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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3031 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Behaviour
  [SJR: 1.907]   [H-I: 126]   [141 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-3472 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8282
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Face recognition in the Tanganyikan cichlid Julidochromis transcriptus
    • Authors: Takashi Hotta; Shun Satoh; Naoya Kosaka; Masanori Kohda
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Takashi Hotta, Shun Satoh, Naoya Kosaka, Masanori Kohda
      The face is an important cue for discriminating conspecifics in some primates (including humans), other mammals and birds. Although there is considerable evidence that fish can discriminate between conspecifics based on familiarity, the actual traits used to do so remain unclear. However, recent studies showed that two cichlid species used face colour patterns similarly to other vertebrates, and have suggested that social signals have evolved around the eyes, even in fish (face-specific hypothesis). In this study, we tested whether the striped, rock-dwelling Tanganyikan cichlid Julidochromis transcriptus can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics using facial patterns alone. We used a monitor to present fish with four digital models of combinations of facial and body patterns from familiar and unfamiliar fish. Focal fish spent more time near the monitor when presented with unfamiliar face models regardless of the body pattern. Therefore, we concluded that J. transcriptus recognizes familiar conspecifics using facial patterns alone, despite having distinct stripe patterns on the whole body. Our results are consistent with the face-specific hypothesis and indicate that social signals have evolved around the eyes of fish.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Calling for help: dwarf mongoose recruitment calls inform receivers about
           context and elicit disparate responses
    • Authors: Janneke Rubow; Michael I. Cherry; Lynda L. Sharpe
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Janneke Rubow, Michael I. Cherry, Lynda L. Sharpe
      Social complexity and communicative complexity appear to have coevolved in terrestrial vertebrates. Understanding the information conveyed within the social signals of group-living taxa can illuminate the selection pressures impacting on a species and help to identify the factors promoting sociality. Within vocal communication, recruitment calls are of great importance to many social species, helping to maintain group cohesion and facilitating cooperative behaviour. Yet recruitment vocalizations have received limited scientific attention and it is not clear whether they convey context-specific information to receivers. We investigated the recruitment calls of wild dwarf mongooses, Helogale parvula, to ascertain whether they showed context-specific acoustic differences and whether receivers displayed context-specific responses to recruitment calls in the absence of external cues. We recorded recruitment calls (from four wild groups of dwarf mongooses) from two contexts: when an individual became separated from its group and when an individual encountered a snake. Acoustic analysis revealed that calls from the two contexts differed in acoustic structure and were distinguishable with a discriminant function analysis. Playbacks of calls from both contexts successfully recruited target mongooses, but snake calls elicited a stronger reaction (with mongooses vigilant for longer and approaching the speaker more closely). More importantly, target mongooses also displayed behaviours that were unique to call context, exhibiting head bobbing, creeping and searching of the vegetation during snake call playbacks but never during isolation call playbacks. We conclude that dwarf mongoose recruitment calls refer to context and are perceived as functionally referential by receivers.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Early social isolation impairs development, mate choice and grouping
           behaviour of predatory mites
    • Authors: Peter Schausberger; Marian Gratzer; Markus A. Strodl
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Peter Schausberger, Marian Gratzer, Markus A. Strodl
      The social environment early in life is a key determinant of developmental, physiological and behavioural trajectories across vertebrate and invertebrate animals. One crucial variable is the presence/absence of conspecifics. For animals usually reared in groups, social isolation after birth or hatching can be a highly stressful circumstance, with potentially long-lasting consequences. Here, we assessed the effects of social deprivation (isolation) early in life, that is, absence of conspecifics, versus social enrichment, that is, presence of conspecifics, on developmental time, body size at maturity, mating behaviour and group-living in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Socially deprived protonymphs developed more slowly and were less socially competent in grouping behaviour than socially enriched protonymphs. Compromised social competence in grouping behaviour was evident in decreased activity, fewer mutual encounters and larger interindividual distances, all of which may entail severe fitness costs. In female choice/male competition, socially deprived males mated earlier than socially enriched males; in male choice/female competition, socially deprived females were more likely to mate than socially enriched females. In neither mate choice situation did mating duration or body size at maturity differ between socially deprived and enriched mating opponents. Social isolation-induced shifts in mating behaviour may be interpreted as increased attractiveness or competitiveness or, more likely, as hastiness and reduced ability to assess mate quality. Overall, many of the social isolation-induced behavioural changes in P. persimilis are analogous to those observed in other animals such as cockroaches, fruit flies, fishes or rodents. We argue that, due to their profound and persistent effects, early social deprivation or enrichment may be important determinants in shaping animal personalities.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Dwarf mongooses use sex and identity cues in isolation calls to
