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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Feed Science and Technology
  [SJR: 1.151]   [H-I: 83]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0377-8401 - ISSN (Online) 0377-8401
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • In vitro fermentation of browse species using goat rumen fluid in relation
           to browse polyphenol content and composition
    • Authors: G. Mengistu; M. Karonen; J.-P. Salminen; W.H. Hendriks; W.F. Pellikaan
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 231
      Author(s): G. Mengistu, M. Karonen, J.-P. Salminen, W.H. Hendriks, W.F. Pellikaan
      The effect of browse species tannins (using polyethylene glycol, PEG 6000) on in vitro gas production (GP), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were studied. Approximately 0.5g of air-dried A. etbaica, C. farinosa, C. tomentosa, D. angustifolia, D. cinerea, E. racemosa, M. angolensis, M. senegalensis, R. natalensis and S. singueana leaves were used as substrates in an automated in vitro system. Proanthocyanidin (PA) contents were quantified using the modified HCl-butanol method and the PA composition analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography using a diode array detector coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI–MS/MS). Substrates were inoculated for 72h in buffered rumen fluid (2:1, v/v), pooled from three goats fed a grass silage and concentrate diet, on three separate occasions. Each substrate was incubated in triplicate with or without inclusion of PEG 6000 and GP measured. During incubation, head space gas samples were taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72h and analysed for CH4. Volatile fatty acids, NH3 and IVOMD were determined after 72h of incubation. Data from three runs were averaged for analysis. Addition of PEG increased (P<0.0001) GP, CH4, NH3 and total VFA indicating that PA were mainly involved in reducing methanogenesis but also digestibility. Prodelphinidins were found to be the major PA affecting fermentation. Also the contribution of quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol derivatives in CH4 reduction were evident. Changes in the molar proportions of VFA with PEG addition indicated that PA affected fermentation pathways. The absence of PEG effect on IVOMD was due to artefacts from the tannin-PEG complexes interfering with the incubation residue measurement. Overall, the effect of tannin-containing browse on in vitro fermentation characteristics was mainly due to PA with the possible minor effects of other phenolic and non-phenolic compounds.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:02:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.021
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2017)
       
  • Effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on growth
           performance, antioxidant status and haemato-biochemical parameters of
           their male kids in Taihang Black Goats
    • Authors: Lei Shi; Youshe Ren; Chunxiang Zhang; Wenbin Yue; Fulin Lei
      Pages: 67 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 231
      Author(s): Lei Shi, Youshe Ren, Chunxiang Zhang, Wenbin Yue, Fulin Lei
      To investigate the effects of maternal dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on growth performance, antioxidant status and haemato-biochemical parameters of their male kids, selected pregnant Taihang Black Goats (n=119) were randomly allotted to four treatment groups. They were fed the basal gestation and lactation diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 2.0 and 4.0mg of Se/kg DM. Before weaning, the male kids were weighted at 30-d intervals and the growth performance was evaluated. Blood samples collected during the last month of the experiment were analyzed for antioxidant status, Se concentration and haemato-biochemical parameters. The results show that the kids in the Se0.5 and Se4.0 group had the highest (P<0.05) birth weight and weaning weight, respectively. No significant difference was found in the birth weight between the control and the Se4.0 group. Dietary Se levels of dams did not affect (P>0.05) the body weight from 60days of age, weaning weight, ADG and feed efficiency of kids. ADFI was not influenced (P >0.05) by maternal Se. The GSH-Px and SOD activities, T-AOC and Se concentration of the kids were significantly (P <0.05) improved with the increasing Se level in the diet of dams. Maternal Se increased (P <0.05) the RBC count, haemoglobin content and haematocrit value of kids. The decreased WBC count, lymphocytes and monocytes percentage were also found in the Se treatment groups. Serum AST, LDH, GGT and CK activities, as well as LDL and albumin content were not affected by maternal dietary Se. The highest ALT activity, total protein and HDL content were observed in Se4.0 group. The kids of mother fed Se had increased (P<0.05) serum globulin, total cholesterol and glucose concentration. Dietary Se levels of dams had no effect (P>0.05) on serum ALT, ALB, total cholesterol and protein concentration of their kids. These data indicate that appropriate maternal dietary Se can improve the birth weight and growth performance of their male kids by enhancing the antioxidant status and nutritional metabolism in Taihang black goats. It is suggested that Se-enriched yeast is a kind of relatively safe Se source for the pregnant animals, and can be supplemented to the gestation and/or lactation diets to promote growth performance of their offspring when various feeding methods and basic Se status of animals were considered.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2017)
       
  • Effectiveness of calcium oxide and autoclaving for the detoxification of
           castor seed meal in finishing diets for lambs
    • Authors: M.S. Borja; R.L. Oliveira; T.M. Silva; L.R. Bezerra; N.G. Nascimento; A.D.P. Borja
      Pages: 76 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 231
      Author(s): M.S. Borja, R.L. Oliveira, T.M. Silva, L.R. Bezerra, N.G. Nascimento, A.D.P. Borja
      This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a detoxification process (calcium oxide (CaO) levels×different autoclaving times) on castor seed meal and to test the effects of diets incorporating detoxified castor seed meal on the performance, digestibility, ingestive behavior, blood concentrations, carcass weight, and in vitro gas production in lambs. Changes in detoxification capacity through the interaction of autoclaving time and the amount of CaO were evaluated by an experiment with a non-detoxified castor seed meal and a 4×2 factorial design with four levels of CaO (10, 20, 30 and 40g/kg) and two autoclaving times (15 and 30min at 15psi and 121°C), with five replicates per treatment. The treatment of castor seed meal with 10g of CaO/kg and 30min of autoclaving promoted the disappearance of the bands that represent the ricin subunits of castor seed meal, and this was the most efficient method because it used less CaO. Therefore, this method was used to detoxify the castor seed meal used for the formulation of the experimental diets. Forty crossbred male sheep, with an average weight of 25±3.0kg, were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments and ten replicates. The diets consisted of 0, 100, 200 and 300g/kg castor seed meal inclusion (dry matter (DM) basis). The inclusion of up to 300g/kg castor seed meal in the lamb diets did not affect the daily intake of DM and crude protein (CP), which averaged 1194 and 191g/day, respectively. However, due to the chemical composition of the castor seed meal, the intake of ether extract and neutral detergent fiber (NDFan) was increased by approximately 110g/day, while the intake of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) was reduced by 95g/kg. A linear decrease was observed in the digestibility of the DM and NDFan with the inclusion of detoxified castor seed meal. However, the digestibility coefficients of CP and EE did not change. The castor seed meal increased intake and reduced idling times. The performance data of lambs fed diets containing different levels of castor seed meal showed a decreasing linear trend in the final body weight gain and average daily gain, but the concentrations of the hepatic enzymes GGT, AST and ALT were not affected. The use of 10g/kg CaO with 30min of autoclaving led to the complete detoxification of the castor seed meal. Thus, the inclusion of detoxified castor seed meal in lambs’ diet, at 200g/kg, is recommended because it increased performance growth and feed efficiency and did not cause toxicity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2017)
       
  • Effects of Peptein supplementation on ruminal microbiota and in situ feed
           degradability in dairy cows
    • Authors: Anna Aris; Marta Terré; Javier Polo; Alex Bach
      Pages: 89 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 231
      Author(s): Anna Aris, Marta Terré, Javier Polo, Alex Bach
      The study objectives were to evaluate the performance of Peptein (APC Europe, Spain), a protein hydrolysate derived from red blood cells with two different degrees of hydrolysis, either high (HDH) or low (LDH) as a N source for rumen microbial growth in comparison with other N supplements including pork peptone, fish peptone, soy peptone, and spray dried red blood cells (SDRBC), and to determine the potential consequences on feed degradation in the rumen. In Experiment 1, four replications of Tilley Terry incubations with all N sources providing an isonitrogenous supply of 0.3g of N were performed from rumen aliquots obtained from 3 cows. Quantification of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was estimated by real time-PCR. In experiment 2, 8 rumen-cannulated cows received an equivalent of 44.8g/dN from either 320g/d of Peptein HDH (n=4) or 100g of urea (n=4 cows) for a 12-d period while dry and later when lactating via a rumen cannula split in 2 portions of 160g for 12 d. On day 10, in situ bags containing 0.8±0.06g of corn, soybean hulls, alfalfa, or beet pulp were placed in the rumen for 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 48h. In Experiment 1, Peptein HDH and LDH and pork peptone increased (P< 0.05) the quantification of Gram negative bacteria in the rumen fluid compared with the other peptones and SDRBC, but quantification of Gram positive bacteria was unaffected by treatments. In Experiment 2, the effective rumen degradation of DM from beet pulp in dry cows supplemented with Peptein HDH (681±11.1g/kg) tended (P =0.07) to be greater than when incubated in unsupplemented dry cows (646±11.1g/kg). In lactating cows, the effective rumen degradation of CP and aNDFom from corn was greater (P< 0.05) when supplementing Peptein HDH (527±9.6 and 448±2.3g/kg, respectively) than when no supplementation was provided (446±9.6 and 375±2.3g/kg, respectively). It is concluded that, compared with SDRBC, and fish and soy peptones, Peptein HDH improves proliferation of Gram negative without affecting those of Gram positive bacteria in the rumen, and improves rumen degradation of CP and aNDFom from corn in both dry and lactating cows.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2017)
       
  • Associative effects between red clover and kikuyu grass silage:
           Proteolysis reduction and synergy during in vitro organic matter
           degradation
    • Authors: Gabriela Cristina Guzatti; Paulo Gonçalves Duchini; Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski; Vincent Niderkorn; Henrique Mendonça Nunes Ribeiro-Filho
      Pages: 107 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 231
      Author(s): Gabriela Cristina Guzatti, Paulo Gonçalves Duchini, Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski, Vincent Niderkorn, Henrique Mendonça Nunes Ribeiro-Filho
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the association between red clover (RC; Trifolium pratense) and a tropical grass (kikuyu grass) on the proteolysis of ensiled material and the in vitro degradation of protein and organic matter. Red clover and kikuyu grass were ensiled in the following proportions: 0:1000, 250:750, 500:500, 750:250, and 1000:0g/kg of dry matter (DM). The fraction of rapidly degradable protein, the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) content of the silo, the in vitro protein degradation, and the degradation rate decreased linearly (P<0.001) as the RC content in the ensiled material increased. Cumulative gas production after 24h incubation showed a positive quadratic effect when RC was increased to 500g/kg (P<0.001). The silages with the highest RC content reduced proteolysis more effectively during ensiling and ruminal fermentation. Inter-species synergistic effects positively affected in vitro gas production, which was optimal when RC and kikuyu grass were ensiled in the same proportions as that of total DM.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2017)
       
  • The combination of dietary fiber and time period affect ileal
           digestibility marker concentration in growing pigs
    • Authors: T. Wang; O. Adeola
      Pages: 160 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 231
      Author(s): T. Wang, O. Adeola
      This study was conducted to investigate if the concentration patterns of digestibility markers (DMr) are influenced by dietary fiber (Diet), ileal digesta collection day (Day), and time period (TP). Eighteen barrows fitted with a T-cannula at the end of the ileum were used in a 2-period randomized complete block design. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were formulated with corn starch (CS), corn bran (CB) or oat bran (OB) at 100g/kg. All 3 diets contained 3 DMr, which were chromic oxide (Cr), titanium dioxide (Ti), and acid-insoluble ash (AIA). The ileal digesta was collected every 3h between 09:00–21:00h with 4 TP on each of the 3day. Due to the interaction between Diet and TP, diet comparison within TP using appropriate standard error of the difference of two means were discussed. The Ti or AIA concentration on Day 1 was lower (P<0.05) than that on Day 3, while there was no difference between Day 2 and Day 3. The Cr concentration was not affected by the Day. The distribution of Cr concentration in ileal digesta of pigs fed CS, CB and OB was similar to that of Ti and AIA irrespective of TP. When comparing OB and CB, OB had greater (P<0.05) Ti and AIA concentrations than CB at TP 2, 3 and 4, but OB had similar DMr concentration with CB at TP 1. In conclusion, the Day had limited effect on DMr concentration; the three DMr moved synchronously in digesta irrespective of TP; and the Ti and AIA concentrations varied over the OB and CB at TP 2, 3 and 4, but not at TP 1.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 231 (2017)
       
