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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 240, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Feed Science and Technology
  [SJR: 1.151]   [H-I: 83]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0377-8401 - ISSN (Online) 0377-8401
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Synergetic effects of essential oils mixture improved egg quality traits,
           oxidative stability and liver health indices in laying hens fed fish oil
    • Authors: A. Mousavi; A.H. Mahdavi; A. Riasi; M. Soltani-Ghombavani
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): A. Mousavi, A.H. Mahdavi, A. Riasi, M. Soltani-Ghombavani
      Omega-3 fatty acids are necessary for human health, although products containing higher proportions of these fatty acids make them more susceptible to lipid peroxidation. The current study was conducted to evaluate the synergetic effects of dietary supplementation of herbal essential oils mixture (Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis and Anethum graveolens) and dietary fat sources on egg quality traits, oxidative stability and liver health indices of laying hens. A total of 150 laying hens were randomly distributed among 6 experimental treatments with five replicates of five birds each. Dietary treatment consisted of three levels of herbal essential oils mixture (0, 100 and 200mg/kg) and two sources of fat (fish oil and soybean oil containing different ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids) that fed during an 80 d feeding trial. The results showed that administrating fish oil, containing low ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids, enhanced liver (P<0.05) malondialdehyde concentration, egg yolk color (P<0.05), and led to the reductions in liver relative weight, hepatic lipid percentage (P<0.05), serum alkaline phosphatase activity (P<0.01), as well as serum and egg yolk cholesterol contents (P<0.05). Moreover, herbal essential oils mixture resulted in the declines in blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P<0.01), enzymes activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.01), as well as hepatic and serum malondialdehyde concentrations (P<0.05). Also, it caused the improvements in eggshell hardness and thickness (P<0.05). In general, the findings indicated that although dietary administration of fish oil increased the susceptibility of serum and liver to lipid peroxidation, feeding 200mg/kg essential oils mixture resulted in the best systemic and hepatic antioxidant responses, the modulated serum lipid profiles, and also the improved eggshell quality.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T08:24:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in
           Chinese produced dehulled double-low rapeseed expellers and non-dehulled
           double-low rapeseed co-products fed to growing-finishing pigs
    • Authors: P.L. Li; Y.F. Chen; Z.Q. Lyu; S.B. Yu; F. Wu; B.B. Huang; L. Liu; C.H. Lai
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): P.L. Li, Y.F. Chen, Z.Q. Lyu, S.B. Yu, F. Wu, B.B. Huang, L. Liu, C.H. Lai
      Two experiments were conducted to determine and compare the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and the coefficients of standardized ileal digestibility (CSID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in two sources of dehulled rapeseed expellers (RSE-DH1 and RSE-DH2), conventional rapeseed expellers (RSE-CV), cold-pressed rapeseed expellers (RSE-CP) and rapeseed meal (RSM) produced by Chinese double-low rapeseed fed to growing-finishing pigs. In experiment 1, 36 growing pigs [initial body weight (BW): 37.7±4.8kg] were randomly allotted to one of six diets (n=6) including a corn-soybean meal basal diet and five rapeseed co-product test diets. The test diets contained 194.8g/kg each of the five double-low rapeseed co-products added at the expense of corn and soybean meal in the basal diet. In experiment 2, six growing barrows (initial BW: 69.4±4.4kg) fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were allotted to a 6×6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets. Diets included one N-free diet and five test diets which contained 400g/kg RSE or RSM as the only source of CP and AA. On an as fed basis, dehulled RSE samples (RSE-DH1 and RSE-DH2) contained the lowest neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber among rapeseed co-product samples. Dehulled RSE samples had greater lysine concentration than non-dehulled RSE and RSM. The coefficient of apparent total tract ileal digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy (GE) in RSE-DH1 (0.822) was greater (P< 0.05) than that in RSE-CV (0.700) and RSM (0.655), but the CATTD of GE did not differ among RSE-DH1, RSE-DH2 (0.782) and RSE-CP (0.722). On an as-fed basis, the ME value was greater (P < 0.05) in dehulled RSE (14.5MJ/kg) than RSE-CV (12.2MJ/kg) and RSM (10.4MJ/kg). The RSE-DH1 (9.72MJ/kg) and RSE-DH2 (9.33MJ/kg) contained greater (P < 0.05) calculated net energy value than RSE-CP (8.03MJ/kg), RSE-CV (7.84MJ/kg) and RSM (5.66MJ/kg). With the exception of phenylalanine and valine, the CSID of CP and all AA in dehulled RSE was greater (P < 0.05) than that in RSE-CV and RSM. The CSID of CP and most of AA in RSE-DH1 was greater (P < 0.05) than that in RSE-CP. In conclusion, compared with non-dehulled rapeseed co-products, dehulled double-low rapeseed expellers may be a better energy and protein source for pigs considering its greater ME value and CSID of AA.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Digestibility and intestinal fermentability of canola meal from Brassica
           juncea and Brassica napus fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs
    • Authors: M.H.A. Le; A.D.G. Buchet; E. Beltranena; W.J.J. Gerrits; R.T. Zijlstra
      Pages: 43 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M.H.A. Le, A.D.G. Buchet, E. Beltranena, W.J.J. Gerrits, R.T. Zijlstra
      Yellow-seeded Brassica (B.) juncea is a novel canola species. Therefore, its meal co-product requires feed quality evaluation and comparison to conventional, dark-seeded B. napus canola meal for pigs. The B. juncea canola meal contains less fibre than B. napus canola meal (190 vs. 260g NDF/kg, as is), but also less lysine (20.3 vs. 22.1g/kg). Nutrient digestibility and fermentibility of B. juncea and B. napus canola meal were assessed in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (47kg BW) were fed six diets in a 6×6 Latin square: basal diet (460g wheat/kg and corn starch), 4 diets with 460g wheat/kg and either B. juncea or B. napus canola meal at 250 or 500g/kg replacing corn starch, sugar and canola oil, and an N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea canola meal had greater (P< 0.05) CATTD of gross energy than B. napus canola meal (0.70 vs. 0.63) most likely due to its lower fibre content. Ileal total VFA concentration was lower (P< 0.001) in pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus canola meal diets (15.2 vs. 20.8μmol/g of wet digesta). In pigs fed B. juncea canola meal instead of B. napus canola meal diets, the molar ratio was greater (P< 0.01) for digesta propionate and faecal acetate, but lower (P< 0.05) for digesta and faecal butyrate. Canola meal species did not affect the CAID of gross energy, CSID of amino acid and faecal VFA content. The digestible energy (DE) value was greater (P< 0.01; 12.1 vs. 10.9MJ/kg, standardised to 100g/kg moisture) for B. juncea than B. napus canola meal. Increasing dietary inclusion of canola meal up to 500g/kg reduced (P< 0.01) diet digestibility of gross energy but not amino acids and decreased (P< 0.05) intestinal fermentability of B. napus but not B. juncea. In conclusion, B. juncea canola meal had greater fermentability and ATTD of gross energy than B. napus canola meal, but digestibility of amino acids did not differ. Increasing dietary inclusion of canola meal up to 500g/kg reduced digestibility of gross energy but not digestibility of AA. Fermentability of B. napus canola meal but not B. juncea canola meal decreased in the pig intestine with increased dietary inclusion. Hence, yellow-seeded B. juncea canola meal had a greater DE value, similar amino acid digestibility as conventional dark-seed B. napus canola meal and may limit protein fermentation in the pig intestine.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • Enteric methane emissions and protozoa populations in Holstein steers fed
           spent mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) substrate silage-based diets
    • Authors: K.T. Rangubhet; M.C. Mangwe; V. Mlambo; Y.K. Fan; H.I. Chiang
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 234
      Author(s): K.T. Rangubhet, M.C. Mangwe, V. Mlambo, Y.K. Fan, H.I. Chiang
      Direct modification of rumen microbial fermentation could provide universal and cost-effective solutions to reduce methane emissions from ruminant livestock. In this study, the effect of feeding spent mushroom (golden needle mushroom, Flammulina velutipes) substrate (SMS)-based silage supplemented with or without urea on the enteric methane emission and total rumen protozoa populations in Holstein steers was investigated. Spent mushroom substrate and whole crop corn were ensiled for 60days with or without urea as follows: Silage 1 (SMS 900g/kg and whole crop corn 100g/kg); Silage 2 (SMS 900g/kg, urea 10g/kg and whole crop corn 90g/kg); Silage 3 (SMS 800g/kg and whole crop corn 200g/kg); Silage 4 (SMS 800g/kg, urea 10g/kg and whole crop corn 190g/kg) on dry matter (DM) basis. Five dietary treatments were prepared as follows: 1) a control diet made-up of 500g/kg of concentrate and 500g/kg of bermuda hay (Cynodon dectylon), and 2) four diets formulated by replacing 400g/kg of the bermuda hay in the control diet with the four SMS-based silages described above. Five Holstein steers (mean BW 542±72kg) were assigned to a 5×5 Latin square design in which the five dietary treatments were offered across 5 periods, with 14days of adaptation plus 7days of samples collection in each period. Holstein steers fed diets containing SMS-based silages had lower total protozoa population (3.37×105/mL vs. 6.09×105/mL), rumen acetate (55.43mM/L vs. 57.08mM/L) and methane emission (211g/day vs. 252g/day) (P <0.05) than Holstein steers fed control diet. When comparing the inclusion levels of SMS-based silages in the diets, cattle fed diets of lower levels of SMS-based silages (800g/kg of SMS) had higher acetate contents (56.61mM/L vs. 54.25), protozoa population (3.92×105/mL vs. 2.84×105/mL) and methane emission (226g/day vs. 196g/day) than heifers fed diets of higher levels of SMS-based silage (900g/kg of SMS). The study demonstrates that feeding Holstein steers with SMS-based silage significantly decreases protozoa populations in the rumen and enteric methane emission. Although the mechanisms are not fully understood, the phytochemicals in SMS could be responsible for the reduction in rumen protozoa populations and the inhibition of rumen methanogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 234 (2017)
       
  • The effect of cysteamine hydrochloride and nitrate supplementation on
           in-vitro and in-vivo methane production and productivity of cattle
    • Authors: Y.K. Sun; X.G. Yan; Z.B. Ban; H.M. Yang; R.S. Hegarty; Y.M. Zhao
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Y.K. Sun, X.G. Yan, Z.B. Ban, H.M. Yang, R.S. Hegarty, Y.M. Zhao
      Demand for livestock products and methane mitigation is increasingly stimulating a search for technologies capable of increasing animal productivity while lowering enteric methane emissions. Dietary nitrate (NO3 −) has shown this capability in sheep on low nitrogen diets. Cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) has also been shown to have such dual efficacy, but whether it affects rumen fermentation directly or indirectly by modifying digesta kinetics is unknown. It was hypothesized that the administration of CSH to cattle would reduce in-vitro and in-vivo methane production and also increase their average daily liveweight gain (LWG) without affecting their DM intake (DMI). An in-vitro experiment was conducted to study the effects of CSH, NO3 −, urea and nitrite, on methane and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and on the protozoal population. Methane production, production of total VFA and acetate, and acetate:propionate ratio were not affected by CSH (P> 0.05) relative to control incubations, however, pH was reduced while hydrogen accumulation was increased (P< 0.05) by CSH relative to control incubations. Subsequently, a 42-d in-vivo experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with twelve yearling cattle (236±49kg liveweight; LW) to assess LWG, methane production and feed conversion ratio (FCR) on a basal roughage/concentrate diet containing either no additives, or 1% NO3 − addition, or 80mg/kg LW of CSH. Daily methane production rate (DMP; g methane/d) was measured over 2×24h periods in open-circuit calorimetry chambers during both weeks 3 and 6 of the study, with nutrient digestibility determined by collecting faecal samples and using acid insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. Relative to cattle fed the control diet CSH supplemented cattle exhibited no change in LWG or FCR (P> 0.05). While neither DMP nor methane yield (MY; methane/kg DMI) were reduced by CSH (mean 9.2% reduction), methane production rate was significantly reduced (P< 0.05.) for up to 6h post-feeding relative to control animals. Nitrate reduced MY by 31.1% (15.7g methane/kg DMI; P< 0.01) relative to when the control diet was fed (22.8g methane/kg DMI), and increased (P< 0.01) dietary crude protein digestibility. It was concluded that while NO3 − can deliver greater methane mitigation than CSH, CSH has in some studies (though not this study) improved the efficiency of animal production, which, together with the observed short term efficacy in reducing methane emissions suggests CSH may have a role in enabling greater animal production at a reduced environmental cost.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Nutritive evaluation and milk quality of including of tomato or olive
           by-products silages with sunflower oil in the diet of dairy goats
    • Authors: A. Arco-Pérez; E. Ramos-Morales; D.R. Yáñez-Ruiz; L. Abecia; A.I. Martín-García
      Pages: 57 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): A. Arco-Pérez, E. Ramos-Morales, D.R. Yáñez-Ruiz, L. Abecia, A.I. Martín-García
      There are worldwide a number of by-products with a strong potential for use in animal feeding to cover purposes as farm economic profitability enhancement or searching of functional food ingredients. Probably fruit and vegetable industry (i.e. olive milling wastes) are amongst the most representative sectors. Two experiments were performed with lactating Murciano-Granadina goats. In Experiment 1 the objective was to assess the effect of the partial replacement of the forage in the diet with olive by-products or tomato silages supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, 20g/kg DM) on the nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation parameters and microbial abundances, methane production and milk yield and composition. Eighteen goats were distributed in three experimental groups and fed control diet (CD) against diets containing olive by-products silage (OBSD) or tomato surplus silage (TSD). Both OBSD and TSD resulted in higher fat intake and apparent digestibility, higher digestible and metabolizable energy and total purine derivatives excretion. The rest of measured parameters remained unaffected. Diets OBSD and TSD promoted higher milk content in C18:1 trans-11, C20:2 and CLA. Milk fat of goats consuming TSD had the lowest content in C4:0, C6:0 and C8:0, while OBSD produced more total saturated FA (SFA) and less C18:1 n-9 cis and both total mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The acetate concentration was lower in the rumen of animals fed silages, while the butyrate and protozoa concentrations were higher in OBSD. The CH4 production (L/kg DMI) tended to be lower in goats consuming TSD. Experiment 2 was conducted to test the persistence (over 90 days) and in a larger number of animals (n=24) of the effects observed with TSD diet in experiment 1. The TS diet promoted higher DM intake and body weight and lower acetate:propionate ratio than CD, whereas milk yield and composition were not affected. The FA profile was modified by increases in SFA and reducing monounsaturated FA and CLA. It may be concluded that the strategy of partial replacement of conventional forage by local by-products silage combined with SFO supplementation is valuable nutritional strategy in dairy goats since it may improve the animal energy balance while ruminal fermentation, nutrients utilization and milk yield are not compromised.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Extracts of laminarin and laminarin/fucoidan from the marine macroalgal
           species Laminaria digitata improved growth rate and intestinal structure
           