           discriminate between callers
    • Authors: Janneke Rubow; Michael I. Cherry; Lynda L. Sharpe
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Janneke Rubow, Michael I. Cherry, Lynda L. Sharpe
      The information transmitted by acoustic signals has attracted much scientific interest in recent years. However, isolation calls, which are long-distance vocalizations used by lost group members to reunite with their social group, have been surprisingly neglected. These calls assist in maintaining group cohesion and are thus particularly important in species that depend on the group for survival or reproduction such as cooperative breeders. Our study therefore examined the information transmitted by the isolation vocalization in a wild cooperatively breeding carnivore: the dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula. We ran an acoustic analysis for informative cues within isolation calls, and conducted a series of playback experiments to identify whether mongooses could discriminate between callers based on these cues. The acoustic structure of dwarf mongoose isolation vocalizations contained information concerning the caller's identity, sex and potentially also group membership. Target mongooses discriminated between callers of their own and other groups and biased their response based on the sex of the caller. They responded more quickly and for longer, and approached more closely, for calls of foreign females than calls of female group mates. This is the first time that sex specificity has been demonstrated in the vocalization of an herpestid, and we suggest that dwarf mongooses eavesdrop on the calls of isolated foreigners and may use isolation calls to attract and identify potential mates.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • The floater's dilemma: use of space by wild solitary Azara's owl monkeys,
           Aotus azarae, in relation to group ranges
    • Authors: Maren Huck; Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Maren Huck, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
      The fate and behaviour of animals that leave their natal group (‘floaters’) is usually poorly understood, which can limit the understanding of a species' population dynamics. Attempted immigrations can have serious negative effects on residents who therefore may forcibly reject intruders. Consequently, floaters face a dilemma: they need to leave their natal range to find a breeding territory while trying to avoid potentially lethal rejections from established groups. To examine the hypothesis that floating Azara's owl monkeys avoid established groups temporally, we compared time-matched locations of floaters and groups with randomly selected distances. To examine the hypothesis that floaters avoid established groups spatially, we compared the utilization distribution overlap indices (U
      DOI s) for core areas of floaters and groups with randomly expected U
      DOI s. Based on average home range sizes and areas of overlap between floaters, we estimated the floater density in the study area to be 0.2–0.5 per group. The temporal avoidance hypothesis was not supported, since time-matched distances were smaller than distances of random locations, and not larger as predicted under this hypothesis. The spatial avoidance hypothesis, in contrast, was supported, with smaller U
      DOI s for core ranges than predicted. In conclusion, solitary owl monkeys seem to solve the floater's dilemma by trying to stay in relatively close proximity to groups while still avoiding their core ranges. Floaters thus maximize the number of groups with which they have contact, while being able to leave a group's territory quickly if detected by residents. While no marked sex differences in patterns were detected, there was a strong stochastic element to the number of floaters of a particular sex, thus resulting in a locally uneven operational sex ratio. This, in turn, can have important consequences for various aspects of the population dynamics.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Contextual variation in the alarm call responses of dwarf mongooses,
           Helogale parvula
    • Authors: Julie M. Kern; Philippa R. Laker; Andrew N. Radford
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Julie M. Kern, Philippa R. Laker, Andrew N. Radford
