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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 240, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Behaviour
  [SJR: 1.907]   [H-I: 126]   [160 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-3472 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8282
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Drivers and consequences of variation in individual social connectivity
    • Authors: Allison E. Williams; Katherine E.L. Worsley-Tonks; Vanessa O. Ezenwa
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Allison E. Williams, Katherine E.L. Worsley-Tonks, Vanessa O. Ezenwa
      There is a growing interest in identifying specific causes and consequences of variation in individual social behaviour as a means of understanding how different individuals balance the costs and benefits of group living. In this study, we used social networks to examine variation in individual social behaviour in wild Grant's gazelles, Nanger granti, and explored potential drivers and consequences of this variation. First, we quantified two aspects of individual network position (weighted degree and closeness) on a monthly basis for 12 consecutive months and examined life-history (age) and abiotic (rainfall) factors that could explain among-individual variation in network position. Next, we examined the level of within-individual repeatability in network position over time. We then tested for potential consequences of this variation focusing on parasite infection and diet quality. Rainfall and age were strong predictors of variation in closeness but not degree. Interestingly, we found that one aspect of individual network position (closeness) varied over time, while another (degree) was moderately repeatable. The difference in within-individual repeatability of the two measures may be explained by the dependence of closeness on rainfall. In addition, we found that individual network position had consequences for both parasitism and diet, but the magnitude and direction of these effects depended on parasite type, connectivity measure and environmental conditions. Overall, our results suggest that environmental and host factors strongly influence variability in certain aspects of social connectivity in Grant's gazelles, and that abiotic and biotic forces, together, mediate the consequences of social network position.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T04:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Familiarity with neighbours affects intrusion risk in territorial red
           squirrels
    • Authors: Erin Siracusa; Stan Boutin; Murray M. Humphries; Jamieson C. Gorrell; David W. Coltman; Ben Dantzer; Jeffrey E. Lane; Andrew G. McAdam
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Erin Siracusa, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey E. Lane, Andrew G. McAdam
      Interactions with conspecifics are an important aspect of an individual's environment. Although it is well known that the presence of conspecifics can have important effects on behaviour, in general it is also now acknowledged that the composition of the social environment can vary, and that this variation may have profound effects on individual behaviour and fitness. Using a wild population of North American red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, we investigated the importance of the composition of the social environment in a territorial species by assessing whether the risk of intrusion faced by territory owners varied with the degree of relatedness and familiarity in their social neighbourhoods. To test this, we conducted temporary removals of territory owners and observed the time until intrusion and the identity of intruding individuals. We found that individuals in neighbourhoods with low average familiarity faced a higher risk of intrusion and that unfamiliar neighbours were more likely to intrude. Surprisingly, we found that related neighbours also posed a higher risk of intrusion. The results from our study suggest that familiarity with neighbours may be an ecologically and evolutionarily relevant measure of the social environment, even in a species considered to be ‘asocial’. Future studies should consider the potential importance of the social environment, which has heretofore been mostly overlooked, as a relevant selective pressure in asocial, territorial species.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T04:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.024
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Interference in early dual-task learning by predatory mites
    • Authors: Inga C. Christiansen; Peter Schausberger
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Inga C. Christiansen, Peter Schausberger
      Animals are commonly exposed to multiple environmental stimuli, but whether, and under which circumstances, they can attend to multiple stimuli in multitask learning challenges is elusive. Here, we assessed whether simultaneously occurring chemosensory stimuli interfere with each other in a dual-task learning challenge. We exposed predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus early in life to either only conspecifics (kin) or simultaneously conspecifics (kin) and food (thrips or pollen), to determine whether presence of food interferes with social familiarization and, vice versa, whether presence of conspecifics interferes with learning the cues of thrips. We found that N. californicus can become familiar with kin early in life and use kin recognition later in life to avoid kin cannibalism. However, when the juvenile predators were challenged by multiple stimuli associated with two different learning tasks, that is, when they grew up with conspecifics in the presence of food, they were no longer capable of social familiarization. In contrast, the presence of conspecifics did not compromise the predators' ability to learn the cues of thrips. Memory of experience with thrips allowed shorter attack latencies on thrips and increased oviposition by adult N. californicus. Proximately, the stimuli for learning the features of thrips were apparently more salient than those for learning to recognize kin. We argue that, ultimately, learning the cues of thrips at the expense of impeded social familiarization pays off because of negligible cannibalism risk in the presence of abundant food. Our study suggests that stimulus-driven prioritization of learning tasks is in line with the predictions of selective and limited attention theories, and provides a key example of interference in dual-task learning by an arthropod.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T04:24:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Chickadees neither win-shift nor win-stay when foraging
    • Authors: Nicole A. Guitar; Caroline G. Strang; Christopher J. Course; David F. Sherry
      Pages: 73 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Nicole A. Guitar, Caroline G. Strang, Christopher J. Course, David F. Sherry
      The win-shift versus win-stay distinction supposes that foraging animals use one of two movement rules when searching for food: win-stay to return to locations where they previously found food and win-shift to avoid locations where they previously found food. Win-shift and win-stay rules describe, for example, the behaviour of rats foraging in a radial arm maze, the behaviour of animals in delayed matching and nonmatching to sample tasks, and the behaviour of nectarivorous birds feeding on depleting and replenishing nectar sources. The present study investigated whether black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, searching for food use win-shift and win-stay rules in response to different reward contingencies. Chickadees first searched multiple spatially dispersed sites for food hidden randomly in these sites, then after several minutes returned to find these sites replenished in the win-stay condition, or empty and other sites baited in the win-shift condition. Birds performed no better than chance at returning to baited sites in the win-stay condition or avoiding previously baited sites in the win-shift condition. Instead, chickadees used preferred search patterns regardless of the win-shift or win-stay contingencies they experienced. Search sequences, however, showed greater stereotypy under win-stay than under win-shift conditions even though the locations of baited sites were determined randomly. Chickadees are year-round residents in relatively small home ranges and may forage using well-established movement rules that, in our experiments, led to neither win-stay nor win-shift behaviour. The stereotypy of search does, however, appear to be influenced by win-stay and win-shift foraging outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Introductory whistle is sufficient for early song recognition by
           golden-crowned sparrow nestlings
    • Authors: Emily J. Hudson; Daizaburo Shizuka
      Pages: 83 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Emily J. Hudson, Daizaburo Shizuka
      Many songbird species have a predisposition to learn conspecific songs, suggesting song learning may be guided by an innate auditory template. Evidence for such a template includes preferential response to conspecific song in early life, even before song learning begins. A prime example of an innate cue for selective song learning is the introductory whistle of white-crowned sparrows, Zon o trichia leucophrys. The songs of its sister species, the golden-crowned sparrow, Zon o trichia atricapilla, also contain an introductory whistle, which differs in structure from that of white-crowned sparrows. Here we tested the ability of nestling golden-crowned sparrows in a sympatric population to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs based on introductory whistles alone, prior to the onset of song learning. Golden-crowned sparrow nestlings responded with more chirps to playbacks of conspecific whistles than to heterospecific (white-crowned sparrow) whistles, and they responded similarly to full conspecific songs and conspecific whistles alone. We suggest that the introductory whistle alone is sufficient for song recognition in the golden-crowned sparrow. We discuss similarities and differences in the role of the introductory whistle between these sister taxa, and how this divergent song phrase may share a role in species recognition in both sister species. Identifying the cues underlying song recognition prior to song learning could be key to understanding the evolution of behavioural isolation between closely related songbird species.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Sir Patrick (Pat) P.G. Bateson FRS (1938–2017)
    • Authors: Carel ten Cate
      Pages: 89 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Carel ten Cate


      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • The give and take of food sharing in Sumatran orang-utans, Pongo abelii,
           and chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes
    • Authors: Katja Liebal; Federico Rossano
      Pages: 91 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Katja Liebal, Federico Rossano
