. From d 22 to 24 cows received an AF challenge (100μg of AFB1/kg of diet DM administered orally). Treatments were: control (CON), no AD or AF; positive control (POS), no AD plus AF challenge; 30g per cow per day of AD1 and AF challenge (P30); 60g per cow per day of AD1 and AF challenge (P60); and 60g per cow per day of AD2 and AF challenge (PROT). The appearance and disappearance of AF excreted in milk was tested at each milking from d 22 to 28 using SNAP tests (SNP; IDEXX, Inc.). Blood was sampled on d 22 and 26 (n=2 per cow), and analyzed for superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration. Milk samples from d 22 to 26 were analyzed for AFM1 concentrations by HPLC. Fecal samples collected from the rectum on d 22 and 24 were analyzed for AFB1 concentrations via HPLC. Statistical analysis was performed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. A quadratic treatment effect (P< 0.001) was observed for plasma SOD concentrations at 2.77, 1.99, and 1.97±0.05U/mL for POS, AD30, and AD60 treatments, respectively. Aflatoxin M1 transfer (11.4 and 0.00±1.60g/kg), excretion (29.52 and 0.00±4.58μg/d), and concentrations in milk (0.76 and 0.00±0.16μg/kg) were greater for POS than CON, respectively (P< 0.001) but no differences were observed among other treatments. A tendency for a quadratic treatment effect (P =0.08) was observed for fecal AFB1 concentrations at 6.78, 8.55, and 5.07±1.17μg/kg for the POS, P30, and P60 treatments, respectively. Oral supplementation of yeast and bentonite clay-based adsorbents during an AF challenge resulted in quadratic changes in plasma SOD and fecal AFB1 concentrations; however, no differences were observed for DMI or milk yield. In conclusion, yeast cell wall and bentonite-based adsorbent may be beneficial in reducing inflammation during an AF challenge but there were no treatment differences regarding its adsorbent capacity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Strategies to modify the ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty
           acids and the production of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 in vitro
    • Authors: A. Siurana; A. Ferret; M. Rodriguez; B. Vlaeminck; V. Fievez; S. Calsamiglia
      Pages: 158 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 235
      Author(s): A. Siurana, A. Ferret, M. Rodriguez, B. Vlaeminck, V. Fievez, S. Calsamiglia
      The production of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 isomer in the rumen is associated with milk fat depression. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of some additives on rumen fermentation and apparent biohydrogenation of linoleic (LA) and linolenic (LNA) acids, and the production of the trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 isomer associated with milk fat depression. In experiment 1, a 1:1 forage:concentrate diet containing linseed oil (84g/kg of DM) was incubated in a 2h or 6h batch culture with rumen fluid in 2 replicated periods. Treatments in the 2h incubations were: control; lipase 1 and 2 (4 and 40μl/l) and a lipase inhibitor (4 and 20mg/l); and in the 6h incubations were: Oxy-propyl-thiosulfate (PTSO; 60 and 120mg/l); Eugenol (EUG; 150 and 500mg/l) and Cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 150 and 500mg/l). After incubation, samples were collected to analyze ammonia-N, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and the fatty acid (FA) profile. In experiment 2, 8 continuous culture fermenters (1320ml) were used in 3 replicated periods (5 d of adaptation and 3 d of sampling). Fermenters were fed 95g/d of DM of a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet containing 50g/kg DM of linseed oil. Treatments were control, lipase 1 (4μl/l), PTSO (90mg/l) and CIN (250mg/l), and were tested at 2pH levels (6.4 and 5.6). During the last 3 d of each period, samples were taken to analyze VFA, ammonia-N and the FA profile. In experiment 1, Lipase 1 increased the apparent biohydrogenation of LNA, but these results were not observed in experiment 2. Both CIN and PTSO seem to inhibit the apparent biohydrogenation of LNA, but only the PTSO inhibited the biohydrogenation of LA in a 6h incubation compared with control. Cinnamaldehyde in Experiment 1, and PTSO in Experiment 1 and 2 decreased total VFA concentrations. Although the short-term batch incubation suggested some potential benefits of use of some additives for modifying rumen biohydrogenation pathways, effects observed in the long-term fermentation were not relevant for the purpose of decreasing the production of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 isomer involved in milk fat depression.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 235 (2017)
       