  • Modulation of ruminal fermentation profile and microbial abundance in cows
           fed diets treated with lactic acid, without or with inorganic phosphorus
           supplementation
    • Authors: E. Mickdam; R. Khiaosa-ard; B.U. Metzler-Zebeli; E. Humer; H. Harder; A. Khol-Parisini; Q. Zebeli
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 230
      Author(s): E. Mickdam, R. Khiaosa-ard, B.U. Metzler-Zebeli, E. Humer, H. Harder, A. Khol-Parisini, Q. Zebeli
      This study evaluated the effects of lactic acid (LA) treatment of concentrates without or with inorganic P supplementation on ruminal fermentation profile and microbial abundances in non-lactating cows. Six rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were assigned to a double 3×3 Latin square design with 3 experimental periods. Each period lasted 14 d, whereby the measurements were performed during the last 2days. Cows were fed 3 diets containing untreated control concentrate supplemented with inorganic P, and two LA-treated concentrates, either without (LA−P) or with (LA+P) the inorganic P supplementation. The concentrate mixtures of the LA diets were soaked in 5% LA for 24h before feeding, whereas the concentrate of control diet was not. All diets were offered as a total mixed ration (forage to concentrate ratio of 53:47). Ruminal pH, ammonia and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were determined in free ruminal liquid (FRL) and particle associated ruminal liquid (PARL) that was collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12h post-morning feeding. Target ruminal microbes in FRL and rumen solid digesta collected at 2h post-feeding were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Cows consumed on average 17±1.0kg DM/d (mean±SEM), irrespective of the treatment. The concentration of total SCFA in FRL was increased by LA treatment (P < 0.001) without affecting the pH. Irrespective of P supplementation, feeding of LA-treated diets shifted SCFA profile towards more propionate in the FRL and PARL. The LA−P diet lowered ammonia concentration compared to the other diets (P < 0.05). The LA−P diet also reduced the fungal gene copies in solid digesta by 7.6% compared to the LA+P diet (P < 0.05). The total bacterial abundance in both ruminal fractions was not affected by diet; however, compared to the control, LA treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of genus Prevotella in FRL (18%) and in solid digesta (27%). In contrast, the same treatment decreased the abundances of Clostridium cluster IV (23%) in FRL and Selenomonas ruminantium group (30%) in solid digesta (P < 0.05). Abundances of fibrolytic microbes correlated with acetate and butyrate only in the rumen solid digesta. In conclusion, the LA treatment of concentrates caused major bacterial shifts, an increase of ruminal fermentation output, and enhancement of propionate fermentation without affecting ruminal pH. The lack of inorganic P supplementation did not impair rumen variables measured, but additional P supply and LA treatment of concentrates beneficially affected ruminal fungi. Lowered ruminal ammonia and branched-chain SCFA concentrations by the LA−P diet suggest lowered protein breakdown in the rumen by this treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T11:03:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary inclusion of dried or autoclaved sugarcane bagasse and
           vinasse on live performance and in vitro evaluations on growing rabbits
    • Authors: Felipe Norberto Alves Ferreira; Walter Motta Ferreira; Clarice Speridião Silva Neta; Diogo Felipe da Silva Inácio; Katiuscia Cristina das Neves Mota; Martolino Barbosa da Costa Júnior; Leonardo Francisco da Rocha; Leonardo Boscoli Lara; Dalton de Oliveira Fontes
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 230
      Author(s): Felipe Norberto Alves Ferreira, Walter Motta Ferreira, Clarice Speridião Silva Neta, Diogo Felipe da Silva Inácio, Katiuscia Cristina das Neves Mota, Martolino Barbosa da Costa Júnior, Leonardo Francisco da Rocha, Leonardo Boscoli Lara, Dalton de Oliveira Fontes
      The current study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of dried or autoclaved sugarcane bagasse, enriched or non-enriched with vinasse, in diets for growing rabbits, by assessing the growth and slaughtering performance, in vitro digestibility, degradability and fermentation parameters. A total of 110 rabbits were used, distributed in five groups with 22 animals each in a completely randomized design and fed diets containing: 100g/kg of dried sugarcane bagasse (DB); 100g/kg of dried sugarcane bagasse enriched with vinasse (DBV); 100g/kg of autoclaved sugarcane bagasse (AB); 100g/kg of autoclaved sugarcane bagasse enriched with vinasse (ABV); and a control diet, without bagasse or vinasse. The in vitro assays were conducted employing cecum inoculum on the same aforementioned dietary treatments. The results showed that all bagasses show high amounts of aNDF (742–900g/kg DM), ADF (493–616g/kg DM) and lignins (88.1–136g/kg DM), and low CP (22.6–30.3g/kg DM). The inclusion of vinasse increased the in vitro DM digestibility and in vitro DM degradability of the diets (0.72 and 0.67, respectively). The control diet presented higher in vitro DM degradability (0.68) when compared to DB (0.65) and AB (0.65), but was no significantly different to the DBV (0.67) and ABV (0.66) diets. For diets with autoclaved bagasse, vinasse inclusion increased the specific gas production rate from 4.33 to 4.74. Maximum fermentation rate was higher for ABV than for DBV diet (6.09 vs. 5.54mL/h, respectively), and the autoclaving of bagasse and inclusion of vinasse increased the lag time. Bagasse autoclaving increased FCR from 30 to 51days (2.26 vs. 2.44), and FCR from 51 to 72days was reduced by inclusion of vinasse (4.84 and 5.28). There were no significant differences to live weight, ADG, ADFI and slaughter weight among the groups. Autoclaving bagasse reduced the relative liver weight and increased caecal NNH3 content. Moreover, the NNH3 of the control group (3.71mmol/L) was lower than DBV (4.64mmol/L), AB (5.01mmol/L) and ABV (5.11mmol/L), but similar to the DB group (4.05mmol/L). The results of this study revealed that 100g/kg of sugarcane bagasse can be included in the diet of growing rabbits without adverse effects on growth performance. Additionally, autoclaving and vinasse inclusion promote higher rate and extent of in vitro digestion, which is reflected on the caecal activity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2017)
       
  • In vitro rumen gas and methane production of grass silages differing in
           plant maturity and nitrogen fertilisation, compared to in vivo enteric
           methane production
    • Authors: F.M. Macome; W.F. Pellikaan; J. Th. Schonewille; A. Bannink; H. van Laar; W.H. Hendriks; D. Warner; J.W. Cone
      Pages: 96 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 230
      Author(s): F.M. Macome, W.F. Pellikaan, J. Th. Schonewille, A. Bannink, H. van Laar, W.H. Hendriks, D. Warner, J.W. Cone
      The potential of an in vitro gas production (GP) system to predict the in vivo enteric methane (CH4) production for various ryegrass-based silages was evaluated, using adapted rumen fluid from cows. Rumen fluid from 12 lactating rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used for in vitro incubations and compared with in vivo CH4 production data derived from the same cows fed the same grass silages. The cows consumed a total mixed ration consisting of six different grass silages and concentrate at an 80:20 ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis. The grass silages differed in plant maturity at harvest (28, 41 and 62days of regrowth) and N fertilisation (65 and 150kg of N/ha). Rumen fluid from cows consuming each of the six grass silages was used to determine the in vitro organic matter (OM) fermentation and in vitro CH4 synthesis, using an automated GP technique. In vitro GP decreased with increasing maturity of the grass. In vitro CH4 production, expressed either in ml/g of OM, in ml/g of degraded OM (DOM) or as a% of the total GP, increased with increased N fertilisation (P<0.05). Maturity of grass at harvest did not affect the CH4 synthesis expressed in ml/g of DOM and CH4 expressed as% of the total gas, whereas N fertilisation increased the in vitro CH4 synthesis, expressed in any unit. The in vitro data correlated poorly with the in vivo data. Across the six grass silages tested, the in vitro CH4 production, expressed in ml/g of OM after 8, 12, 24, and 72h of incubation did not correlate with the in vivo enteric CH4 production, expressed in g/kg of DM intake (R2 =0.01–0.08). Stepwise multiple regression showed a weak, but positive correlation between the observed in vivo CH4 synthesis, expressed in g/kg FPCM and the predicted CH4 per kg FPCM, using the amount of in vitro organic matter degraded (R2 =0.40; P=0.036). In vitro gas and CH4 parameters did not improve the accuracy of the prediction of the in vivo CH4 data.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2017)
       
  • Coated compound proteases improve nitrogen utilization by decreasing
           manure nitrogen output for growing pigs fed sorghum soybean meal based
           diets
    • Authors: L. Pan; Q.H. Shang; X.K. Ma; Y. Wu; S.F. Long; Q.Q. Wang; X.S. Piao
      Pages: 136 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 230
      Author(s): L. Pan, Q.H. Shang, X.K. Ma, Y. Wu, S.F. Long, Q.Q. Wang, X.S. Piao
      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of coated compound proteases on performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP), serum urea nitrogen (SUN) content and manure nitrogen (N) output for growing pigs fed sorghum soybean meal based diets. Forty crossbred pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with initial body weight of 23.4±1.2kg were allotted to 2 diets with 5 replicate pens per treatment (2 barrows and 2 gilts per pen) according to sex and weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were sorghum soybean meal based diets supplemented with or without 250mg/kg of coated compound proteases. The experiment period lasting for 70 d was divided into 2 stages including phase 1 (d 1–35) and phase 2 (d 36–70). Proteases had no significant effects on average daily feed intake (ADFI) or average daily gain (ADG), and tended to increase feed conversion efficiency (ADG/ADFI) during phase 1 (P =0.06), phase 2 (P =0.09) or overall (P =0.08) compared with control. The ATTD of dry matter, organic matter and gross energy tended to be greater on d 35 (P =0.08), and was greater on d 70 (P< 0.05) in diets supplemented with proteases than control. Proteases increased the ATTD of CP by more than 8% (P< 0.05), and decreased the faecal N excretion per weight gain by more than 10% (P< 0.05) regardless of the experiment stages. The SUN concentration tended to be reduced by the protease supplementation on d 35 (P =0.09) or d 70 (P =0.06). Accordingly, coated compound proteases could improve N utilization by decreasing manure N output for growing pigs fed sorghum soybean meal based diets.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T14:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2017)
       
  • Fractionation of rapeseed meal by milling, sieving and air
           classification—Effect on crude protein, amino acids and fiber content
           and digestibility
    • Authors: Jon Øvrum Hansen; Anders Skrede; Liv Torunn Mydland; Margareth Øverland
      Pages: 143 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 230
      Author(s): Jon Øvrum Hansen, Anders Skrede, Liv Torunn Mydland, Margareth Øverland
      Rapeseed meal (RSM), obtained as solvent extracted or expeller meal, is a feed commodity that is highly available. The high levels of fiber is a bottleneck for high inclusion in feed for monogastric farmed animals. In the present study, sieving and air classification were used to reduce fiber content in rapeseed products. The two first experiments unveiled the possibility to air classify rapeseed products with lipid content ranging from 20 to 160g/kg, and to obtain fractions where crude protein (CP) content was increased from 325 to 376g/kg and neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom) was reduced from 185 to 78g/kg. Experiment 3 showed that ball milling of RSM in combination with sieving gave high separation of hulls and kernel. In the finest sieved fraction (0–150μm), CP was increased from 336 (parent meal) to 394g/kg with a fraction yield of 423g/kg. Air classification of pre-sieved RSM had minor effect on CP and fiber levels, indicating a limited potential to further increase CP content when the hulls have partly been removed. Coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of CP, amino acids and lipids in RSM fractions obtained with ball milling and sieving was determined in mink (Neovison vison). The average CTTAD for CP was higher (P<0.05) in the high CP fine fraction (0.748) compared to the parent meal (0.702) and the coarse RSM fraction (0.635). In general, the CTTAD for amino acids followed the same trends as for CP, with significantly lowest digestibility for the coarse RSM fraction containing most hulls. The CTTAD of threonine and lysine was lowest among the essential amino acids, while cysteine had the lowest CTTAD among non-essential amino acids. To conclude, ball milling and sieving showed higher potential for fiber removal from RSM than ball milling and air classification. The reduced fiber content and increased CP content resulted in a higher digestibility of CP and amino acids.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:02:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 230 (2017)
       