      Proximate factors of primate food sharing, in contrast to its evolutionary explanations, have received little attention. Active food sharing is considered prosocial, since possessors may benefit others by spontaneously passing food or by reacting to ‘signals of need’. However, in contrast to passive sharing, active food sharing is rare in most nonhuman primates. Surprisingly, previous research showed that captive Sumatran orang-utans actively share food more frequently than chimpanzees and bonobos, and hence, appear more prosocial. Yet these comparisons with the two Pan species were relying on previously published studies, which differed with regard to methods and food types used. Here we used the identical procedure and food type to compare the food-sharing behaviour of 10 captive Sumatran orang-utans and 18 chimpanzees, in situations where individuals could monopolize a sharable food source. We focused on communicative behaviours used to initiate food transfers, and assessed whether and how much food was transferred in response to these initiation attempts. In both species, most transfers were initiated by taking the food, resulting in passive sharing, while active sharing by offering food or after requesting it occurred only rarely. However, orang-utans differed from chimpanzees in several aspects. Because the food was mostly monopolized by the adult male, orang-utans attempted to initiate food transfers more frequently, resisted more to taking attempts, and were less likely to transfer whole food items. In both species, requests were less likely to result in food transfers, indicating that in situations involving access to food, they do not necessarily respond to ‘signals of need’. We argue that in addition to instances of active sharing, other factors such as the degree of food monopolization, response rates to ‘signals of need’, and the quality and quantity of transferred food need to be considered to gain a more detailed picture of prosociality across species.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Choosy males in Jamaican field crickets
    • Authors: Susan M. Bertram; Michelle J. Loranger; Ian R. Thomson; Sarah J. Harrison; Genevieve L. Ferguson; Mykell L. Reifer; Deborah H. Corlett; Patricia Adair Gowaty
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Susan M. Bertram, Michelle J. Loranger, Ian R. Thomson, Sarah J. Harrison, Genevieve L. Ferguson, Mykell L. Reifer, Deborah H. Corlett, Patricia Adair Gowaty
      Male mate choice is an often neglected aspect of sexual selection studies. While theory predicts that females should exhibit mate choice due to their comparatively greater investment in gametes, males may also exhibit mate choice for a variety of reasons, including seeking mates with greater fecundity. Furthermore, males may exhibit discriminant or indiscriminate mate choice as a function of their own intrinsic characteristics, such as body size or condition. Here we experimentally evaluated male Jamaican field cricket, Gryllus assimilis, mating preferences using randomly selected females and determined how both male and female morphology (body size and residual mass) and male signalling behaviour influence male mate preference. Results show that male crickets exhibit mating preferences, with larger males tending to exhibit more consistent mate preferences than smaller males. Contrary to predictions, males did not prefer larger or relatively heavier females, suggesting that males may not be basing their choosiness on these proxy measures of female fecundity. Our findings highlight the need for continued research on male mate choice and identifying the intrinsic characteristics of both sexes that drive them.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Lower settlement following a forced displacement experiment: nonbreeding
           as a dispersal cost in a wild bird'
    • Authors: Marion Germain; Tomas Pärt; Blandine Doligez
      Pages: 109 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Marion Germain, Tomas Pärt, Blandine Doligez
      Dispersal is a key life history trait impacting ecological and evolutionary processes. Yet, the fitness consequences of dispersal remain poorly investigated. Using a displacement experiment of 616 individuals in a patchy population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we investigated behavioural responses to forced movement in terms of settlement, subsequent breeding performance and return rate. Newly arrived birds were caught and displaced between patches or released back in the patch of capture. We analysed (1) the probability of successful settlement within the study area, (2) for displaced birds, the probability of accepting the forced movement rather than returning to the patch of capture, (3) components of reproductive performance and (4) return rate in subsequent years according to experimental treatment. The probability of settling within the study area tended to be lower for displaced than control birds and was lower for immigrants than local birds. This suggests that displacement induced long-distance dispersal movements or nonbreeding, which could reflect costs of unfamiliarity with the environment. Nondispersers (individuals caught early in the breeding season in the same patch as their previous one) were more likely to return to their patch of capture, probably because of higher benefits of familiarity. Once individuals had settled, their breeding performance did not vary markedly between treatments, although displaced individuals that did not return to their patch of capture raised lighter young than other individuals. This could indicate a lower phenotypic quality of these individuals or, again, a cost of breeding in an unfamiliar environment. Finally, individuals that settled (and nondispersers) were more likely to return to the study area in subsequent years than individuals that disappeared (and immigrants/dispersers, respectively). Together, these results suggest that, in addition to the costs of transience, dispersal (here forced) may entail costs linked to settlement in an unfamiliar habitat.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Uncovering the origins of dog–human eye contact: dingoes establish eye
           contact more than wolves, but less than dogs
    • Authors: Angie M. Johnston; Courtney Turrin; Lyn Watson; Alyssa M. Arre; Laurie R. Santos
      Pages: 123 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Angie M. Johnston, Courtney Turrin, Lyn Watson, Alyssa M. Arre, Laurie R. Santos
      Through domestication, dogs have developed a robust ability to form interspecific bonds with humans. Recent work comparing dogs and wolves suggests that eye contact is an important behaviour underlying these social bonds; however, it remains unclear how this feature of interspecific social bonding evolved. We explored eye contact in a unique comparison species that represents an intermediate point in canid domestication: the Australian dingo (Canis dingo). Across two different studies with two different human handlers, we examined dingo-initiated eye contact using a method similar to one previously used with dogs and wolves. In contrast to wolves tested previously, dingoes initiated eye contact with a human, but did so for a shorter time than dogs. Given that dingoes share only an early domestication history with dogs, our results suggest that the motivation to initiate eye contact with humans may have evolved relatively early in domestication. However, the tendency to maintain prolonged eye contact with a familiar human may have evolved later. These results shed new light on the evolutionary steps by which humans and dogs developed their unique social bond.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Social polyandry among siamangs: the role of habitat quality
    • Authors: Susan Lappan; Noviar Andayani; Margaret F. Kinnaird; Luca Morino; Anton Nurcahyo; Timothy G. O'Brien
      Pages: 145 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Susan Lappan, Noviar Andayani, Margaret F. Kinnaird, Luca Morino, Anton Nurcahyo, Timothy G. O'Brien
      In species where females do not associate spatially with other females, males usually range over an area including the home ranges of multiple females or defend the home range of one female. Nevertheless, social polyandry (multimale–unifemale grouping) occurs in some species. We examine an ecological constraints model relating habitat quality to facultative social polyandry in siamangs, Symphalangus syndactylus, by testing predictions of two hypotheses: (H1) variation in the size and density of important food trees affects the size of siamang home ranges and areas of exclusive use; (H2) socially polyandrous groups benefit from cooperative defence of the home range and area of exclusive use. Crown volume/ha of freestanding or strangler figs (Ficus), the most important siamang food, was negatively related to the size of the home range but not to the size of the area of exclusive use. Density and crown volume/ha of the second-most important plant food, Dracontomelon dao, was not related to the size of the home range or to the size of the area of exclusive use. Multimale groups had larger home ranges and areas of exclusive use than unimale groups, and the home ranges and areas of exclusive use of multimale groups encompassed more freestanding or strangling figs than those of unimale groups. Models of home range size including fig abundance (density or crown volume/ha) and the number of males as predictor variables suggested that multimale groups have larger home ranges than predicted by the relationship between fig abundance and home range size alone. While some other facultatively polyandrous species have larger home ranges in areas of poorer habitat quality, our results suggest a more complex situation for siamangs at our study site. Specifically, the density of large figs may constrain siamang ranging patterns, but multimale groups live in home ranges with more figs than those of unimale groups. Our results suggest that multimale groups may defend higher-quality territories than unimale groups.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Developmental social experience of parents affects behaviour of offspring
           in zebrafish
    • Authors: P. Tamilselvan; K.A. Sloman
      Pages: 153 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): P. Tamilselvan, K.A. Sloman
      Interactions between conspecifics early in life have the potential to shape phenotypic differences between individuals. These changes in phenotype may subsequently be passed to future offspring, something that has been studied in live-bearing mammals where there is often an element of parental care. The present study considers the transgenerational effects of social environment in zebrafish, Danio rerio, an egg-laying animal that shows no parental care, thus removing any influence of parental interaction and allowing the effects of conspecific interaction to be clearly determined. Zebrafish (F0) were reared from fertilization to reproduction in three different social treatments: isolation, groups of 30 or groups of 100. At 28 days post fertilization, individuals were tested for anxiety and activity and at 3 months old for aggression. These F0 fish were raised to sexual maturity and bred within their treatment group. The F1 generation were then raised in groups of 30, irrespective of parental social environment and were assessed for behaviour in the same way as their parents. Social isolation increased anxiety and decreased aggression in the F0 fish compared to those raised in social groups of 100. F0 fish raised in social groups of 30 showed an intermediate response. Differences in anxiety were not passed to the F1 generation; however, offspring of socially isolated fish were less aggressive than offspring of parents from social groups of 30 and 100. The social environment that an individual experienced from fertilization to reproduction affected their own behaviour and the behaviour of their offspring.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Testing predictions of movement behaviour in a hilltopping moth
    • Authors: Patrick Grof-Tisza; Zack Steel; Esther M. Cole; Marcel Holyoak; Richard Karban
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Patrick Grof-Tisza, Zack Steel, Esther M. Cole, Marcel Holyoak, Richard Karban
      ‘Hilltopping’ is a common mate-locating behaviour exhibited by numerous insect taxa; individuals aggregate on summits, ridges and other topographic features, and thereby increase their likelihood of mating. Recently, hilltopping has gained interest as a model system to study nonrandom dispersal. We tested four predictions from the hilltopping literature regarding individual movement behaviour and the resulting spatial distribution of summit aggregations. Through observations and capture–mark–recapture studies using the day-flying tiger moth, Arctia (formerly Platyprepia) virginalis, we found evidence for all predictions. The highest densities of moths were associated with a few, high-elevation summits and were recaptured over multiple days. No individuals were found to move between summit aggregations and mated females had shorter residency times than males. We discuss our results in the context of the predictions, the behaviour of other hilltopping species, implications for population structure and spatial population dynamics.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.028