    • Authors: Torres Sweeney; Hazel Meredith; Stafford Vigors; Mary J. McDonnell; Marion Ryan; Kevin Thornton; John V. O’Doherty
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Torres Sweeney, Hazel Meredith, Stafford Vigors, Mary J. McDonnell, Marion Ryan, Kevin Thornton, John V. O’Doherty
      Promoting growth performance, while limiting the proliferation of bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni, in the post-hatch period is a key goal of the broiler industry. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing the diet with Laminarin and Fucoidan extracts on growth performance, small intestinal morphology and function, immune response and Campylobacter jejuni colonisation following an experimental challenge in young chicks following dietary supplementation. The experiment consisted of three diets: 1) basal diet; 2) basal diet+250ppm Laminarin (LAM); 3) basal diet+250ppm LAM+80ppm FUC (LAM/FUC). Day old Ross chicks (n=135), were housed in groups of three, with 15 replicates per treatment group. On day three, all chicks were orally gavaged with 0.1ml 106 colony forming units of C. jejuni. On day 13, caecal digesta samples were collected for quantification of C. jejuni and Lactobacillus. Ileal tissue was also collected post-slaughter in order to examine small intestinal morphology and the gene expression of targets related to gut health. The mean total intake for the chicks fed the LAM, LAM/FUC and basal diets during the experiment (day 0–13) were 411g, 411g and 373g respectively, with chicks fed the LAM and LAM/FUC supplemented diets having increased feed intake compared to the basal diet fed chicks (P<0.05). Chicks offered diets containing LAM and the LAM/FUC combination had higher (P<0.05) total weight gain (262g and 254g respectively) compared to the basal diet 243g. Dietary inclusion of LAM/FUC combination increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1.68g/g vs 1.77g/g) compared to the basal diet (P<0.05). Chicks offered the LAM and LAM/FUC diet had increased ileal villus width compared to chicks offered the basal diet, while chicks fed the LAM diet had increased villus height compared to chicks fed the basal diet (P<0.05). Chicks offered the both the LAM and LAM/FUC supplemented diets had increased gene expression of the tight junction protein CLDN1, compared to chicks fed the basal diet (P<0.05). The gene expression of the measured intestinal nutrient transporters was unaffected by dietary supplementation (P>0.10). There was no effect of LAM or LAM/FUC extracts on the proliferation of C. jejuni or on Lactobacilli numbers in the caeca. In conclusion, supplementation with LAM or LAM/FUC in the post-hatch period improved growth rate, positively modified small intestinal architecture and impacted the intestinal immune response, but did not impact the extent of C. jejuni proliferation. Supplementation of the diet with LAM provided beneficial effects over supplementation with LAM/FUC in relation to FCR, villus height and aspects of the immune response.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • The effect of gelatin inclusion in high protein extruded pet food on
           kibble physical properties
    • Authors: A.E. Manbeck; C.G. Aldrich; S. Alavi; T. Zhou; R.A. Donadelli
      Pages: 91 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): A.E. Manbeck, C.G. Aldrich, S. Alavi, T. Zhou, R.A. Donadelli
      Pet food is a $23 billion industry that continues to grow. Owners continue to humanize their pets and their dietary needs, thus the pet food industry tends to mirror human dietary trends. Currently, pet food is trending towards higher levels of protein, thus lower levels of starch. Decreasing starch, one of the main structure forming ingredients in extruded foods, creates issues of lower rates of expansion and decreased kibble durability. Consumers tend to dislike ingredients that do not serve a nutritional purpose; therefore, gelatin may be a plausible binding ingredient for high protein pet foods. Gelatin is a pure protein derived from collagen and is sold as a dry, odorless, tasteless powder. High-bloom gelatins find numerous uses in human food as a stabilizer, foaming agent, and capsule base among other uses. Low-bloom gelatin may find a value-added opportunity as a nutritional binder in pet food. Four extrusion experiments were performed to test this hypothesis. Experiment 1 compared gelatin at 0, 50, 100, and 150g/kg inclusion and 150g/kg gelatin at 3 different extruder screw speeds. Results showed a decrease in expansion but an increase in hardness and pellet durability index (PDI); however, there may have been inadequate preconditioning. It was unclear whether the decrease in expansion or presence of gelatin improved product durability. Experiment 2 analyzed two levels of gelatin, 0 and 100g/kg, under two extruder screw speeds, 300rpm and 500rpm, and two hydration ratios, 170 and 280g/kg. In this experiment, there were no differences in density, expansion, hardness, or PDI. This indicated preconditioning was more ideal and may indicate gelatin does not decrease product expansion. Experiment 3 analyzed two levels of gelatin, 0 and 100g/kg, at two target densities, low and high. Results indicated that gelatin created a more expanded product when processed under similar conditions as a control formula. Experiment 4 analyzed different strengths of gelatin to determine if the low-bloom gelatin experiments were repeatable with more conventional strength gelatins. Treatments were a control with no gelatin, and a 100, 175, and 250 bloom gelatins. Results showed increased gelatin strength increased product expansion, likely through a foaming effect. However, durability declined with mid- and high-bloom gelatins; thus, low-bloom gelatin may be the most promising to improve product characteristics and preserve durability. Based on these experiments, low-bloom gelatin may find use as a nutritional binder in high protein pet foods.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Effects of graded levels of an Escherichia coli phytase on growth
           performance, apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus, and on bone
           parameters of weanling pigs fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal
           based diets
    • Authors: Yue She; Yanhong Liu; J. Caroline González-Vega; Hans H. Stein
      Pages: 102 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Yue She, Yanhong Liu, J. Caroline González-Vega, Hans H. Stein
      An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a novel Escherichia (E.) coli phytase on improving growth performance, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) digestibility, and bone ash concentration of weanling pigs fed P-deficient corn-soybean meal based diets. Sixty weanling pigs with an initial body weight of 11.2±1.2kg were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 10 replicate pigs per treatment. The dietary treatments were: 1) positive control (PC), 2) negative control (NC), 3) NC+250 phytase units (FTU)/kg diet, 4) NC+500 FTU/kg diet, 5) NC+1000 FTU/kg diet, and 6) NC+2500 FTU/kg diet. Pigs were fed phase I diets during the initial 6days and phase II diets from day 7–27. At the end of the experiment, all pigs were euthanized to collect the 3rd and 4th metacarpals from each front foot. Results indicated that in both phase I and II, pigs fed the NC diet had reduced (P<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P compared with pigs fed the PC diet. However, inclusion of graded levels of E. coli phytase to the NC diet increased (linear and quadratic, P<0.01) the ATTD of P. No differences were observed in the ATTD of Ca or the ATTD of dry matter as E. coli phytase inclusion increased in the diets. Pigs fed the PC diet had greater (P<0.05) fat-free dried bone weight (g), bone ash weight (g), bone ash concentration (g/kg), bone Ca (g), and bone P (g and g/kg) and greater (P<0.05) average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed ratio (G:F) during phase II and during the overall experimental period than pigs fed the NC diet. Graded levels of E. coli phytase linearly and quadratically increased (P<0.05) fat-free dried bone weight (g), bone ash weight (g), bone ash (g/kg), bone Ca (g), and bone P (g). Inclusion of E. coli phytase also increased (linear, P<0.05) final body weight, ADG, ADFI and G:F during phase II and during the entire experimental period. No differences were observed between diets supplemented with 1000 or 2500 FTU/kg of E. coli phytase for fat-free dried bone (g), bone ash weight (g), bone ash (g/kg), bone Ca (g and g/kg), bone P (g) or final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F during phase II or during the overall experimental period. In conclusion, adding up to 1000 FTU/kg of the novel E. coli phytase to P-deficient diets increased growth performance and P utilization in weanling pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Feed efficiency and carcass traits of feedlot lambs supplemented either
           monensin or increasing doses of copaiba (Copaifera spp.) essential oil
    • Authors: L.V. Moura; E.R. Oliveira; A.R.M. Fernandes; A.M.A. Gabriel; L.H.X. Silva; C.S. Takiya; N.R.B. Cônsolo; G.C.G. Rodrigues; Thaís Lemos; J.R. Gandra
      Pages: 110 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): L.V. Moura, E.R. Oliveira, A.R.M. Fernandes, A.M.A. Gabriel, L.H.X. Silva, C.S. Takiya, N.R.B. Cônsolo, G.C.G. Rodrigues, Thaís Lemos, J.R. Gandra
      The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary monensin (MON) and incrementing levels of copaiba (Copaifera spp.) essential oil (CO) on nutrient intake, time spent eating and ruminating, performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Sixty non-castrated Crossed White Dorper lambs were randomly assigned to the following treatments: control (CON), basal diet with no feed additives; MON, dietary inclusion of 25mg/kg DM of MON (Rumensin®, Elanco Eli Lilly and Company, Sao Paulo, Brazil); and copaiba essential oil (CO), dietary inclusion of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5g/kg DM of CO diluted into isopropyl alcohol (7mL). Animals were fed a diet with 53:47 of forage to concentrate ratio. Monensin dietary inclusion was compared with the other treatments through Dunnett’s test, and the effects of CO levels were evaluated through linear and quadratic contrasts. Dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), and time spent eating were recorded through the feedlot period. Immediately after slaughtering and at 24h postmortem, carcass traits were assessed and meat samples were taken to meat quality analyses, respectively. Control and MON-treated lambs had lower ADG in comparison with those fed CO at 0.5g/kg DM. There was a positive quadratic effect on feed efficiency and ADG according to CO levels, wherein the highest values were observed in lambs fed CO at 0.5g/kg. Nutrient intake was not affected by treatments. Copaiba essential oil provision linearly increased the time spent eating and quadratically affected the time spent ruminating while lambs were lying, wherein the highest value of time spent ruminating was found in lambs fed CO at 0.5g/kg. Neither carcass traits nor subprimal yield were affected by CO levels, but MON-fed lambs had lower fat thickness and external length compared to CON and those CO-fed lambs. Copaiba essential oil provision at 1.5g/kg increased cooking losses of Longissimus dorsi in comparison with MON. Further, CO supply at 1.5g/kg increased Warner Bratzler shear force and decreased L* intensity in Semimembranosus meat in relation to MON. Copaiba essential oil had a negative quadratic effect on the ether extract content in Gluteo biceps. This study demonstrated that CO supplementation ranging from 0.5 to 0.75g/kg can improve feed efficiency and ADG, consequently decreasing the feedlot time of lambs, and CO can be used in place of MON in feedlot lamb diets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Use of monensin in lactating crossbred dairy cows (Holstein×Gyr) raised
           on tropical pastures with concentrate supplementation
    • Authors: Noemila D. Kozerski; Ricardo D. Signoretti; Júlio C. Souza; Veridiana Souza Daley; José A. Freitas
      Pages: 119 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Noemila D. Kozerski, Ricardo D. Signoretti, Júlio C. Souza, Veridiana Souza Daley, José A. Freitas
      Monensin is a feed additive produced by a strain of Streptomyces cinnamonensis that has been used to improve milk production and feed efficiency by a mechanism linked to rumen fermentation of lactating dairy cows. Evaluation on performance, digestibility and blood parameters of crossbred dairy cows supplemented with monensin is still scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of monensin supplementation on intake, digestibility of nutrients, lactational performance and blood parameters in crossbred dairy cows grazing tropical pasture subjected to rotational stocking and supplemented with concentrate. Sixteen crossbred Holstein-Gyr cows (initial milk yield=20kg/d; body weight=505.5kg±47.64) were blocked according to stage of lactation and milk production, and assigned to two treatments in a crossover design. The treatments were (1) control diet (pasture and concentrate) or (2) control diet plus 300mg per cow per day of sodium monensin. There were 24 paddocks used of 1750m2 each (total of 42,000m2) with Tanzania Guinea grass (Panicum maximum), irrigated and managed under intermittent stocking systems. Concentrate supplementation was offered after milking in individual stalls (12.5m2). The first 18days were considered an adaptation period, followed by 10days of the sampling period of milk, feces, blood, pasture and concentrate. The intakes of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDFom) and total digestible nutrients (TDN), and concentrate as well as the digestibility of CP were similar between treatments. Monensin supplementation increased the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of DM (P=0.03) and NDFom of crossbred dairy cows. Blood parameters such as glucose and urea were similar among the two groups. Monensin did not affect milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk, but fat and total solids contents were reduced in cows fed ionophore. There was a tendency for the beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) level to be lower, while the nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration was reduced in dairy cows supplemented with feed monensin additive. These results demonstrate that monensin may increase the nutrient digestibility and fiber digestion. Furthermore, ionophore use could be beneficial to reduce fat mobilization as the ionophore tended to reduce BHBA with lower NEFA levels. Therefore, monensin has the potential to be used as an additive for crossbred dairy cows grazing on Tanzania-grass pasture (Panicum maximum) under tropical conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Influence of increasing doses of a yeast hydrolyzate obtained from
           sugarcane processing on in vitro rumen fermentation of two different diets
           and bacterial diversity in batch cultures and Rusitec fermenters
    • Authors: A. Díaz; M.J. Ranilla; C. Saro; M.L. Tejido; M. Pérez-Quintana; M.D. Carro
      Pages: 129 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): A. Díaz, M.J. Ranilla, C. Saro, M.L. Tejido, M. Pérez-Quintana, M.D. Carro
      Live yeast cultures and yeast hydrolyzates can be used as rumen fermentation modifiers, but their effects and mode of action are different. Whereas the effects of live yeast cultures on rumen fermentation are well documented, yeast hydrolyzates have received much less attention. The influence of a yeast hydrolyzate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, obtained after ethanol production from sugarcane (YHS), on in vitro rumen fermentation was investigated using both batch cultures and Rusitec fermenters inoculated with ruminal fluid from sheep. Batch cultures (300mg dry matter (DM)) with two mixed diets (AHC, 0.5:0.5 alfalfa hay:concentrate; BSC, 0.15:0.85 barley straw:concentrate) as substrate were supplemented with increasing doses of YHS (0, 3.3, 6.7, 10.0 and 13.3ml/l) and incubated for 16.5h at 39°C. Supplementation of increasing amounts of YHS to AHC-cultures increased (P< 0.05) linearly total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and butyrate molar proportion, and decreased (P< 0.001) acetate proportion and acetate:propionate ratio. In contrast, only subtle effects of YHS on NH3-N concentrations and molar proportions of isovalerate and caproate were observed for the BSC diet. Longer-term effects of YHS supplementation on rumen fermentation of AHC diet were investigated using four Rusitec fermenters in a cross-over experimental design with two 14-day incubation periods. Fermenters were given daily 30g of diet DM, and in each period half of them were supplemented daily with 5ml of YHS (10.0ml/l) Supplementing with YHS did not affect (P> 0.05) total VFA production, lactate concentrations, DM and aNDFom disappearance or enzymatic activities (amylase, xylanase and carboxymethylcellulase). Compared with the unsupplemented fermenters, YHS treatment increased (P< 0.001) NH3-N concentrations and molar proportions of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate, and decreased (P< 0.001) acetate:propionate ratio. In addition, YHS supplementation tended (P< 0.07) to reduce CH4/total VFA ratio and to increase microbial growth in the liquid phase of the fermenters. The automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) of samples taken on days 3, 8 and 14 of incubation from solid and liquid content of fermenters revealed that YHS supplementation increased (P< 0.02) bacterial diversity in the liquid phase and tended to increase (P< 0.08) it in the solid phase. The results indicate that YHS at a dose of 10ml/l may be a useful dietary additive for ruminants, because it promoted a shift in fermentation toward propionate production, reduced the CH4/total VFA ratio and increased microbial growth with a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Comparing sheep and cattle to quantify internal markers in tropical feeds
           using in situ ruminal incubation
    • Authors: Maria José Reis; Stefanie Alvarenga Santos; Luciana Louzada Prates; Edenio Detmann; Gleidson Giordano Pinto Carvalho; Antônio Carneiro Santana Santos; Luana Marta Rufino; Lays Débora Mariz; Felipe Neri; Eduardo Costa
      Pages: 139 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Maria José Reis, Stefanie Alvarenga Santos, Luciana Louzada Prates, Edenio Detmann, Gleidson Giordano Pinto Carvalho, Antônio Carneiro Santana Santos, Luana Marta Rufino, Lays Débora Mariz, Felipe Neri, Eduardo Costa
      The main focus of this work was to verify the hypothesis that there are differences between cattle and sheep to obtain internal markers in tropical forages using in situ ruminal incubation. A presupposition that the indigestible fraction is exclusively inherent to feed was considered, and its ruminal incubation in different animal species should not change the estimate of this fraction; but should change the minimum time required to obtain this value, or the critical-time (Tc). The Tc to obtain indigestible fractions were compared between species for neutral detergent fiber (INDF) and acid detergent fiber (IADF) in feeds and feces. A total of 16 samples were divided into two groups of forages; one group of concentrates and another one of feces. These samples were placed inside bags and incubated in the rumens of 4 sheep and 4 cattle, at following time-points: 0, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144, 192, 240, 288, and 336h, using two 4×4 Latin squares. There was no effect on the species with regard to the degradation rate (kd) of both the aNDF and ADF in alfalfa hay (P=0.36; P=0.14). All other forages, which were tropical types, were affected by animal specie (P<0.05). Cattle was associated with lesser Tc when compared to sheep, both for INDF and IADF. All concentrate feeds were affected by the species (P<0.05), with sheep providing greater Tc for both undegradable fractions. Feces from cattle and sheep fed with low concentrate required higher Tc when incubated in sheep (P<0.05), while feces from cattle and sheep fed with low concentrate required the same Tc to obtain IADF in cattle or sheep (P=0.19; P=0.11). Sheep is not a practical recommendation to obtain internal markers based on in situ trials, due to the high incubation time length to obtain the non-degraded fraction of feeds and feces. Internal markers IDNF and IADF from sheep trials can be obtained from 216h of in situ incubation in cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Long-term administration of formic acid to weaners: Influence on
           intestinal microbiota, immunity parameters and growth performance
    • Authors: Diana Luise; Vincenzo Motta; Chiara Salvarani; Martina Chiappelli; Luciano Fusco; Micol Bertocchi; Maurizio Mazzoni; Giuseppe Maiorano; Leonardo Nanni Costa; Jaap Van Milgen; Paolo Bosi; Paolo Trevisi
      Pages: 160 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Diana Luise, Vincenzo Motta, Chiara Salvarani, Martina Chiappelli, Luciano Fusco, Micol Bertocchi, Maurizio Mazzoni, Giuseppe Maiorano, Leonardo Nanni Costa, Jaap Van Milgen, Paolo Bosi, Paolo Trevisi
      The use of organic acids in diets for livestock animals is interest due to their being potentially beneficial in maintaining gut homeostasis and controlling pathogenic bacterial growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two doses of formic acid supplementation for six weeks to weaner pigs. The long-term effects of formic acid were tested for growth performance, microbiota composition in the jejunum using 16S_rRNA, expression of marker genes of inflammation in the jejunum, and quantification of acid-secreting cells in the gastric oxyntic mucosa using immunohistochemistry. Three diets containing no (control; CO), 1.4g/kg (low formic acid; LFA) or 6.4g/kg (high formic acid; HFA) free formic acid were fed to 36 pigs for 42 d from 7 d post-weaning (7.1±1.0kg live weight) until the end of the trial (27.7±5.5kg live weight); they were housed in individual cages for six weeks. During the first three weeks, formic acid supplementation, at any of the dosage above, increased average daily gain (ADG) (P =0.004), tended to increase average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P =0.08) and tended to decrease g of feed to g of gain (F:G) (P =0.08) while no effect was observed during the last three weeks. At the end of the trial, formic acid supplementation had only a minor effect on the microbiota composition in the jejunum. A higher microbiota diversity (Chao1 index P< 0.05) was found in the HFA group than in the CO group. The Control group showed a higher abundance (P< 0.05) of Gemella, Lactobacillus and Parvimimoas than the HFA and LFA groups, higher levels of Acinetobacter, Fusobactrium, Leuconostoc respect to the HFA group and of Turcibacter as compared to the LFA group. The abundance of Streptococcus was lower in the CO group than in the HFA group and higher than in the LFA group. The jejunal expression of C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 (CCL20) was higher in the HFA group respect to the LFA group. Formic acid intake did not affect the thickness of the gastric mucosa, the number of parietal cells and stomach weight. This study showed that the addition of formic acid to piglet diets improved growth performance during the first period after weaning and that the long-term supplementation of formic slightly affected the microbiota composition according to the dose.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Increased dietary protein levels during lactation improved sow and litter
           performance
    • Authors: Anja V. Strathe; Thomas S. Bruun; Niels Geertsen; Jens-Erik Zerrahn; Christian F. Hansen
      Pages: 169 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Anja V. Strathe, Thomas S. Bruun, Niels Geertsen, Jens-Erik Zerrahn, Christian F. Hansen
      The study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing balanced dietary protein for hyper-prolific lactating sows. In total 544 sows (parity 1–4) was allotted to one of six diets from day 2 post-partum until weaning. The diets were analyzed to have a standardized ileal digestible (SID) crude protein (CP) level of 104.3, 113.3, 120.9, 128.5, 139.2 or 150.0g/kg. At d 2 post-partum litters were standardized to 14 piglets and body weight (BW), back fat (BF) thickness of sows and litter weight were recorded. Body weight, BF thickness and litter weight was also recorded at weaning. On a subsample of 70 sows (parity 2 and 3) milk samples were obtained at day 3, 10 and 17 post-partum and analyzed for fat, CP and lactose. In the analysis of the dose-response data the dietary SID CP concentration were used as explanatory variable. The abovementioned response variables were fitted with linear broken-line, quadratic broken-line and linear regression models. Sow BW and BF loss reached a break point at 143g SID CP/kg and 127g SID CP/kg, where sows lost 0.58kg/d and 3mm, respectively (P< 0.001). Multiparous sows had a higher average daily gain of the litter than first parity sows (3.07 vs. 2.53kg/d) at the break point at 135g SID CP/kg (P< 0.001), but litter size (13.0±1.2 piglets) at weaning was unaffected by dietary treatment (P =0.30). Milk CP increased to 5.0g/100mL until a breakpoint at 136g SID CP/kg, milk lactose decreased until a breakpoint at 120g SID CP/kg to 5.3g/100mL (P< 0.001) and milk fat increased linearly (P< 0.05). The daily output of milk protein was increased at day 17 until a breakpoint at 130g SID CP/kg (663–670g/d; P< 0.001). The content of milk fat increased linearly with increasing dietary SID CP (P< 0.05). There was a tendency towards an increased number of total born piglets in next litter with increased dietary SID CP (P =0.06), whereas the weaning-to-estrus interval was unaffected by treatment (P =0.83). In conclusion, increasing dietary SID CP up till 135g/kg or 850g SID CP/d increased ADG of the litter, and this increase was caused by increased milk yield and increased daily protein output in milk.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Dietary administration of glycine complexed trace minerals can improve
           
