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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3185 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3185 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 427, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 413, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 468, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Animal Behaviour
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.58
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 207  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0003-3472 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8282
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Heterospecific information supports a foraging mutualism between corvids
           and raptors
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Matthew R. Orr, Jon D. Nelson, James W. WatsonAlthough animal social information is most commonly utilized by conspecifics, some conditions may favour heterospecific transmission. Generalists living in social groups are thought to produce information that is conspicuous and broadly useful to other species. Information may be signalled intentionally to other species when the sender benefits. We examined these predictions in a scavenger guild comprising two generalist social corvids (ravens, Corvus corax; magpies, Pica hudsonia), four raptor species and coyotes, Canis latrans. We used game cameras to monitor scavenging at 89 mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, carcasses in Oregon and Washington, U.S.A. Corvid appearance times explained variation in golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, hawk (Buteo jamaicensis and Buteo lagopus) and coyote arrivals, indicating that raptors and canids use corvids to locate food. Larger numbers of magpies, but not ravens, were associated with shorter raptor appearance times, providing partial support for the importance of group size in broadcasting information to heterospecifics. We also directly observed simulated carcasses composed of a deer hide and antler. Seventy one corvids and 13 raptors appeared among 16 treatments accompanied by raven decoys and playbacks, whereas only one corvid and no raptors appeared at paired controls. The time that ravens first flew in circles above a simulated carcass explained 98% of the variation in subsequent raptor arrival time, indicating that a specific raven behaviour provides a cue of carrion. After hide-cutting raptors opened a carcass, corvids benefited by switching from feeding at the eyes and the anus to feeding on flesh. However, raptors did not arrive sooner after corvids at closed carcasses than experimentally pre-opened carcasses, suggesting that corvids do not intentionally transmit more information to raptors when a carcass requires opening, at least under these conditions. A scavenging mutualism with corvids built on carrion discovery and access, but not intentional recruitment, may facilitate winter survival of raptors.
       
  • Fear contagion in zebrafish: a behaviour affected by familiarity
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Priscila Fernandes Silva, Carlos Garcia de Leaniz, Ana Carolina Luchiari
       
  • How life in a tolerant society affects the usage of grunts: evidence from
           female and male Guinea baboons
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Lauriane Faraut, Harry Siviter, Federica Dal Pesco, Julia FischerSignals are used to regulate interactions between individuals. To disentangle how motivational disposition, the processing of social information, and the costs and benefits of putative outcomes of interactions affect signalling behaviour, we investigated the usage and function of grunts during approaches in wild Guinea baboons, Papio papio. Guinea baboons live in a tolerant multilevel society with female-biased dispersal, which allowed us to compare their grunt usage to that of other more despotic baboon species. We analysed approaches by female and male Guinea baboons living in the Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal. When approaching baboons grunted, they were more likely to interact in an affiliative fashion and less likely to displace the partner. In females, the probability of grunting was higher when the relationship strength was low, but only when an infant was present. In males, relationship strength had no impact on the likelihood of grunting during approaches. Rank did not explain variation in grunt probability in females and could not be discerned in males, but males were also more likely to grunt when an infant was near a female partner. We suggest that grunt usage in baboons can be best conceived as a combination of a motivational and a strategic component. The motivational component expresses the increased disposition to interact in an affiliative fashion, while the strategic component refers to the modulation of grunt usage with regard to relationship quality and context. The motivational component appears to be shared between baboon species, while variation in despotism and social organization places different premiums on the benefits of signalling, resulting in variation in grunting patterns between species.
       