  • The effect of dietary fat on fatty acid composition, gene expression and
           vitamin status in pre-ruminant calves
    • Authors: C.Y. Tsai; P. Rezamand; W.I. Loucks; C.M. Scholte; M.E. Doumit
      Pages: 32 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 229
      Author(s): C.Y. Tsai, P. Rezamand, W.I. Loucks, C.M. Scholte, M.E. Doumit
      Dietary saturated (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) alter fatty acid (FA) composition of various tissues, serum, and circulating immune cells. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary SFA and UFA on adipose, liver, serum, polymorphonuclear (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells’ (PBMC) FA profiles, gene expression of selected inflammatory mediators, and their relation with serum lipid-soluble vitamin in pre-ruminant calves. Twelve Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Starting at 3 d of age, six calves received 120mL palm oil/day (SFA), and six calves received 80mL flaxseed oil plus 40mL conjugated linoleic acid/day (UFA). After 50 d, all animals were euthanized and samples were obtained. Fatty acid composition of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), neutral lipid (NL), and phospholipids (PL) was analyzed by gas-chromatography. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect α-tocopherol and retinol in liver, as well as α-tocopherol, retinol, and β-carotene in serum. In addition, liver and adipose tissue were analyzed for gene expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon-γ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, TNF-α, retinol binding protein-4, and NF-κB. The PBMC were examined for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; PMN cells were analyzed for caspase-1, IL-8 receptor, and l-selectin (l-SEL) expression. Data were analyzed using the Proc TTEST of SAS with significance declared at P≤0.05. Results showed that the UFA had greater α-linolenic acid compared to SFA in all three (NEFA, NL, and PL) lipid fractions of liver, adipose and serum, as well as PBMC and PMN. The greater content of α-LA in calves fed UFA resulted in greater eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in all three lipid fractions of serum, as well as NL and PL in adipose tissue. The UFA however, had lower γ-linolenic acid compared with SFA in all three lipid fractions of liver, as well as NL and PL in serum. Dietary UFA also increased total PUFA in all lipid fractions of serum and adipose. In addition, PBMC and PMN had greater EPA in calves fed UFA. Lipid-soluble vitamins in serum were reduced by dietary UFA. In contrast, UFA resulted in upregulation of l-SEL expression in PMN. This may indicate that UFA elevated the substrate for PUFA biosynthesis, but possibly degraded lipid-soluble vitamins to protect these FA from oxidation. Greater circulating PUFA may influence the migration of PMN from the blood to tissues, affecting overall inflammatory responses.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T08:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 229 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary β-glucan supplementation on growth performance, carcass
           characteristics and gut morphology in broiler chicks fed diets containing
           different theronine levels
    • Authors: F. Kazempour; M. Shams Shargh; R. Jahanian; S. Hassani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): F. Kazempour, M. Shams Shargh, R. Jahanian, S. Hassani
      The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary β-glucan supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and jejunal morphology in broiler chicks fed diets containing different threonine (Thr) levels. A total of 360 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed among 4 pen replicates of 6 dietary treatments according to a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments, including 2 different basal diets (control or diet supplemented with 30g/kg of β-glucan) and 3 different Thr levels (90, 100 or 110% of Ross recommendations during different growth periods). Trial lasted for 42 days. In addition to performance parameters, 4 randomly-selected birds from each pen were slaughtered at the last trail day to evaluate carcass traits and morphological indices of jejunal epithelium. Results showed that dietary inclusion of β-glucan decreased (P < 0.01) average daily feed intake (ADFI) during the starter and grower periods; consequently, it resulted in the significant decreases in average daily gains (ADG) during the starter (P < 0.05), grower and entire (P < 0.001) trial periods. In addition, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was increased (P < 0.05) as a result of dietary β-glucan supplementation. Although ADFI was not affected by dietary Thr level, increasing Thr level increased (P < 0.001) ADG, and in turn, caused the significant (P < 0.01) improvements in FCR values during the starter, grower and entire trial periods. Dietary supplementation of 30g/kg of β-glucan increased (P < 0.001) the relative weights of gizzard and small intestine. On the other hand, abdominal fat pad was decreased by supplemental β-glucan. Increase in dietary Thr up to 100% of recommended values resulted in an increase (P < 0.01) in thigh percentage. Although dietary β-glucan inclusion decreased (P < 0.001) villi height (VH), VH to crypt depth ratio (VH:CD) and villi absorptive surface area, it resulted in the significant (P < 0.01) increases in submucosal and muscular layers thickness, and increased goblet cells count. On the other hand, dietary supplementation of Thr at the level of 110% of recommendations increased (P < 0.01) VH:CD. The present findings indicated that dietary supplementation of β-glucan at high level diminished growth performance and impaired morphological indices of jejunal epithelial cells. On the other hand, Thr fortification of diet could compensate for a large part of these detrimental impacts on weight gain of broiler chicks.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.015
       
  • Does citric acid improve performance and bone mineralization of broilers
           when combined with phytase' A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: B.S. Vieira; F.G. Silva; C.F.S. Oliveira; A.B. Correa; J.G. Caramori; G.S.S. Correa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): B.S. Vieira, F.G. Silva, C.F.S. Oliveira, A.B. Correa, J.G. Caramori, G.S.S. Correa
      The aim of this meta-analysis was to critically determine whether citric acid (CA) improves performance and bone mineralization of broilers when used in combination with phytase (PHY) in low-phosphorus diets. A systematic review of the literature was performed electronically on PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science databases; from the total of 574 identified studies, only seven met all the inclusion criteria (3862 broilers). Dietary PHY ranged from 300 to 4000 FTU/kg; CA from 20 to 50g/kg. Mean differences between PHY+CA and PHY treatments on daily weight gain (DWG), daily feed intake (DFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and tibia ash content (TAC) were compared using a random-effects model. Also, subgroup analyses were performed to assess the potential interference of feed and non-feed related characteristics on the overall effect estimates. Chickens fed PHY+CA gained, on average, 2.46g/day more (P =0.005) than those fed exclusively with PHY. While no differences on DFI and FCR were detected between treatments, broilers supplemented with PHY+CA increased (P =0.002) TAC in 3.27%. In general, better performance results for PHY+CA were found on males and broilers receiving PHY up to 500 FTU/kg or CA higher than 20g/kg. Higher concentrations of phytate phosphorus and calcium also favored the detection of positive effect of PHY+CA on DWG and TAC. Improvement on DWG by PHY+CA was more pronounced in the finishing phase, but TAC responded better to PHY+CA during the starter period. Moreover, treatment period required to detect significant differences between PHY and PHY+CA was larger for DWG than for TAC. No outliers were observed and sensitivity analysis did not modify the overall effect estimates and its associated P value. However, the small number of studies and a possible publication bias in favor of studies with positive effects on FCR might have affected the strength of meta-analysis results. In conclusion, there is evidence that CA improves performance and bone mineralization of broilers when used in combination with PHY, which in individual studies was inconclusive. Moreover, feed and non-feed related characteristics could affect how DWG and TAC respond to PHY and CA.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.016
       
  • Effects of dietary protein levels and rumen-protected pantothenate on
           ruminal fermentation, microbial enzyme activity and bacteria population in
           Blonde d'Aquitaine x Simmental beef steers
    • Authors: Q. Liu; C. Wang; H.Q. Li; G. Guo; W.J. Huo; C.X. Pei; S.L. Zhang; H. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Q. Liu, C. Wang, H.Q. Li, G. Guo, W.J. Huo, C.X. Pei, S.L. Zhang, H. Wang
      This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and rumen-protected pantothenate (RPP) supplementation on ruminal digestion kinetics, fermentation, microbial enzymatic activity, and selected bacterial species relative abundance in beef steers. Eight ruminally cannulated crossbred beef steers, with 15 months of age and 462±9kg of body weight (BW), were used in a duplicated 4×4 Latin square design by a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (113.7g/kg of CP [LP] or high protein (133.9g/kg of CP [HP]) diets were fed with or without RPP supplementation (0g [RP-] or 0.48g per kg dietary dry matter (DM) [RP+]). Steers were fed a total mixed ration containing dietary concentrate to corn silage ratio of 50:50 on a DM basis. There were no RPP×CP interactions for ruminal digestion kinetics, fermentation, microbial enzymatic activity, and selected bacterial species relative abundance, except for Ruminobacter amylophilus. Mean ruminal pH decreased with RPP supplementation, but was unaffected by dietary CP levels. Ruminal total VFA concentration increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Ruminal acetate percentage was similar among treatments, whereas propionate percentage decreased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Consequently, the acetate to propionate ratio increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Ruminal ammonia-N content was unchanged among treatments. Both in situ ruminal DM degradability of corn silage and CP degradability of concentrate increased with RPP supplementation and tended to increase with increasing dietary CP levels, while NDF degradability of corn silage and DM degradability of concentrate increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, α-amylase and protease, populations of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Prevotella ruminicola, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation, but populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and R. amylophilus increased with RPP supplementation, and decreased with increasing dietary CP levels. The results showed that increasing dietary CP levels from 113.7g to 133.9g or with 0.48g RPP supplementation improved ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis by increasing microbial populations and enzymes activities.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.014
       
  • Bioavailability of zinc hydroxychloride relative to zinc sulfate in
           growing cattle fed a corn-cottonseed hull-based diet
    • Authors: G.L. Shaeffer; K.E. Lloyd; J.W. Spears
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): G.L. Shaeffer, K.E. Lloyd, J.W. Spears
      A study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc hydroxychloride (ZnOHCl) relative to Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) in growing steers. Sixteen Angus and Simmental steers (371kg average initial weight) were fed a corn-cottonseed hull-based diet without supplemental Zn for 14 d. At the end of the 14-d depletion phase steers were randomly assigned within a breed to treatments consisting of supplemental Zn at 25mg/kg DM from either ZnSO4 or ZnOHCl. Seven days after the initiation of Zn supplementation a 5-d total collection of feces and urine was conducted. Jugular blood samples were obtained on d 0 (prior to initiation of Zn treatments) and on d 40 of the study for plasma Zn determination. Dry matter intake, Zn intake and urinary Zn excretion were not affected (P >0.10) during the metabolism phase. Apparent absorption and retention of Zn were greater (P <0.01) in steers supplemented with ZnOHCl than in those supplemented with Zn SO4. Plasma Zn concentrations were similar across treatments on d 0 of the study. On d 40 of the study plasma Zn concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in steers supplemented with Zn OHCl compared to those fed ZnSO4. Results of this study indicated that ZnOHCl is a more bioavailable source of Zn than ZnSO4 for growing cattle when supplemented to a diet with relatively low Zn bioavailability.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.013
       
  • Immunomodulating effects of probiotics for microbiota modulation, gut
           health and disease resistance in pigs
    • Authors: Marianna Roselli; Robert Pieper; Claire Rogel-Gaillard; Hugo de Vries; Mick Bailey; Hauke Smidt; Charlotte Lauridsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Marianna Roselli, Robert Pieper, Claire Rogel-Gaillard, Hugo de Vries, Mick Bailey, Hauke Smidt, Charlotte Lauridsen
      Probiotics are live microorganisms that can confer a health benefit on the host, and amongst various mechanisms probiotics are believed to exert their effects by production of antimicrobial substances, competition with pathogens for adhesion sites and nutrients, enhancement of mucosal barrier integrity and immune modulation. Through these activities probiotics can support three core benefits for the host: supporting a healthy gut microbiota, a healthy digestive tract and a healthy immune system. More recently, the concept of combining probiotics and prebiotics, i.e. synbiotics, for the beneficial effect on gut health of pigs has attracted major interest, and examples of probiotic and prebiotic benefits for pigs are pathogen inhibition and immunomodulation. Yet, it remains to be defined in pigs, what exactly is a healthy gut. Because of the high level of variability in growth and feed conversion between individual pigs in commercial production systems, measuring the impact of probiotics on gut health defined by improvements in overall productivity requires large experiments. For this reason, many studies have concentrated on measuring the effects of the feed additives on proxies of gut health including many immunological measures, in more controlled experiments. With the major focus of studying the balance between gut microbiology, immunology and physiology, and the potential for prevention of intestinal disorders in pigs, we therefore performed a literature review of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, either alone or in combination with prebiotics, based on in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo porcine experiments. A consistent number of studies showed the potential capacity in terms of immunomodulatory activities of these feed additives in pigs, but contrasting results can also be obtained from the literature. Reasons for this are not clear but could be related to differences with respect to the probiotic strain used, experimental settings, diets, initial microbiota colonization, administration route, time and frequency of administration of the probiotic strain and sampling for analysis. Hence, the use of proxy measurements of enteric health based on observable immunological parameters presents significant problems at the moment, and cannot be considered robust, reliable predictors of the probiotic activity in vivo, in relation to pig gut health. In conclusion, more detailed understanding of how to select and interpret these proxy measurements will be necessary in order to allow a more rational prediction of the effect of specific probiotic interventions in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.011
       
  • Effect of a combination of xylanase, amylase and protease on growth
           performance of broilers fed low and high fiber diets
    • Authors: A.K. Singh; J.F. Diaz Berrocoso; Y. Dersjant-Li; A. Awati; R. Jha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): A.K. Singh, J.F. Diaz Berrocoso, Y. Dersjant-Li, A. Awati, R. Jha
      This study evaluated the effect of a combination of xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP; providing 2,000U of xylanase, 200U of amylase, and 4,000U of protease per kg diet) in low and high fiber diets on the growth performance of Cobb 500 broilers from d 0-21 of age. A 2×2 factorial design with 8 replicate floor pens (8 birds/pen; in two batches) was used. The treatments included 2 fiber levels: low fiber diets based on corn and soybean meal (SBM) and high fiber diets with addition of wheat, wheat middling, canola meal and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Each level of fiber diet was supplemented without or with XAP. All the test diets contained 500 FTU/kg phytase in the background and were pelleted. In overall study period (d 0- 21), the high fiber diet increased FCR (P < 0.05) by 0.04 units compared with low fiber diet. The XAP supplementation increased ADG by 12% and reduced FCR by 0.09 units compared with control diet (P < 0.01). An interaction between fiber level and XAP was found for ADFI (P < 0.05) during overall study period without any significant (P > 0.05) effect on ADG and FCR. The XAP supplementation improved ADFI in low fiber diet but did not affect ADFI in high fiber diet. A significant (P < 0.01) interaction was observed between fiber and XAP for FCR in the first week where XAP reduced FCR by 0.27 and 0.05 units, respectively in high and low fiber diets. Overall, the FCR response to XAP is more pronounced in high fiber diets than in low fiber diets, especially during the first week. The results suggest that the addition of XAP can optimize the utilization of fiber for better ADG and feed efficiency in broilers, maintaining performance to a level comparable to that of the costly conventional low fiber diet.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.012
       