    • Authors: M. De Marco; M.V. Zoon; C. Margetyal; C. Picart; C. Ionescu
      Pages: 182 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): M. De Marco, M.V. Zoon, C. Margetyal, C. Picart, C. Ionescu
      The aim of this study was to compare the effects of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) supplementation from different sources on performance, slaughter characteristics and mineral excretion of broilers. Metal chelates of glycine, hydrate (GC) were compared to inorganic sources (sulfates and oxides, SO) and metal chelates of amino acids, hydrate (AC). 4800 one day-old broilers (Ross PM3) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each consisting of 8 pens (1:1 sex ratio). A diet without trace mineral supplementation served as negative control (NC). The positive control (PC) was NC with a full dose of trace minerals (FD) as SO: Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn at 10, 30, 80 and 100ppm respectively. GC½=NC+½FD as GC, GCFD=NC+FD as GC, AC½=NC+½FD as AC, ACFD=NC+FD as AC. Feed intake (FI), body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined per pen. At day 31, excreta samples were collected in 3 pens per treatment. At day 35, 50 birds were slaughtered and yields were recorded. Differences were tested by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test (P<0.05). After 35days, chickens fed NC showed a lower FI, ADG and BW than PC (P<0.001, P=0.001, P=0.001). GC½ and GCFD showed the same performance and using GC½ enables to achieve PC performance. AC½ and ACFD were also equivalent. However, AC½ was just enough to achieve PC performance, showing a statistically lower performance than GCFD. FCR was not affected. Breast weight and yield were affected by treatments (P=0.026, P=0.021). GCFD showed the highest breast weight and yield and GC½ was enough to reach and even exceed the breast characteristics of PC. AC½ showed the lowest carcass characteristics, its breast weight and breast yield being significantly lower than results obtained with GCFD. GC½ and AC½ lead to a significant intermediate mineral excretion between NC and PC (P<0.001). Mineral excretion with AC was always higher than with GC.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of dried yeast and threonine fermentation biomass as partial
           fish meal replacements in the diet of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus
    • Authors: Misael Rosales; Sergio Castillo; Camilo Pohlenz; Delbert M. Gatlin
      Pages: 190 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Misael Rosales, Sergio Castillo, Camilo Pohlenz, Delbert M. Gatlin
      In response to the increasing demand and thus cost of fish meal (FM), alternatives to this ingredient have been extensively investigated in recent years. As such, research on various types of alternative protein feedstuffs, such as industrial microbial byproducts, is being pursued for FM replacement. To this end, the purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of two single-cell protein sources, dried yeast (DY) and threonine fermentation biomass (TFB) as partial replacements for FM in the diet of red drum. A reference diet was formulated to contain 40% crude protein (CP) equally contributed from FM and soybean meal (SBM). In addition, four experimental diets were formulated with different inclusion levels of DY to supply 20, 30, 40 or 50% of dietary CP, and three additional diets had different inclusion levels of TFB to provide 10, 20 or 30% of dietary CP. Red drum juveniles were sorted by size (initially averaging 8.01±0.29g), and groups of 20 fish/aquarium were stocked into 30, 110-L aquaria. After feeding the reference diet for a 1-week conditioning period, triplicate aquaria were randomly assigned to each dietary treatment and fish were fed to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. In regard to weight gain, feed efficiency and survival, increasing inclusion levels of DY and TFB did not negatively affect these responses. Therefore, it can be concluded that, for the conditions in which this experiment was conducted, TFB and DY could replace up to 30 and 50% of the protein provided by FM/SBM (50/50%), respectively, without affecting red drum’s performance. In addition, distinctly different microbial communities in the gastrointestinal tract of fish fed the various diets was evident based on a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis dendrogram analysis. In conclusion, DY and TFB are suitable alternatives for replacing FM in the diet of red drum, although more studies should be done to determine their maximum inclusion levels.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Heamato-immunological and physiological responses of Labeo rohita
           fingerlings to dietary fermented Jatropha curcas protein concentrate
    • Authors: N. Shamna; Parimal Sardar; Narottam P. Sahu; Vikas Phulia; M. Rajesh; F.J. Fawole; Asim K. Pal; G. Angel
      Pages: 198 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): N. Shamna, Parimal Sardar, Narottam P. Sahu, Vikas Phulia, M. Rajesh, F.J. Fawole, Asim K. Pal, G. Angel
      Jatropha protein concentrate (JPC) prepared from jatropha seed cake is toxic due to the presence of phorbol ester and antinutritional factors like tannin, trypsin inhibitor, phytate and non-starch polysaccharides. JPC was detoxified by solid state fermentation (SSF) and a feeding trial of 45days was conducted to study the response of feeding fermented JPC (FJPC) on growth, haemato-immunological and physiological responses in rohu fingerlings. Seven iso-nitrogenous diets such as control (without JPC or FJPC), J5 (5% JPC), J10 (10% JPC), J20 (20% JPC), FJ5 (5% FJPC), FJ10 (10% FJPC) and FJ20 (20% FJPC) were prepared and fed twice daily. The weight gain and specific growth rate values showed an overall, linear and quadratic trend with similar value recorded in the control and FJ fed groups. Feed efficiency also showed an overall significant effect with a higher feed efficiency value recorded in the control (60.50) group which was similar to FJ (54.21–58.37) fed groups, while JPC fed groups registered the lowest value. The haematological studies showed a significantly (p<0.05) lower red blood cells (RBC) and heamoglobin in all JPC fed groups and 5% FJPC group compared to control and other FJPC groups. The 10% and 20% JPC fed groups showed the highest blood glucose level than any other groups. Serum total protein and albumin followed similar trend as that of RBC and haemoglobin. The highest globulin value were observed in FJ10 group which was significantly different (P<0.05) to other groups and lowest value was recorded in J20 group. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver was higher in J20, while in muscle, J10 and J20 registered the highest value compared to other groups (p<0.05). Our study revealed that protein concentrate prepared from Jatropha cake cannot be fed directly to rohu without detoxification and solid state fermentation appears to be an ideal approach. Overall, FJPC can be utilized in the diet of rohu at 20% without any detrimental effect on heamato-immunological and physiological response.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Cyclical short-term starvation and refeeding provokes compensatory growth
           in sub-yearling Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869
    • Authors: V. Morshedi; P. Kochanian; M. Bahmani; M.A. Yazdani; H.R. Pourali; Gh. Ashouri; H. Pasha-Zanoosi
      Pages: 207 - 214
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): V. Morshedi, P. Kochanian, M. Bahmani, M.A. Yazdani, H.R. Pourali, Gh. Ashouri, H. Pasha-Zanoosi
      This study investigated the effects of starvation and subsequent refeeding on growth, feed utilization, body composition, hematological indices and some morphological and plasma biochemical parameters of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) with average initial weight of 19.32±0.62g (mean±SE). The fish were exposed to four feeding regimes: the control group (C) was fed four times daily to apparent satiation throughout the experiment. Fish in the other three treatments were deprived of food for 2, 4, or 8 days followed by 8, 16, or 32 days of refeeding (T1, T2 and T3, respectively) in repeated cycles during an 80 days feeding trial. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences in final weight (except for T2 group), growth and feeding performance, whole body composition, hepatosomatic index and digestive somatic index between the deprived and control fish (P>0.05). Feeding strategies seemed to have a significant effect only on the protein content (P<0.05). At the end of the experiment, protein content of T3 group fish was significantly lower than the other treatments (P<0.05). The levels of total plasma protein and triglyceride were significantly higher in T3 group than those in T1, T2 and control groups (P<0.05). Starvation was found to significantly affect white blood cell count at the end of the experiment (P<0.05). The present results suggested that Siberian sturgeon subjected to 2 and 8 days of food deprivation and refeeding exhibited complete compensation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the magnitude of compensatory growth depended on the length of starvation. Also, this species could recover in growth performance and some morphological and biochemical parameters following a period of starvation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Digestibility of energy in four cereal grains fed to barrows at four body
           weights
    • Authors: F. Xie; L. Pan; Z.C. Li; M. Shi; L. Liu; Y.K. Li; C.F. Huang; D.F. Li; X.S. Piao; Y.H. Cao
      Pages: 215 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): F. Xie, L. Pan, Z.C. Li, M. Shi, L. Liu, Y.K. Li, C.F. Huang, D.F. Li, X.S. Piao, Y.H. Cao
      This study was conducted to determine the digestible (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content and the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy (GE) in 4 cereal grains (corn, wheat, barley and sorghum) fed to barrows and to quantify the effect of body weight (BW) on the digestibility of the 4 cereal grains. Twenty-four weanling barrows (13.3±0.8 BW, stage 1), 24 growing barrows (31.6±1.5 BW, stage 2), 24 finishing barrows (56.7±1.8 BW, stage 3) and 24 fattening barrows (111±3.8 BW, stage 4) were individually housed in metabolic crates and allotted to 1 of 4 diets with 6 pigs fed each diet at each BW in a completely randomized design. The 4 diets consisted of 973.4g/kg of a cereal grain and 26.6g/kg of vitamins and minerals. Faeces and urine samples were collected for 5 d following a 10 d adaptation period. The DE and ME content and the CATTD of GE in corn and wheat were greater (P <0.05) than in barley and sorghum for barrows weighing 13.3 and 31.6kg. Wheat had higher (P <0.05) DE and ME values than barley and sorghum, but these were lower (P <0.05) than corn when fed to barrows weighing 56.7 and 111.4kg. Pigs weighing 111.4kg had the highest (P <0.05) DE and ME values and CATTD of GE when fed corn, wheat or barley. The DE and ME contents and CATTD of GE in sorghum were unaffected by increasing BW of pigs. There was a significant interaction in ME content and CATTD of OM between cereal grain and BW with ME content and CATTD of OM increasing with BW in the corn, wheat and barley and not changing with BW in sorghum (P <0.05). Overall, DE and ME values and CATTD of GE were greater for pigs fed corn and wheat than barley and sorghum and the digestive ability of pigs fed any of the cereal grains excluding sorghum was increased with increasing body weight. Therefore, differences in the DE and ME content of different cereal grains for pigs of different BW indicate that the effective energy values of various ingredients for pigs at different physiological stages should be considered in order to accurately and economically formulate diets based on these cereal grains.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Critical Role of Animal Science Research in Food Security and
           Sustainability, Committee on Considerations for the Future of Animal
           Science Research, Science and Technology for Sustainable Program, Policy
           and Global Affairs, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division
           on Earth and Life Science, National Research Council. The National
           Academies Press, Washington, DC, (USA) (2015)
    • Authors: Gerhard Flachowsky
      Pages: 224 - 226
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Gerhard Flachowsky