  • Use of an in vitro gas production procedure to evaluate rumen slow-release
           urea products
    • Authors: Mauro Spanghero; Anna Nikulina; Federico Mason
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Mauro Spanghero, Anna Nikulina, Federico Mason
      The bulk of the gas produced in the in vitro rumen gas production technique originates from bicarbonate buffer, which reacts with volatile fatty acids (VFA) to release CO2. Ammonia, which is produced from fermentation of nitrogenous substrates, neutralizes the VFA and prevents them from reacting with the buffer. We hypothesized that the in vitro gas test could be a suitable method to differentiate slow-release urea (SRU) products basing on the intensity of ammonia release and consequent reduction in gas produced. The study was composed by two in vitro gas experiments (i.e., Expt.’s 1 and 2), which were conducted using graduated 100 ml syringes with gas measurements at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h of incubation (in Expt. 2, also at 0.5 and 18 h). In Expt. 1, 500 mg of corn (Zea mays subsp. mays) meal (CM), alone or added with four progressively higher urea doses (i.e., 25, 50, 75, 100 mg) were examined to evaluate the patterns of gas reduction and modifications of the fermentation process with urea addition. Increasing urea doses caused a consistent depression in gas produced at each measurement point (P < 0.01) and an increase (P < 0.01) in ammonia N concentration in the fermentation fluid after 24 h of incubation. When urea added exceeded 50 mg, a decrease (P < 0.01) of substrate apparent degradability (from 0.76–0.77 to 0.68-0.71) occurred. In Expt. 2 a group of 9 commercial SRU products, containing from 361 to 420 g of N/kg of dry matter, were added to 500 mg of CM in amounts equivalent to 50 mg (on an N basis) of feed grade urea (i.e., CM + SRU), CM alone and CM added with urea (i.e., CM + U), were incubated as in Expt. 1. At all measurement points, gas production was highest for CM and lowest for CM + U substrates (P < 0.01) while all CM + SRU mixtures were intermediate (e.g. from −30/40 to −70/80% of the CM gas yield, at 4 h). The in vitro gas procedure can be used to evaluate SRU products in terms of reduction of gas volumes due to the ammonia release. The procedure seems to be of high sensitivity because can well rank different commercial SRU products, mainly in the first hours of incubation. Further research might consider using the procedure by modern equipment and performing experiments to test accuracy and precision.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.017
       
  • Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) as spin off technology from 2nd generation
           biofuel for upgrading cereal straws and stovers for livestock feed
    • Authors: Michael Farzaneh; Teymouri Janette Moore Chandra Nielson Josh Videto Prasad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Michael Blümmel, Farzaneh Teymouri, Janette Moore, Chandra Nielson, Josh Videto, Prasad Kodukula, Sharada Pothu, Ravi Devulapalli, Padmakumar Varijakshapanicker
      Ten cereal straws and stovers from India were treated using the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) technique to explore the effectiveness of the AFEX technique for releasing sugars from structural carbohydrates and for the upgrading of cereal crop residues as livestock feed. Recovery of glucose and xylose in AFEX treated material was about three times the recovery in untreated material. AFEX treatment increased recovery of glucose between 60 and 85% and of xylose between 50 and 85% of their theoretical yields. AFEX treatment increased average crude protein (CP) by 260% (CP content: 62 vs 161 g/kg). Cell wall content as estimated by NDF decreased on average by 47 g/kg (NDF: 656 vs 609 g/kg) while cellulose contents estimated as ADF apparently increased by 23 g/kg (ADF: 443 vs 466 g/kg). Lignin contents estimated as ADL did not significantly differ between untreated and treated material. Measured after 24 h of incubation, AFEX treatment consistently and significantly increased in vitro gas production (42.9 vs 33.3 ml/200 mg), in vitro apparent digestibility (493 vs 630 g/kg) and true digestibility (624 vs 755 g/kg) and in vitro metabolizable energy content (6.9 vs 8.6 MJ/kg). Treatment changes in digestibility estimated based on in vitro gas production generally agreed with gravimetric estimates based on undigested residues, making it unlikely that the effect of AFEX treatment on digestibility was overestimated by unrecovered soluble but un-fermentable substrate. Increases in CP content and in vitro digestibilities upon AFEX treatment were unrelated to CP content and in vitro organic matter digestibilities (IVOMD) of untreated base material, though increases in IVOMD upon treatment tended (P = 0.07) to be lower in material with high (>530 g/kg) baseline IVOMD.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
       