  • No evidence for behavioural syndrome and genetic basis for three
           personality traits in a wild bird population
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Jennifer Morinay, Grégory Daniel, Lars Gustafsson, Blandine DoligezPersonality traits and their correlations have been shown to be linked with life history strategies and fitness in various species. Among-individual correlations (i.e. behavioural syndromes) between personality traits can affect the evolutionary responses of these traits to environmental variation. Understanding the genetic and ecological determinants of personality traits and their interactions as behavioural syndromes in the wild is thus needed to shed light on the mechanisms shaping their evolution. Partitioning the observed (co)variance in these traits, however, requires large numbers of repeated behavioural measures on many individuals of known relatedness level. In the absence of such data, it is thus often assumed that phenotypic (co)variances inform about (i) underlying among-individual (co)variances (i.e. ignoring within-individual (co)variances) and (2) underlying genetic (co)variances. We tested these assumptions using three personality traits collected during 3 years on a long-term monitored breeding population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis. We partitioned the observed phenotypic (co)variance of aggressiveness, boldness and neophobia into genetic, permanent environment and parental components, and we estimated the repeatability, and heritability of these traits and their among-individual correlations. All three traits were repeatable between years (at least on the latent scale) but none were heritable. Permanent environment effects explained 15% of the phenotypic variance in aggressiveness, and parental effects explained 25% of the phenotypic variance in neophobia, in line with previous studies in wild populations. The three traits showed phenotypic correlations but no among-individual correlations and no additive genetic covariance. Thus, our results did not support the assumptions that phenotypic covariance reflects behavioural syndromes and genetic covariance. We discuss the reasons for the absence of heritability and among-individual and genetic covariance between these three personality traits in light of the possible selective pressures acting on this population.
       
  • A distributed-consensus mechanism of decision making explains economically
           irrational behaviours
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Sergio CastellanoIn humans, as in many other animals, preferences between options can be reversed when other irrelevant options are added to the choice set. Heuristics theories view such puzzling departure from economic rationality as evidence that decisions rely on simple rules that make a context-dependent use of the available information. The computational mechanisms underlying these rules, however, remain largely unresolved. Using a sequential sampling model of decision making, I show that irrational decisions may arise when an information processing mechanism that works optimally in one-choice tasks is co-opted in multiple-choice contexts. The model supports the assumption that different heuristics may sometimes be the elusive expression of a single general mechanism and that natural selection, rather than promoting the evolution of different mechanisms and rules, may favour the parsimonious use of bounded computational resources.
       
  • Putting mechanisms in foraging theory: the role of computational
           mechanisms in optimal decision making
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Sergio CastellanoClassic optimization models explain adaptive behaviours in terms of optimal cost–benefit trade-offs. They assume flexibility and make testable predictions about what animals should do in order to maximize their fitness. But they do not usually ask how animals can do it. Since flexible behaviours can be globally optimal but locally suboptimal, the optimality models should directly focus on the underlying mechanisms of behavioural flexibility, such as learning and decision making. In this paper, I use the classic ‘diet’ model of optimal foraging theory (OFT) to investigate the evolution of decision-making mechanisms at both the computational and the algorithmic level. At the computational level, I define benefits (the expected rate of net energy intake) and costs (lost opportunity) and formalize the decision rule. At the algorithmic level, I present two sequential sampling models, which differ in the way information is internally represented and used. The first model represents the prospective items along a one-dimensional scale of values (benefit–cost differences) and it uses a fixed amount of sensory information (and time) to make decisions. The second model represents items in the two-dimensional plane of benefits and costs, and it uses a variable amount of information. I test the models along a gradient of resource abundance. In each environment, I use OFT to classify resources as either profitable or unprofitable and describe the model performance in terms of decision time and accuracy. At high resource density, both models predict foraging choice to be more selective, but less accurate, than at low density, because decisions are strongly biased in the false-positive direction. At low resource density, the two-dimension model performs better than the one-dimension alternative, because it takes less time to make more accurate decisions. These differences, however, disappear when resources are abundant.
       