      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 232 (2017)
       
  • Nutrient digestibility of chickpea in ileal-cannulated finisher pigs and
           diet nutrient digestibility and growth performance in weaned pigs fed
           chickpea-based diets
    • Authors: L.F. Wang; E. Beltranena; R.T. Zijlstra
      Pages: 90 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): L.F. Wang, E. Beltranena, R.T. Zijlstra
      In 2 studies, ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA), energy value of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and effects of increasing dietary inclusion of chickpea on diet nutrient digestibility and growth performance were evaluated. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (89.9kg BW) were fed diets containing 965 or 812.5g chickpea (Kabuli type; mix of cultivars CDC Frontier, CDC Orion, CDC Luna and CDC Leader)/kg in a crossover design. Chickpea contained 213g crude protein (CP), 328g starch, 88g crude fat, 125g total dietary fibre, 12.9g chemically available lysine, 5.2g trypsin inhibitory activity and 4g tannin per kg (as-is basis). For chickpea, coefficients of standardised ileal digestibility were 0.660 for CP and 0.717 for lysine, the coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of gross energy (GE) was 0.623, the apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of GE was 0.886, the digestible energy (DE) value was 15.8MJ/kg (as fed) and the predicted net energy (NE) value was 11.3MJ/kg. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (initial BW: 9.6kg), weaned at 20±1days of age, were fed diets containing 0, 75, 150, 225 or 300g chickpea/kg in substitution for up to 200g SBM and 100g wheat grain/kg for 3 weeks starting 2 weeks post-weaning. Steam-pelleted diets were formulated to provide 9.8MJ NE/kg and 1.2g standard ileal digestible lysine/MJ NE. Increasing chickpea inclusion quadratically increased (P< 0.001) diet CATTD of dry matter and GE by up to 0.024, diet DE by up to 0.6MJ/kg and predicted diet NE value by up to 0.4MJ/kg, but quadratically decreased (P< 0.001) CATTD of CP by up to 0.046. Overall (day 0–21), increasing chickpea quadratically increased (P< 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI), quadratically increased then decreased (P< 0.001) average daily gain (ADG) and quadratically decreased (P< 0.001) feed efficiency (G:F) and final BW. Pigs fed diet containing 150g chickpea/kg had increased (P< 0.01) ADFI by 65g/d and ADG by 53g/d while maintaining G:F compared with pigs fed a diet without chickpea. In conclusion, chickpea in the present study had DE and NE similar to reported values, but had a lower CSID of AA than reported. Dietary inclusion of up to 300g chickpea/kg did not affect feed intake in weaned pigs. Maximum growth and feed efficiency were attained at 150g chickpea/kg diet fed to weaned pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T08:24:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 223 (2017)
       
  • Prediction of the digestibility and energy contents of non-conventional
           by-products for pigs from their chemical composition and in vitro
           digestibility
    • Authors: Sol Castillejos; Gasa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): C. Sol, L. Castillejos, S. López-Vergé, J. Gasa
      The objective of the present study was to determine some prediction equations of gross energy content (GE), organic matter digestibility (OMd), gross energy digestibility (GEd) and the content of digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) of agro-industrial by-products for pigs, using the chemical composition and an in vitro digestibility method. Mean values of chemical composition (dry matter, DM; organic matter, OM; gross energy, GE; crude protein, CP; ether extract, EE; crude fiber, CF; neutral detergent fiber, NDF, and acid detergent fiber, ADF) were available from previous work and an in vitro OM digestibility method (IN VITRO) was performed. A total of eight by-products (liquid bakery by-product, brewer’s by-product, hominy feed, high-moisture corn, mayonnaise, almond meal, cocoa meal and kiwi fruit) were used in this study, and their in vivo OMd and GEd were known from previous experiments. The best equation for GE prediction was: GE=9.58 EE+6.50 CP+4.28 carbohydrates (OM-CP-EE) (R2 =1.00; CV=5.52). When only the chemical composition was used as independent variables, NDF and ADF were the best predictors (R2 =0.65–0.78; CV=12.30–10.85) for OMd and GEd, and EE plus ADF for DE and ME (R2 =0.94–0.88; CV=13.10–16.64). However, the best-fitted equations were: OMd=30.90–0.302 ADF+0.639 IN VITRO (R2 =0.95; CV=4.99); GEd=34.81–0.493 ADF+0.589 IN VITRO (R2 =0.96; CV=4.93); DE=846.34+5.081 EE+3.045 IN VITRO (R2 =0.97; CV=8.57), and ME=687.45+5.057 EE+3.150 IN VITRO (R2 =0.97; CV=9.78). Additionally, when the two high EE by-products (mayonnaise and almond meal; EE >50%) were excluded, the most accurate equations for DE and ME were: DE=1415.96+2.764 IN VITRO (R2 =0.97; CV=3.10), and ME=1262.92+2.868 IN VITRO (R2 =0.97; CV=2.68). These results indicated that GE, OMd, GEd, DE and ME may be accurately predicted from chemical composition, and especially from the in vitro OM digestibility.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T08:24:53Z
       