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Mate choice intensifies motor signalling in Drosophila
    • Authors: Allan Debelle; Alexandre Courtiol; Michael G. Ritchie; Rhonda R. Snook
      Pages: 169 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Allan Debelle, Alexandre Courtiol, Michael G. Ritchie, Rhonda R. Snook
      Mate choice has the potential to act on the evolution of motor performance via its direct influence on motor sexual signals. However, studies demonstrating this are rare. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of Drosophila pseudoobscura courtship song rate, a motor signal under mate choice in this species, and analysed the response of this signal to sexual selection manipulation using experimental evolution. We show that manipulating the opportunity for sexual selection led to changes in song production rate and singing endurance, with males from the polyandrous populations producing faster song rates over longer time periods than males from monogamous populations. We also show that song rate was correlated with estimates of overall courtship vigour. Our results suggest that the action of mate choice on a motor signal has affected male motor performance displayed during courtship. We consider potential selective benefits associated with changes in motor performance, including condition-dependent signalling, and discuss the implications of these results for the study of motor signals under sexual selection.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T14:26:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 133 (2017)
       
  • Sensory influence on navigation in the weakly electric fish Gnathonemus
           petersii
    • Authors: Sarah Schumacher; Gerhard von der Emde; Theresa Burt de Perera
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Sarah Schumacher, Gerhard von der Emde, Theresa Burt de Perera
      Most animals possess multiple sensory systems, which can be used during navigation. Different senses obtain environmental information on different spatial scales and thus provide a different basis for efficient navigation. Here we used the weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii to investigate how different sensory inputs influence the navigational strategy and whether landmark information can be transferred flexibly between two sensory systems. Fish were trained to swim through a maze using a certain route indicated by either visual landmarks, electrical landmarks or without any landmarks. In subsequent tests, egocentric (internal cues, such as motion patterns) and allocentric cues (external cues like landmarks) were put in conflict by relocating the local landmarks. We found that all fish, independent of the available sensory input, chose the egocentric over the allocentric route. However, visual landmarks significantly improved the training duration compared to the other groups, suggesting an involvement of allocentric visual cues during route acquisition. In a second experimental series, fish were trained to use either visual or electrical landmarks for navigation and were subsequently tested in sensory transfer tests. Fish trained with visual landmarks were able to learn this allocentric navigation task and were capable of cross-modal landmark recognition, although navigation based on electrical landmarks was less efficient. The fish trained with electrical landmarks did not learn the task at all, suggesting that the short perceptual range of the electric sense prevented learning of allocentric navigation. Together our results show that the type of sensory input influences the efficiency of allocentric navigation in G. petersii and that these fish can use egocentric and allocentric strategies flexibly to navigate successfully under varying environmental conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Boldness is for rookies: prefight boldness and fighting success in a sea
           anemone
    • Authors: Sarah M. Lane; Mark Briffa
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Sarah M. Lane, Mark Briffa
      Fighting experience (specifically winning or losing a fight) can significantly alter boldness, a component of resource-holding potential (RHP). Previous studies have shown that both the repeatability of boldness and mean-level boldness can be affected by fighting experience and that these effects are strongest in the recipients of agonistic behaviour. However, whether these postfight changes in boldness impact future contest success and whether subsequent contests further affect boldness remain unknown. Furthermore, little is known about the effects of the specific tactics used within a fight (within-fight experience) and how these might influence future fight performance and boldness. Here, we investigated the relationship between fighting success and boldness (measured as recovery time when startled) across repeated contests in the beadlet sea anemone, Actinia equina, measuring boldness on five occasions before, between and after two contests. We found that boldness (both repeatability and mean-level) was generally robust to the effects of fighting experience, apart from a decrease in the immediate boldness of losers after their second fight. Furthermore, we found that while prefight boldness significantly predicted fighting success and the level of aggression used in an individual's first fight, it did not predict victory or aggression in the second fight. Our findings thus indicate that different traits may be important in determining fighting success in consecutive fights and, moreover, that fighting experience may alter which traits contribute to an individual's RHP.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Risk preference during collective decision making: ant colonies make
           risk-indifferent collective choices
    • Authors: Carolin Hübner; Tomer J. Czaczkes
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Carolin Hübner, Tomer J. Czaczkes
      The study of how animals respond to risk has had a strong influence on our understanding of animal behaviour. By risk, we refer to a situation where organisms must exploit a resource with an unstable quality. Animals may have different risk preferences: they may be risk seeking (e.g. prefer a gamble of 2 or 4 versus a safe bet of 3), risk averse or risk insensitive. Among invertebrates, bees are the most studied group in terms of risk preference. However, in eusocial insects such as bees and ants, the unit of selection is the colony. Thus, the risk preference of eusocial animals is best understood at the level of the group. More broadly, many group-living animals must make consensus decisions between options with varying risk. However, to our knowledge no study has yet set out to examine risk preference during collective decision making by groups. This study aimed to address this gap. Colonies of the ant Lasius niger were given access to two feeders, one offering a fixed 0.55M sucrose solution and the other alternating every 3min between 0.1M and 1.0M. Colonies almost always (26/28 trials) made a collective decision. While there was a small tendency for the variable feeder to be chosen if it initially offered 1M sucrose, broadly speaking the fixed or variable feeders were equally likely to be chosen. Ant colonies thus showed risk neutrality during collective foraging decisions. Unexpectedly, and contrary to the classical understanding of pheromone-based collective decision making, the choice of feeder was only very weakly influenced by the initial quality of the variable feeder. We propose that risk preference during collective decision making by groups is a woefully understudied topic, and worthy of future work in both recruitment-based and nonrecruiting decision-making systems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Effect of no-night light environment on behaviour, learning performance
           and personality in zebra finches
    • Authors: Neelu Anand Jha; Vinod Kumar
      Pages: 29 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Neelu Anand Jha, Vinod Kumar
      A periodic day–night environment is critical for daily behavioural patterns and advanced brain functions such as learning and cognition in animals. We investigated whether a no-night light environment would impair these functions in parent and F1 and F2 zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata. Particularly, we examined song acquisition as a measure of learning, tested cognitive performance with reference to spatial and colour association tasks, and assessed personality with respect to an exploratory trait, first in the parent (P) and subsequently in F1 and F2 birds born and raised under 12:12h light:dark or constant light (hence no-night, LL) environments. Daily patterns in activity and singing were monitored as circadian response indicators. After initial decay, the rhythmic patterns in daily activity and singing were restored after several weeks in the majority of P and F1 birds under LL; F2 birds displayed robust circadian rhythms in both behavioural patterns under LL. Further, LL decreased participation and performance in cognitive tests and reduced exploratory behaviour in birds from all generations. Overall, we found negative effects of the LL environment on daily behavioural patterns, advanced brain functions (i.e. learning and cognition) and personality in zebra finches when adult and in subsequent generations. These results give insights into the possible impact on animals of night-time illumination such as in an overly lit urban habitat.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Object movement re-enactment in free-ranging Kune Kune piglets
    • Authors: Ariane Veit; Marianne Wondrak; Ludwig Huber
      Pages: 49 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Ariane Veit, Marianne Wondrak, Ludwig Huber
      Learning by observing others is especially beneficial for young and naïve individuals. The relationship to the social partner is thus important. While peers are often used as demonstrators to test for social learning abilities in a species, thereby studying horizontal transmission of information, this study focused on the vertical transmission of information, i.e. learning across generations, in a highly social species. Half-a-year-old piglets of the Kune Kune breed, Sus scrofa domesticus (in contrast to the usual subjects in studies on pigs raised and kept in seminatural conditions), were first exposed to their mother or aunt pushing one of two differently coloured bars to either the left or right side to open a sliding door, and were then tested after 1min, 1h and 1-day retention intervals. Results indicated that subjects recalled the movement of the door, rather than using local or stimulus enhancement. A second test series revealed that the pigs used the demonstrated opening technique and even remembered it after a delay of 24h. Nonexposed piglets did not show a side bias during their first encounters with the apparatus; however, habit formation was at play during later test sessions and was possibly the reason for long-term memory of the self-acquired techniques. Altogether, this study revealed that piglets learned how to solve a manipulative foraging problem from both their mother and their aunt, probably by acquiring some information through observation and then memorizing it for up to a day.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Ontogenetic milestones of chemotactic behaviour reflect innate
           species-specific response to habitat cues in larval fish
    • Authors: J. Jack O'Connor; David J. Booth; Stephen E. Swearer; D. Stewart Fielder; Jeffrey M. Leis