      Alarm calling is a widespread antipredator behaviour, but it is not always a reliable indication of real danger. Individuals must decide when to respond to alarm calls as a function of the relative costs and benefits, but experiments investigating contextual influences are rare. We used playback experiments in conjunction with supplementary feeding and the presentation of direct predator cues to examine variation in receiver responses to alarm calls in a habituated population of wild dwarf mongooses. First, we investigated whether individuals adjust their response to alarm calls depending on their own satiation level and spatial position of the caller. Individuals were more likely to respond to alarm calls when they had received supplementary food, and hence could prioritize minimization of predation risk over starvation. There was also increased responsiveness to alarm calls given by individuals from elevated positions compared to those on the ground; sentinels (raised guards) are more likely to detect potential predators than foragers, and alarm calls from elevated positions are probably perceived as more reliable. When individuals did respond, they were more likely to flee following an alarm call given from ground level; foragers are likely to detect predators in closer proximity than sentinels, requiring more urgent escape responses. Second, we examined how individuals combine social information provided by alarm calls with personal information relating to predator presence. Receiver responses to terrestrial and aerial alarm calls did not differ when they followed interaction with an olfactory predator cue compared to an olfactory control cue. Following interaction with a terrestrial predator cue, however, latency to nonvigilance was significantly longer after hearing an aerial alarm call than after hearing a terrestrial alarm call, potentially because of social information novelty. Our results provide experimental evidence that receivers respond flexibly to alarm calls depending on receiver, signaller and external factors.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Adaptive significance of arboreality: field evidence from a tree-climbing
           land snail
    • Authors: Ikuyo Saeki; Shigeru Niwa; Noriyuki Osada; Fujio Hyodo; Tamihisa Ohta; Yoshitaka Oishi; Tsutom Hiura
      Pages: 53 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Ikuyo Saeki, Shigeru Niwa, Noriyuki Osada, Fujio Hyodo, Tamihisa Ohta, Yoshitaka Oishi, Tsutom Hiura
      Arboreality has evolved in a wide range of taxa, but its adaptive significance has rarely been examined in natural ecosystems. Euhadra brandtii sapporo is an arboreal land snail distributed in a restricted area of Hokkaido, Japan. We hypothesized that arboreality provides the species with significant survival advantages, which we tested via field observations and experiments. A monitoring census showed that E. b. sapporo hibernates in winter in the ground litter, climbs into the canopy in early spring and returns to the ground in late autumn. This seasonal movement appears to be effective for escaping from predation by ground-dwelling carabine beetles, whose activity was high during the summer based on a pitfall-trap census. Manipulative field experiments were conducted to compare survival rates in arboreal and ground-dwelling environments. We collected 120 E. b. sapporo individuals in summer and tethered 40 in tree canopies and 80 on the ground; half those on the ground were covered by baskets to prevent predation by large animals. The survival rate after 11 days was highest in the canopy, followed by that on the ground with a basket and was lowest on the ground without a basket. Predation was the main cause of death, but some died from other causes. Similar results were obtained in autumn, except for higher survival rates of the ground treatments. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios suggest that the land snail uses epiphytic lichens and mosses as food resources. In conclusion, arboreality has a marked advantage in reducing mortality in E. b. sapporo and is probably supported by food availability as well.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Species differences in egocentric navigation: the effect of burrowing
           ecology on a spatial cognitive trait in mice
    • Authors: Jason N. Bruck; Noah A. Allen; Kelsey E. Brass; Brian A. Horn; Polly Campbell
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jason N. Bruck, Noah A. Allen, Kelsey E. Brass, Brian A. Horn, Polly Campbell
      Efficient navigation is a critical component of fitness for most animals. While most species use a combination of allocentric (external) and egocentric (internal) cues to navigate through their environment, subterranean environments present a unique challenge in that visually mediated allocentric cues are unavailable. The relationship between egocentric spatial cognition and species differences in ecology is surprisingly understudied. We used a maze-learning task to test for differences in egocentric navigation between two closely related species of mice, the eastern house mouse, Mus musculus musculus, and the mound-building mouse, Mus spicilegus. The two species are sympatric in Eastern Europe and overlap in summer habitat use but differ dramatically in winter space use: whereas house mice occupy anthropogenic structures, mound-building mice survive the winter underground in intricate burrow systems. Given species differences in burrowing ecology, we predicted that M. spicilegus would learn the maze significantly faster than M. m. musculus when tested in complete darkness, a condition that eliminated allocentric spatial information and served as a proxy for the subterranean environment. We found strong support for this prediction. In contrast, the two species performed equally well when different mice were tested in the same maze with lights on. This context-specific species difference in spatial cognition suggests that enhanced egocentric navigation in M. spicilegus is an adaptation to the burrow systems on which the overwinter survival of young mound-building mice depends. The results of this study highlight the importance of ecological adaptations to the evolution of cognitive traits.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Does host quality dictate the outcome of interference competition between