  • The impact of substituting soybean meal and sunflower meal with a mixture
           of white lupine seeds and rapeseed meal on rabbit doe milk yield and
           composition, and the growth performance and carcass traits of their
           litters
    • Authors: Z. Volek; T.A. Ebeid; L. Uhlířová
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Z. Volek, T.A. Ebeid, L. Uhlířová
      The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of substitution of soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM) with a mixture of whole white lupine seeds (WLS) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in lactation and growing diets on the milk yield and composition of rabbit does, as well as on the performance of their litters. Two lactation diets and two growing diets having identical ratios of digestible protein to digestible energy were formulated. The first lactation diet (SSL) contained 13.0% SBM and 5.0% SFM as the main crude protein (CP) sources, whereas the second lactation diet (RLL) was based on 10.0% RSM and 14.0% WLS. The first growing diet (SSG) included 7.0% SBM as the main CP source, whereas the second growing diet (RLG) diet was based on 6.0% RSM and 4.0% WLS. A total of 32 crossbred rabbit does (Hyplus PS 19 strain) were divided into 2 experimental treatments (16 each) and were fed one of the two lactation diets. All does were in the fourth parturition cycle. The litters (PS Hyplus 19 × PS Hyplus 40) were standardized to 9 kits on the day of birth (Day 0). The litters were offered one of the two growing diets ad libitum from d 17 to d 33 (weaning) of age. At weaning, 10 litters/diet (a total of 90 animals of both sexes) were randomly chosen for the fattening period. Rabbits continued to be fed their respective growing diets ad libitum for 42 d. No significant differences were observed between treatments in terms of the body weight, feed intake or milk production of rabbit does during the entire lactation period. Interestingly, substituting the SSL diet with the RLL diet modified the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk fat; specifically, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) were significantly increased, thus tending to increase the total ratio of n-3PUFA to C20:4n-6 (P = 0.067) in the milk of does fed the RLL diet. The RLL diet increased milk content of alpha-linolenic acid (P = 0.037) and eicosapentaenoic acid (P = 0.015). The performance of fattening rabbits was not affected by dietary treatments. It could be concluded that substitution of SBM and SFM with a mixture of WLS and RSM increased the milk content of n-3PUFA and had no adverse effects on the performance or milk yield of rabbit does or on the performance, carcass traits or viability of their litters.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.011
       