  • On understanding the nature and evolution of social cognition: a need for
           the study of communication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Todd M. Freeberg, Katherine E. Gentry, Kathryn E. Sieving, Jeffrey R. LucasSocial cognition involves a wide range of processes, including the ability to recognize group members, to remember past interactions with them and to influence their behaviour strategically. Key arguments and findings in studies of the evolution of social cognition revolve around individuals flexibly and adaptively influencing the behaviour of others. One of the most effective ways of influencing the behaviour of others is through communication. Curiously, however, research focused on the evolution of social cognition rarely addresses communication in the species being studied. Here we describe four major hypotheses to explain the evolution of social cognition and, for each, raise specific predictions regarding communication and how it relates to social cognition. We argue that because communication is foundational to social cognition, studies of communication should be a core feature of future work on the evolution of social cognition.
       
  • When the nose knows: ontogenetic changes in detection dogs' (Canis
           familiaris) responsiveness to social and olfactory cues
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Lucia Lazarowski, Bart Rogers, L. Paul Waggoner, Jeffrey S. KatzDomestic dogs, Canis familiaris, are highly responsive to human communicative cues and can utilize gestures, such as pointing, to locate hidden rewards. This ability is thought to be the product of both genetic and behavioural selection, allowing dogs to adapt to life with humans. Dogs' responsiveness to human gestures can also lead to suboptimal choices when dogs readily follow misleading cues despite directly contradicting perceptual information such as odour cues. However, this bias likely reflects pet dogs' enculturation with humans and thus may not be representative of other populations of dogs. We investigated the ability of young dogs in training for explosives detection (N = 77) to locate a hidden reward using olfactory cues when presented in conflict with a deceptive communicative gesture in an object-choice task. We assessed performance at 3, 6 and 11 months of age using both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. We found that, contrary to previous findings with pet dogs, responsiveness to human pointing decreased with age, whereas the ability to locate the reward by scent increased. Furthermore, a lack of susceptibility to deceptive social cues was predictive of future success as a detection dog. These findings further indicate the influence of ontogenetic effects on canine social cognition and demonstrate potential applications for the identification of suitable detection dogs.
       
  • Similar predator aversion for natural prey with diverse toxicity levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Mathieu Chouteau, Jules Dezeure, Thomas N. Sherratt, Violaine Llaurens, Mathieu JoronMüllerian mimicry between chemically defended species arises from selection exerted by predators in which individuals benefit from higher survival when they share the same warning signal. However, despite sharing warning signals, co-mimetic species harbour a diversity of toxins at a range of different concentrations. This variation may affect the rate of predator avoidance learning and therefore the dynamics of mimicry. Here, to understand the nature of mimetic relationships in natural communities of butterflies and moths, we compared protection against predators induced by chemical defences of 13 lepidopteran species belonging to six mimicry complexes. Protection was estimated by quantifying the extent of avoidance learning, using domestic chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus, as model predators. We showed that most co-mimics were avoided at similarly high rates, with the exception of two species eliciting markedly slower rates of avoidance. Assuming our model and natural predators behave similarly and cannot distinguish co-mimics visually, the similar avoidance learning they induce supports the contention that mutualistic relationships among these co-mimetic species might be predominant in natural communities, despite large variation in toxin concentrations. Indeed, by comparing our estimated avoidance learning rate to mean toxin concentration, we found that prey with a two- to three-fold difference in toxin content generated similar avoidance learning indices. This lack of a direct relationship between prey defence level and predator avoidance learning points to alternative evolutionary mechanisms promoting the evolution of high levels of toxins.
       
  • Cannibalism of young is related to low paternity and nest take-overs in an
           intertidal fish
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Aneesh P.H. Bose, Malcolm J. Lau, Karen M. Cogliati, Bryan Neff, Sigal BalshineParental care is costly, and theory suggests that caregivers should reduce parental investment or even stop caring altogether when the costs of caring are too high or the benefits too low. Brood cannibalism is one tactic by which parents can divert investment away from current offspring and towards potentially higher-quality future offspring, but the various selective factors underlying partial brood cannibalism and their relative importance remain poorly understood. Here we used the plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, to concurrently examine three hypotheses for partial brood cannibalism and test whether cannibalism increases when (1) parental body condition is low, (2) brood sizes are large and/or (3) brood paternity is low. To investigate these predictions, we combine multiyear, multisite field data with genetic paternity testing and show that partial brood cannibalism is not related to low parental body condition or to large brood sizes, but rather is linked to low paternity. In particular, males that had taken over nests from other males, and were thus unrelated to the broods present in the new nests, consumed the largest number of young (∼15 or more eaten at a time). Our data also suggest that the consumption of only a few young (∼1–2 at a time) appears to be governed by other factors that are not clearly related to paternity. Overall, we highlight the utility of concurrently testing multiple hypotheses for partial brood cannibalism within the same system to better understand this otherwise puzzling behaviour.
       