      Pages: 61 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): J. Jack O'Connor, David J. Booth, Stephen E. Swearer, D. Stewart Fielder, Jeffrey M. Leis
      The distribution and connectivity of marine populations are largely dependent on biophysical factors affecting pelagic larval dispersal between spawning at adult spawning sites and settlement to juvenile nursery habitats. Behaviour and swimming ability of pelagic larvae are increasingly understood to influence patterns of dispersal, but it is unclear which sensory cues are involved and when during ontogeny these abilities first develop. Here we studied the early ontogenetic development of responses to olfactory cues from coastal and estuarine waters in larvae of two temperate estuarine-associated fish species, Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, and mulloway, Argyrosomus japonicus, to determine when olfaction begins to influence dispersal. Olfactory responses to habitat-associated cues were not present when larvae first transitioned from nonswimming to swimming (indicated by flexion of the notochord), but emerged after ca. 7 days in a species-specific manner that was consistent across different cohorts. Based on general additive models (GAMs), age (in days posthatch) best explained the ontogenetic pattern in both species. The emergence of chemotactic responses coincides with an exponential increase in swimming endurance reported for these species. This suggests the existence of ontogenetic milestones during larval development that, once reached, trigger active influence on dispersal. Salinity and pH did not influence choice behaviour after these ontogenetic milestones; however, the presence of cues generated by seagrass harvested from the estuary habitat elicited strong responses in fish larvae consistent with species-specific habitat preferences, indicating an important role for aquatic vegetation in driving these behaviours.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.026
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Coordinated provisioning in a dual-foraging pelagic seabird
    • Authors: C. Tyson; H. Kirk; A. Fayet; E.E. Van Loon; A. Shoji; B. Dean; C. Perrins; R. Freeman; T. Guilford
      Pages: 73 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): C. Tyson, H. Kirk, A. Fayet, E.E. Van Loon, A. Shoji, B. Dean, C. Perrins, R. Freeman, T. Guilford
      In long-lived species, care-giving parents are expected to balance their own condition with that of their offspring. Many species of seabirds display a unique behavioural adaptation for managing these conflicting demands known as dual foraging, in which long trips, largely for self-maintenance, are alternated with short trips, which are primarily for offspring care. While dual foraging is a widely studied behaviour, it entails a complication that is seldom discussed: if parents independently employ a dual-foraging strategy, chicks might be abandoned for extended periods when the long trips of both partners coincide. Whether partners coordinate their dual-foraging strategies, however, is largely unknown. To investigate this possibility, we used radiofrequency identification readers coupled with passive integrated transponder tags to record extended sequences of foraging trips for breeding Manx shearwaters, Puffinus puffinus. Our results show a pattern of foraging trips that indicates a high level of coordination between parents, which facilitates consistent provisioning. Additionally, we show that the propensity for pairs to coordinate declines across the chick-rearing period. Given the potential costs of not coordinating, we expect this behaviour to be widely spread among dual-foraging species.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T16:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.022
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Paternal investment with an uncertain future: effects of predator exposure
           on filial cannibalism and nesting behaviour
    • Authors: Nicholas D.S. Deal; Topi K. Lehtonen; Kai Lindström; Bob B.M. Wong
      Pages: 81 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Nicholas D.S. Deal, Topi K. Lehtonen, Kai Lindström, Bob B.M. Wong
      Owing to trade-offs between investment in current and future reproduction, factors that diminish a parent's survival prospects, such as predation threat, are expected to increase investment in existing young. Nevertheless, effects of predation risk on parental investment have only rarely been examined, and not at all within the context of filial cannibalism (parental consumption of their own offspring). We examined filial cannibalism and nest characteristics in a small fish with paternal egg care, the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus, both when exposed to a common piscivore, the perch, Perca fluviatilis, and in the absence of predators. We found that when males consumed only some of their eggs (partial filial cannibalism), the number of eaten eggs did not depend on predation threat, possibly indicating that partial clutch consumption is largely motivated by benefits to existing young. Total filial cannibalism (whole clutch consumption) was marginally less common under predator exposure, while its strongest predictor was small clutch size. This suggests that the return on parental investment has a greater influence on total filial cannibalism than the likelihood of future breeding. Regarding nest architecture, males that consumed their entire brood after exposure to a predator built larger nest entrances, possibly to facilitate predator evasion. Males that cared for at least part of their brood, however, maintained small nest entrances regardless of predation threat. Furthermore, more elaborate nests were not associated with greater egg consumption, suggesting that filial cannibalism is not employed to sustain nest building.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T16:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.024
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • As dusk falls: collective decisions about the return to sleeping sites in
           meerkats
    • Authors: Gabriella E.C. Gall; Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin; Tim Clutton-Brock; Marta B. Manser
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Gabriella E.C. Gall, Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin, Tim Clutton-Brock, Marta B. Manser
      Social animal groups often make consensus decisions about when to return to a sleeping site after a day of foraging. These decisions can depend on extrinsic as well as intrinsic factors, and can range from unshared to shared. Here we investigated how decisions of meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to return to their burrows are coordinated, whether they are shared or monopolized by dominant individuals, and what factors influence the timing and speed of return. Individual meerkats can initiate group movements using ‘lead’ calls, and groups can change foraging patches using ‘move’ calls in a quorum response. We found that both call types could be produced during the return to the burrow, with the probability of move calls increasing as sunset approached, and the probability of lead calls increasing with greater distance to the burrow when sunset was imminent. Dominant and subordinate individuals did not differ significantly in move and lead call rate. Further, the time of return was better predicted by the foraging success of all subordinates in the group (with the group returning later when success was low) than by the foraging success of the dominant individuals. This suggests that decisions to return are shared rather than controlled by dominants. The speed of return depended both on extrinsic factors, such as the presence of pups, the time until sunset and the distance to the burrow, and on intrinsic factors such as satiation. Our results indicate that both the speed and timing of the return depend on urgency, and the higher incidence of lead calls when groups are far away from the burrow near dark suggests a possible change in the decision process from shared to unshared as urgency increases. Our study highlights the impact of time constraints during decision-making processes and in particular on the level of decision sharing.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T16:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Extreme allomaternal care and unequal task participation by unmated
           females in a cooperatively breeding spider
    • Authors: Anja Junghanns; Christina Holm; Mads Fristrup Schou; Anna Boje Sørensen; Gabriele Uhl; Trine Bilde
      Pages: 101 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Anja Junghanns, Christina Holm, Mads Fristrup Schou, Anna Boje Sørensen, Gabriele Uhl, Trine Bilde
      Division of reproductive behaviour and alloparental care are key aspects of many animal societies. In cooperatively breeding species, variation in helping effort and unequal task participation are frequently observed. However, the extent to which the reproductive state of an individual affects the tasks performed during offspring care remains poorly understood. In the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola, approximately 40% of females reproduce, and mothers show extended maternal care including eggsac tending, regurgitation feeding and matriphagy, in which they are consumed by the offspring. We asked whether and to what extent virgin females participate in extreme maternal care and whether they differ from reproducing females in foraging activity. We show that virgin females contributed to all aspects of extended brood care, including regurgitation feeding and matriphagy. This suggests a physiological adaptation in virgin females to cooperative breeding, since in the subsocial Stegodyphus lineatus only mated females provide extended maternal care. Although virgin females and mothers are behaviourally totipotent, we found evidence for task differentiation as virgins engaged less in brood care and more in prey attack than mothers. High relatedness among nestmates and low probability of future reproduction in virgin helpers suggest alignment of reproductive interests between mothers and allomothers. Therefore, extreme allomaternal care by virgin helpers can be considered an adaptation to cooperative breeding in social spiders.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T16:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Aggression and hormones are associated with heterogeneity in parasitism
           and parasite dynamics in the brown mouse lemur
    • Authors: Sarah Zohdy; Donal Bisanzio; Stacey Tecot; Patricia C. Wright; Jukka Jernvall
      Pages: 109 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Sarah Zohdy, Donal Bisanzio, Stacey Tecot, Patricia C. Wright, Jukka Jernvall
      Animal behaviours, like aggression, can directly affect host health by influencing exposure to parasites. Aggressive individuals may experience an increase in agonistic interactions and contact rates with conspecifics, which might increase their probability of acquiring parasites. However, aggression is not the only factor that shapes parasitism; proximate mechanisms like hormone-modulated immunosuppression can also have broad impacts. Here, we hypothesized that high levels of aggression, cortisol and testosterone would be positively associated with parasitism and that aggressive individuals would play a larger role spreading parasites to conspecifics than would docile individuals. We measured aggression using the level of aggressive response to human handling during capture. Our aim was to examine associations between aggression and hormones (cortisol and testosterone) on variation in endo- and ectoparasitism in a population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) over a 3-year period. By tracking the movement of lice (directly transmitted parasites) in the population, we also examined the effect of host aggression on population-wide parasite dynamics. We show that animals with high testosterone and cortisol were more likely to exhibit aggressive behaviours, and cortisol was associated with significantly higher ectoparasite infestations. Aggressive individuals were significantly more infested by lice, and also donated significantly more lice to conspecifics in the population. Taken together, our results offer insight into the individual and population health costs of aggression, and empirical support of a trade-off between aggression and ectoparasitism, which may have driven the evolution of aggression and interactions with conspecifics.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T16:21:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Increased insertion number leads to increased sperm transfer and