  • Effect of dietary grape pomace on growth performance, meat quality and
           antioxidant activity in ram lambs
    • Authors: J.X. Zhao; R.X. Zhang W.Z. Liu Y.S. Ren C.X. Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.X. Zhao, Q. Li, R.X. Zhang, W.Z. Liu, Y.S. Ren, C.X. Zhang, J.X. Zhang
      Wine grape pomace (WGP) provides a rich source of polyphenols that can act as powerful antioxidants, but their potential as feed ingredients in the lamb industry remains unexploited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary WGP supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidative activity in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of lambs. A total of eighteen lambs (25.0±0.2kg of body weight, BW) were randomly selected and equally divided into three groups, and offered diet containing different levels of WGP (0%, 5% and 10%). The results showed that supplementation with 10% dietary WGP increased body weight, average daily gain, and reduced the feed to gain ratio (P<0.05). There was no observed effect of dietary WGP supplementation on pH, color, cooking loss, or intramuscular fat (IMF). Lambs fed with a WGP-containing diet had lower Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF) (P<0.05), and a decreased collagen content (P<0.05). The total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were increased when lambs were fed the WGP-containing diet (P<0.05), whereas no difference in catalase activity was detected. In addition, WGP supplementation decreased ROS and MDA levels induced in animals raised in penned conditions (P<0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that WGP can be used as a feed ingredient in lamb production to relieve oxidative stress, and improve feed efficiency and meat tenderness, possibly due to the enhanced antioxidative capacity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
       
  • Evaluation of feed flavor supplementation on the performance of lactating
           high-prolific sows in a tropical humid climate
    • Authors: B.A.N. Silva; R.L.S. Tolentino; S. Eskinazi; D.V. Jacob; F.S.S. Raidan; T.V. Albuquerque; N.C. Oliveira; G.G.A. Araujo; K.F. Silva; P.F. Alcici
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): B.A.N. Silva, R.L.S. Tolentino, S. Eskinazi, D.V. Jacob, F.S.S. Raidan, T.V. Albuquerque, N.C. Oliveira, G.G.A. Araujo, K.F. Silva, P.F. Alcici
      Three hundred mixed parity sows of a high prolificacy genetic line were used to evaluate the impact of the supplementation of different levels of feed flavor during lactation on their productive and reproductive performance under tropical conditions. Sows were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design among 3 dietary treatments: control diet (T1) and other two diets with different levels of inclusion (T2=250 and T3=500g/ton) of a feed flavor during 24 d lactation and WEI. The average minimum and maximum ambient temperatures and daily relative humidity measured during the experimental period were 17.4 and 34.7°C, and 38.0% and 93.8%, respectively. The treatments influenced (P<0.001) the sows voluntary feed intake, the T3 sows showed a higher intake than T2 and higher than T1 (6.60 vs. 6.02 vs. 5.08kg/d, respectively). When compared among sows fed the feed flavor, the higher level of inclusion (T3) showed a +9.6% higher (P<0.001) feed intake than T2 sows. The sows from T3 showed a higher (P=0.039) number of weaned piglets when compared to T2 and higher than T1 (13.45 vs. 13.07 vs. 12.95, respectively). There was an effect of the treatment (P<0.001) on litter daily gain where litters from T3 sows showed a higher daily gain when compared to T2 and T1 (3.37 vs. 2.75 vs. 2.58kg/d, respectively). Average weaning weight was also higher (P< 0.001) for piglets from T3 sows when compared to T2 and T1 (7.00 vs. 6.16 vs. 5.86kg, respectively). Average daily milk production was higher (P<0.001) in the T3 sows when compared with the T2 and T1 fed sows (12.99 vs. 9.55 vs. 8.59kg/d, respectively). The weaning-to-oestrus interval did not differ among treatments and averaged 4.3 d (P>0.10). Respiratory frequency was influenced (P=0.027) by treatments, whereas T3 sows showed on average a higher respiratory rate when compared with T2 and T1 (82.7 vs. 79.6 vs. 65.4 movements/min, respectively). The treatments influenced (P<0.001) the rectal temperatures, where on average T1 sows showed lower values when compared to T2 and T3 fed sows (38.8 vs. 39.1 vs. 39.3 °C, respectively). In conclusion, this experiment has demonstrated that the strategic use of feed flavor to stimulate sows voluntary feed intake can benefit milk production and as a consequence improve litter performance all of which can help attenuate the negative effects of heat stress conditions on the nursing sow.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.005
       