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s):
       
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s):
       
  • Increased aggressive motivation towards formidable opponents: evidence of
           a novel form of mutual assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Kyriacos Kareklas, Rebekah McMurray, Gareth ArnottContests are largely driven by resource value, but their outcome also depends on asymmetries in fighting ability between contestants. Consequently, individuals benefit from assessing these asymmetries when deciding to engage opponents or retreat. Yet, there is much about these assessments that we do not know. First, it is often difficult to discriminate whether individuals only assess their own fighting ability or if they compare it to that of their opponents by mutual assessment. Second, the extent to which assessment improves over the course of a contest, as predicted by theory, has remained largely unexplored. We addressed these questions by studying assessment during territorial contests between male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Findings show the consistent use of mutual assessment when deciding to engage opponents, with a progressive increase in assessment accuracy over sequential contest phases by reducing the use of dishonest signals. Importantly, contrary to theoretical expectations, we found evidence of a novel form of mutual assessment in which fight motivation increased (rather than decreased) when contestants assessed their opponents as more formidable than themselves. Although contestants shifted to opponent-only assessment when adjusting display and attack, the collective evidence shows greater aggressive intent towards more threatening opponents. We argue that explanations for this form of assessment may be provided by considering territorial dynamics related to reproductive success and parental investment.
       
  • Miniature spiders (with miniature brains) forget sooner
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Joseph T. Kilmer, Rafael L. RodríguezMiniature animals have tiny brains and should therefore face cognitive limitations. There is little supporting evidence for this expectation, however. We focused on memory information content and retention time, which likely subtend a broad range of cognitive abilities. Our study species, a web spider, allowed us to use a simple assay of working memory: how spiders search for prey they have captured and lost. We used an ontogenetic approach, taking advantage of variation in body size and the concomitant variation in brain size across instars in a single species. This approach eliminates possible confounding variation from species differences in ecology. Small spiders were the most highly motivated to search for lost prey and made the clearest discrimination of prey size. However, when we introduced a delay between memory formation and memory use, search time decreased more steeply in small spiders than in large spiders. Small spiders also performed less additional searching after their primary bout. Thus, the retention of working memory, but not its content, was limited in small spiders with small brains. We suggest that animals that evolve miniature sizes sacrifice not the ability to perceive and acquire information, but rather the ability to retain information over time in working memory. This may, in turn, limit their ability to relate behavioural decisions to their consequences.
       
  • Older males attract more females but get fewer matings in a wild field
           cricket
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 153Author(s): Rolando Rodríguez-Muñoz, Paul Hopwood, David Fisher, Ian Skicko, Rachel Tucker, Katherine Woodcock, Jon Slate, Craig Walling, Tom TregenzaThe age of potential mates has been proposed to be an important target for mate choice by females. Alternative hypotheses predict preferences in either direction. Females might be expected to prefer older males because such males have demonstrated their capacity to survive. Alternatively, they might prefer younger males that have not accumulated deleterious mutations. Preferences in both directions have been observed in laboratory experiments, suggesting that this is an issue that needs to be understood within its ecological context. We measured individual behaviour and reproductive success in a natural population of the field cricket Gryllus campestris over 10 years. We found that in this annual insect, a male's age relative to his peers was poorly correlated with his life span. This suggests that there is limited potential for selection to favour female choice for older males because a strategy of choosing older males would not significantly increase a female's likelihood of mating with a long-lived male. Older males were more successful at pairing up with females at a burrow, but once paired they were less likely to mate with them. By genotyping the next generation of adults we confirmed that observations of both pairing up with a female and matings were associated with successful offspring production. However, there was no relationship between how old a male was at mating and how many adult offspring he had. This lack of evidence for any fitness benefits to females from mate choice in relation to male age was consistent with the observation that the age of males had opposite effects on their success in pairing up with females compared to their success in mating with them.
       