           sympatric parasitoids? Effects on their coexistence
    • Authors: Ruth Cebolla; Pablo Bru; Alberto Urbaneja; Alejandro Tena
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Ruth Cebolla, Pablo Bru, Alberto Urbaneja, Alejandro Tena
      The suitability and quality of herbivorous insect hosts for hymenopteran parasitoids is dynamic, varying with host development. Generally, within a host species, large hosts (i.e. older instars) are considered of higher quality for parasitoid development. Studies of interspecific competition between parasitoids have considered the effect of host instar on indirect competition but its effect on interference competition remains unknown. Here, we report the first results on whether the quality of host instars might dictate the outcome of interference competition between sympatric parasitoids of the genus Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) when they attack low-quality (second) and high-quality (third) instars of their common host Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). Oviposition behaviour (host acceptance and clutch size) in low- and high-quality host instars was similar for both Aphytis species in the absence of competition. When they found heterospecific parasitized hosts of high quality, Aphytis melinus laid more eggs and accepted significantly more hosts than Aphytis chrysomphali, whereas there were no significant differences in the low-quality instar. This result suggests that interference competition is mediated by host quality. However, the progeny proportion of both parasitoids in multiparasitized hosts (outcome of competition) was independent of host quality and A. melinus always emerged at higher rates. Therefore, the result of interference competition between these sympatric parasitoids was not affected by host quality and this competition will contribute to the displacement of the native A. chrysomphali by the introduced A. melinus, which has been observed in some areas of the Mediterranean basin.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T08:58:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Taxonomic bias in animal behaviour publications
    • Authors: Malcolm F. Rosenthal; Matthew Gertler; Angela D. Hamilton; Sonal Prasad; Maydianne C.B. Andrade
      Pages: 83 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Matthew Gertler, Angela D. Hamilton, Sonal Prasad, Maydianne C.B. Andrade
      Evidence suggests that certain taxonomic groups are more thoroughly studied than others across a wide range of biological disciplines. Such taxonomic biases have the potential to define our understanding of theory, and limit the generality of our insights. To assess the distribution of taxonomic representation in current and historical animal behaviour research, we constructed a data set containing article metrics and taxonomic information for all research articles published in the journal Animal Behaviour between 1953 and 2015. We found significant taxonomic bias, with chordate papers making up 70% of all publications in the past 15 years, despite accounting for less than 7% of all animal species. Within chordates, Animal Behaviour content is biased towards endotherms, with birds and mammals comprising more than 50% of all publications. In sum, six animal orders account for more than half of all publications, with the most commonly published order, Passeriformes, representing one in five articles. Our findings confirm that a relatively narrow group of ‘model’ taxa represent the vast majority of articles, and may have a disproportionate influence on our understanding of behavioural patterns and processes. Furthermore, we find evidence of a citation bias, with chordate studies receiving on average four citations more per paper than arthropod studies. While historical trends suggest that the publication gap between arthropods and chordates has been shrinking for the past 45 years, our findings show that a considerable bias still remains. These biases may originate from human preferences for certain animal types, but we argue that they are likely maintained by a mixture of taxonomic prejudices, cultural aspects of behavioural ecology as a field, and of academia in general. We suggest that the patterns are clear and their implications serious, and that it is time that both researchers and journals give serious consideration to addressing them.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Slow to change? Individual fidelity to three-dimensional foraging habitats
           in southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina
    • Authors: Trevor McIntyre; Marthán N. Bester; Horst Bornemann; Cheryl A. Tosh; P.J. Nico de Bruyn
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Trevor McIntyre, Marthán N. Bester, Horst Bornemann, Cheryl A. Tosh, P.J. Nico de Bruyn
      Long-term fidelity to foraging areas may have fitness benefits to individuals, particularly in unpredictable environments. However, such strategies may result in short-term energetic losses and delay responses to fast environmental changes. We used satellite tracking data and associated diving data to record the habitat use of nine individual southern elephant seals over 34 winter migrations. By assessing overlap in two- and three-dimensional home ranges we illustrate strong long-term (up to 7-year) fidelity to foraging habitat. Furthermore, a repeatability statistic and hierarchical clustering exercise provided evidence for individual specialization of foraging migration strategies. We discuss the possible influences of stable long-term foraging migration strategies on the adaptability of individual elephant seals to rapid environmental change. Our results further illustrate the need for more long-term longitudinal studies to quantify the influence of individual-level site familiarity, fidelity and specialization on population-level resource selection and population dynamics.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Social calls honestly signal female competitive ability in Asian