  • Different essential oils in diets of chickens: 1. Growth performance,
           nutrient utilization, nitrogen excretion, carcass traits and chemical
           composition of meat
    • Authors: Subrata Chowdhury; Guru Prasad Mandal Amlan Kumar Patra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Subrata Chowdhury, Guru Prasad Mandal, Amlan Kumar Patra
      A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three different types of essential oils (EOs), i.e., cinnamon oil (CNO), clove oil (CLO) and ajwain oil (AJO) as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, nitrogen excretion, carcass characteristics, and chemical and fatty acid composition of meat of broiler chickens. Four hundred one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into five dietary groups with eight replicates (n=8) per group. Each replicate contained ten chicks. Five dietary groups consisted of: 1) a basal diet (control; without any antibiotic or EOs); 2) the basal diet+bacitracin methylene disalicylate added at a dose of 0.05g/kg diet (AGP); 3) the basal diet+CNO at 0.3g/kg diet (CNO); 4) the basal diet+CLO at 0.6g/kg diet (CLO); and 5) the basal diet+AJO at 0.4g/kg diet (AJO). At the end of the trial (39 d), one chicken from each replicate (8 chickens per group) was slaughtered for measurements of carcass traits and chemical composition of meat. Broiler chickens fed either CNO or AGP increased (P ≤0.05) the average daily gain, body weight and feed efficiency during the overall period. Total tract apparent retention of organic matter and crude protein increased (P ≤0.05) due to AGP and CNO supplementation. Nitrogen excretion per kg body weight or edible meat was reduced in AGP or CNO group compared with the control, CLO and AJO groups. Concentrations of moisture and crude protein in meat were not affected by essential oils supplementation, while ether extract content was lower in meat of the AGP group. Supplementation of CNO tended to retain the concentrations of n-3 PUFA in breast meat. From the findings of this study, it is concluded that CNO at 0.3g/kg could be used as an alternative to AGP in commercial broiler diets to improve growth performance and nutrient utilisation while decreasing nitrogen excretion to the environment. It is further noted that the type of EOs has major influence on the growth performance of broiler chickens.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
       
  • Use of high doses of 18:0 to try to mitigate the syndrome of milk fat
           depression in dairy ewes fed marine lipids
    • Authors: Pablo Toral; Gonzalo Pilar Frutos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Pablo G. Toral, Gonzalo Hervás, Pilar Frutos
      Despite the benefits of adding marine lipids rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to ruminant diets to improve milk fatty acid (FA) composition, this strategy induces milk fat depression (MFD), precluding its application under practical conditions. The MFD elicited by marine lipids has tentatively been explained by a shortage of available ruminal 18:0 for mammary uptake and Δ9-desaturation to cis-9 18:1, which might increase milk fat melting point and impair fat secretion. This hypothesis was challenged in a recent experiment in dairy ewes, as diet supplementation with 2% DM of 18:0 did not prove useful to alleviate fish oil-induced MFD. However, further research with higher levels of 18:0 inclusion seemed advisable. Therefore, in this study, 16 lactating ewes were allocated to 4 treatments lasting 27 days: a total mixed ration containing no additional lipid (control) or 2% DM of fish oil alone (FO) or in combination with 3% (FOSA3) or 4% (FOSA4) of stearic acid. Fish oil supplementation induced MFD, but addition of 18:0, regardless of the dose, was not able to mitigate it: decreases in milk fat content reached 19% in FO, 20% in FOSA3 and 27% in FOSA4. The reduction in milk 18:0 concentration due to FO (−81%) was completely reverted neither by FOSA3 (−41%) nor by FOSA4 (−25%), and something similar occurred with cis-9 18:1 concentrations (12.53, 5.91, 9.50 and 11.28g/100 FA, in control, FO, FOSA3 and FOSA4, respectively). Increases in some candidate milk fat inhibitors in FO and FOSA diets (e.g., cis-9 16:1, cis-11 18:1, trans-10 18:1, 10-oxo-18:0, or trans-10 cis-15 18:2) might account for the absence of a positive effect of dietary 18:0. The estimated milk fat melting point was lower in the three supplemented diets (on average, −2.6°C compared with the control). In conclusion, addition of high doses of stearic acid to the diet (at 3 and 4% DM) was not able to alleviate the MFD caused by the concomitant supplementation with fish oil. This lack of response would further challenge the hypothesis suggesting that fish oil-induced MFD is mainly explained by decreased ruminal production of 18:0 and subsequent problems of milk fat fluidity, but further research would be still needed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
       