  • Prediction of the concentration of standardized ileal digestible amino
           acids and safety margins among sources of distillers dried grains with
           solubles for growing pigs: A meta-analysis approach.
    • Authors: Z.K. Zeng; G.C. Shurson; P.E. Urriola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Z.K. Zeng, G.C. Shurson, P.E. Urriola
      The concentration of standardized ileal digestible (SID, g/kg) amino acid (AA) is variable among sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The range in SID Lys among sources of DDGS reported in the literature varies among studies from 0.8 to 8.2g/kg (88% DM basis). A meta-analysis was conducted using a database representing 23 published studies, with 118 sources of DDGS, to develop prediction equations for estimating the content of SID essential AA based on chemical composition. Sources of DDGS were separated into subgroups according to the type of grain used: corn (n=90), wheat (n=12), sorghum (n=2), corn and wheat blend (n=7), and other grains (rice, blend of corn and sorghum, or blend of more than 2 grains; n=7). Descriptive statistics included means of nutrient composition among publications, types of grains, and pig body weight. After testing for normal distribution and outliers, data were analyzed using a mixed model with publication as a random effect. Redundant variables were removed after collinearity analysis. A validation step was performed for all models to compare predicted vs. observed values. Compared with corn DDGS, wheat DDGS had greater (P < 0.05) content of crude protein (336 vs. 271, g/kg), acid detergent fibre (ADF, 151 vs. 115g/kg), and tryptophan (3.1 vs. 2.0g/kg), but less ether extract (48 vs. 88, g/kg), lysine (6.0 vs. 8.0, g/kg) and lysine SID coefficient (0.533 vs. 0.617). For all types of DDGS, the best predictor of SID AA content was the corresponding total AA content (R2 ranged from 0.97 to 0.99). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) or ADF had negative effects on the SID content of AA with small slopes for NDF (−0.005 to −0.002) and ADF (−0.028 to −0.001). An interaction (P =0.048) between essential AA content and ADF was only observed in the SID threonine. Safety margins for diet formulation can be estimated using the radius of the 95% confidence interval for lysine (0.37, g/kg), methionine (0.15, g/kg), threonine (0.31g/kg), and tryptophan (0.10, g/kg). In all models that predicted essential AA content, the intercept (=0) and slope (=1) were not different (P > 0.10) between model predicted and observed SID AA values, suggesting high accuracy of the models. In conclusion, accurate prediction equations were developed for estimating the SID essential AA content and suggested safety margins for DDGS from various grain sources.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.010
       
  • Effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate dietary supplementation on
           growth performance and intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens
           infected with necrotic enteritis
    • Authors: Bochen Song; Huixian Li; Yuanyuan Wu; Wenrui Zhen; Zhong Wang; Zhaofei Xia; Yuming Guo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Bochen Song, Huixian Li, Yuanyuan Wu, Wenrui Zhen, Zhong Wang, Zhaofei Xia, Yuming Guo
      Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxigenic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens that results in substantial economic losses to the global poultry industry. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) on the growth performance and intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens co-infected with Eimeria spp. and C. perfringens. Chickens were fed, from hatch, either a diet supplemented with MSB, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and were either left uninfected or orally infected with mixed strains of Eimeria species at 12 d of age, followed by an oral inoculation with C. perfringens at 16, 17, and 18 d of age. NE-infected chickens fed MSB-supplemented diets had greater body weight (BW), improved average daily gains (ADG), and higher feed conversion ratios (FCR) than NE-infected birds fed unsupplemented diets. Increased jejunal villus height, reduced duodenal lesion scores, reduced cecal Escherichia coli and C. perfringens counts, and reduced liver C. perfringens load were also observed in the NE-infected, MSB-supplemented chickens as compared to the NE-infected, unsupplemented birds. NE infection downregulated claudin-4, ZO-1, occludin, LEAP-2, and mucin-2 in the jejunum. However, MSB-fed birds infected with NE had significantly upregulated claudin-1, claudin-4, ZO-1, occludin, LEAP-2, and mucin-2 levels in the jejunum as compared with infected birds fed the non-supplemented diet. We have thus demonstrated that the administration of MSB alleviates intestinal mucosal barrier injury of broiler chickens infected with NE.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.009
       
  • The effects of feeding olive cake and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
           supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and blood
           metabolites of Awassi lambs
    • Authors: Belal S. Obeidat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Belal S. Obeidat
      Throughout a 63 day-period, thirty fat-tailed Awassi ram lambs were used to determine the influence of feeding olive cake (OC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) supplementation on performance and blood metabolites. Intact male lambs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 25.0kg±1.91 were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments; lambs fed the conventional diet (CON; n=10; group 1) or OC containing diets (n=20). Within the OC diet, 10 of the lambs received a diet containing 150g/kg dietary dry matter (DM) OC (OC; group 2) and the other 10 received OC diet plus 0.5g/head/day SC (OCSC; group 3). Lambs were offered ad libitum access to the assigned diets until the end of the study. On day 0, 21, 42, and 63, lamb BW was measured before the morning feeding to evaluate average daily gain (ADG) and feed:gain ratio (feed efficiency). Additionally, on the same days, ten milliliters of blood were collected before feeding from the jugular vein and analyzed for blood metabolite concentrations and liver enzymes. With the exception of ether extract (EE) intake, which was greater (P< 0.01) in OC containing diets than CON diet, no differences (P ≥0.11) were observed in DM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes among dietary treatments. Digestibility of DM, CP, aNDF and ADF decreased (P ≤0.04) in OC and OCSC diets vs the CON diet. However, digestibility of EE increased (P< 0.01) in OC containing diets over the CON diet. No significant differences were noticed in total gain, ADG and feed efficiency among dietary treatments. No differences were observed in serum content of urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase among treatments. However, serum content of glucose tended to be greater (P =0.07) in the OC and OCSC groups than in the CON group. In all measured variables, SC supplementation did not show any differences over the OC diet alone. In summary, results of the current study indicate that feeding olive cake for growing Awassi lambs could replace the conventional feeds at 150g/kg of dietary DM; whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation did not show any significant benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.006
       
  • In situ and in vitro evaluations of a slow release form of nitrate for
           ruminants: nitrate release rate, rumen nitrate metabolism and the
           production of methane, hydrogen, and nitrous oxide
    • Authors: Chanhee Lee; Rafael C. Araujo; Karen M. Koenig; Karen A. Beauchemin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Chanhee Lee, Rafael C. Araujo, Karen M. Koenig, Karen A. Beauchemin
      In situ and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine nitrate (NO3 − ) release rate from encapsulated NO3 − (EN) in the rumen and to examine metabolism of EN-NO3 − in conjunction with methane (CH4 ), hydrogen (H2 ), and nitrous oxide (N2O) production. Three ruminally-cannulated beef heifers were used to incubate the following substrates in the rumen for 72h: soybean meal, EN, and unencapsulated NO3 − (UEN). Because of immediate solubilisation, soluble nitrogen (N) fraction of UEN was assumed to be 100%. A non-linear regression model fitted to N disappearance of EN (R2 =0.93, P< 0.01) indicated 35.4% of soluble N fraction and 54.7% of slowly degradable N fraction. Two in vitro experiments were conducted where UEN and EN were incubated for 24h in buffer alone without substrate or in buffered-rumen fluid with substrates containing starch and xylan with urea, UEN, or EN as sole N sources. When UEN was incubated with buffer, 99.9% of UEN-NO3 −-N was recovered as NO3 −-N in the buffer over 24h. However, recovery of EN-NO3 − as NO3 −-N gradually increased over 24h up to 58%. When urea, EN or UEN were incubated with buffered-rumen fluid, total gas production decreased (P =0.022) for UEN compared with urea and EN. Methane production decreased (10.7 and 13.3 vs. 19.6mL; P< 0.01) for UEN and EN, respectively, compared with urea. Hydrogen production considerably increased (P< 0.01) for UEN compared with urea and EN without a difference between urea and EN. Nitrous oxide production was greater for UEN followed by EN and urea (20.8, 7.5 and 0.02μL, respectively; P < 0.05). During the incubation with buffered-rumen fluid, 100% of UEN-NO3 − was recovered as NO3 −-N in the medium until 6h and then the recovery gradually decreased to 18% at 24h while recovery as NO2 −-N increased up to 22% at 24h. However, recovery of EN-NO3 −-N as NO3 −-N in the medium increased by 20% at 12h and then gradually decreased to 5% at 24h without accumulation of NO2 −-N in the medium. In conclusion, EN released NO3 − slowly in the rumen and decreased CH4 production without negatively affecting microbial fermentation. Increases in H2 and N2O production and accumulation of NO3 − and NO2 − in the medium were not observed for EN compared with UEN, indicating that EN could be a promising NO3 − source to lower CH4 production with less risk of NO3 −/NO2 − toxicity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.005
       
  • Effect of feeder design and concentrate presentation form on performance,
           carcass characteristics, and behavior of fattening Holstein bulls fed
           high-concentrate diets
    • Authors: M. Verdú; A. Bach; M. Devant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Verdú, A. Bach, M. Devant
      The study objective was to evaluate the effect of feeder design and concentrate presentation form on performance, carcass characteristics, and animal behavior in fattening Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. A total of 294 bulls (175±6.5kg of BW and 139±0.7days of age) were randomly allotted to one of 16 pens (18-19 bulls per pen) distributed in 2 barns (8 pens per barn). Each pen was assigned to one of 4 treatments following a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: feeder design (collective vs. single) and concentrate presentation form (meal vs. pellet). Collective feeder consisted of three feeding spaces with a concentrate feeder capacity of 40kg; and single feeder consisted of one single-space feeder with lateral protections, forming a chute, with a feeder capacity of 10kg. Pen concentrate consumption was registered daily, straw consumption weekly, and BW fortnightly. Animal behavior was registered at day -6, 1, 3, 6, 9, 13, 29, and every 28days thereafter. The chute of the single-space feeder was not placed to facilitate the feed access for the first 28days of study (receiving period). During this period, only the concentrate presentation form was evaluated. Animals were slaughtered after 182 days, and HCW, carcass quality and liver lesions were recorded. Three fattening periods were established according to days of the study and animal BW: receiving (28 days; from 175 to 220kg), growing (98 days; from 220 to 360kg), and finishing (56 days; from 360 to 430kg). The effects of feeder design and concentrate presentation form on performance differed depending on fattening period; however, no relevant effects on animal behavior were observed. During the receiving period, calves fed pellet exhibited greater (P< 0.01) growth than those fed meal. Throughout the growing period, concentrate efficiency tended (P =0.09) to be greater in animals fed pellets in collective feeder, followed by those fed pellets in a single feeder, and, lastly, by those fed meal regardless of the feeder design. During the finishing period, concentrate intake was lesser (P< 0.01) and concentrate efficiency tended (P =0.07) to be greater in bulls fed pellets compared with those fed meal. Bulls fed pellets in collective feeders tended (P =0.10) to have greater HCW. In conclusion, the best strategy to improve performance and concentrate efficiency is to feed animals in a collective feeder and present the concentrate in pellet form. Moreover, a single-space feeder with lateral protections was not a good strategy to diminish concentrate wastage, observed in a reduction of total concentrate intake, and improve concentrate efficiency during the finishing period when feeding meal.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.003
       