           fertilization success in a nursery web spider
    • Authors: Alissa G. Anderson; Eileen A. Hebets
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Alissa G. Anderson, Eileen A. Hebets
      Across animals, a male's fitness is largely dictated by his ability to fertilize eggs; and there exists a plethora of male adaptations associated with increasing fertilization success. In the nursery web spider, Pisaurina mira, males restrain females prior to and during copulation by wrapping them with silk. Previous research demonstrates that copulatory silk wrapping reduces a male's chance of being sexually cannibalized and increases the number of sperm transfer opportunities (termed insertions) that a male can achieve within a mating. While avoiding cannibalism provides an obvious survival benefit to males, the impact of insertion number on male fitness remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that increased insertion number realized through copulatory silk wrapping increases (1) the quantity of sperm transferred and (2) fertilization success. To accomplish this, we directly quantified the amount of sperm in male pedipalps (i.e. the male sperm storage organ) before mating and after obtaining one or two insertions. We also, indirectly quantified fertilization success by measuring the number of hatched offspring when males were capable of achieving one versus two insertions within a mating. In support of our hypotheses, we found that males transfer roughly twice the amount of sperm when achieving two insertions compared to one. We additionally found that the amount of sperm transferred is negatively related to female size. In terms of offspring number, females obtaining two insertions had more offspring compared to females obtaining only one insertion. These results show that males achieve a fertilization benefit from increased insertion number, which is obtained through the male behaviour of copulatory silk wrapping.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • The multidimensional behavioural hypervolumes of two interacting species
           predict their space use and survival
    • Authors: James L.L. Lichtenstein; Colin M. Wright; Brendan McEwen; Noa Pinter-Wollman; Jonathan N. Pruitt
      Pages: 129 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): James L.L. Lichtenstein, Colin M. Wright, Brendan McEwen, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Jonathan N. Pruitt
      Individual animals differ consistently in their behaviour, thus impacting a wide variety of ecological outcomes. Recent advances in animal personality research have established the ecological importance of the multidimensional behavioural volume occupied by individuals and by multispecies communities. Here, we examine the degree to which the multidimensional behavioural volume of a group predicts the outcome of both intra- and interspecific interactions. In particular, we test the hypothesis that a population of conspecifics will experience low intraspecific competition when the population occupies a large volume in behavioural space. We further hypothesize that populations of interacting species will exhibit greater interspecific competition when one or both species occupy large volumes in behavioural space. We evaluate these hypotheses by studying groups of katydids (Scudderia nymphs) and froghoppers (Philaenus spumarius), which compete for food and space on their shared host plant, Solidago canadensis. We found that individuals in single-species groups of katydids positioned themselves closer to one another, suggesting reduced competition, when groups occupied a large behavioural volume. When both species were placed together, we found that the survival of froghoppers was greatest when both froghoppers and katydids occupied a small volume in behavioural space, particularly at high froghopper densities. These results suggest that groups that occupy large behavioural volumes can have low intraspecific competition but high interspecific competition. Thus, behavioural hypervolumes appear to have ecological consequences at both the level of the population and the community and may help to predict the intensity of competition both within and across species.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T17:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Understanding animal social structure: exponential random graph models in
           animal behaviour research
    • Authors: Matthew J. Silk; David N. Fisher
      Pages: 137 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Matthew J. Silk, David N. Fisher
      The social environment is a pervasive influence on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of animal populations. Recently, social network analysis has provided an increasingly powerful and diverse toolset to enable animal behaviour researchers to quantify the social environment of animals and the impact that it has on ecological and evolutionary processes. However, there is considerable scope for improving these methods further. We outline an approach specifically designed to model the formation of network links, exponential random graph models (ERGMs), which have great potential for modelling animal social structure. ERGMs are generative models that treat network topology as a response variable. This makes them ideal for answering questions related directly to how and why social associations or interactions occur, from the modelling of population level transmission, through within-group behavioural dynamics to social evolutionary processes. We discuss how ERGMs have been used to study animal behaviour previously, and how recent developments in the ERGM framework can increase the scope of their use further. We also highlight the strengths and weaknesses of this approach relative to more conventional methods, and provide some guidance on the situations and research areas in which they can be used appropriately. ERGMs have the potential to be an important part of an animal behaviour researcher's toolkit and fully integrating them into the field should enhance our ability to understand what shapes animal social interactions, and identify the underlying processes that lead to the social structure of animal populations.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T17:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Prey behavioural reaction norms: Response to threat predicts
           susceptibility to predation
    • Authors: Benjamin J. Toscano
      Pages: 147 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Benjamin J. Toscano
      Behavioural syndromes (i.e. population-level behavioural correlations) arise when individuals, on average, maintain the same behavioural expression across different ecological contexts. Population-level syndromes can appear maladaptive, such as when prey remain active across the absence and presence of a sit-and-wait predator. Yet in nature, individuals often vary in syndrome adherence, exhibiting individual-level differences in behavioural plasticity. Here, I use an experiment to show that individual behavioural plasticity (a reduction in activity level in the presence of predation threat) increases a prey's likelihood of surviving predator exposure, and further predicts survival better than single-context activity level measures. In an additional experiment, I identify conditioning (nonlethal predator exposure) as a process that reduces prey activity level. This work demonstrates that although population-level behavioural syndromes can appear maladaptive, behavioural plasticity and conditioning could potentially ameliorate negative effects at the individual level.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T17:34:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Behavioural mechanisms of reproductive isolation between two hybridizing
           dung fly species
    • Authors: Athene Giesen; Wolf U. Blanckenhorn; Martin A. Schäfer
      Pages: 155 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Athene Giesen, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn, Martin A. Schäfer
      Characterization of the phenotypic differentiation and genetic basis of traits that can contribute to reproductive isolation is an important avenue to understand the mechanisms of speciation. We quantified the degree of prezygotic isolation and geographical variation in mating behaviour among four populations of Sepsis neocynipsea that occur in allopatry, parapatry or sympatry with four populations of its sister species Sepsis cynipsea. To obtain insights into the quantitative genetic basis and the role of selection against hybrid phenotypes we also investigated mating behaviour of F1 hybrid offspring and corresponding backcrosses with the parental populations. Our study documents successful hybridization under laboratory conditions, with low copulation frequencies in heterospecific pairings but higher frequencies in pairings of F1 hybrids signifying hybrid vigour. Analyses of F1 offspring and their parental backcrosses provided little evidence for sexual selection against hybrids. Longer copulation latencies in heterospecific pairings indicate species recognition, probably due to surface or volatile chemicals. The frequency of male mating attempts did not differ greatly between species or hybrid pairings, suggesting no male discrimination of mating partners. Female shaking duration, signifying female choice and/or reluctance to mate, differed strongly between the species and appears to contribute to avoiding heterospecific males; this trait is partially maternal inherited. Importantly, females of both species discriminated more strongly against males in areas of sympatry than allopatry indicating reinforcement. Shorter copulations in heterospecific parental pairings and longer copulations in F1 hybrids suggest mechanistic difficulties with sperm transfer. Overall, our study highlights an important role of character displacement affecting mating behaviour of hybridizing sepsid species in geographical areas of coexistence.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Why come back home' Breeding-site fidelity varies with group size and
           parasite load in a colonial bird
    • Authors: Charles R. Brown; Erin A. Roche; Mary Bomberger Brown
      Pages: 167 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Charles R. Brown, Erin A. Roche, Mary Bomberger Brown
      Fidelity to a past breeding site is widespread among animals and may confer both costs and benefits. Colonial species occur at specific sites that can accommodate multiple breeders, and the choice of whether to return to last year's site or disperse elsewhere can affect colony site use, the colony size distribution and individual fitness. For the colonial cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, which occupies colonies of widely different sizes, we used a 30-year field study in western Nebraska to investigate how the extent of infestation by ectoparasites and colony size affected breeders' colony site fidelity between years. We compared philopatry at colonies where parasitic swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius, had been removed by fumigation with that at nonfumigated sites exposed to natural levels of ectoparasites. About 25% of birds at nonfumigated colonies returned to their previous year's site, whereas about 69% of birds at fumigated colonies did so. Site fidelity was greatest at nonfumigated sites that changed the least in size between years. Birds were less likely to return to a nonfumigated site as the colony there became increasingly larger. Individuals philopatric to both nonfumigated and fumigated sites resided in colonies more similar in size between years than did dispersing birds. Most cliff swallows settled within 6km of their previous year's site, indicating that many nonphilopatric birds still may have had some familiarity with the local landscape surrounding the site to which they moved. Removal of ectoparasites at a site allows large colonies to persist there perennially, probably contributing to higher philopatry because such large colonies are rare and would have been difficult to find had the residents dispersed. Cliff swallows are likely to be sensitive to both colony size and general familiarity with a given site or landscape region, and probably integrate these with other cues to select breeding colonies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • The effects of adult sex ratio and density on parental care in Lethrus