  • A comparative study on the effects of dietary sunflower hulls on growth
           performance and digestive tract traits of broilers and pullets fed a
           pullet diet from 0 to 21 days of age
    • Authors: M.V. Kimiaeitalab; Mirzaie Goudarzi G.G. Mateos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M.V. Kimiaeitalab, S. Mirzaie Goudarzi, E. Jiménez-Moreno, L. Cámara, G.G. Mateos
      The effects of the inclusion of sunflower hulls (SFH) in the diet on growth performance, coefficient of total tract apparent retention (CTTAR) of nutrients, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration in the cecum were studied in chicks from 0 to 21 d of age. Treatments consisted in the combination of two chicken lines (female broilers vs. pullets) and two levels of SFH inclusion (0 vs. 30g/kg). The control diet contained 11.94MJ AMEn, 191g crude protein, 9.8g digestible Lys and 101g neutral detergent fiber/kg. The experimental diet included 30g SFH/kg at the expense (wt:wt) of the control diet. Growth performance was better (P <0.001) in broilers than in pullets at all ages. Moisture content of the excreta was lower (P <0.001) in pullets than in broilers at 21 d of age but an opposite effect was observed at 9 d. At 9 d of age, nutrient retention (P <0.001) and AMEn of the diet (P <0.01) were higher in broilers than in pullets but at 21 d of age the only difference detected was for N retention (P <0.001). In absolute terms (g or cm) broilers had heavier (P <0.001) digestive organs and longer small intestine (SI) and cecum than pullets. In relative terms, however, the GIT (P=0.062), proventriculus (P <0.001), gizzard (P <0.001) and pancreas (P <0.01) were heavier at 21 d, and the SI and the cecum were longer (P <0.001) at both ages in pullets. SFH inclusion did not affect growth performance or organ weights at any age but increased the absolute length of the SI and cecum and the AMEn of the diet at 21 d of age (P <0.05). At 21 d of age, fiber inclusion reduced moisture content of the excreta in broilers but no effects were observed in pullets (P <0.05 for interaction). The pH of the GIT and the concentration of SCFA in the cecum were not affected by chicken line or SFH inclusion. Villus height and crypt depth were higher (P <0.001) in broilers than in pullets but were not affected by SFH inclusion. In summary, broilers showed greater growth performance and nutrient retention at 9 d of age and better ileum absorptive capacity at 21 d than pullets. The dilution of the diet with 30g SFH/kg did not affect chick performance and in fact, improved the AMEn of the diet in both chicken lines at 21 d of age.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T02:17:37Z
       