  • Investigating the effects of sex of growing Nellore cattle and crude
           protein intake on the utilization of recycled N for microbial protein
           synthesis in the rumen by using intravenous 15N15N-urea infusion
    • Authors: L.L. Prates; R.F.D. Valadares; S.C.Valadares Filho; E. Detmann; D.R. Ouellet; E.D. Batista; D. Zanetti; M.V.C. Pacheco; B.C. Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): L.L. Prates, R.F.D. Valadares, S.C.Valadares Filho, E. Detmann, D.R. Ouellet, E.D. Batista, D. Zanetti, M.V.C. Pacheco, B.C. Silva
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sex and levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on the recovery of 15N in microbial protein as well as to evaluate nitrogen balance compounds and variables related to urea renal handling in Nellore cattle. Four Nellore bulls and four Nellore heifers, fitted with rumen cannulas, were distributed in a two 4×4 Latin square design. The four experimental diets differed in levels of CP: 90.0, 110.0, 130.0, and 150.0g/kg on a dry matter basis. Continuous intravenous infusion of 15N15N-urea solution was provided at a rate of 0.30mmol urea/h followed by determination of 15N in ruminal bacteria, ammonia (NH3), and feces to determine the incorporation of recycled N in rumen bacteria. The increased dietary CP revealed a linear increase (P <0.05) in total digestible nutrients (TDN), total digestibility of CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), retained nitrogen, urinary excretion of urea-N, amount of filtered and absorbed urea (g/day), and plasmatic concentrations of urea-N. Fecal excretion of N presented a linear increase (P <0.05) in relation to dietary CP. Rumen NH3 concentration increased in a linear fashion (P <0.05), and rumen 15N-NH3 contents and fecal 15N contents decreased in a linear fashion (P <0.05) with increasing dietary CP. The regressions NH3 =23.6183×e(0.0104 × NI) and 15N-NH3 =−0.00062×NI+0.1219 were obtained in order to calculate rumen NH3 concentrations (mg/l) and 15N-NH3 (atom percent excess), respectively, as a function of N intake (NI, g/day). The contents of total-N and 15N did not differ between liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) and particle-associated bacteria (PAB). There was no effect of sex (P >0.05) on the percentage of infused 15N that was recovered from feces and bacteria. There was no effect of dietary CP level on the percentage of 15N infused in plasma that was recovered from feces. However, there was a decreasing linear effect of the level of dietary CP (P <0.05) on the percentage of 15N infused in the jugular vein recovered from bacteria. We concluded that microbial protein synthesis was not affected by sex. The LAB and PAB had the same total-N content and recovery of infused 15N-urea. The greater recovery of infused intravenous 15N-urea on microbial protein synthesis in a low CP diet suggests greater urea recycling in association with this diet.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:02:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.014
       
  • Species-dependent response to the influence of adaptation length during
           assay for metabolisable energy of cereal grains employing the difference
           method
    • Authors: Oluyinka A. Olukosi; Sunday A. Adedokun; Jeleel O. Agboola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Oluyinka A. Olukosi, Sunday A. Adedokun, Jeleel O. Agboola
      Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of varying lengths of adaptation on metabolisable energy (AME and AMEn) content of maize and barley for broilers, turkeys and laying hens using the difference method. Three hundred and twenty-four Cobb 500 male broiler chicks (Experiment 1), 162 BUT 10 male turkey poults (Experiment 2) or 162 Lohmann brown laying hens (Experiment 3) were offered a nutrient-adequate pre-experimental diet for at least 11 days. The birds were then allocated to 9 dietary treatments (a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments) with each treatment replicated 6 times. The factors were three diet types (based on wheat-soybean meal (WS), maize-wheat-soybean meal (MWS) or barley-wheat soybean meal (BWS)) and three length of adaptation to dietary treatments (10, 7 or 4 d). The WS was the references diet whereas MWS and BWS were the assay diets. The adaptation period corresponded to 10, 7 or 4days of feeding experimental diets prior to the end of each experiment. Excreta were collected on the last two days of each experiment. The AME of maize and barley in the assay diets, in each experiment, were calculated using difference method. On all the responses considered, there was no significant diet type×adaptation length interaction in any of the poultry species. Regardless of the poultry species, AME was greater (P<0.05) for maize compared with barley. The AME (MJ/kg) for maize was 13.5, 13.5 and 13.6 for broilers, turkeys and laying hens, respectively whereas the corresponding AME (MJ/kg) of barley was 12.2, 11.8 and 12.6, respectively. The effect of adaptation length during AME assay was statistically significant in turkeys, tended to be significant in broilers but not significant for laying hens. It was concluded that irrespective of poultry species, the greater overriding factor affecting AME determined by the difference method is the particular feedstuff being assayed. However, length of adaptation to experimental diets during the assay becomes more important in birds with relatively physiologically immature digestive tract.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:02:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.010
       
  • Peroxidized lipids reduce growth performance of poultry and swine: a
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Y.T. Hung; A.R. Hanson; G.C. Shurson; P.E. Urriola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Y.T. Hung, A.R. Hanson, G.C. Shurson, P.E. Urriola
      Animal performance is affected by feeding peroxidized lipids. Nevertheless, inaccuracies and limitations of common lipid peroxidation analyses are associated with inconsistent results regarding animals consuming diets with peroxidized lipids. A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dietary peroxidized lipids on growth performance and oxidative status in poultry and swine. A total of 29 publications with 42 poultry and 23 swine observations were analyzed. Concentration of dietary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (PV), along with ADG, ADFI, G:F, and serum or plasma concentrations of vitamin E and TBARS were obtained from publications when reported. The relative impact of feeding peroxidized lipids was calculated as a percentage of ADG, ADFI, and G:F relative to responses from feeding isocaloric diets containing unperoxidized lipids. Data were analyzed for outliers, general distribution, and correlations among variables. Overall, feeding peroxidized lipids to both species resulted in a 5% reduction in ADG, a 3% reduction in ADFI, and G:F was reduced by 2% compared with feeding unperoxidized lipids. The difference in the average magnitude of reduction in ADG, compared with less average magnitude of reduction in ADFI, suggests that factors other than caloric intake (i.e. oxidative stress) contribute to reduced ADG when feeding peroxidized lipids. Both species fed peroxidized lipids had reduced serum or plasma vitamin E content (52%) and increased TBARS concentration (120%) relative to animals fed unperoxidized lipids, suggesting that feeding peroxidized lipids contributes to increased oxidative stress. Dietary PV was negatively correlated with ADG (r=− 0.81, P< 0.01) for poultry, whereas for swine, dietary TBARS was negatively correlated with ADG (r=− 0.58, P =0.04), but there were large prediction errors for poultry (MSE=0.87) and swine (MSE=12.79). In conclusion, these results suggest that feeding peroxidized lipids reduce growth performance of poultry and swine, but the magnitude of reduction varies among experiments due to differences in fatty acid profiles among types of lipid sources, time and temperature of peroxidation conditions, and relative growth responses among studies. More accurate peroxidation measurement methods need to be developed to accurately estimate the negative impacts of feeding peroxidized lipids on animal growth performance.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:02:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.013
       
  • Effect of high canola meal content on growth performance, nutrient
           digestibility and fecal bacteria in nursery pigs fed either corn or wheat
           based diets
    • Authors: G.A. Mejicanos; A. Regassa; C.M. Nyachoti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): G.A. Mejicanos, A. Regassa, C.M. Nyachoti
      In North-America, soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM) are the most extensively used protein supplements in the feed industry and corn and wheat are the primary sources of energy in swine diets. Recent studies show that piglets can tolerate relatively high levels of CM inclusion. However, it is unclear whether this ability depends on the cereal ingredient of the basal diet. This study was conducted to examine the effect of including CM in wheat or corn-based diet on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and fecal microbial communities compared with wheat- or corn-SBM based diet. Ninety-six pigs (Yorkshire-Landrace x Duroc) with an initial BW of 6.63±0.028kg (barrows) and 6.78±0.036kg (gilts) were used in this 28-d feeding study. There were 8 replicates per treatment, each with 3 pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted to one of the four dietary treatments: corn-SBM diet (CSBM), corn-SBM diet+200g/kg CM (CCM), wheat-SBM diet (WSBM), and wheat-SBM diet+200g/kg of CM (WCM). A two-phase feeding program was used (phase I, 1-14 and phase II, 15-28 d post-weaning). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency (G:F) were recorded weekly. Freshly voided fecal samples were collected on d 21 and 27 to determine ATTD of CP, energy, and fecal bacteria community. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using the MIXED procedure of SAS and differences were declared significant at P< 0.05. No significant differences were observed in ADFI, ADG, and final-BW among treatments. During phase I, pigs fed the WCM diet had higher G:F compared with those fed the CSBM diet (0.95 vs. 0.79, P < 0.01). During phase II, pigs fed CSBM diet had higher ATTD of CP and energy compared with piglets fed the CCM, WSBM and WCM diets (96.6 vs. 89.0, 90.9 and 87.2%; and, 95.3 vs. 89.6, 90.8 and 86.9%, P < 0.01). When compared to corn-based diets, wheat-based diets had a significant reduction in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). Likewise, the relative abundance of Enterococcus was reduced (P < 0.05). However, wheat-based diets had a significantly higher relative abundance of Clostridium cluster-IV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of CM into either wheat- or corn-SBM based diet influences G:F, protein, and energy digestibility and relative abundance of the measured fecal microbial community without affecting voluntary feed intake and body weight gain.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:02:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.012
       
  • Effect of protein restriction followed by realimentation on growth,
           nutrient digestibility, ruminal parameters, and transporter gene
           expression in lambs
    • Authors: T. Ma; B. Wang; N. Zhang; Y. Tu; B. Si; K. Cui; M. Qi; Q. Diao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): T. Ma, B. Wang, N. Zhang, Y. Tu, B. Si, K. Cui, M. Qi, Q. Diao
      We report the effects of a protein-restricted diet and realimentation with a milk replacer (MR) and starter on the growth, digestibility, fermentation, and expression of the genes involved in volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption in the lamb ruminal epithelium. Sixteen newborn twin Hu lamb pairs were used. Each pair was fed the MR and starter with a normal protein level (NPL, 250 and 210g/kg, respectively) or a low protein level (LPL, 190 and 150g/kg, respectively) from 15 to 60days of age (restriction period). Then, all lambs were fed the starter containing 210g crude protein/kg diet from 61 to 90days of age (realimentation period). Intake was measured daily, and body weight was measured at 15, 60, and 90days of age. Digestibility trials were carried out from 51 to 60 and from 81 to 90days of age with four lambs randomly selected from each group. Eight lambs from each group were slaughtered on 60 and 90days of age before morning feeding, and their ruminal fermentation parameters were measured. The expression levels of the genes involved in VFA absorption in ruminal epitheliums were measured. During the restriction period, feed intake did not differ between the groups (P =0.116). The final body weight (P =0.006) and the average daily gain (ADG; P =0.003) was greater, while the feed conversion ratio (P =0.011) was lower in the NPL group. No difference was observed in dry matter (P =0.894) and organic matter (P =0.495) digestibility, or the N retention/N intake (P =0.607). The ruminal pH of the lambs fed the LPL diets was greater (P =0.012). A decrease in ammonia content (P =0.023) and the total VFA concentration (P < 0.001) was found in the LPL lambs. The molecular acetate content was greater in the LPL group (P =0.002), but that of propionate was lower (P =0.034). Protein restriction decreased the mRNA abundance of the transporters, anion exchanger 2 (P =0.019) and was downregulated in adenoma (P =0.025), Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (P =0.017), 2 (P =0.025), and 3 (P =0.037). After realimentation, body weight (P =0.006) and ADG (P =0.013) were lower in the lambs fed the LPL diet. The feed conversion ratio (P =0.301) was the same in the two groups. Lambs fed a LPL diet had a greater N retention/N intake (P =0.031). No difference was determined in the ruminal pH or the total VFA concentration between the groups (P =0.572). A greater mRNA level of monocarboxylic acid transporter 4 (P =0.021) and Na+/H+ exchanger 2 (P =0.049) was observed in the LPL group. These results suggest that realimentation partially recovers nutrient requirements and ruminal function, but lambs subjected to protein restriction still physically lag behind those continuously fed the NPL diet, indicating a permanent effect on later growth owing to nutrient restriction during very early life.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T01:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.018
       