  • Gut microbial diversity increases with social rank in the African cichlid
           fish, Astatotilapia burtoni
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Avehi Singh, Joshua J. Faber Hammond, Cynthia F. O'Rourke, Suzy C.P. RennSocial dominance hierarchies are a common system of within-group social ranking. Animals occupying subordinate and dominant ranks within these hierarchies differ in their access to food and mating opportunities. Thus, these animals often have different levels of stress, energy reserves and metabolic activity, leading to distinctive behavioural and physiological phenotypes. We hypothesized that phenotypes associated with social rank would affect the gut microbiome, a community of microbes intimately involved in host physiological and metabolic processes. Using male Astatotilapia burtoni, a well-studied species of cichlid, we implemented noninvasive sampling techniques to track microbial variation within individuals occupying different ranks. Our results indicated a lag between the behavioural and physiological changes and microbial community shifts associated with rank change. Given this, subordinate males had higher levels of pathogenic clades and decreased overall community diversity (alpha diversity) while dominant males had higher levels of protective clades and increased alpha diversity. The distributions of several differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were highly correlated with alpha diversity, suggesting that these clades might be involved in structuring the community as a whole. Taken together, our results indicate that behavioural and phenotypic states associated with social rank induce dynamic, population-level shifts in microbiome composition, an effect putatively mediated by the presence of certain bacterial clades. This study is one of the first to evaluate and track the effects of social rank on teleost microbiomes and highlights the importance of integrating microbiome-derived physiological effects into future studies of behaviour.
       
  • Social isolation prevents the development of individual face recognition
           in paper wasps
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Elizabeth A. Tibbetts, Erica Desjardins, Nora Kou, Laurel WellmanMuch work has shown that social isolation has lasting negative effects on adult social interactions, but less is known about precisely how and why isolation alters social behaviour. One way isolation may alter social behaviour is by interfering with the development of effective communication. Here, we test how social isolation influences individual recognition, a key aspect of social communication in Polistes fuscatus paper wasps. Polistes fuscatus reared in a typical social environment learn and remember the unique faces of conspecifics during social interactions. Typical P. fuscatus use individual face recognition to minimize conflict and stabilize social interactions. As wasps are adept face learners, they also readily learn to discriminate between wasp face images during training. Here, we show that social isolation had dramatic effects on recognition. We isolated wasps for 6 days after eclosion from pupation, then tested them for face recognition in social and nonsocial contexts. Isolated wasps did not learn and remember other individuals during social interactions. Furthermore, isolated wasps did not learn to discriminate between wasp face images during training. Therefore, social experience with conspecifics is essential for the development of individual recognition and face learning in paper wasps. Many aspects of wasp behaviour develop rapidly with little experience required. However, complex social interactions like individual recognition require social experience with conspecifics.
       
  • Operational sex ratio and density predict the potential for sexual
           selection in the broad-horned beetle
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Clarissa M. House, James Rapkin, John Hunt, David J. HoskenSexual selection can act on all aspects of the phenotype and the opportunity for selection (Is) sets its maximal strength. Popular approaches to alter Is include the manipulation of the operational sex ratio (OSR) and/or density, with an increase in Is predicted with a male-biased OSR and at higher density. However, debate continues regarding the utility of Is to measure meaningful changes in the strength of selection, as changes in Is with OSR and density may only reflect stochastic processes. Here we tested whether the manipulation of OSR and density alters Is in the broad-horned flour beetle, Gnatocerus cornutus, a species where males are under intense sexual selection and the targets of selection are known. We also recorded the average number of fights and mating behaviour of individuals in our competitive arenas. We found significant main effects of OSR and density on Is, with the opportunity for selection being highest in male-biased high-density treatments. There were also significant effects of OSR and density on the average number of matings, whereas only density influenced the average number of fights. These results suggest that manipulation of OSR and density influence the opportunity for sexual selection in G. cornutus and our observations of fighting and mating behaviour provide a proximate mechanism for the change in Is.
       