  • Effects of dietary pomegranate pulp silage supplementation on milk yield
           and composition, milk fatty acid profile and blood plasma antioxidant
           status of lactating dairy cows
    • Authors: Β. Kotsampasi; C. Christodoulou; E. Tsiplakou; A. Mavrommatis; C. Mitsiopoulou; C. Karaiskou; V. Dotas; P.H. Robinson; V.A. Bampidis; V. Christodoulou; G. Zervas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Β. Kotsampasi, C. Christodoulou, E. Tsiplakou, A. Mavrommatis, C. Mitsiopoulou, C. Karaiskou, V. Dotas, P.H. Robinson, V.A. Bampidis, V. Christodoulou, G. Zervas
      The objective of this study was to determine effects of inclusion of pomegranate pulp silage (PS) in lactating dairy cows’ rations, in replacement of mainly corn silage, on milk yield, chemical composition, somatic cells count, colony forming units, and fatty acid (FA) concentrations of milk, as well as on blood antioxidant status. Fifteen lactating Holstein dairy cows, with a milk yield of 26.6±3.86kg/day and lactation number of 2.9±1.17, were assigned to one of three dietary treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design, with three 25days periods. The PS was added to the total mixed ration (TMR) at levels of 0, 75 and 150g/kg TMR on a dry matter (DM) basis to create dietary treatments PS0, PS75 and PS150, respectively. Experimental rations were iso-net energetic (6.20MJ NEL/kg DM) and iso-nitrogenous (150g CP/kg DM), and the TMR were offered to cows individually twice a day with feed residues recorded. In the last 5days of each experimental period, milk yield was recorded and milk samples collected for chemical composition and FA analysis. Inclusion of 75 or 150g PS/kg of TMR (on a DM basis) did not affect milk yield, milk composition or milk bacterial and somatic cell counts. Milk FA analysis showed a linear decrease (P<0.05) in concentrations of C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C15:0 and C16:0 saturated FA (SFA), and linear increase (P<0.05) in concentrations of trans-11C18:1, cis-9C18:1,C18:2n-6c,C18:3n-3 and cis-9, trans-11C18:2 unsaturated FA (UFA). As dietary PS inclusion levels increased, medium chain FA, SFA, the SFA/UFA ratio and atherogenicity index linearly decreased (P<0.05), whereas, long chain FA, monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA linearly increased (P<0.05). Linear and quadratic effects (P<0.05) occurred in the n-6 FA concentration. Blood plasma glutathione reductase activity linearly decreased (P<0.05), whereas glutathione S- transferase and superoxide dismutase activity linearly increased (P<0.05), with increasing dietary PS feeding level. Inclusion of PS up to 150g/kg DM in dairy cows’ TMR did not affect milk yield and chemical composition, but improved the milk FA profile and blood plasma antioxidant status.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T07:45:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.017
       
  • Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 and Lactobacillus
           acidophilus BT1386 on total lactobacilli population in the
           
    • Authors: Bridget E. Fomenky; Johanne Chiquette; Nathalie Bissonnette; Guylaine Talbot; P. Yvan Chouinard; Eveline M. Ibeagha-Awemu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Bridget E. Fomenky, Johanne Chiquette, Nathalie Bissonnette, Guylaine Talbot, P. Yvan Chouinard, Eveline M. Ibeagha-Awemu
      There is interest in the use of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in farm animal production. However, little information exists on their effects in dairy calves. The aims of this study were to: 1) determine the viability of supplemental DFM in feed and throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of calves; 2) evaluate the effect of DFM on total lactobacilli population in the digestive tract and in feces of calves; and 3) examine the influence of DFM on colon histomorphology and overall calf performance. Forty eight calves (2 to 7days old) were randomly allocated to four treatments as follows: 1) Control (CTRL) fed milk replacer (MR) followed by starter feed (SF); 2) CTRL supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 (SCB; 7.5×108 colony forming units (CFU)/L MR+3×109 CFU/kg SF); 3) CTRL supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus BT1386 (LA; 2.5×108 CFU/L MR+1×109 CFU/kg SF); and 4) CTRL supplemented with antibiotics (ATB) chlortetracycline and neomycin (528 and 357mg/L MR, respectively), and chlortetracycline (55mg/kg SF). Four calves per treatment were euthanized on day 33 (pre-weaning) and an additional four calves per treatment on day 96 (post-weaning) to sample different sections of the GIT. The effects of treatments were analyzed following a completely randomized design with repeated measures and Tukey adjustments for multiple comparisons. The DFM (SCB and LA) remained viable in the commercial product throughout the period of the experiment. Viable SCB was recovered throughout the GIT and in the feces pre- and post-weaning. There was no effect of DFM on total lactobacilli population in the GIT of calves. However, feces of SCB-treated calves showed a greater lactobacilli population compared with CTRL (P<0.01). In the pre-weaning period, the distribution of lactobacilli population differed along the digestive tract (colon > ileum content > rumen > ileum mucosa; P<0.001). The lactobacilli population was significantly reduced in all compartments (P=0.02) post-weaning compared to pre-weaning, except in the rumen. Crypts depth and width of the colon decreased (P<0.01) whereas number of goblet cells containing neutral mucins tended to increase (P=0.058) while acidic mucins increased (P<0.05) in SCB- and ATB-treated calves compared with CTRL and LA-treated calves. Overall, growth performances were not affected by treatment. Feeding SCB stimulated total lactobacilli population around weaning and altered colon morphology with potential beneficial effects during the early period of growth in calves. Our findings suggest that SCB would deserve more attention as a modulator of the gastrointestinal health in young dairy calves.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.019
       
  • A multienzyme NSP product solubilises and degrades NSP structures in
           canola and mediates protein solubilisation and degradation in vitro
    • Authors: Ninfa Rangel Pedersen; Jonas Laukonnen Ravn; Dan Pettersson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Ninfa Rangel Pedersen, Jonas Laukonnen Ravn, Dan Pettersson
      To conclusively assess the value enhancing effect of enzymes targeting antinutritional non–starch polysaccharides in a specific feed source, in depth understanding of the substrate is required, to use the right enzyme for the relevant polysaccharides. In the current study a commercial non-starch polysaccharide multienzyme product obtained by submerged fermentation of Aspergillus aculeatus was supplemented to canola non-starch polysaccharides. The enzyme effects studied included substrate viscosity reduction and solubilisation of non-starch polysaccharides and crude protein as well as peptide cleavage. Results were compared with the effects obtained by a monocomponent protease and a combination of protease and the multienzyme product. Viscosity reduction of solutions of xyloglucan and galactomannan solution clearly showed the presence of xyloglucanase and galactomannan activity in the product. On enzyme supplementation, there was an increase (P<0.05) in the solubilisation of rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, galactose and glucose non-starch polysaccharide residues. In a separate experiment using a different measuring system (HPLC) the product was also shown to solubilise galacturonic acid from canola meal. Highest concentrations of solubilised crude protein and peptides measured by combining the protease and the multienzyme product together. Antibodies (LM25, LM19 and LM 6) targeting different cell wall components were used in microscopy studies. Monoclonal antibody LM25, directed towards xyloglucan, bound abundantly to the intercellular spaces on the cytoplasmic side of the cell wall lining. On enzyme treatment with the multienzyme product the LM25 binding disappeared, indicating a reduction of xyloglucans as also was observed in a polysaccharide analysis of enzyme incubated canola meal. Monoclonal antibody LM19 recognizes de-esterified homogalacturonan epitopes in pectin also bound to the uronic acid residues in canola meal. The LM 19 signal was weak in samples treated only with buffer, but became stronger when the xyloglucan layer was removed by a purified experimental xyloglucanase. Monoclonal antibody LM6, directed towards arabinan, also became more visible in canola meal after the removal of the xyloglucan layer by the experimental xyloglucanase. Treatment with the commercial non starch polysaccharide multienzyme product resulted in degradation of arabinan and thereby also a disappearance of the LM6 signal. Both the pectin and the arabinan signal were visible mainly/only after removal of the xyloglucan layer in both the seed and the meal.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.015
       
  • Effects of dietary protein levels and multienzyme supplementation on
           growth performance and markers of gut health of broilers fed a
           miscellaneous meal based diet
    • Authors: N. Liu; J.Q. Wang; K.T. Gu; Q.Q. Deng; J.P. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): N. Liu, J.Q. Wang, K.T. Gu, Q.Q. Deng, J.P. Wang
      The current study investigated the effects of dietary protein levels and multienzyme supplementation on the growth performance, subclinical necrotic enteritis, intestinal mucosal barrier and microflora of broilers fed diets containing meals of cottonseeds, rapeseeds, peanuts and sesame. A total of 480 one-day-old male Cobb broilers were assigned to a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 replicated pens of 20 birds each. Experimental factors included two dietary protein levels at 205 or 225g/kg, and without or with multienzymes. The multienzymes contained phytase, protease and xylanase at 1,000, 2,000 and 2,000U/kg of feed, respectively. The trial lasted for 21 days. The high protein diet increased (P< 0.05) small intestinal lesions, duodenal mucin 2 secretion, ileal counts of C. perfringens and E. coli, but decreased (P< 0.05) secretary IgA (sIgA), polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), ileal counts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Multienzymes increased (P< 0.05) feed intake, body weight gain, pIgR, sIgA, and ileal counts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria and decreased (P< 0.05) intestinal lesions, serum a-toxin antibodies, mucin 2 expression and ileal count of C. perfringens, but the magnitude of the effect of multienzymes was dependent on the protein level in the diet (interaction, P< 0.05). It can be concluded that diets containing high nonconventional protein can increase the incidence of subclinical necrotic enteritis, while supplementing multienzymes can decline this risk in broilers.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.013
       
  • Effects of yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) inclusion in diets
           for female broiler chickens: implications for animal health and gut
           histology
    • Authors: I. Biasato; L. Gasco; M. De Marco; M. Renna; L. Rotolo; S. Dabbou; M.T. Capucchio; E. Biasibetti; M. Tarantola; C. Bianchi; L. Cavallarin; F. Gai; L. Pozzo; D. Dezzutto; S. Bergagna; A. Schiavone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): I. Biasato, L. Gasco, M. De Marco, M. Renna, L. Rotolo, S. Dabbou, M.T. Capucchio, E. Biasibetti, M. Tarantola, C. Bianchi, L. Cavallarin, F. Gai, L. Pozzo, D. Dezzutto, S. Bergagna, A. Schiavone
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the animal performance, haematochemical parameters, intestinal morphology and histological features of broiler chickens fed diets including Tenebrio molitor (TM) larvae meal. A total of 160 female broiler chicks (Ross 708) at one-day of age were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments: a control (C) group and three TM groups, in which TM meal was included at 50, 100 and 150g/kg, respectively. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with eight chicks per pen. After the evaluation of growth performance and haematochemical parameters, two birds per pen were slaughtered at 40days and carcass traits were recorded. Morphometric investigations were performed on duodenum, jejunum and ileum and histopathological alterations were assessed for liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart. The live weight (LW) showed a linear (12 days, P <0.05, maximum with TM15) and quadratic response (40 days, P <0.05, maximum with TM5) to dietary TM meal inclusion. The average daily gain (ADG) showed a linear increase (1-12 days, P <0.05, maximum with TM15) in response to TM meal utilization. A linear effect (1-12 and 12-25 days, P <0.01 and P <0.05, maximum with TM15 and TM5) was observed for the daily feed intake (DFI). The feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed a linear response to TM utilization in the period 12–25days (P <0.01, maximum with TM15). A quadratic effect (P <0.05, maximum with TM5) was observed for the carcass weight. The abdominal fat weight and percentage showed a linear response to dietary TM meal inclusion (P <0.05 and P <0.01, maximum with TM15 and TM10). A quadratic increase (P <0.05, maximum with TM10) was observed for the erythrocytes, while the albumin and GGT showed a linear and quadratic decrease (P < 0.05, minimum with TM10) in relation to TM utilization. Gut morphology and histopathological findings were not significantly influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary TM meal inclusion. The present study suggests that increasing levels of dietary TM meal inclusion in female broiler chickens diets may improve body weight and feed intake, but can partially worsen feed efficiency. However, positive effects on carcass traits and haematochemical parameters related to TM meal utilization are observed, along with no negative influence on gut morphology and histological findings.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.014
       
  • Mixed organic acids as antibiotic substitutes improve performance, serum
           immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota for weaned piglets
    • Authors: S.F. Long; Y.T. Xu; L. Pan; Q.Q. Wang; C.L. Wang; J.Y. Wu; Y.Y. Wu; Y.M. Han; C.H. Yun; X.S. Piao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): S.F. Long, Y.T. Xu, L. Pan, Q.Q. Wang, C.L. Wang, J.Y. Wu, Y.Y. Wu, Y.M. Han, C.H. Yun, X.S. Piao
      The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of two mixed organic acids (OA) on performance, serum immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaned pigs in comparison with antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). A total of 144 weaned piglets [Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire), average weight 8.63±1.56kg] were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment (3 barrows and 3 gilts per pen). The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean basal diet (CTR), AGP diet (CTR+10mg/kg zinc bacitracin, 5mg/kg colistin sulphate and 5mg/kg olaquindox), Organic acid 1 diet [OA1; CTR+3,000mg/kg OA1; a synergistic blend of free and buffered short chain fatty acids (mainly formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid) combined with medium chain fatty acids (MCFA)]. Organic acid 2 diet (OA2; CTR+2,000mg/kg OA2; a synergistic blend of a phenolic compound, slow release C12, target release butyrate and sorbic acid, MCFA and OA). Compared with CTR, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (FE) were improved (P < 0.05) by OA2 in phase 2 (d 14 to 28) and the overall period (d 0 to 28), and OA1 improved (P < 0.05) FE during the overall period, while AGP increased (P < 0.05) ADG and FE in phase 2. Both OA1 and OA2 reduced (P < 0.05) the incidence of diarrhea and fecal E. coli counts. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of total carbohydrates, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and phosphorus was improved (P < 0.05) by OA2 in phase 1 (d 0 to 14). In phase 2, OA1 increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of dry matter, total carbohydrates, NDF and ADF while OA2 improved (P < 0.05) ATTD of total carbohydrates, phosphorus and ether extract. Compared with CTR, the concentration of total volatile fatty acid in feces was improved (P < 0.01) in pigs supplemented with AGP, OA1 and OA2. The concentration of IgG, growth hormone, and total antioxidant capacity in serum tended to be higher, and the amount of hydroxyl radicals in serum was lower (P < 0.05) in pigs supplemented with OA2 compared with CTR. Crypt depth in the jejunum for piglets fed with OA2 was lower (P < 0.05), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed with AGP, OA1 or OA2 than those of CTR. The results from the present research indicate that OA1 and OA2 can be used to replace AGP based on the positive effects on performance, serum immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota in the weaned piglets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.018
       