  • Fibrolytic enzyme supplementation through ruminal bolus on eating
           behavior, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation in Jersey
           heifers fed either corn silage- or sugarcane silage-based diets
    • Authors: J.R. Gandra; G.A. Miranda; R.H.T. Goes; C.S. Takiya; T.A. Del Valle; E.R. Oliveira; J.E. Freitas Junior; E.R.S. Gandra; H.M.C. Araki; A.L.A.V. Santos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J.R. Gandra, G.A. Miranda, R.H.T. Goes, C.S. Takiya, T.A. Del Valle, E.R. Oliveira, J.E. Freitas Junior, E.R.S. Gandra, H.M.C. Araki, A.L.A.V. Santos
      Sugarcane is relatively affordable in subtropical regions and can be used as a forage source for cattle; however, its low fiber degradation in the rumen may impair diet digestibility and animal performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a fibrolytic enzyme product in dairy heifers fed either corn silage or sugarcane silage-based diets on nutrient intake and digestibility, eating behavior, energy and N utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and blood metabolites. Twelve Jersey heifers [8±2.5 mo age and 160±15kg of live weight (LW), mean±SD] were assigned to a Latin square design with 2×2 factorial treatment arrangement. Experimental periods had 14days for treatment adaptation, 6days for sampling, followed by 5days of wash out. Treatment sequences consisted of: 1) diet with 549g/kg DM sugarcane silage as forage source (SS); 2) diet with 653g/kg DM corn silage as forage source (CS); 3) sugarcane silage and enzyme product (SSE; Fibrozyme™, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY), SS diet providing heifers with 20g/d enzyme product through ruminal bolus; and 4) corn silage and enzyme product (CSE), CS diet providing heifers with 20g/d enzyme product through ruminal bolus. Enzyme product was supplied once a day before the morning feeding. Heifers fed SS showed lower (P=0.001) nutrient intake than those fed CS. Enzyme product had no effect on feed intake, but it increased (P≤0.048) DM digestibility in heifers. An effect of the interaction between forage and enzyme was observed (P=0.006) on NDF digestibility, in which enzyme supply increased NDF digestibility in 126g/kg DM for heifers fed sugarcane silage. Moreover, enzyme supply increased (P=0.030) the time spent eating of heifers, but it decreased (P=0.012) the efficiency of cud chewing − DM (g/h). No interaction effect was noticed between forage and enzyme on eating behavior measures. Enzyme supply decreased (P=0.012)N absorbed by heifers. An interaction between forage and enzyme was detected on urinary N, in which SSE treatment showed the lowest value of N in urine. Except for the higher (P=0.012) ruminal propionate molar proportion in cows fed CS than those fed SS, no effects (P≥0.212) of forage, enzyme, or forage and enzyme interaction were described on ruminal fermentation measures. Heifers fed sugarcane silage had lower (P=0.008) microbial protein synthesis estimation than those fed corn silage. Enzyme provision increased (P=0.045) urinary urea concentration and excretion (mg/kg LW), and decreased (P≤0.012) daily urea clearance in heifers. In addition, no effect of the interaction between forage and enzyme (P≥0.226) was described on N renal metabolism of heifers. Although the enzyme provision had no effect on NDF digestibility in heifers fed corn silage, it increased NDF digestibility in heifers fed sugarcane silage. The enzyme supply increased the time animals spent eating, but had no effect on ruminal fermentation of heifers.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T01:16:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.009
       
  • High-carotenoid biofortified maize is an alternative to color additives in
           poultry feed
    • Authors: J. Díaz-Gómez; J.A. Moreno; E. Angulo; G. Sandmann; C. Zhu; A.J. Ramos; T. Capell; P. Christou; C. Nogareda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): J. Díaz-Gómez, J.A. Moreno, E. Angulo, G. Sandmann, C. Zhu, A.J. Ramos, T. Capell, P. Christou, C. Nogareda
      Skin color in poultry is achieved by the addition of natural or synthetic pigments to feed. Crops used routinely in feed formulations offer an alternative cost-effective strategy to replace color additives if they are biofortified with sufficient levels of carotenoids. We tested the hypothesis that high-carotenoid (HC) maize, which was genetically engineered to accumulate high levels of β‐carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin in the endosperm, can replace carotenoid additives in poultry feed by performing two feeding trials using diets incorporating different maize lines with diverse carotenoid compositions: control (wild-type M37W, the parental line), HC, and standard yellow commercial maize supplemented with color additives (marigold flowers and red paprika extracts). The effects of dietary treatments on growth performance, health parameters, color evolution and carotenoid distribution were determined. We found that chickens fed on the HC diet grew normally and developed similar pigmentation to animals fed on a commercial diet supplemented with color additives, although yellowness was significantly higher in the commercial diet due to the high concentration of yellow xanthophylls. Lightness scores in chickens fed on the control, HC and commercial diets were 45.88±1.31, 44.32±1.10 and 44.29±0.99, respectively, in breast muscle, and 51.62±1.33, 49.66±0.96 and 50.10±1.16, respectively, in thigh muscle. Redness scores in chickens fed on the control, HC, and commercial diets were 0.36±0.26, 3.25±0.29 and 3.58±0.29, respectively, in breast muscle, and 1.28±0.37, 4.79±0.39 and 4.85±0.34, respectively, in thigh muscle. Yellowness scores in chickens fed on the control, HC, and commercial diets were 2.45±0.47, 7.61±0.64 and 9.66±0.73, respectively, in breast muscle, and 3.38±0.64, 10.00±1.10 and 12.64±0.97, respectively, in thigh muscle. High-carotenoid maize is therefore a cost-effective alternative to feed supplementation in the poultry industry.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T14:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.007
       
  • Effect of the addition of protected sodium butyrate to the feed on
           Salmonella spp. infection dynamics in fattening pigs
    • Authors: Alejandro Casanova-Higes; Sara Andrés-Barranco; Raúl C. Mainar-Jaime
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Alejandro Casanova-Higes, Sara Andrés-Barranco, Raúl C. Mainar-Jaime
      Organic acids (OA) are seen as an alternative to antibiotics to reduce the burden of enteropathogens. Two replicates of a field trial were carried out to assess the effect of the addition of protected sodium butyrate (PSB) to the feed (dose of 3kg/T) along the fattening period on the dynamics of Salmonella spp. infection in pigs. In each trial, around 50 pigs were assigned to a treatment group (TG) and 50 kept as controls (CG). Pigs were serologically monitored monthly and on-farm fecal samples and fecal and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) samples at slaughter were collected. In the first replicate, pigs became probably infected with Salmonella before the addition of PSB to the feed, but despite of that an overall lower proportion of shedders along the end of fattening period and lower seroprevalence before slaughter (50% vs. 89.6%; P < 0.001) was observed in the TG. In the second replicate, few pigs shed Salmonella during the trial, which precluded the finding of significant differences between groups for both Salmonella infection and shedding, but the seroprevalence at slaughter in the CG was again significantly higher than in the TG (31.1% vs. 13.7%, respectively; P =0.02) and it was related to a higher proportion of shedders and MLN-positive pigs. When results from both trials were analyzed together, a significant increasing risk of shedding in the CG was observed at 90days of fattening and at slaughter, and an overall significant decreasing trend in OD% values and thus in seroprevalence was also observed when pigs approached to slaughter. In conclusion, the dietary administration of this PSB during the whole fattening period was able to reduce significantly the seroprevalence in the TG, which may reflect a positive effect on the control of Salmonella at the end of the fattening period.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T14:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.008
       
  • Effects of pelleting diets containing cereal ergot alkaloids on nutrient
           digestibility, growth performance and carcass traits of lambs
    • Authors: Stephanie Coufal-Majewski; Kim Stanford; Tim McAllister; Yuxi Wang; Barry Blakley; John McKinnon; Alexandre V. Chaves
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Stephanie Coufal-Majewski, Kim Stanford, Tim McAllister, Yuxi Wang, Barry Blakley, John McKinnon, Alexandre V. Chaves
      The effects of pelleting feed containing cereal ergot alkaloids was evaluated in performance and nutrient digestibility trials using growing lambs. Defined concentrations of ergot alkaloids [Control (C), no added alkaloids but background concentrations of ∼3 ppb; Low (L),∼169 ppb; High (H),∼433 ppb] were achieved by substituting barley grain for ergot-contaminated screenings containing (fed basis) approximately 538g/kg barley grain, 300g/kg alfalfa and 160g/kg canola meal. Diets were fed either as a mash or as a completely pelleted feed. Total alkaloid concentrations did not differ between corresponding mash and pelleted diets, but ergotamine and ergosine were 2-3 times greater in mash feeds, while ergocornine, ergocristine and ergometrine were 2-3 times greater in pelleted diets. The total collection digestibility experiment used 12 ram lambs in a crossover design with 3 experimental periods. Alkaloid dose did not affect digestibility of DM, OM, or CP, but NDF and ADF digestibilities were linearly reduced (P< 0.05) with increasing alkaloid dose. Alkaloid concentrations in feces depended upon the specific type of alkaloid measured. In preliminary results, ergocristine and ergotamine were the only alkaloids in higher concentrations (P< 0.001) in feces from lambs fed H as compared to C diets. In the growth experiment, ram and ewe lambs (live weight 24.6±1.08kg) were randomly assigned to diets, weighed weekly and fed to a slaughter weight of ≥45kg. Dietary treatments did not affect carcass characteristics, although serum prolactin concentration was linearly reduced (P< 0.001) by increasing alkaloid dosage and was lower (P =0.01) in lambs fed mash as compared to pelleted diets. Although pelleted diets had total alkaloid concentrations that were similar to mash diets, lambs fed pelleted diets had 60g/d greater (P< 0.001) ADG than those fed mash diets. For H diets, lambs had lower ADG and feed conversion (P = 0.03) than those fed C or L, Based on the results of this study, pelleting diets reduced negative impacts of ergot alkaloids possibly by changing alkaloid profiles.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.006
       
  • Influence of graded inclusion of raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum L.)
           meal on the performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens
    • Authors: M. Hejdysz; S.A. Kaczmarek; M. Adamski; A. Rutkowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Hejdysz, S.A. Kaczmarek, M. Adamski, A. Rutkowski
      This study was conducted with broiler chickens to investigate the effect of different levels of pea seeds, in raw and extruded form, on the performance, nutrient digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy (AMEN) value as well as excretion of total and free sialic acids. In total, 960 1-day-old male broiler chicks of the Ross 308 strain were used in the experiment. The study consisted of a completely randomized experimental design with control group and a 5×2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and five levels of pea addition (100g/kg, 200g/kg, 300g/kg, 400g/kg, 500g/kg diet) in raw or extruded form. Extrusion had a positive impact, leading to a decrease in phytic P, NDF, ADF and resistant starch content in pea seeds. Birds receiving diets with different levels of pea in extruded form were characterized by lower feed intake (2385g) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1.41g/g) than broilers receiving diets with different levels of pea in raw form (feed intake 2504g; FCR 1.46g/g). Raw pea seeds did not have a negative effect on level of nutrient utilization and dietary AMEN. Raw pea levels had no significant effects on total sialic acid excreation, while extruded pea tended to affect total and free sialic acids quadratically. In conclusion, extrusion is one process, which can increase the use of pea seeds in broiler chicken nutrition.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:32:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.016
       
  • Interaction of forage provision (alfalfa hay) and sodium butyrate
           supplementation on performance, structural growth, blood metabolites and
           rumen fermentation characteristics of lambs during pre-weaning period
    • Authors: M. Soltani; M. Kazemi-Bonchenari; A.H. Khaltabadi-Farahani; O. Afsarian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Soltani, M. Kazemi-Bonchenari, A.H. Khaltabadi-Farahani, O. Afsarian
      The present study evaluated the interaction of forage provision (F) and sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in pre-weaning lambs on performance, structural growth, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics. Twenty eight 3-days old individually housed Chaal breed lambs averaging BW of 6.02±0.57kg were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (n=7 lambs/treatment: 4 males and 3 females). Experimental treatments were; 1) starter diet provided neither with F nor with SB (NF-NSB), 2) starter diet supplemented only with SB (NF-SB), 3) starter diet provided only with forage (F-NSB), and 4) starter diet simultaneously provided by forage and SB (F-SB). The F provision was 10% chopped alfalfa hay included in whole concentrate starter based diet (DM basis) and the SB supplementation was 3g of SB/kg of starter DM. The manual milk feeding was performed for all lambs. The lambs were weaned on d 59 of age but the study lasted until d 73 of age. Performance statistical analysis was carried out for pre-weaning (8 weeks), post-weaning (2 weeks) and entire experimental periods (10 weeks). The results show that starter intake influenced with SB (P=0.03) and weaning weight was greater in lambs supplemented with SB (P<0.01). Neither intake nor gain was influenced with forage provision (P>0.05). The interaction was observed between SB and F for gain in overall period of experiment (P=0.03). The interaction of SB and F caused the greatest wither height in F-SB treatment (P=0.03). Body barrel was greater in forage fed lambs (P=0.01). No blood parameter was influenced with separate or simultaneous provision of F and SB in the current study. The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration (P=0.02) as well as butyrate concentration (P<0.01) was increased by SB supplementation. Forage inclusion improved ruminal fluid pH (P=0.02) and increased acetate (P<0.01); however both butyrate (P=0.02) and propionate (P=0.01) concentrations were reduced. In conclusion we found that F provision was not efficient as maximum as whole concentrate starter diet but simultaneous providing of SB could alleviate the negative effects of provided forage in pre-weaning lambs. Future studies warranted to evaluate microscopic development of rumen papillae in simultaneous provision of forage and butyrate in pre-weaning lambs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:21:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.002
       
  • Effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides as potential prebiotics on
           performance, immune function and gut microbiota in weaned pigs
    • Authors: Y. Wu; L. Pan; Q.H. Shang; X.K. Ma; S.F. Long; Y.T. Xu; X.S. Piao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Y. Wu, L. Pan, Q.H. Shang, X.K. Ma, S.F. Long, Y.T. Xu, X.S. Piao
      This study evaluated the effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) in diet on the performance, fecal score, serum immunity, intestinal morphology, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and gut microbiota in cecum of weaned pigs. In a 28-day experiment, 72 healthy crossbred (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) weaned pigs with an average body weight of 8.76±1.04kg were assigned into 2 treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment (3 barrows and 3 gilts per pen) according to sex and weight in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet (CTR) or the basal diet supplemented with 6g/kg IMO at the expense of corn. Compared with CTR, IMO tended to increase average daily gain (ADG) during days 14 to 28 (P =0.06) and days 0 to 28 (P =0.07) rather than during days 0 to 14 for weaned pigs. The fecal score was lower for pigs fed IMO than CTR overall or during the first 2 weeks (P < 0.05). On day 28, IMO increased the apparent total track digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter and gross energy (P < 0.05), and tended to increase the ATTD of crude protein compared with CTR (P =0.06). On day 14, IMO decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, and tended to increase (P =0.06) superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in serum. The villus height of the ileum and the total VFA concentrations in cecum and colon were greater in pigs fed IMO than CTR (P < 0.05). Gene sequencing analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that IMO could regulate the gut microbiota according to unweighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analyses showed many different taxa between CTR and IMO, of which the abundance of relative beneficial bacteria including Streptococcaceae and Collinsella was increased by IMO supplementation (P < 0.05). Overall, IMO supplementation has positive effects on performance and serum immunity, and could regulate gut microbiota in cecum of weaned pigs. Accordingly, IMO could be potential prebiotics to improve performance by strengthening immune function and intestinal health in weaned pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:21:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.013
       
  • The use of Basidiomycota mushrooms in poultry nutrition–a review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): D. Bederska-Łojewska, S. Świątkiewicz, B. Muszyńska
      Recently, there has been a noticeable growth in interest in the potential of edible mushrooms and their application in prevention and therapy. The numerous health-promoting properties of edible mushrooms include: antioxidant, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral and hypocholesterolemic properties. Considering such a broad spectrum of action, and based on the recent literature data, the use of mushrooms is justified in the feeding of farm animals, including poultry. The aim of this review paper is to present the current state of knowledge concerning the use of edible mushrooms as a feed additive with dietary and health-promoting activities in the nutrition of broiler chickens and laying hens. Based on the results of studies presented in this article, it can be concluded that many mushroom species e.g. Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus blazei, Hericium caput-medusae, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Fomitella fraxinea, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps inensis and Cordyceps militaris can be the source of active substances that might positively affect poultry performance and health status.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:21:06Z
       
  • Intake, digestibility and milk production and composition of dairy cows
           fed different levels of Yerba Mate in the diet
    • Authors: F.S. Santos; L.M. Zeoula G.T. dos Santos L.S. Lima A.L.G.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): F.S. Santos, L.M. Zeoula, G.T. dos Santos, L.S. Lima, A.L.G. Dias, M.O.A. Rufino, A.L.B. Schogor, F.E. De Marchi, H.V. Petit
      Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas and averaging 84±18 (mean±SD) days in milk and 598±55kg of body weight were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding Yerba Mate (YM) on intake, digestibility, milk production, milk composition, and milk concentration of antioxidants when cows were fed a corn silage-based diet containing ground canola seed. The treatments fed for ad libitum intake were: a total mixed ration not supplemented (0g/d), or supplemented (250, 500 or 750g/d) with dried leaves of YM. Experimental periods consisted of 14 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Increased supplementation of the diet from 0 to 750g/d YM had no effect on milk production or yields of protein and fat, and decreased milk yields of lactose and total solids and milk urea N concentration. Digestibility of dry matter, protein and neutral detergent fibre was similar among diets and ether extract digestibility decreased with the level of YM supplementation. Concentrations of total polyphenols and production of conjugated diene hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in milk were similar among diets. The reducing power in milk increased with the inclusion level of YM in the diet, thus suggesting that antioxidant activity of milk can be enhanced with this feeding strategy although it was clearly insufficient to overcome the negative effects on milk fat synthesis probably caused by the high levels of fat added to diets as ground canola seed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T21:15:09Z
       
  • Effects of Acremonium terricola culture supplementation on apparent
           digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood parameters in dairy cows
    • Authors: Yang Yi-Zhen; Wang Guang-Ning Zhang Xing-Yi Zhang Cong Lin Xiao-Xiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Yang Li, Yi-Zhen Wang, Guang-Ning Zhang, Xing-Yi Zhang, Cong Lin, Xiao-Xiang Li, Yong-Gen Zhang
      This study was conducted to examine the effects of Acrermonium terricola culture (ATC) on feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood parameters in dairy cows. Six non-lactating ruminally and duodenally fistulated cows were evaluated in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design, with each period lasting 27 d. The cows were randomly assigned into three treatment groups: (1) basal diet (no additive); (2) basal diet plus 15g/cow per day ATC; and (3) basal diet plus 30g/cow per day ATC. Cows supplemented with ATC had a higher total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein, production of ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids, and relative population size of proteolytic bacteria than did unsupplemented cows. ATC supplementation decreased ruminal pH, concentration of urea nitrogen, aspartate transaminase, non-esterified fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in plasma and improved ruminal disappearance of roughage and blood glucose content. Overall, ATC is an effective feed additive and regulates apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolism for dairy cows.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T21:15:09Z
       
  • EFFECT OF DRIED FERMENTATION BIOMASS ON MICROBIAL FERMENTATION IN
           CONTINUOUS CULTURE AND IN VITRO INTESTINAL DIGESTIBILITY
    • Authors: A.J. Carpenter; Binversie Ruiz-Moreno M.D. Stern
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): A.J. Carpenter, E. Binversie, M. Ruiz-Moreno, M.D. Stern
      The objective of the current experiment was to determine if fermentation biomass (FB), a dried bacterial by-product derived from lysine production (Ajinomoto Heartland, Inc.) can be used as a protein source in ruminant diets. Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were inoculated with rumen fluid and used during one experimental period consisting of a 7-d adaptation period followed by 3 sampling days. Microbial substrate was provided by one of two isonitrogenous diets, CON or DFB. In CON, soybean meal (SBM) provided 57% of total CP, and in DFB, SBM and FB provided 12 and 45% of total CP, respectively. CON contained 3% molasses, 16% ground corn, 13% grass hay, 48% corn silage, and 20% SBM on a DM basis; DFB contained 3% molasses, 18.4% ground corn, 13% grass hay, 50% corn silage, 8.5% SBM, and 6.7% FB. On sampling days, liquid and solid effluent were collected, combined, and homogenized to be used for chemical analysis and in vitro estimation of intestinal digestibility (ID). Treatment did not affect average, maximum, or minimum fermenter pH. There was no effect on apparent or true OM, NDF, or ADF digestibility (%). Total and branched-chain VFA as well as acetate (mM) were higher in CON, and isobutyrate concentration (mol/100mol) tended to increase with CON treatment. Source of N had no effect on total, dietary, or bacterial-N flows. Addition of FB decreased NH3-N flow from 0.4 to 0.2±0.05g/d and tended to decrease effluent NH3-N concentration from 17.1 to 9.7±2.21mg/100mL. His and Met flows increased from 0.48 to 0.53±0.012 and 0.18 to 0.20±0.005g/d, respectively, when FB partially replaced SBM in the diet, but there were no effects on other AA or total AA flows. There was a trend in percent non-essential AA input (CON=73.6% vs. DFB=82.2%; SE=2.83) in effluent; however, there was no effect on percent of essential or total AA input in effluent. Effluent from the DFB treatment was higher in ID than CON (CON=70.4% vs. DFB=79.6%; SE=1.64), although there was no difference in estimated amount of protein available for intestinal absorption (g). These results indicate that FB elicited a similar response in N metabolism and AA flows to SBM but had a greater estimated ID and depressed VFA production, and has potential use as a protein source in ruminant diets.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T21:15:09Z
       
  • Combination of digestibility marker and fiber affect energy and nitrogen
           digestibility in growing pigs
    • Authors: T. Wang; D. Ragland; O. Adeola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): T. Wang, D. Ragland, O. Adeola
      This study was conducted to investigate if (i) the coefficient of ileal apparent digestibility (CIAD) of gross energy (GE) or nitrogen (N) was influenced by the type of digestibility marker (DMr) and dietary fiber, and (ii) the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of GE or N was influenced by the type of method (method i.e. total collection (TC) and DMr) and dietary fiber. Eighteen barrows fitted with a T-cannula at the end of the ileum were used in a 2-period randomized complete block design. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were formulated with corn starch, corn bran or oat bran at 100g/kg. All 3 diets contained 3 DMr, which were chromic oxide (Cr), titanium dioxide (Ti), and acid-insoluble ash (AIA). The ileal digesta were collected for 3 days, and the CIAD of GE and N were determined by measuring Cr, Ti or AIA. The feces were collected by using TC method, and the CTTAD of GE and N were determined by using Cr, Ti, AIA, or TC method. There were interactions between diet and DMr (P<0.001) for CIAD and DMr recovery (P<0.001), and between diet and method for CTTAD (P<0.001). The DMr had similar effect on CIAD of GE and N within each diet, but different effects among the 3 diets. For corn starch and corn bran, the greatest CIAD of GE or N was determined by Ti, while for oat bran, the greatest CIAD was determined by AIA. However, the CTTAD of GE or N of corn starch and the CTTAD of N of corn bran determined by the 3 DMr were not different. The greatest CTTAD of GE of corn bran was determined by Ti or AIA, while the greatest CTTAD of N or GE of oat bran was determined by Cr or AIA. For all 3 diets, the CTTAD of GE and N determined by the TC method was greater (P<0.001) than those determined by using DMr. The recovery of Ti in feces of pigs fed the oat bran was 78.3%, which was the least among all the 3 diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, the CIAD of GE or N was more influenced by the choice of DMr compared with CTTAD, and the Ti recovery of pigs fed oat bran was less than corn starch or corn bran.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T21:15:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.012
       
  • Phytogenic feed additives as potential gut contractility modifiers—a
           review
    • Authors: Marta Mendel; Magdalena Chłopecka; Natalia Dziekan; Wojciech Karlik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Marta Mendel, Magdalena Chłopecka, Natalia Dziekan, Wojciech Karlik
      The increasing requirement for implementing new feed additives in livestock, especially ruminants, results predominantly from two issues: the urgent need of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the necessity of finding replacements of antibiotics which must not be preventively used in animals feeding. A group of additives that has gained a progressive interest in recent years consists of plant secondary metabolites and plant-derived extracts. There is extensive knowledge of the effects of phytogenic feed additives on rumen microbial fermentation, rumen methanogenesis and ruminant performance. However, there is little information about their systemic effects. In case of ruminants, the possible impact of employed additives on gut motility should be carefully analyzed due to the special anatomical and physiological features. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present available data on the effects of plant extracts and individual secondary plant metabolites which can be potentially used as feed additives on gastrointestinal motility. The review describes the impact of essential oils, tannins and saponins on gut smooth muscle activity in laboratory animals and livestock, particularly ruminants, under in vivo and in vitro conditions The analysis of gathered data allows to generalize that most essential oils, tannins and saponins which are under consideration as phytogenic feed additives generate myorelaxant effects towards gastrointestinal tissues. Significant antispasmodic effects of plant secondary metabolites can reduce the gastrointestinal smooth muscle basal tone and cause an impaired response of rumen and abomasal muscles to acetylcholine which reflect hypotony and subsequently predispose the animals to some gut disturbances, like abomasal displacement or rotation, and or indigestion. On the other hand, the revealed ability of various plant extracts to reduce acetylcholine-induced contraction could be used to contract gastrointestinal muscle spasm and consequently become beneficial in animals with diarrhea symptoms. Noteworthy, essential oils of numerous plants turned out to act spasmogenic if used in low doses and spasmolytic whenever tested in higher concentrations. This dual character of essential oils should be further analyzed and possible used to treat or prevent hypo- and hypermotility disorders. Bearing in mind, the process of gut microorganisms’ adaptation and their ability to decompose or neutralize various substances, including plant secondary metabolites, the effects of plant-derives substances on gastrointestinal motoric activity are especially expected in a short time after the introduction of a new phytocompound or plant extract to animal feed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T20:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.008
       