  • Et tu, brother' Kinship and increased nutrition lower the incidence of
           cannibalism in male bulb mites
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Tom P.G. Van den Beuken, Logan W. Stockwell, Isabel M. SmallegangeThe killing of conspecifics returns indirect benefits when killers eliminate competitors for resources, and direct benefits when cannibals obtain nutrients directly after killing. Cannibals risk pathogen infection and both killers and cannibals risk reducing their inclusive fitness when killing kin. When competing with kin over food during a prolonged period of starvation, we surmise that this cost–benefit ratio will stay almost constant for killers, as their benefits are indirect so that they direct killing away from kin (unless in extremis), but that this ratio will reduce over time for cannibals, as their benefits are direct, such that they will start consuming kin when food stressed. We tested this hypothesis using the male-dimorphic bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini in which males are armed ‘fighters’ that can kill and cannibalize or unarmed ‘scramblers’. In four-fighter groups that were either starved or fed for 2 weeks, and that comprised either kin (brothers) or nonkin (at most cousins), we assessed the number of dead and cannibalized fighters. The cumulative number of dead and cannibalized fighters was higher under starved than under fed conditions, and increased over time, rejecting our hypothesis. Instead, we found that fewer kin than nonkin were cannibalized, but fighters discriminated to a much lesser extent between kin and nonkin when killing. Hypothetically, cannibalism of kin incurs a greater risk of infection by pathogens to which cannibals are genetically susceptible. Our results highlight the importance of distinguishing killing from cannibalism, as they can have contrasting effects on the demography of populations.
       
  • Adaptive gene regulation in wild mammals exposed to high predator
           abundance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Tiffany C. Armenta, Steve W. Cole, Robert K. Wayne, Daniel T. BlumsteinPsychological stress induced by exposure to predators has complex effects on the behaviour and physiology of prey species. This includes potential influences on gene expression mediated via stress-responsive physiological pathways such as the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Laboratory studies have documented diverse transcriptional effects of predator-induced fear, but genomic responses to predator exposure in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we used RNA-sequencing to investigate the leukocyte transcriptome response to chronic predator pressure in a well-studied population of wild yellow-bellied marmots, Marmota flaviventer. We assessed the genomic response to this stressor in three ways by (1) identifying differentially expressed individual genes across the genome, (2) assessing whether differentially expressed genes were statistically over-represented by functional categories and (3) testing for transcription factor activity that may mediate observed gene expression differences. We found 349 individual genes regulated in association with chronic predator presence, including transcripts known to regulate heat shock proteins, metabolism and DNA damage repair. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the majority of these differentially expressed genes were involved with the cellular response to stress, cellular metabolism and protein transport. Transcription factor analysis implicated glucocorticoid signalling in mediating these effects. Our work confirms that the physiological response to predator-induced stress is complex, initiating transcriptional activity in multiple processes and pathways. In addition to the canonical expectations that individuals exposed to predators mobilize HPA signalling and homeostasis pathways, we also detected activity in genes typically associated with human anxiety and cerebral function. This is the first study to demonstrate that leukocyte transcriptomes taken from animals living in a natural environment can reflect the complex ecology of fear.
       