  • Effects of replacing dietary maize grains with increasing levels of sugar
           beet pulp on rumen fermentation constituents and performance of growing
           buffalo calves
    • Authors: H.M. Abo-Zeid; H.M. El-Zaiat; A.S. Morsy; M.F.A. Attia; M.A. Abaza; S.M.A. Sallam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): H.M. Abo-Zeid, H.M. El-Zaiat, A.S. Morsy, M.F.A. Attia, M.A. Abaza, S.M.A. Sallam
      This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing cracked maize with increasing levels of sugar beet pulp (SBP) on nutrients digestibility, blood biochemical and rumen fermentation constituents and animal performance of growing Egyptian buffalo calves. Forty male Egyptian buffalo calves (237.2±24.46kg of initial body weight, IBW) were allocated into a completely randomized design and stratified to one of four experimental diets. The basal diet was isonitrogenous (40:60 forage: concentrate) and was formulated to contain 60% of dietary DM cracked maize replaced by ascending levels of SBP (0, 333, 667, and 1000 g/kg respectively). The study lasted for a period of 143days from which 21days for adaptation while the remaining 122days were used for data collection. Increasing the level of SBP resulted in a quadratic increase (P=0.017) in the average daily gain (ADG) with a linear tendency of increase (P=0.064) in dietary dry matter intake. A quadratic decrease of feed conversion ratio (FCR, P=0.005) was observed with the ascending levels of SBP. In addition, the daily intake of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber assayed with heat stable α-amylase and corrected for ash (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber corrected for ash (ADFom) were quadratically (P<0.01) improved upon increasing the dietary SBP level while the daily intake and digestibility of ether extract were declined linearly (P<0.01). Replacing SBP for maize resulted in linear increase (P<0.01) in OM, aNDFom, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility coefficients. Ruminal pH, total short chain fatty acids, proportions of acetate (C2) and butyrate were increased linearly (P<0.05). In contrast, the proportions of propionate (C3) and isobutyrate were decreased linearly (P<0.05) upon increasing the levels of SBP. In addition, the C2:C3 ratio and total protozoa were linearly (P<0.01) increased while the ruminal NH3-N concentration was quadratically (P=0.046) increased as SBP replaced maize in the diet. Furthermore, upon increasing the dietary SBP levels, the blood urea-N, cortisol and thyroxin (T4) concentrations were quadratically elevated (P<0.01). Conversely, linear decreases in creatinine, (P=0.027) and cholesterol (P=0.001) concentrations were found. In addition, blood insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration increased linearly (P=0.006) as SBP level increased. Feeding cost based on BW gain was linearly reduced (P=0.043) by 25%, causing the overall profits ($/head/d) to be quadratically (P<0.01) increased. Overall, the obtained results indicate that replacing maize grains with up to 667g SBP/kg diet resulted in a highest profit by 21%, enhanced ruminal fermentation, nutrients digestibility and ADG and reduced FCR. Therefore, this study could be economically feasible for use in fattening diets of growing Egyptian buffalo calves without impairing animal performance or health.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.011
       
  • Effect of increasing Buttiauxella phytase dose on nutrient digestibility
           and performance in weaned piglets fed corn or wheat based diets
    • Authors: Y. Dersjant-Li; A.L. Wealleans; L.P. Barnard; S. Lane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Y. Dersjant-Li, A.L. Wealleans, L.P. Barnard, S. Lane
      Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of increasing phytase levels on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, P and Ca retention and growth performance in weaned piglets fed corn or wheat based diets. Five treatments were tested including a positive control (PC) meeting piglet nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) formulated with a reduction in digestible P (−1.4g/kg and −1.5g/kg in Exp. 1 and 2 respectively) and Ca (−1.5g/kg in both studies); and NC supplemented with a Buttiauxella phytase at 500, 1000 or 2000 phytase units (FTU)/kg feed. One FTU is defined as the amount of enzyme required to release 1μmol of iP (inorganic phosphorus) per minute from sodium phytate at pH 5.5 at 37°C. A complete randomized design was used in both studies, with individual piglets housed in metabolic crates as the experimental unit. There were 2 runs in Exp. 1 and 4 runs in Exp. 2. Each treatment consisted of 8 replicates (1 piglet/replicate) in Exp. 1 and 12 replicates in Exp. 2. Diets based on wheat and soybean meal in Exp. 1 and corn and soybean meal in Exp. 2 were fed in pelleted form; feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the piglets (mean initial BW of 11±1.5kg) during the 14day period. Urine and feces production were collected from each crate during d 10 to14. The ATTD of P, Ca, DM, N and energy, and retention of P and Ca were measured using TiO2 as an indirect marker. In both Exp, increasing phytase dose from 0 (NC) to 2000 FTU/kg linearly increased (P< 0.05) ADG and G:F. Phytase at 2000 FTU/kg improved ADG and G:F compared to NC. A linear response was seen for ATTD of P, Ca and GE (P< 0.05) in Exp. 1, and for ATTD P and Ca in Exp. 2, with increasing phytase dose. Also there was a tendency for increasing phytase dose to result in a linear increase (P ≤0.10) in ATTD of DM in Exp.1, and ATTD of DM and N in Exp. 2. Increasing phytase dose linearly reduced P and Ca excretion and increased the retention of these nutrients in both experiments. The results showed that increasing Buttiauxella phytase dose up to 2000 FTU/kg may provide environmental and production benefits in weaned piglets fed either wheat or corn based diets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T17:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.008
       
  • Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy value of macadamia nut
           
    • Authors: Julio D. Berrocoso; Sudhir Yadav; Rajesh Jha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Julio D. Berrocoso, Sudhir Yadav, Rajesh Jha
      Two energy balance experiments were conducted to determine the AMEn value of Macadamia nut cake (MNC) for broiler chickens at different ages. In experiment 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 10 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (no MNC) and a diet containing 60g/kg of MNC (940g/kg of basal diet+60g/kg of MNC). In experiment 2, four dietary treatments were provided from 17 to 23 d of age. Diets in second experiment were 1) basal control diet (no MNC); 2) 30g/kg of MNC (970g/kg of basal diet+30g/kg of MNC); 3) 60g/kg of MNC (940g/kg of basal diet+60g/kg of MNC); and 4) 90g/kg of MNC (910g/kg of basal diet+90g/kg of MNC). In experiment 2, broilers were restricted feeding in such a way that all the birds received the same amounts of basal diet, so that differences in AMEn consumption were only due to MNC. A single source of MNC was used in both experiments. Feed intake, body weight, energy intake, energy excretion, N intake, N excretion, AMEn intake and AMEn were determined in both experiments. In experiment 1, the AMEn was estimated using the difference method by subtracting AMEn of the basal diet from AMEn of the test diet. In experiment 2, AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake with the slope estimating AMEn of MNC. Regression equation used was Y=2,908.2x − 122.73 (P < 0.001; SEM of the slope=11.7; r2 =0.93). The AMEn of MNC was found to be 12.09 and 12.17MJ/kg in experiment 1 and 2, respectively with an average of 12.13MJ/kg on DM basis. The results indicate that AMEn of MNC is comparable to conventional feedstuffs with similar nutrient profile, thus can be incorporated in broiler diets.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.009
       
  • Gastrointestinal functionality in animal nutrition and health: new
           opportunities for sustainable animal production
    • Authors: P. Celi; A.J. Cowieson; F. Fru-Nji; R.E. Steinert; A.-M. Kluenter; V. Verlhac
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): P. Celi, A.J. Cowieson, F. Fru-Nji, R.E. Steinert, A.-M. Kluenter, V. Verlhac
      Effective functionality of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and its health, are important factors in determining animal performance. Several, complex mechanisms are involved in the regulation of GIT functionality and health, therefore it is crucial to deepen our knowledge of these interactions so that strategies for the modulation of GIT functionality and health, in context of improved animal performance, can be developed. The concept of “gut health” has started to attract significant interest within the animal science community, however a clear definition of gastrointestinal health and functionality and how it can be measured is lacking. Therefore, this review will present a new definition of gastrointestinal functionality and will address how optimal gastrointestinal functionality can promote animal performances and welfare. The key components of gastrointestinal functionality reviewed in this article are: diet, effective structure and function of the gastrointestinal barrier, host interaction with the gastrointestinal microbiota, effective digestion and absorption of feed and effective immune status. While the relationships between these areas is extremely complex, a multidisciplinary approach is needed to develop nutritional strategies that would allow farm animals to become more resilient to the environmental and physiological challenges that they will have to endure during their productive career. As the demand of animal products from the rapidly growing world human population is ever-growing, the aim of this review is to present animal and veterinary scientists and nutritionists, a new definition of gastrointestinal functionality that can be used to establish a multidisciplinary approach to increase animal health, welfare and performance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.012
       
  • Effects of caprylic acid and β-cyclodextrin complexes on digestibility,
           energy balance, and methane production in Korean Hanwoo heifers
    • Authors: Bharanidharan Rajaraman; Yong Joo Seol; Young Kyoon Oh; Sun Sik Chang; Jong Geun Kim; In Sik Nam; Kyoung Hoon Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Bharanidharan Rajaraman, Yong Joo Seol, Young Kyoon Oh, Sun Sik Chang, Jong Geun Kim, In Sik Nam, Kyoung Hoon Kim
      The cyclodextrin (CD) complex with guest materials appears to be a promising solution to mitigate methane emissions without reducing energy intake. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of caprylic acid (C8)-CD complex on methane production in vitro and in vivo. The C8-CD complex was added to diluted ruminal fluid (60ml) at different levels (0, 0.17, 0.33, and 0.67g/L) in triplicate and incubated anaerobically at 39°C for 9h. The pH (P<0.001) and methane production (P <0.05) decreased linearly but total VFA and total gas increased (P<0.01) when the C8-CD complex supplementation was increased. Methane production decreased significantly (P<0.05) by 28% at 0.67g/L C8-CD complex when compared to the control. The effects of C8-CD complex supplementation at the level of 2% DMI on nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and methane production were further investigated using four Korean Hanwoo heifers (292±3kg) in a replicated 2×2 Latin square design. Each period consisted of 10 d of adaption and 4 d of measurement using four head hood respiratory chambers. Heifers were fed 4.8kg of timothy hay and supplemented with 1.2kg/d of ground corn grain and 130g/d of corn gluten meal, on an as-fed basis, at 09:00 and 17:00h. Nutrient digestibility and energy balance were not affected by the addition of the C8-CD complex. Supplementation of C8-CD complex decreased mean daily methane production up to 10%, but no significance compared to control. In conclusion, the effectiveness of C8-CD complex supplementation was observed in vitro but not in vivo. Therefore, further research is required to determine whether higher supplementation of C8-CD complex than 2.0% of DMI reduce methane production in vivo.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.010
       