           apterus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae)
    • Authors: Márta E. Rosa; Zoltán Barta; Attila Fülöp; Tamás Székely; András Kosztolányi
      Pages: 181 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Márta E. Rosa, Zoltán Barta, Attila Fülöp, Tamás Székely, András Kosztolányi
      Theoretical models suggest that adult sex ratio (ASR) and population density are expected to influence parental roles by reducing the mating opportunities of the commoner sex and by changing the intensity of sperm competition, although experimental evidence for these predictions is sparse. In biparental species with a high risk of extrapair paternity and consecutive egg laying over the breeding period, males are expected to reduce their parental investment and to spend more time on mate guarding if male density is high, to maximize their fitness. We conducted a field experiment to test this hypothesis in Lethrus apterus, a flightless biparental beetle species from the Geotrupidae family. Using seminatural enclosures, we assigned individuals to nine treatment groups differing in adult sex ratio (three levels) and individual density (three levels) using a full factorial experimental design. Nest attendance and parental provisioning (i.e. collecting and transporting leaves to the nest) were recorded as well as the number, size and sex ratio of the offspring. We found that as the level of male–male competition increased, generated either by the increased density of individuals or by the male-biased sex ratio, pairs showed higher nest attendance and collected fewer leaves. Male-biased groups also produced fewer offspring under high and low densities indicating a possible conflict of interest between the sexes over paternity and brood size. These results support the increased paternity assurance hypothesis under a high level of intrasexual competition.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • The impact of social context on behaviour and the recovery from welfare
           challenges in zebrafish, Danio rerio
    • Authors: Lewis J. White; Jack S. Thomson; Kieran C. Pounder; Robert C. Coleman; Lynne U. Sneddon
      Pages: 189 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Lewis J. White, Jack S. Thomson, Kieran C. Pounder, Robert C. Coleman, Lynne U. Sneddon
      Understanding how animals experience stress in a laboratory environment is crucial for improving their welfare. Increasing numbers of fish are being used in scientific studies and further research is required to ensure appropriate conditions are used to promote good conduct and correct housing as well as guaranteeing scientifically valid results. As zebrafish are a gregarious species, social enrichment is particularly important, with individuals separated from a group experiencing isolation stress. The present study aimed to determine the effects of social context on recovery from common laboratory procedures. Additionally, we investigated whether the noninvasive measure of water-borne cortisol can be utilized to gauge physiological stress by comparing it to an invasive measure, whole-body cortisol concentration. Zebrafish (AB strain, male) were housed in differing social contexts and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: undisturbed, anaesthetized and handled, or anaesthetized and fin clipped. Behavioural and physiological stress indicators were recorded before and after treatment. The results indicated social context, in the form of group housing, was important in enhancing recovery from welfare challenges in zebrafish, since group-housed fish resumed normal behaviours more quickly than pairs or individuals. Moreover, the strong correlation between water-borne and whole-body cortisol suggests that the noninvasive measure is an appropriate ethical alternative as an indicator of physiological stress. These findings represent an important refinement in reducing the severity of stress through housing zebrafish in their original groups and by adopting a noninvasive measure of cortisol which will act to reduce the numbers of individuals required for time series studies on physiological stress.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Friends give benefits: autumn social familiarity preferences predict
           reproductive output
    • Authors: Gregory M. Kohn
      Pages: 201 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Gregory M. Kohn
      Fission–fusion dynamics create social instability, as individuals must adjust to changes in group size and composition. In many social species, group changes are associated with increases in aggression, stress responses and individual mortality. It has been hypothesized that fission–fusion processes select for strong bonds between familiar individuals that provide a predictable social environment across group changes. In the present study, I explored whether familiar social networks remain predictable across periods of social instability in brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater, flocks, and whether females who sustain stronger autumn familiarity preferences show higher reproductive output during the spring. During autumn, the organization of familiar social networks remained predictable across a series of introductions with novel flocks. Familiar individuals were able to maintain their relationships with each other despite large-scale group perturbations. During the spring, I found that autumn familiarity preference was the only predictor of reproductive output, with female cowbirds that sustained the strongest familiarity preferences laying more eggs than other females. These findings suggest that familiarity preferences have a cascading influence on later reproductive performance, and that the social dynamics of fission–fusion groups select for a familiarity-based social organization.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Equivalent effects of bandwidth and trill rate: support for a performance
           constraint as a competitive signal
    • Authors: Jennifer N. Phillips; Elizabeth P. Derryberry
      Pages: 209 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Jennifer N. Phillips, Elizabeth P. Derryberry
      Sexual signals that are physically limited can be reliable indicators of quality or motivation in male–male competition. One such example of a motor constraint in birds is the production of repeated notes, which are limited in the frequency bandwidth and trill rate at which notes can be produced, such that it is difficult to produce wide-bandwidth notes at fast rates. How well birds maximize frequency bandwidth and trill rate is one measure of vocal performance, commonly referred to as ‘vocal deviation’. In theory, fast songs with narrow bandwidths and slow songs with wide bandwidths should have similar values of vocal deviation. In many species, males respond to variation in vocal deviation, supporting the notion that it is a sexually selected signal. However, most studies test only one of these components, either trill rate or bandwidth, rather than both individually, when testing receiver response to vocal deviation. Therefore, a question remains as to whether songs with equivalent values of vocal deviation (e.g. fast songs with narrow bandwidths and slow songs with wide bandwidths) elicit similar levels of response from receivers. We tested whether receivers respond specifically to the trade-off between trill rate and bandwidth (i.e. vocal deviation) or only to variation in one of the component parts. Using territorial playback experiments with wild male white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys, we found that males approached high-performance songs (fast trill, wide bandwidth) more closely than they did lower-performance songs (fast trill, narrow bandwidth; slow trill, wide bandwidth) and they did so regardless of whether performance varied because of differences in trill rate or bandwidth. Furthermore, we found that males gave similar responses to songs of similar vocal deviation. Our results empirically support the hypothesis that receivers respond specifically to the physical limitation on the production of repeated notes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Plasticity of thermoregulatory behaviour in response to the thermal
           environment by widespread and alpine reptile species
    • Authors: Amanda J. Caldwell; Geoffrey M. While; Erik Wapstra
      Pages: 217 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Amanda J. Caldwell, Geoffrey M. While, Erik Wapstra
      Phenotypic plasticity plays a central role in determining how organisms respond to environmental change over short timescales. Despite this, we know little about how phenotypic plasticity varies between populations or species. We tested the extent of plasticity in basking behaviour in low- and high-altitude populations of two widespread lowland and two highland species of a cool-climate lizard genus: Niveoscincus. We found evidence of divergence in basking behaviour between populations and species, with highland species and high-altitude populations of all species basking more than the widespread lowland species and low-altitude populations. Furthermore, we found differences in the extent of behavioural plasticity between species. Widespread lowland species altered their basking behaviour depending on basking opportunity whereas the highland species maintained high levels of basking independent of basking opportunity. These differences in basking behaviour were concordant with the differences in body temperature across all populations, species and treatments. Combined, this suggests that divergence in thermoregulatory behaviour and thermophysiology between populations and species may have been facilitated by adaptive behavioural plasticity within populations. We discuss this and the implications of our findings for the ability of these animals to cope with ongoing climate change.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.025
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Vervet monkeys greet adult males during high-risk situations
    • Authors: Stéphanie Mercier; Christof Neumann; Erica van de Waal; Emmeline Chollet; Jade Meric de Bellefon; Klaus Zuberbühler
      Pages: 229 - 245
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Stéphanie Mercier, Christof Neumann, Erica van de Waal, Emmeline Chollet, Jade Meric de Bellefon, Klaus Zuberbühler