  • Relative partitioning of N from alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain
           and soybean meal into milk, urine, and feces, using stable 15N isotope
    • Authors: T. Barros; J.M. Powell; M.A.C. Danes; M.J. Aguerre; M.A. Wattiaux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): T. Barros, J.M. Powell, M.A.C. Danes, M.J. Aguerre, M.A. Wattiaux
      The objective of this study was to determine the relative partitioning of N in individual feed within a diet (alfalfa silage [AS], corn silage [CS], corn grain [CG] and soybean meal [SBM]) into milk, urinary and fecal N in lactating dairy cows. For 11 days, twelve multiparous Holstein cows (means±SD; 264±18 DIM) were fed once a day an unlabeled TMR formulated to contain (DM basis) 335, 325, 190, 125 and 25g/kg of CS, AS, CG, SBM and a mineral-and-vitamin premix, respectively. On the morning of day 12, cows were blocked by milk yield and randomly assigned within block to one of four dietary treatments constructed by replacing one feed ingredient of the unlabeled TMR with its corresponding 15N-labeled ingredient (grown with 15N-labeled fertilizers). Cows were fed dietary treatments for four days (day 12 to 15) and the unlabeled TMR from day 16 to 19. Feed intake and lactation performance were measured daily whereas total fecal and urinary collections were conducted on each cow every 6h from day 12 to 19. Feeding 15N-labeled ingredients had no effect on DMI (mean±SD; 22.0±2.0kg/d), milk yield (26.4±5.2kg/d),N intake (631±25g/d), milk protein concentration (34.7±3.3g/kg), and N use efficiency (milkN/intakeN; 235±46g/kg). By the end of sampling, 61% of 15N was recovered in milk (13.6%), urine (24.1%) and feces (23.3%) suggesting substantial distribution of 15N in tissues with slow turnover rates or growing actively (e.g., fetal tissues). The ratio of 15N atom % excess (APE) in urine to 15N APE in milk and the ratio of 15N APE in feces to 15N APE in milk measured on the fourth day of feeding the treatment TMR were used as indicators of relative N partitioning. The 15N APE urine/milk ratio was greater for AS (1.51) than for CS (1.30), which in turn was greater than for the concentrates (1.02 for CG and 0.94 for SBM). In addition, the APE 15N feces/milk ratio was greater in silages than concentrates (2.12 vs. 1.20, respectively). Interestingly, the main route of 15N excretion from AS was fecal rather than urinary. Overall results suggested more excretion of urinary N and fecal N relative to milk N secretion for silages than for concentrates.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T08:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.009
       
  • Selection of prebiotic oligosaccharides suitable for synbiotic use in
           calves
    • Authors: Martina Geigerová; Věra Bunešová; Eva Vlková; Hana Salmonová; Vojtěch Rada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Martina Geigerová, Věra Bunešová, Eva Vlková, Hana Salmonová, Vojtěch Rada
      The aims of this experiment were to identify suitable commercial prebiotic substrates for bifidobacteria of calf origin and to verify in vivo the effects of the selected prebiotics on survival of applied and naturally occurring bifidobacteria in calf intestines. First, in vitro utilization of selected fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and inulin by Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. animalis (two strains), B. choerinum, B. thermophilum, and B. longum ssp. suis was investigated. The highest specific growth rates were observed with Vivinal® (galactooligosaccharides) and Raftilose P85 (fructooligosaccharides); therefore, these prebiotics were used for in vivo tests. Three groups of calves were investigated. A single dose of a probiotic mixture of five strains of rifampicin-resistant variants of bifidobacteria (RRBs) in form of fermented milk was fed to 2-days-old calves in the first experimental group (PROB). In the second group (SYNB), a single dose of probiotics was administered to calves at the same age, but a prebiotic mixture containing selected substrates was fed to the calves every day until 7 weeks of age (the end of the study). The third group, which did not receive any treatment, was used as a control. The survival of applied and naturally-occurring bifidobacteria and the numbers of selected faecal bacterial groups were determined by cultivation. Our results showed that the fed RRBs were able to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract, with counts of more than 107 CFU/g in the PROB group. Significantly higher numbers of RRBs (more than 108 CFU/g) were found in the SYNB group at age 4 days. RRBs persisted in intestines for at least 49days in both experimental groups without further significant differences. Counts of other determined bacteria were not significantly affected by the treatments. Our results showed that the selected prebiotics improve the survival of bifidobacteria passing through the digestive tract. Selected combination of pro- and prebiotics seems to be promising synbiotic in term of promoting survival of administered bacteria in intestine. However its effect on animal performance must be verified in other experiment with larger groups of animals.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T08:52:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.011
       
  • Within plant variation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)
           produced from multiple raw materials in varying proportions: chemical
           composition and in vitro evaluation of feeding value for ruminants
    • Authors: K.-H.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): C. Böttger, K.-H. Südekum
      Chemical composition and feeding value of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) differ among types of raw material and ethanol production plants. Possibly more challenging, variation does as well occur between batches from the same plant. Although some comprehensive studies on within plant variation of DDGS exist, they are limited to DDGS produced from maize as the sole raw material. Nevertheless, the use of raw material blends may increase variability, particularly if proportions of raw materials vary over time. In the current study, 28 samples of blend DDGS were obtained from one ethanol plant over 420days in around 14day intervals. The raw material blend contained varying proportions of barley, maize, wheat and sugar beet syrup. Samples were analyzed in terms of chemical composition including minerals. Energy and protein values for ruminants were estimated based on chemical composition and in vitro methods Descriptive statistics were calculated to describe within plant variation, which affected DDGS characteristics to different extents. Coefficients of variation (CV) ranged from approximately 3% for crude protein and metabolizable energy to >25% for starch, sugar and Na. Regarding protein value, predicted ruminally undegraded feed crude protein (RUP) varied considerably (CV approximately 13%), whilst in vitro results for intestinal digestibility of RUP and utilizable crude protein at the duodenum displayed consistency (CV<5%). Differing methodology impeded comparison with previous research, but results indicate that varying proportions of raw materials did not result in increased variability compared with DDGS produced from a single raw material. In addition, regression analysis was performed to examine correlations between raw material proportions and DDGS characteristics. Resulting equations have to be considered specific for the current set of samples and ethanol plant. However, equations generally reflected the proportions and ascribed quality of the raw materials. Particularly, reasonable correlations were found for proximate constituents, energy concentrations and minerals K and Mn. In contrast, other macro and trace elements either could not be predicted by raw material proportions or equations were difficult to interpret. Similarly, characteristics of the protein value displayed very limited correlation to raw material proportions. These findings were likely because minerals as well as composition, degradability and digestibility of crude protein are more prone to be affected by processing details. Thus, results suggest a limited potential to predict chemical composition of blend DDGS from raw material proportions and, on the other hand, indicate the considerable impact of processing on DDGS characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T08:52:11Z
       
  • Paraffin-wax-coated nitrate salt inhibits short-term methane production in
           sheep and reduces the risk of nitrite toxicity
    • Authors: V. de Raphélis-Soissan; J.V. Nolan; I.R. Godwin; J.R. Newbold; H.B. Perdok; R.S. Hegarty
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): V. de Raphélis-Soissan, J.V. Nolan, I.R. Godwin, J.R. Newbold, H.B. Perdok, R.S. Hegarty
      Inclusion of nitrate in the diet of ruminants has been effective in reducing enteric emission of the greenhouse gas methane, but increases the risk of nitrate toxicity in the animal. An experiment was conducted to investigate if coating nitrate salts with lipid would reduce risks of nitrite toxicity in sheep without compromising the methane mitigating effect achieved using uncoated nitrate. Three forms of nitrate (uncoated nitrate; coated with palm oil or coated with paraffin wax) were administered intraruminally to sheep, with nitrate toxicity risk being evaluated by determining blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) levels. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in plasma and rumen fluid, as well as methane and nitrous oxide production were also evaluated. Sheep supplemented with isonitrogenous amounts of urea were used as negative controls. There was no significant effect of palm oil coating on MetHb but coating with paraffin wax lowered MetHb levels, rumen and plasma nitrate concentrations (P < 0.05) relative to concentrations in urea-supplemented sheep. Total VFA concentrations in rumen fluid were unaffected by coating nitrate, but acetate proportion increased while butyrate and propionate proportions declined over time in all treatments after intraruminal nitrate administration (P < 0.05). It is suggested that these changes were caused by the strong capacity of nitrate to act as an electron acceptor. There was substantial variation between animals in ruminal nitrate and nitrite concentrations and in blood MetHb when the same mass of nitrate was administered directly into the rumen, showing that individuals differ in their ability to metabolize nitrate. Whereas methane production over the 22h period of measurement was unaffected by the treatments, methane production during the first 3h of measurement post-feeding was reduced similarly by both coated and uncoated nitrate supplements compared to urea. The small amount of supplemented nitrate introduced and the rapidity of nitrate reduction may both explain why methane mitigation was only observed for a short period after administering the treatments. Over 22h in respiration chambers, nitrous oxide emissions were significantly increased by uncoated nitrate supplements compared to urea (P < 0.05). Nitrous oxide emissions by sheep fed coated nitrate did not differ from those of sheep fed urea. It is concluded that coating dietary nitrate can protect sheep against nitrite toxicity without adversely affecting methane mitigation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T03:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.026
       
  • Increasing dietary levels of citral oil on nutrient total tract
           
    • Authors: Taíssa S. Canaes; Filipe Zanferari; Bruna L. Maganhe; Caio S. Takiya; Thiago H. Silva; Tiago A. Del Valle; Francisco P. Rennó
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Taíssa S. Canaes, Filipe Zanferari, Bruna L. Maganhe, Caio S. Takiya, Thiago H. Silva, Tiago A. Del Valle, Francisco P. Rennó
      This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary doses of high purity citral oil on nutrient total tract digestibility, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, milk yield and composition, and N utilization in dairy goats. Twenty-four Saanen goats [62±1.4kg of body weight (BW), 75±20days in milk, and 3.0±0.27kg/d of milk yield, at the start of experiment], being eight of them rumen-cannulated, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods in which the first 14 d were allowed to treatment adaptation. Animals were assigned to the following treatments: control, with no citral supply; and dietary addition of 0.08, 0.16 or 0.24mL of citral oil per kg of BW. Increasing doses of citral oil did not affect dry matter (DM) and nutrient intake, but it linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber total tract digestion in dairy goats. Treatments neither affected ruminal pH nor NH3-N, but citral oil linearly increased butyrate proportion in ruminal fluid of goats. Citral oil consumption had a positive quadratic effect on ruminal propionate (mmol/dL and mmol/100mmol) and butyrate (mmol/dL) in goats. Treatments had a negative quadratic effect on ruminal acetate to propionate ratio and acetate proportion. Citral consumption by dairy goats linearly decreased blood urea concentration. Although treatments did not affect milk and fat-corrected milk yield, citral oil linearly decreased milk fat production in goats. Citral had no effect on milk fatty acid profile and N utilization in goats. Citral consumption had no effect on DM and nutrient intake as well as on fat-corrected milk yield, but it may increase ruminal propionate concentration in dairy goats.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T03:53:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.05.002
       
  • Foliar fungicide (pyraclostrobin) application on corn and its effects on
           corn silage composition
    • Authors: C.C. Kalebich; M.E. Weatherly; K.N. Robinson; G.M. Fellows; M.R. Murphy; F.C. Cardoso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): C.C. Kalebich, M.E. Weatherly, K.N. Robinson, G.M. Fellows, M.R. Murphy, F.C. Cardoso
      The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various applications of foliar fungicide on corn ensiled as corn silage. Treatments were replicated once and assigned to one of eight 0.4-ha plots of corn as follows: control (CON), plants receiving no foliar fungicide application; treatment 1 (V5), where plants received a mixture of pyraclotrobin and fluxapyroxad foliar fungicide (Priaxor, BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5 (V5); treatment 2 (V5 + R1), where plants received two applications of foliar fungicide, a mixture of pyraclotrobin and fluxapyroxad at V5 and a mixture of pyraclostrobin+metconazole foliar fungicide (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 (R1); treatment 3 (R1), in which plants received one application of pyraclostrobin+metconazole foliar fungicide at R1. Samples of corn for corn silage were collected at harvest, prepared as 0.9-kg mini-silos and vacuum sealed. These were ensiled for 0, 30, 90, and 150 d postharvest then frozen for later analysis. Applications of fungicide on corn, later ensiled as corn silage resulted in less (P < 0.001) DM content (319, 315, and 317g/kg for V5, V5+R1, and R1, respectively) compared with untreated corn silage (CON; 335g/kg). Corn silage from R1 resulted in a lower (P =0.03) concentration of lignin (20g/kg DM) and greater (P =0.001) concentration of lactic acid (55.0g/kg DM) when compared with corn silage from other treatments (lignin: 24, 24, and 26g/kg DM for CON, V5, and V5+R1, respectively; and lactic acid: 46.5, 50.1, and 50.9g/kg DM for CON, V5, and V5+R1, respectively). Treatment R1 had a greater (P =0.03) concentration of water soluble carbohydrates at 0 and 150 d postharvest (123 and 31.5g/kg DM for 0 and 150 d, respectively; and an increased lactic acid concentration at 90 d (71.1g/kg DM for R1 vs. 63.4, 68.4, and 69.2g/kg DM for CON, V5, and V5+R1, respectively) when compared to the other treatments. Results suggested that fungicide application on corn at V5 or R1 may enhance the nutritive and fermentative profile when ensiled for feeding ruminants.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T08:06:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.04.025
       
 
 
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