  • Effects of phytase inclusions in diets containing ground wheat or 12.5%
           whole wheat (pre- and post-pellet) and phytase and protease additions,
           individually and in combination, to diets containing 12.5% pre-pellet
           whole wheat on the performance of broiler chickens
    • Authors: Amy F. Moss; Peter V. Chrystal; Ha H. Truong; Sonia Yun Liu; Peter H. Selle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Amy F. Moss, Peter V. Chrystal, Ha H. Truong, Sonia Yun Liu, Peter H. Selle
      Each of eight dietary treatments was offered to seven replicates (six birds per cage) of male Ross 308 chicks from 7 to 28days post-hatch. The diets contained 741g/kg wheat incorporated as ground (3.2mm hammer-mill screen) wheat or 125g/kg whole wheat included in diets, either pre- or post-pelleting. In Experiment 1 of the study, ground grain, pre-pellet and post-pellet whole grain diets were offered with and without phytase as a 3×2 factorial array of treatments. The effects of dietary treatments on gizzard and pancreas weights, bone mineralisation, excreta dry matter, growth performance, nutrient utilisation, digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of starch and protein (N) in four small intestinal segments were determined. Post-pellet whole grain addition significantly increased gizzard weight by 12.5% (18.17 versus 16.15g/kg; P <0.001). Pre- and post-pellet whole grain additions improved FCR (P <0.10) by 1.40% and 2.28%, respectively. Exogenous phytase significantly enhanced weight gain by 4.76% (1519 versus 1450g/bird; P <0.001) and FCR by 1.99% (1.332 versus 1.359; P <0.03) irrespective of the context. Significant interactions between grain and phytase treatments were observed for energy utilisation parameters. However, pre- and post-pellet whole grain additions to non-supplemented diets significantly improved AMEn by 0.31MJ (11.89 versus 11.58MJ/kg; P <0.04) and 0.48MJ (12.06 versus 11.58MJ/kg; P <0.001), respectively. Post-pellet whole grain addition to non-supplemented diets significantly improved AME (13.49 versus 12.99MJ/kg; P <0.001) and ME:GE ratios (0.79 versus 0.77; P <0.003). Phytase addition significantly improved AME in ground grain and pre-pellet whole grain diets by 0.43MJ and 0.30MJ, respectively. Phytase addition improved AMEn by 0.49MJ in ground grain diets but this was not significant and otherwise did not influence AMEn. In Experiment 2, phytase and protease, individually and in combination, were included in diets containing 12.5% pre-pellet whole wheat as a 2×2 factorial treatment array. There was a significant interaction (P <0.015) for weight gain following phytase and protease additions to pre-pellet whole grain diets where phytase significantly increased weight gain by 6.91% (1548 versus 1448g/bird). Protease supplementation alone numerically increased weight gain, but in combination with phytase, numerically decreased weight gain. Phytase improved FCR by 2.15% (1.319 versus 1.348; P <0.01) and protease improved FCR by 1.41% (1.324 versus 1.343; P <0.05), but in combination, both feed enzymes improved FCR by 3.52% (1.317 versus 1.365; P <0.005) relative to the negative control. It is noteworthy that in the first experiment, whole wheat inclusions did not significantly influence starch digestibility but phytase inclusions increased distal ileal starch digestibility by 5.10% (0.948 versus 0.902; P <0.05) in pre-pellet and by 3.85% (0.943 versus 0.908; P <0.05) in post-pellet whole grain treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T12:23:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.007
       
  • Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects, Committee on
           Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experience and Future Prospects, Board
           on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies,
           National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The National
           Academies Press, Washington, DC, (USA) (2016)
    • Authors: Gerhard Flachowsky
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): Gerhard Flachowsky


      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
       
  • Effects of alginate oligosaccharide on the growth performance, antioxidant
           capacity and intestinal digestion-absorption function in weaned pigs
    • Authors: Jin Wan; Jiao Zhang; Daiwen Chen; Bing Yu; Jun He
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Jin Wan, Jiao Zhang, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He
      Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS), a depolymerisation product of alginic acid polysaccharides of seaweed by alginate lyases, holds great potential as a novel feed supplement in swine production. This study conducted two trials to evaluate the effects of AOS supplementation on the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, serum hormone levels and intestinal digestion-absorption function in weaned pigs. In trial 1, 200 weaned pigs were allotted to four groups and fed a basal diet (control group) or a basal diet containing 50, 100 and 200mg/kg AOS, respectively. Supplementation with 100 or 200mg/kg AOS for 2 weeks significantly increased (P <0.05) the average daily body weight gain of the pigs compared to the control group. In trial 2, 24 weaned pigs were allotted to a control group (fed with a basal diet) or an AOS group (basal diet containing 100mg/kg AOS). On days 11–14, fresh faecal samples were collected from eight randomly selected pigs in each treatment, to evaluate apparent digestibility of nutrients. On the morning of day 15, the serum and intestinal mucosal samples were collected from the same selected pigs. Experimental results revealed that AOS effectively promoted antioxidant defence properties, through enhancing serum catalase activity and glutathione content. Serum hormone levels, including insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1, were improved (P <0.05) by AOS supplementation. Compared to the control group, AOS supplementation elevated (P <0.05) the nutrient digestibility (crude protein, ash and fat), as well as the maltase and sucrase activities, in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. Furthermore, AOS supplementation enhanced (P <0.05) the Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) transcriptions in the jejunal mucosa. Altogether, dietary AOS inclusion can stimulate weaned pig growth, validating AOS as a valid feed supplement in the pig industry.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.006
       
  • Optimization of single screw extrusion process for producing fish feeds
           based on vegetable meals and evaluation of nutritional effects using a
           juvenile Piaractus mesopotamicus model
    • Authors: Raúl E. Cian; Carla Bachetta; Jimena Cazenave; Silvina R. Drago
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Raúl E. Cian, Carla Bachetta, Jimena Cazenave, Silvina R. Drago
      Optimization of extrusion process for producing extruded feeds based on vegetable meals using a single screw extruder was study. Also growth performance of extruded feed obtained in optimal conditions using a juvenile P mesopotamicus model was evaluated. In order to study the simultaneous effect of blend moisture (M) and extrusion temperature (T) on expansion (E), bulk density (BD), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), and floatability (F) a central composite design (32) was used. The levels of each variable were: T: 160–180–200°C and M: 14–16–18g/100g. A multiple response optimization of physical properties of experimental extruded feed (E, F, BD and WSI) was performed using the Derringer’s desirability function. The global desirability function value was 0.8805, and the obtained optimal conditions were 181.5°C and 15.8g/100g of moisture content. Experimental extruded feed (EF) obtained at such conditions presented the following physical properties: E: 2.23±0.03, F: 99.0±1.0%, BD: 270.9±13.8g/L, and WSI: 12.9±1.5g/100g. Crude protein content of EF was higher than that of control feed (CF). However, no significant difference for crude lipid (∼37.9g/kg) and total starch content was found. Gelatinized starch for EF (430.5±7.0g/kg) was higher than that obtained for CF (378.9±6.7g/kg), corresponding to 97.0±2.1 and 88.1±2.2% of degree of gelatinization, respectively. Chemical score of CF was 93.3%, lysine being the limiting amino acid. However, in the case of EF no limiting amino acid was found. Both diets presented a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids of C18 series (C18:1 and C18:2 (n–6)). EF showed higher content of oleic, linolenic, cis-11-eicosenoic and di-homo-γ-linolenic acid than CF. Nevertheless, only for CF, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid were detected. Significant differences in final fish body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and condition factor were not detected between dietary treatments after 120days of feeding trial. Extrusion using a single screw extruder in optimal process conditions could be used to obtain fish feed based in vegetable meals and good physical properties with proper growth performance on juvenile P. mesopotamicus.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T12:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.004
       
  • The inclusion of low quantities of lipids in the diet of ruminants fed low
           quality forages has little effect on rumen function
    • Authors: D.F.A. Costa; S.P. Quigley; P. Isherwood; S.R. McLennan; X.Q. Sun; S.J. Gibbs; D.P. Poppi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): D.F.A. Costa, S.P. Quigley, P. Isherwood, S.R. McLennan, X.Q. Sun, S.J. Gibbs, D.P. Poppi
      Biohydrogenation within rumen fluid (RF) proceeds to varying degrees depending on retention time (RT) and type of basal diet, especially the profile of fatty acid (FA) being hydrogenised. The objective of this study was to examine the FA profile and the RT of liquid in the rumen of steers fed a low crude protein (CP) tropical grass (Chloris gayana hay, 38g CP, 17g crude lipid and 752g neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom)/kg dry matter (DM)) supplemented with various lipids. Five rumen cannulated Bos indicus cross, five-year-old steers (799±15kg live weight (LW)) were allocated to a 5×5 Latin square design. The treatments were control, hay only, or the addition of 30g/kg hay DM of lipid sources: Coconut (high lauric acid), cottonseed and soybean (high linoleic acid) or fish oil (high long chain FA (LCFA)). Retention time decreased with addition of soybean oil (14h) but no differences between other treatments (mean 17h). Coconut oil increased lauric and myristic acids in RF. There were no changes in total saturated FA (TSFA) in RF, with exception of a lower concentration for fish oil treatment. Addition of fish oil also decreased the concentration in RF of stearic and linolenic acid, but no differences to coconut and cottonseed treatments for linolenic acid. Fish oil also resulted in higher LCFA, linoleic and total unsaturated FA (TUFA), but no differences to soybean oil for the latter two acids. The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was only different in RF between cottonseed and fish oil treatments. Differences in FA profile of oils were only partially translated into the FA profile in RF of steers fed a tropical hay, without great changes in the proportion of CLA isomers observed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.003
       
  • Age and dietary xylanase supplementation affects ileal sugar residues and
           short chain fatty acid concentration in the ileum and caecum of broiler
           chickens
    • Authors: S.A. Lee; J. Apajalahti; K. Vienola; G. González-Ortiz; C.M.G.A. Fontes; M.R. Bedford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): S.A. Lee, J. Apajalahti, K. Vienola, G. González-Ortiz, C.M.G.A. Fontes, M.R. Bedford
      The objective of this study was to investigate how xylanase-induced changes in soluble sugar, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial content of the gut might be linked to broiler performance. A 42-day experiment was conducted using 328 male Ross 508 broiler chicks divided into two treatment groups, fed wheat-based diets with or without xylanase (0 or 16,000 BXU/kg). Each group had 8 replicate pens (13 birds per pen), with 3 additional replicate sampling pens per treatment (20 chicks per pen). Early body weight differences were shown, with xylanase-fed birds being 21g (P =0.02) and 39g (P =0.10) heavier at days 11 and 21 than control birds. Over the entire 42day experimental period, body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) with xylanase supplementation were not significantly different from the control, possibly due to the high performance of birds in both treatments. Xylanase supplementation increased (P< 0.05) soluble arabinose and xylose residues in the ileum and decreased ileal viscosity of birds at all ages, suggesting arabinoxylan degradation to soluble oligosaccharides. Xylanase had no significant effect on soluble sugar residue concentration in the caecum at any age. Irrespective of treatment, caecal soluble sugar residue content was considerably higher in 11 day-old birds, possibly illustrating poorer nutrient digestion and absorptive capacity of young birds. The proportion of xylose and arabinose residues in total caecal soluble sugars decreased (P< 0.001) at day 21, suggesting greater utilisation by resident bacteria. At day 42, compared to the controls, xylanase-fed birds had higher (P =0.01) Bifidobacterium spp. levels (5.7 e+10 versus 8.1 e+9), increased quantities of acetic (P =0.002) and butyric acids (P<0.001), and lower (P =0.03) lactic acid levels in the caeca. At all ages, xylanase treatment reduced (P =0.04) the proportion of branched chain volatile fatty acids in total SCFA, suggesting a reduction in protein fermentation. These findings suggest that greater degradation of wheat arabinoxylan with xylanase can enhance colonisation of specific bacteria and production of SCFAs in the caeca, an event that may relate to improved broiler performance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.017
       
  • Changes in broiler performance, duodenal histomorphometry, and caeca
           microbiota composition in response to wheat-barley based diets
           supplemented with non-antibiotic additives
    • Authors: Carolina Pineda-Quiroga; Amélia Camarinha-Silva; Raquel Atxaerandio; Roberto Ruiz; Aser García-Rodríguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Carolina Pineda-Quiroga, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Raquel Atxaerandio, Roberto Ruiz, Aser García-Rodríguez
      The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing wheat-barley based diets with dry whey powder (DWP), chitosan (CHIT), a mixture of DWP-CHIT, and inulin (INU) on productive performance, duodenal histomorphometry and caeca microbial composition of chickens. A total of 1500 one-day-old male birds were allocated to floor pens and assigned to one of the following treatments: control diet (no additive supplementation), 60-DWP (60g/kg of DWP), 5-CHIT (5g/kg of CHIT), DWP-CHIT (60-DWP plus 5-CHIT), and 20-INU (20g/kg of INU). Each treatment had 10 replicate pens, with 30 birds per pen. Measurements of productive performance were made during the starter period (day 1-21) and for the entire feeding period (day 1-42), while duodenal measurements were registered at day 21. Caeca microbiota composition was determined using Illumina amplicon sequencing at days 21 and 42. During the starter period, feeding chickens with any of the tested additives diminished their body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (FI) as compared to control diet (P <0.05). This was also observed during the entire feeding period (P <0.05), except for INU supplementation that showed similar values to control birds. None of treatments affected duodenal histomorphometry. Caeca microbiota composition was influenced by diet at every stage of the productive period (P=0.001), although no clear association between microbiota and performance was detected. At day 21, no differences in microbiota composition of control, 60-DWP, 5-CHIT and 20-INU birds were found, which caeca were highly harboured by Lactobacillus gallinarum, although only control promoted greater BW, ADG, and FI. Control and 60-DWP treatments did not differ in their caeca communities at day 42, although only control increased BW, ADG, and FI. In both cases, caeca showed higher abundance of Lactobacillus gallinarum and Bacteroides vulgatus, and lower abundance of Escherichia coli/Shigella flexneri and Bacteroides fragilis. DWP-CHIT diet promoted an increase of Klebsiella pneumoniae at day 21, and of Streptococcus gallolyticus at day 42, together with a performance reduction as compared to control diet. The present findings indicate that chicken growth is reduced by supplementing wheat-barley based diets with DWP, CHIT, DWP plus CHIT, and INU, at the tested doses, as a consequence of a reduction in FI. Caeca microbiota composition and diversity varied in a diet-dependent manner during both sampled ages, although a linkage between microbiota and performance was not clear.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.09.002
       