      Many animal species produce ritualized signals during dyadic encounters but the functions of such ‘greeting’ behaviour vary considerably, or are often unknown. One established function is to acknowledge existing dominance relationships. At the same time, call rates often increase during social tension, suggesting additional functions, such as to appease higher-ranking individuals, or to maintain spatial proximity and friendly relations. For vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus pygerythrus, vocal behaviour has been studied extensively, but little research has been devoted to calls given during encounters between two individuals, i.e. grunts. Here, we examined how individual and relationship features affected the vocal greeting behaviour of wild vervet monkeys in different ecological and social situations. We used an information theory approach to investigate the functional hypotheses of vervet monkeys' vocal greeting signals. We found little support for the main functions proposed in the literature, that is, to signal submission, to avoid conflicts, to test social bonds or to coordinate group activity. Results supported the use of grunts to signal benign intent, and we found that grunts were mostly given to closely bonded males near rivers, suggesting that vervet monkeys use vocal greeting signals to recruit individuals in situations of danger to reduce predation risk.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Parasite dispersal risk tolerance is mediated by its reproductive value
    • Authors: Maxcy P. Nolan; Keith S. Delaplane
      Pages: 247 - 252
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Maxcy P. Nolan, Keith S. Delaplane
      Parasite dispersal theory draws heavily upon epidemiological SIR models in which host status (susceptible (S), infected (I), or recovered (R)) is used to study parasite dispersal evolution. In contrast to these extrinsically host-centric drivers, in this study we focus on an intrinsic driver, the parasite's reproductive value (predicted future offspring) as a regulator of the extent to which the individual will engage in risky dispersal behaviour. As a model system we use the honeybee Apis mellifera and its ectoparasite, the mite Varroa destructor. Mite reproduction happens exclusively inside cells of bee brood, and newly emerged fecund mites may parasitize either a homocolonial brood cell (low risk dispersal) or emigrate to a new bee colony via phoretic attachment to mature forager bees (high risk dispersal). In an empirical bioassay, prepartum mites (high reproductive value) and postpartum mites (low reproductive value) were offered a choice of newly emerged homocolonial worker bees (low risk), homocolonial pollen forager bees (high risk), or heterocolonial pollen foragers (high risk). A preference for newly emerged bees was earlier and more strongly sustained among prepartum mites. This suggests comparatively greater dispersal risk tolerance among postpartum mites with lower reproductive value. A dangerous bid for dispersal may be adaptive if the individual has already successfully reproduced and the rewards for successful dispersal are sufficiently large.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Inbreeding produces trade-offs between maternal fecundity and offspring
           survival in a monandrous spider
    • Authors: Zhanqi Chen; Evan L. Preisser; Rong Xiao; Jian Chen; Daiqin Li; Xiaoguo Jiao
      Pages: 253 - 259
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Zhanqi Chen, Evan L. Preisser, Rong Xiao, Jian Chen, Daiqin Li, Xiaoguo Jiao
      Offspring born to related parents often have lower fitness than those born to unrelated parents, a phenomenon termed inbreeding depression. While many species have been shown to rely on pre- and/or postcopulatory mate choice to avoid inbreeding, such research has focused largely on polyandrous rather than monandrous species. The absence of postcopulatory mate choice in monandrous species suggests that precopulatory mate choice should play a more important role in inbreeding avoidance. We used a monandrous wolf spider, Pardosa astrigera, as a model system to investigate whether (1) male spiders respond differently to sibling and nonsibling females; (2) female spiders respond differently to sibling versus nonsibling males; and (3) inbreeding affects females and their offspring. Male courtship behaviour was similar for sibling and nonsibling females; although females were less likely to mate with siblings, over half did mate successfully with them. Sibling-mated females produced fewer offspring from the first egg sac and fewer total offspring, but inbred offspring survived longer in a range of environments than their outbred counterparts. This suggests that the fitness costs of reduced fecundity in sibling-mated females may be offset by higher offspring survivorship. Our results highlight the importance of considering both parent and offspring fitness when addressing the costs of inbreeding, and are the first to document the impact of inbreeding on sexual behaviour and reproductive fitness in a monandrous spider.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • doublesex alters aggressiveness as a function of social context and sex in
           the polyphenic beetle Onthophagus taurus
    • Authors: Oliver M. Beckers; Teiya Kijimoto; Armin P. Moczek
      Pages: 261 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Oliver M. Beckers, Teiya Kijimoto, Armin P. Moczek
      Despite sharing nearly the same genome, individuals within the same species can vary drastically in both morphology and behaviour as a function of developmental stage, sex or developmental plasticity. Thus, regulatory processes must exist that enable the stage-, sex- or environment-specific expression of traits and their integration during ontogeny, yet exactly how trait complexes are co-regulated and integrated is poorly understood. In this study, we explore the developmental genetic basis of the regulation and integration of environment-dependent sexual dimorphism in behaviour and morphology in the horn-polyphenic dung beetle Onthophagus taurus through the experimental manipulation of the transcription factor doublesex (dsx). The gene dsx plays a profound role in the developmental regulation of morphological differences between sexes as well as alternative male morphs by inhibiting horn formation in females but enabling nutrition-responsive horn growth in males. Specifically, we investigated whether experimental downregulation of dsx expression affects male and female aggressive and courtship behaviours in two social contexts: interactions between individuals of the same sex and interactions between males and females. We find that dsx downregulation significantly alters aggressiveness in both males and females, yet does so differently for both sexes as a function of social context: dsx RNAi males exhibited elevated aggression towards males but showed reduced aggression towards females, whereas dsx RNAi females became more aggressive towards males, while their aggressiveness towards other females was unaffected. Moreover, we document unexpectedly high levels of female aggression independent of dsx treatment in both wild-type and control-injected individuals. Lastly, we found no effects of dsx RNAi on courtship and mating behaviours. We discuss the role of dsx in the regulation of sex-specific and plastic behaviours, the unexpectedly high levels of aggression of hornless dsx RNAi males in relation to the well-established description of the hornless sneaker phenotype and the potential ecological function of high female aggression.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T20:47:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Learning of safety by a social fish: applications for studying
           post-traumatic stress in humans
    • Authors: Adam L. Crane; Maud C.O. Ferrari
      Pages: 271 - 279
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Adam L. Crane, Maud C.O. Ferrari
      As animal behaviour theory has developed over the past 70 years, much attention has gone towards social behaviour. While our basic knowledge of social systems has grown substantially, it has rarely been applied to human issues. Here, we attempted to bridge the gap between animal behaviour theory and human psychology by conducting social experiments involving fish. As in many species, minnows (family: Cyprinidae) repeatedly exposed to risky situations can develop a behavioural phenotype characterized by neophobic tendencies, pacing and stereotypic behaviours. Here, we tested whether the simple presence of calm (or un-calm) conspecific models could lead to a weakening of the high-risk phenotype in minnows that acquired fear either in isolation or within a group. We first documented that the social context of risk exposure impacted the intensity of the high-risk phenotype, with minnows exposed to risk in isolation showing stronger high-risk traits compared to those that were exposed to risk in groups. However, individuals exposed to risk in isolation were more influenced by calm models, despite their more pronounced phenotype. We argue that group exposure led to social reinforcement of risk, which in turn decreased the information transfer about safety in these individuals. We also demonstrate that a group of calm models, and not un-calm models, was required to weaken the high-risk phenotype. These findings highlight the interplay between social reinforcement of risk and safety in social groups and the impact of groups on information transmission. Moreover, our results parallel anecdotal reports of successes or failures of social therapies for post-traumatic stress (PTS) patients based on the social context of symptom acquisition, suggesting that understanding the transfer of information in social animals could prove fruitful in understanding and modelling PTS recovery.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T20:47:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.026
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Context-dependent response to eggs: egg retrieval versus egg rejection in
           a conspecific brood parasite
    • Authors: Bruce E. Lyon; Daizaburo Shizuka
      Pages: 281 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Bruce E. Lyon, Daizaburo Shizuka
      Birds often need to distinguish their own eggs from those of others or from other objects that could be confused with their eggs. Egg recognition occurs in a variety of birds that retrieve eggs displaced from the nest. Egg recognition and rejection is also a particularly widespread defence against brood parasites. We studied egg retrieval and rejection in the American coot, Fulica americana, a species with high levels of conspecific brood parasitism. Previous work revealed that hosts recognize and reject many parasitic eggs. We conducted experiments to determine whether coots also show egg retrieval behaviour and, if they do, whether the same cues trigger retrieval and rejection. If these two responses share the same general cognitive mechanism, a given egg phenotype should elicit the same retrieval and rejection response (with the realization that failure to retrieve is analogous to rejecting eggs). Coots retrieved many eggs and objects placed on their nest rims. All coot eggs were retrieved, including eggs of other conspecific females, and most chicken eggs were also retrieved. The retrieval of a moderate proportion of non-egg-shaped objects like cubes and cylinders shows that an egg shape is not essential for retrieval. Two observations suggest that egg retrieval and rejection are triggered by different cues. The nonretrieval rates of parasitic eggs differed significantly from the corresponding egg rejection rates obtained in an earlier study. Moreover, a moderate fraction of retrieved eggs and objects were subsequently rejected soon after being retrieved. The rejection of the same eggs that were previously retrieved into the nest underscores the remarkable sensitivity of retrieval and rejection decisions to slight changes in an egg's location; a difference of a few centimetres triggers a very different response mechanism. Overall, our findings suggest that selection from brood parasitism has not shaped the evolution of egg retrieval in coots.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T20:47:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.022
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Predator counteradaptations: stealth echolocation overcomes insect
           sonar-jamming and evasive-manoeuvring defences
    • Authors: Aaron J. Corcoran; William E. Conner
      Pages: 291 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Aaron J. Corcoran, William E. Conner