  • Vertical and horizontal vegetation cover synergistically shape prey
           behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Alex D. Potash, L. Mike Conner, Robert A. McCleeryAn animal's perception of predation risk varies across a heterogeneous landscape. Animals rely on indirect cues in the environment, including availability of protective cover, openness of sightlines and distance to refuge to evaluate potential predation risk. Interactions between the indirect cues that influence an animal's perception of predation risk are poorly understood, especially for prey at risk of avian and terrestrial predation. We conducted a giving-up density (GUD) study to examine how interactions between terrestrial predator presence, ceiling (canopy) cover, wall (shrub/grass) cover and distance to nearest tree influence fox squirrel, Sciurus niger, risk perception. The GUD indicates an animal's perceived predation risk, such that increased GUD (decreased foraging) corresponds to greater perceived risk. We found that fox squirrels perceived cues of predation risk in response to a synergistic interaction between ceiling and wall cover. In open canopy areas, fox squirrels increased GUD where there was also increased wall cover. However, fox squirrels reduced GUD in closed canopy areas where there was also increased wall cover. We attribute the differential effects of wall cover depending on ceiling cover to the effectiveness of open sightlines in decreasing predation risk from avian or terrestrial predators. Our study shows that the effect of vegetation structure on prey risk perception and antipredator behaviour depends on the relative risk posed by avian and terrestrial predators that use different hunting strategies.
       
  • Male bull-headed shrikes use food caches to improve their
           condition-dependent song performance and pairing success
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Yuusuke Nishida, Masaoki TakagiFood caching is common in many animal species and is thought to have evolved largely by natural selection. We propose that sexual selection also plays an important role in the evolution of food caching. The sexual trait promotion (STP) hypothesis predicts that if male food caches provide supplemental nutrition allowing males to improve their sexual traits (e.g. song) serving a role in female choice, then sexual selection would act on male food caching. To test this idea, we investigated correlations between the number of caches that males retrieved, male song and pairing success, in the bull-headed shrike, Lanius bucephalus. Our field observations showed that the number of food caches males retrieved was positively correlated with male singing tempo (i.e. the number of notes uttered per second), not with other song characteristics (e.g. repertoire size). The bull-headed shrike's singing tempo has been found to reflect the nutritional condition of the singer and females choose their mates based on the tempo. Food supplementation experiments showed that males with artificially augmented food caches sang at higher speeds and mated with females earlier than controls; conversely, cache removal experiments showed that males with depleted food caches sang at lower speeds and were more likely to fail to mate than controls. Our results suggest that the food caches of male bull-headed shrikes provide them with supplementary nutrition allowing them to improve a condition-dependent song characteristic, which in turn serves the function of female attraction. We therefore conclude that sexual selection is an important evolutionary force acting on male food caching.
       
  • Diet cues and their utility for risk assessment in degraded habitats
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Mark I. McCormick, Maud C.O. Ferrari, Eric P. Fakan, Randall P. Barry, Douglas P. ChiversThe change in coral reefs from live coral to algal-dominated seascapes prevents some fish species from using chemical alarm cues to gain information about their risk of predation. Field experiments showed that Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, were able to learn the identity of individual novel predators from a cocktail of odours from three predators derived from digestive products. Learning only occurred when the predators had been fed conspecifics of the prey species in the presence of water that had passed over live hard coral. This allows novel predators to be identified long after the immediate capture and ingestion event. Fish that had the same learning opportunity in degraded water took more risk and died faster on habitat patches in the field. Ambon damselfish respond to chemical alarm cues from closely related Pomacentrus nagasakiensis, in both live and degraded water, yet experiments suggested they cannot use the congeneric diet odours to label predators. However, we did find a modest survival benefit under natural conditions, suggesting some limited learning occurred. Findings suggest that as coral habitats degrade, fishes that are affected by the changing chemistry will have a greatly reduced range of mechanisms for obtaining and updating threat information, altering the resilience of communities.
       