  • Effect of Delonix regia seed meal supplementation in Thai native beef
           cattle on feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics and methane
           production
    • Authors: Supapong Cherdthong; Seankamsorn Khonkhaeng Wanapat Gunun Gunun Chanjula Polyorach
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 232
      Author(s): C. Supapong, A. Cherdthong, A. Seankamsorn, B. Khonkhaeng, M. Wanapat, N. Gunun, P. Gunun, P. Chanjula, S. Polyorach
      The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of supplementing Delonix regia (DR) seed meal on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, nitrogen balance and CH4 production in Thai native beef cattle fed on rice straw. Four Thai native beef cattle with the initial body weight (BW) of 100±5.0kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive DR seed meal supplementation at 0, 90, 180 and 270g/d. The present results revealed that the total intake (g/kg BW0.75) was significantly increased with the inclusion of dry matter (DM) seed meal at 270g (P<0.05). DM and OM digestibility were decreased when increasing DR seed meal levels (P<0.05). Ruminal NH3-N concentration increased in beef cattle receiving DR seed meal. Supplementation of DR seed meal did not alter fungal zoospores’ concentration (P>0.05), whereas the protozoal population was at 0, 4h post feeding, and the mean values reduced when increasing the levels of DR seed meal supplemented (P<0.05). The concentration of propionic acid at 4h post feeding and its average concentration were significantly highest when 270g DR seed meal was supplemented (P<0.05). Estimation of CH4 concentrations and CH4 per dry matter intake were found reduced when increasing its DR seed meal concentration. In addition, N absorption, N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake were enhanced when 270g DR seed meal was supplemented (P<0.05). Thus, the inclusion of DR seed meal at 270g/d resulted in improving total feed intake, rumen fermentation and N balance whereas there was reduced DM digestibility, protozoal population and CH4 production in beef cattle fed rice straw base.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:14:06Z
       
  • Does citric acid improve performance and bone mineralization of broilers
           when combined with phytase' A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: B.S. Vieira; F.G. Silva; C.F.S. Oliveira; A.B. Correa; J.G. Caramori; G.S.S. Correa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): B.S. Vieira, F.G. Silva, C.F.S. Oliveira, A.B. Correa, J.G. Caramori, G.S.S. Correa
      The aim of this meta-analysis was to critically determine whether citric acid (CA) improves performance and bone mineralization of broilers when used in combination with phytase (PHY) in low-phosphorus diets. A systematic review of the literature was performed electronically on PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science databases; from the total of 574 identified studies, only seven met all the inclusion criteria (3862 broilers). Dietary PHY ranged from 300 to 4000 FTU/kg; CA from 20 to 50g/kg. Mean differences between PHY+CA and PHY treatments on daily weight gain (DWG), daily feed intake (DFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and tibia ash content (TAC) were compared using a random-effects model. Also, subgroup analyses were performed to assess the potential interference of feed and non-feed related characteristics on the overall effect estimates. Chickens fed PHY+CA gained, on average, 2.46g/day more (P =0.005) than those fed exclusively with PHY. While no differences on DFI and FCR were detected between treatments, broilers supplemented with PHY+CA increased (P =0.002) TAC in 3.27%. In general, better performance results for PHY+CA were found on males and broilers receiving PHY up to 500 FTU/kg or CA higher than 20g/kg. Higher concentrations of phytate phosphorus and calcium also favored the detection of positive effect of PHY+CA on DWG and TAC. Improvement on DWG by PHY+CA was more pronounced in the finishing phase, but TAC responded better to PHY+CA during the starter period. Moreover, treatment period required to detect significant differences between PHY and PHY+CA was larger for DWG than for TAC. No outliers were observed and sensitivity analysis did not modify the overall effect estimates and its associated P value. However, the small number of studies and a possible publication bias in favor of studies with positive effects on FCR might have affected the strength of meta-analysis results. In conclusion, there is evidence that CA improves performance and bone mineralization of broilers when used in combination with PHY, which in individual studies was inconclusive. Moreover, feed and non-feed related characteristics could affect how DWG and TAC respond to PHY and CA.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.016
       
  • Effects of dietary protein levels and rumen-protected pantothenate on
           ruminal fermentation, microbial enzyme activity and bacteria population in
           Blonde d'Aquitaine x Simmental beef steers
    • Authors: Q. Liu; C. Wang; H.Q. Li; G. Guo; W.J. Huo; C.X. Pei; S.L. Zhang; H. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Q. Liu, C. Wang, H.Q. Li, G. Guo, W.J. Huo, C.X. Pei, S.L. Zhang, H. Wang
      This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and rumen-protected pantothenate (RPP) supplementation on ruminal digestion kinetics, fermentation, microbial enzymatic activity, and selected bacterial species relative abundance in beef steers. Eight ruminally cannulated crossbred beef steers, with 15 months of age and 462±9kg of body weight (BW), were used in a duplicated 4×4 Latin square design by a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (113.7g/kg of CP [LP] or high protein (133.9g/kg of CP [HP]) diets were fed with or without RPP supplementation (0g [RP-] or 0.48g per kg dietary dry matter (DM) [RP+]). Steers were fed a total mixed ration containing dietary concentrate to corn silage ratio of 50:50 on a DM basis. There were no RPP×CP interactions for ruminal digestion kinetics, fermentation, microbial enzymatic activity, and selected bacterial species relative abundance, except for Ruminobacter amylophilus. Mean ruminal pH decreased with RPP supplementation, but was unaffected by dietary CP levels. Ruminal total VFA concentration increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Ruminal acetate percentage was similar among treatments, whereas propionate percentage decreased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Consequently, the acetate to propionate ratio increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Ruminal ammonia-N content was unchanged among treatments. Both in situ ruminal DM degradability of corn silage and CP degradability of concentrate increased with RPP supplementation and tended to increase with increasing dietary CP levels, while NDF degradability of corn silage and DM degradability of concentrate increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, α-amylase and protease, populations of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Prevotella ruminicola, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPP supplementation, but populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and R. amylophilus increased with RPP supplementation, and decreased with increasing dietary CP levels. The results showed that increasing dietary CP levels from 113.7g to 133.9g or with 0.48g RPP supplementation improved ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis by increasing microbial populations and enzymes activities.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.014
       
  • Bioavailability of zinc hydroxychloride relative to zinc sulfate in
           growing cattle fed a corn-cottonseed hull-based diet
    • Authors: G.L. Shaeffer; K.E. Lloyd; J.W. Spears
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): G.L. Shaeffer, K.E. Lloyd, J.W. Spears
      A study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc hydroxychloride (ZnOHCl) relative to Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) in growing steers. Sixteen Angus and Simmental steers (371kg average initial weight) were fed a corn-cottonseed hull-based diet without supplemental Zn for 14 d. At the end of the 14-d depletion phase steers were randomly assigned within a breed to treatments consisting of supplemental Zn at 25mg/kg DM from either ZnSO4 or ZnOHCl. Seven days after the initiation of Zn supplementation a 5-d total collection of feces and urine was conducted. Jugular blood samples were obtained on d 0 (prior to initiation of Zn treatments) and on d 40 of the study for plasma Zn determination. Dry matter intake, Zn intake and urinary Zn excretion were not affected (P >0.10) during the metabolism phase. Apparent absorption and retention of Zn were greater (P <0.01) in steers supplemented with ZnOHCl than in those supplemented with Zn SO4. Plasma Zn concentrations were similar across treatments on d 0 of the study. On d 40 of the study plasma Zn concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in steers supplemented with Zn OHCl compared to those fed ZnSO4. Results of this study indicated that ZnOHCl is a more bioavailable source of Zn than ZnSO4 for growing cattle when supplemented to a diet with relatively low Zn bioavailability.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.013
       
  • Effect of a combination of xylanase, amylase and protease on growth
           performance of broilers fed low and high fiber diets
    • Authors: A.K. Singh; J.F. Diaz Berrocoso; Y. Dersjant-Li; A. Awati; R. Jha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): A.K. Singh, J.F. Diaz Berrocoso, Y. Dersjant-Li, A. Awati, R. Jha
      This study evaluated the effect of a combination of xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP; providing 2,000U of xylanase, 200U of amylase, and 4,000U of protease per kg diet) in low and high fiber diets on the growth performance of Cobb 500 broilers from d 0-21 of age. A 2×2 factorial design with 8 replicate floor pens (8 birds/pen; in two batches) was used. The treatments included 2 fiber levels: low fiber diets based on corn and soybean meal (SBM) and high fiber diets with addition of wheat, wheat middling, canola meal and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Each level of fiber diet was supplemented without or with XAP. All the test diets contained 500 FTU/kg phytase in the background and were pelleted. In overall study period (d 0- 21), the high fiber diet increased FCR (P < 0.05) by 0.04 units compared with low fiber diet. The XAP supplementation increased ADG by 12% and reduced FCR by 0.09 units compared with control diet (P < 0.01). An interaction between fiber level and XAP was found for ADFI (P < 0.05) during overall study period without any significant (P > 0.05) effect on ADG and FCR. The XAP supplementation improved ADFI in low fiber diet but did not affect ADFI in high fiber diet. A significant (P < 0.01) interaction was observed between fiber and XAP for FCR in the first week where XAP reduced FCR by 0.27 and 0.05 units, respectively in high and low fiber diets. Overall, the FCR response to XAP is more pronounced in high fiber diets than in low fiber diets, especially during the first week. The results suggest that the addition of XAP can optimize the utilization of fiber for better ADG and feed efficiency in broilers, maintaining performance to a level comparable to that of the costly conventional low fiber diet.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.012
       
  • Effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate dietary supplementation on
           growth performance and intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens
           infected with necrotic enteritis
    • Authors: Bochen Song; Huixian Li; Yuanyuan Wu; Wenrui Zhen; Zhong Wang; Zhaofei Xia; Yuming Guo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): Bochen Song, Huixian Li, Yuanyuan Wu, Wenrui Zhen, Zhong Wang, Zhaofei Xia, Yuming Guo
      Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxigenic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens that results in substantial economic losses to the global poultry industry. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) on the growth performance and intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens co-infected with Eimeria spp. and C. perfringens. Chickens were fed, from hatch, either a diet supplemented with MSB, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and were either left uninfected or orally infected with mixed strains of Eimeria species at 12 d of age, followed by an oral inoculation with C. perfringens at 16, 17, and 18 d of age. NE-infected chickens fed MSB-supplemented diets had greater body weight (BW), improved average daily gains (ADG), and higher feed conversion ratios (FCR) than NE-infected birds fed unsupplemented diets. Increased jejunal villus height, reduced duodenal lesion scores, reduced cecal Escherichia coli and C. perfringens counts, and reduced liver C. perfringens load were also observed in the NE-infected, MSB-supplemented chickens as compared to the NE-infected, unsupplemented birds. NE infection downregulated claudin-4, ZO-1, occludin, LEAP-2, and mucin-2 in the jejunum. However, MSB-fed birds infected with NE had significantly upregulated claudin-1, claudin-4, ZO-1, occludin, LEAP-2, and mucin-2 levels in the jejunum as compared with infected birds fed the non-supplemented diet. We have thus demonstrated that the administration of MSB alleviates intestinal mucosal barrier injury of broiler chickens infected with NE.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:52:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.009
       
  • Effect of feeder design and concentrate presentation form on performance,
           carcass characteristics, and behavior of fattening Holstein bulls fed
           high-concentrate diets
    • Authors: M. Verdú; A. Bach; M. Devant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Source:Animal Feed Science and Technology
      Author(s): M. Verdú, A. Bach, M. Devant
      The study objective was to evaluate the effect of feeder design and concentrate presentation form on performance, carcass characteristics, and animal behavior in fattening Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. A total of 294 bulls (175±6.5kg of BW and 139±0.7days of age) were randomly allotted to one of 16 pens (18-19 bulls per pen) distributed in 2 barns (8 pens per barn). Each pen was assigned to one of 4 treatments following a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments: feeder design (collective vs. single) and concentrate presentation form (meal vs. pellet). Collective feeder consisted of three feeding spaces with a concentrate feeder capacity of 40kg; and single feeder consisted of one single-space feeder with lateral protections, forming a chute, with a feeder capacity of 10kg. Pen concentrate consumption was registered daily, straw consumption weekly, and BW fortnightly. Animal behavior was registered at day -6, 1, 3, 6, 9, 13, 29, and every 28days thereafter. The chute of the single-space feeder was not placed to facilitate the feed access for the first 28days of study (receiving period). During this period, only the concentrate presentation form was evaluated. Animals were slaughtered after 182 days, and HCW, carcass quality and liver lesions were recorded. Three fattening periods were established according to days of the study and animal BW: receiving (28 days; from 175 to 220kg), growing (98 days; from 220 to 360kg), and finishing (56 days; from 360 to 430kg). The effects of feeder design and concentrate presentation form on performance differed depending on fattening period; however, no relevant effects on animal behavior were observed. During the receiving period, calves fed pellet exhibited greater (P< 0.01) growth than those fed meal. Throughout the growing period, concentrate efficiency tended (P =0.09) to be greater in animals fed pellets in collective feeder, followed by those fed pellets in a single feeder, and, lastly, by those fed meal regardless of the feeder design. During the finishing period, concentrate intake was lesser (P< 0.01) and concentrate efficiency tended (P =0.07) to be greater in bulls fed pellets compared with those fed meal. Bulls fed pellets in collective feeders tended (P =0.10) to have greater HCW. In conclusion, the best strategy to improve performance and concentrate efficiency is to feed animals in a collective feeder and present the concentrate in pellet form. Moreover, a single-space feeder with lateral protections was not a good strategy to diminish concentrate wastage, observed in a reduction of total concentrate intake, and improve concentrate efficiency during the finishing period when feeding meal.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T03:45:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.07.003
       
 
 
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