      Although bat–insect interactions are often described as an ‘evolutionary arms race’, conclusive evidence for bat counterstrategies to insect defences has been difficult to acquire. Previous studies have indicated that some bats use low-amplitude, ‘stealth’ echolocation to counter moth hearing. However, actual bat–insect interactions have not been documented to validate this finding. We hypothesized that the bat Corynorhinus townsendii uses stealth echolocation to overcome prey defences. We measured C. townsendii call intensities as they attacked tethered moths in the field and in a large outdoor flight cage. We also used three-dimensional videography to document C. townsendii and Myotis volans, which uses intensities more typical of aerial-hawking bats, as they attacked free-flying moths in a flight cage. Source levels of C. townsendii calls were 93.6±6.1dB at 0.1m in open field conditions and 81.9±6.9dB in the more enclosed flight cage, values that are 20–45dB lower than other aerial-hawking bats under similar conditions. Sound levels arriving at prey were mostly below known thresholds for eliciting late-attack defences. Free-flying moths were 49–66% less likely to exhibit evasive manoeuvring and sonar-jamming defences during attacks by C. townsendii compared to M. volans. Prey also exhibited lower peak velocities and accelerations during attacks, factors that are known to affect bat capture success. Accordingly, C. townsendii had 31% higher capture success against moths overall and 52% higher capture success against the sonar-jamming moth Bertholdia trigona. We conclude that stealth echolocation is an evolutionary counteradaptation to insect defences because there is no known benefit for C. townsendii to use low-amplitude calls outside of predator–prey interactions, and such calls come with considerable cost in reduced prey detection distances.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T04:24:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Human disturbance affects personality development in a wild carnivore
    • Authors: Julia R. Greenberg; Kay E. Holekamp
      Pages: 303 - 312
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132
      Author(s): Julia R. Greenberg, Kay E. Holekamp
      Human activity can dramatically affect personality traits in birds and small mammals. However, we know very little about how anthropogenic disturbance shapes personality in mammalian carnivores, and whether the personality traits that may be affected have fitness consequences in human-dominated landscapes. We adapted standard experiments commonly used to assess personality in captive animals to compare three personality traits in 72 wild juvenile spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta, living either in areas heavily disturbed by human activity or in areas with low levels of disturbance. We examined neophobia, defined as the tendency to avoid unfamiliar things, exploration, defined as the number of different ways an individual interacts with an object, and boldness, defined as an individual's tendency to take risks. To assess neophobia and exploration, we measured individuals' responses to a novel object, and to assess boldness, we measured the hyaenas' propensity to enter a wire-mesh box to obtain food. Juvenile spotted hyaenas living in low-disturbance areas were significantly more neophobic and less exploratory than individuals living in high-disturbance areas. This is consistent with results obtained with birds and small mammals; however, unlike these other taxa, hyaenas living in low-disturbance areas were bolder than individuals living in high-disturbance areas. The expression of some of these personality traits was also affected by the subject's social rank and the presence of a littermate, but not by subject age or sex. Of the three traits, only boldness predicted survival to adulthood: less bold individuals were significantly more likely to survive than bolder individuals, in both high-disturbance and low-disturbance habitats. We propose that behavioural or physiological maternal effects may be shaping offspring temperament differences related to disturbance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T04:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.023
      Issue No: Vol. 132 (2017)
       
  • Big groups attract bad eggs: brood parasitism correlates with but does not
           cause cooperative breeding
    • Authors: Michael Wells; Keith Barker
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 133
      Author(s): Michael T. Wells, F. Keith Barker
      There has been great interest in how complex social behaviours such as cooperative breeding evolve and are maintained; however, it is still unclear what exact phenomena trigger the transition to cooperative breeding. Recent work in birds has suggested a number of factors associated with cooperative breeding, including environmental uncertainty and brood parasitism. One recent study found a correlation between brood parasitism and cooperative breeding, but it examined this relationship from a geographically restricted perspective. We investigated evolutionary correlations between brood parasitism and cooperative breeding at a global scale, including nearly half of all bird species and brood parasites. At a global level, we found a strong positive correlation between cooperative breeding and brood parasitism. However, when partitioned regionally, we found that the global pattern was driven exclusively by relationships within Africa and Australia, suggesting that any causal relationship in the transition to cooperative breeding is idiosyncratic. In addition, we found that even where a correlation was supported, transition rates between states were more consistent with cooperative breeding attracting brood parasitism, rather than brood parasites driving the evolution of cooperative breeding, weakening any hypothesized causal connection.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T04:24:56Z
       
  • Association indices for quantifying social relationships: how to deal with
           missing observations of individuals or groups
    • Authors: William J.E.; Hoppitt Damien Farine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): William J.E. Hoppitt, Damien R. Farine
      Social network analysis has provided important insight into many population processes in wild animals. Constructing social networks requires quantifying the relationship between each pair of individuals in the population. Researchers often use association indices to convert observations into a measure of propensity for individuals to be seen together. At its simplest, this measure is just the probability of observing both individuals together given that one has been seen (the simple ratio index). However, this probability becomes more challenging to calculate if the detection rate for individuals is imperfect. We first evaluate the performance of existing association indices at estimating true association rates under scenarios where (1) only a proportion of all groups are observed (group location errors), (2) not all individuals are observed despite being present (individual location errors), and (3) a combination of the two. Commonly used methods aimed at dealing with incomplete observations perform poorly because they are based on arbitrary observation probabilities. We therefore derive complete indices that can be calibrated for the different types of incomplete observations to generate accurate estimates of association rates. These are provided in an R package that readily interfaces with existing routines. We conclude that using calibration data is an important step when constructing animal social networks, and that in their absence, researchers should use a simple estimator and explicitly consider the impact of this on their findings.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T04:24:56Z
       
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132


      PubDate: 2017-10-08T04:24:56Z
       
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 132


      PubDate: 2017-10-08T04:24:56Z
       
  • Social network dynamics precede a mass eviction in group-living rhesus
           macaques
    • Authors: Sam M. Larson; Angelina Ruiz-Lambides; Michael L. Platt; Lauren J.N. Brent
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Sam M. Larson, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Michael L. Platt, Lauren J.N. Brent
      Network dynamics can reveal information about the adaptive function of social behaviour and the extent to which social relationships can flexibly respond to extrinsic pressures. Changes in social networks occur following changes to the social and physical environment. By contrast, we have limited understanding of whether changes in social networks precede major group events. Permanent evictions can be important determinants of gene flow and population structure and are a clear example of an event that might be preceded by social network dynamics. Here we examined the social networks of a group of rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, in the 2 years leading up to the eviction of 22% of adult females, which are the philopatric sex. We found that females engaged in the same amount of aggression and grooming in the 2 years leading up to the eviction but that there were clear changes in their choice of social partners. Females that would eventually be evicted received more aggression from lower-ranking females as the eviction approached. Evicted females also became more discriminating in their grooming relationships in the year nearer the split, showing a greater preference for one another and becoming more cliquish. Put simply, the females that would later be evicted continued to travel with the rest of the group as the eviction approached but were less likely to interact with other group members in an affiliative manner. These results have potential implications for understanding group cohesion and the balance between cooperation and competition that mediates social groups.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T04:54:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.019
       
  • Social spiders: mildly successful social animals with much untapped
           research potential
    • Authors: Jonathan N. Pruitt; Leticia Avilés
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Jonathan N. Pruitt, Leticia Avilés
      In some ways, social spiders are a biological novelty item. They are not extraordinarily successful either evolutionarily or ecologically, and their societies suffer a variety of disadvantages that render them more brittle than other social systems. Yet, from an empiricist's perspective, these attributes make them uniquely poised for addressing a variety of research questions. Here we provide a brief overview of the biology of social spiders for the general reader. We then highlight a variety of ecological and evolutionary challenges suffered by these animals that renders them at risk of extinction in the short and long term. We finally discuss how these hardships have given rise to a variety of individual and group level adaptations that are rare or entirely absent in other spiders, as well as in most other social animals. Throughout this article, we highlight gaps in our current understanding of these creatures and draw attention to some of the more promising frontiers for future research. To this end, we have two goals. First, we would like to draw the attention of general behavioural ecologists interested in social evolution to the biology of social spiders, and emphasize a variety of reasons why one might consider these animals for their next research question. Second, for those already inculcated in the social spider literature, we hope that this article will raise the reader's consciousness to various underexplored but promising avenues for future research. With the right research question, social spiders promise to be a high-profile and high-throughput model system.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T21:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.08.015
       
 
 
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