  • How life in a tolerant society affects the attention to social information
           in baboons
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Lauriane Faraut, Julia FischerAn animals' ability to classify relationships between conspecifics according to kinship, affiliation and dominance constitutes an important adaptation to life in social groups. Yet, variation in the degree of competition as well as in association patterns is assumed to put differential pressure on social cognition. Because little is known about social cognition in more tolerant societies, we investigated the social knowledge of Guinea baboons, Papio papio, ranging in the Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal. Guinea baboons live in a fluid multilevel society with ‘units’, ‘parties’ and ‘gangs’. Units comprise a ‘primary’ male, a small number of females and young. Male–female associations may last between a few weeks to several years, and females freely transfer between males at all levels of the society. Male–male relationships are characterized by high spatial tolerance and low level of competition. We examined whether males tracked changes in male–female associations at the level of the unit. We played back grunt exchanges between a female and a primary male to 25 males and recorded male responses. The grunt sequences simulated an affiliative interaction between individuals from different units (potentially indicating a female transfer to a new male, hereafter ‘inconsistent’ condition) or from individuals of the same unit (‘consistent’ condition). Surprisingly, males looked longer when exposed to the consistent compared to the inconsistent condition. In the more competitive chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, in contrast, animals responded more strongly to experimentally simulated deviations from existing social patterns. Our study suggests that the value of social information indeed varies with the degree of competition of Guinea baboons: because of female choice, little is at stake for males when a female transfers to a new male. Furthermore, the high gregariousness of the animals may favour the classification of deviant interaction patterns, at least initially, as ‘social noise’.
       
  • Pause and travel: How sneakers approach closer to spawning sites under
           territorial vigilance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 152Author(s): Kazutaka OtaMale alternative reproductive tactics typically consist of territorial and sneaking tactics. In substrate-brooding fishes, sneakers try to steal fertilizations by suddenly rushing towards females from outside the spawning sites, but they are usually caught through territorial vigilance before rushing. Nevertheless, attention is seldom paid to how sneakers overcome territorial vigilance, which limits the ecological and evolutionary understanding of alternative reproductive tactics. I addressed this issue in the triplefin blenny, Enneapterygius etheostoma, by analysing sneaker behaviour recorded in the wild. Prior to rushing, sneakers gradually got closer to the spawning sites while repeatedly pausing and moving forwards but spent most of their time pausing. They moved slowly for short distances. Territorial males detected about three-quarters of the sneaking attempts. A sneaker was detected usually immediately after starting to move, indicating that movement was a major cause of sneaking failure. Longer and faster movements were detected more frequently, particularly further from spawning sites. Movements were also detected more when territorial males faced towards, rather than away from, the sneakers. This suggests that both sneaker performance and the attentive state of territorial males affect sneaking success. Sneakers more frequently started moving from behind territorial males than from in front of them, and were then less frequently detected. In sum, sneakers seemed to conceal their movements through pause-travel locomotion, adjusting their movements and choosing favourable situations. Nevertheless, they were still detected by motion-sensitive territorial males.
       
  • Male Norway rats cooperate according to direct but not generalized
           reciprocity rules
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2019Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Manon K. Schweinfurth, Jonathan Aeschbacher, Massimiliano Santi, Michael TaborskyReciprocal cooperation may evolve if the costs of help are reliably compensated for by delayed returns provided in future interactions. The associated probabilities and cost–benefit ratios may vary systematically between the sexes, which often display different dispersal strategies and interaction patterns. Whereas female Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, are known to apply direct and generalized decision rules of reciprocal cooperation, the rules according to which males reciprocate favours are less well understood. Therefore, we investigated the cooperation propensity of male wild-type Norway rats. Male test rats experienced cooperating partners that provided food to them, or defecting partners that refused to provide help. Afterwards, test rats could donate food to previously experienced or unknown partners, resembling direct and generalized reciprocity paradigms, respectively. Male rats cooperated according to direct reciprocity, suggesting that this decision rule is similarly important for both sexes. However, whereas females additionally help according to generalized reciprocity, males did not apply this rule. These results suggest a sex difference in reciprocal decision rules, highlighting the potential importance of different interaction patterns and cost–benefit ratios between the sexes.
       
 
 
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