  • Effects of α-galactosidase supplementation on nutrient digestibility,
           growth performance, intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activities
           in weaned piglets
    • Authors: Q.H. Shang; X.K. Ma; M. Li; L.H. Zhang; J.X. Hu; X.S. Piao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Q.H. Shang, X.K. Ma, M. Li, L.H. Zhang, J.X. Hu, X.S. Piao
      A total of 90 weaned piglets (initial body weight 7.86±0.98kg) were used in a 28-d trial to evaluate effects of α-galactosidase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activities. Piglets were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 5 pens per treatment and 6 piglets per pen in a randomized complete block design. The three dietary treatments were corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with 0 (control), 100 or 200 FTU/kg α-galactosidase. Piglets fed diets supplemented with α-galactosidase had greater (P< 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of isoleucine, leucine, threonine, alanine and serine than the control piglets. Supplementation of α-galactosidase improved (P< 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and reduced (P< 0.01) diarrhea rate compared with the control. The villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum of piglets fed diets containing α-galactosidase were greater (P< 0.05) than those in the control piglets. Piglets offered 100 FTU/kg α-galactosidase had greater (P< 0.05) villus height in the duodenum than those offered the control diet. Compared with the control, supplementation of α-galactosidase significantly enhanced (P< 0.05) trypsin activity in the duodenum and jejunum and lipase activity in the jejunum. The propionate concentration in the cecum decreased (P< 0.05) by α-galactosidase supplementation compared with the control. However, there was no difference in these indexes between α-galactosidase supplemented treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of α-galactosidase at 100 or 200 FTU/kg enhanced nutrient digestibility and ADG, and reduced diarrhea rate of weaned piglets by improving intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activities.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T14:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.008
       
  • Influence of dietary supplementation with sunflower oil and quebracho
           
    • Authors: H.E.M. Kamel; S.N. Al-Dobaib; A.Z.M. Salem; S. López; P.A. Alaba
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): H.E.M. Kamel, S.N. Al-Dobaib, A.Z.M. Salem, S. López, P.A. Alaba
      The influence of dietary supplementation with quebracho tannins (QT) or/and sunflower oil (SF) on fatty acid profile and growth performance in the meat of Awassi lambs assigned randomly to nine diets. The experiment was conducted as a 32 factorial design with two factors, SF and QT each at three levels i.e. 0 (control), 20 and 40g/kg of the diets DM of QT and SF or their combination (QT+SF). The significant SF×QT interaction was observed on the conjugated linoleic acid content of intramuscular fat (P =0.007), but not average daily gain (P =0.11). Addition of QT at 40g/kg DM significantly increased average daily gain comparing to control diet. The inclusion of QT in the diet increased the content of the conjugated linoleic acid in meat above that achieved with SF. Addition the combination of QT and SF to the lamb diet enhanced the content of conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 c9t11) of lamb meat. This could be due to the reduction in the efficiency of ruminal microorganisms and the bio-hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in the diet. The results suggest that inclusion the combination of QT and SF in lamb diets improved the healthy fatty acids meat contents without effect on animal performance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T14:49:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.11.006
       
  • Sisal silage addition to feedlot sheep diets as a water and forage source
    • Authors: F.N.C. Souza; T.C. da Silva; C.V.D.M. Ribeiro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): F.N.C. Souza, T.C. da Silva, C.V.D.M. Ribeiro
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the water and nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, productive performance and carcass traits of sheep fed diets containing levels of sisal pulp silage (SPS) in substitution of tifton hay. Forty Santa Ines lambs (average initial body weight of 22±3.4kg) were randomly distributed among four diets containing 0, 167, 333, and 500g/kg of SPS in the total dietary dry matter (DM), containing 500g/kg of concentrate. The experimental period lasted 72 days, after 21days of adaptation to the diets. Linear and quadratic effects of SPS levels were analyzed using orthogonal contrast. Intake of DM and OM were not affected by the substitution of tifton hay with SPS (P>0.05). Intake of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral digestible fiber (NDF) and acid digestible fiber (ADF) decreased linearly as SPS increased (P<0.05). The inclusion of SPS in the diets decreased linearly the voluntary water intake (P<0.05). Apparent digestibility of nutrients increased linearly with increasing dietary SPS levels, except for non-fibrous carbohydrates. Productive performance and carcass characteristics did not show significant effects (P>0.05). Sisal pulp silage is a suitable source to feed sheep, since animals showed similar intake and performances and it can be a consistent water source in arid and semiarid regions. Because of moderate concentration of physically effective fiber in the 333g/kg SPS diet group, we recommend the inclusion of 333g/kg of SPS in dietary dry matter in combination with tifton hay.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.010
       
 
 
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