           particoloured bats
    • Authors: Bo Luo; Guanjun Lu; Kelly Chen; Dongge Guo; Xiaobin Huang; Ying Liu; Jiang Feng
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Bo Luo, Guanjun Lu, Kelly Chen, Dongge Guo, Xiaobin Huang, Ying Liu, Jiang Feng
      Why a variety of social animals vocalize during agonistic foraging interactions remains obscure. One possibility is that these signals advertise the signaller's competitive ability, playing a role in the defence of food resources, yet there is limited evidence in support of this idea. Here, we used adult female Asian particoloured bats, Vespertilio sinensis, to test whether individual variation in competitive ability when foraging can be explained by social calls. Using synchronized infrared video and audio recording, we monitored bat social vocalizations, dominance rank and weight gain in triads under controlled food conditions. Additionally, subsequent playbacks, consisting of experimental stimuli, echolocation pulses and silence, were presented to feeding bats in a laboratory. Analyses showed that females uttered low-frequency social calls composed of one to five syllable types during feeding competition. The rates of social vocalizations increased with reduced food availability. Interestingly, dominance score and weight gain correlated weakly with body size, but positively with call rate and associated parameters. Playback of social calls inhibited the visits of bats to the focal food dish compared to playback of silence and echolocation pulses. The amount of food consumed was greatly reduced in the presence of experimental stimuli versus controls. Collectively, these results highlight that acoustic signals serve as an honest indicator of bat competitive ability.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Is the mirror test a valid measure of fish sociability?
    • Authors: Silvia Cattelan; Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato; Andrea Pilastro; Matteo Griggio
      Pages: 109 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Silvia Cattelan, Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Andrea Pilastro, Matteo Griggio
      Many fish species are social, and individuals spend most of their lives in shoals, but sociability can vary greatly between species, populations and individuals. Sociability has been largely studied by measuring the time spent by a focal fish in proximity to one or more conspecifics. To control for the behaviour of the stimulus fish, the conspecifics have often been substituted by a mirror, on the assumption that the subject perceives its mirror image as a conspecific. The validity of the mirror test has recently been questioned, at both the behavioural and the molecular level, because of the discrepancy in fish responses when exposed to a mirror image and to a live conspecific. In this study, we compared the sociability scores of a social fish, the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, obtained using live fish or a mirror as a stimulus, to assess the validity of the mirror test. We found that the sociability score assessed using the standard mirror test was not significantly correlated with the sociability assessed using live stimuli. Nevertheless, we observed a positive correlation between the scores of the two tests when the mirror test was performed in a more naturalistic context, controlling for the minimum distance between the stimulus fish and the mirror. Our findings provide evidence of the reliability of the mirror test as a measure of sociability compared to the test using live conspecifics when certain requirements are satisfied.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Adaptive airspeed adjustment and compensation for wind drift in the common
           swift: differences between day and night
    • Authors: Anders Hedenström; Susanne Åkesson
      Pages: 117 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Anders Hedenström, Susanne Åkesson
      Migratory birds are known to be capable of adjusting their heading direction to compensate for wind drift and their airspeed adaptively with respect to head and tail winds. High-flying nocturnally migrating common swifts, Apus apus, have been shown to compensate for wind drift, but they failed to adjust airspeed as expected (increase in head wind and decrease in tail wind in relation to neutral wind). We report on new measurements of diurnally migrating common swifts at a coastal site in the Baltic, where the birds did adjust airspeed adaptively during spring and autumn migration. During autumn migration, they compensated for lateral wind drift by adjusting heading direction similarly to high-altitude migrants in autumn. We also recorded flight speed and wind compensation during a summer weather-related exodus, when the birds behaved similarly to those during autumn migration, although they showed a small degree of wind drift. Why birds failed to adjust airspeed adaptively at high altitude is discussed, and we argue there is a threshold in the sensory system to detect small changes in optic flow based on visual landmarks.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Social personality: a more social shrew species exhibits stronger
           differences in personality types
    • Authors: Sophie von Merten; Rafał Zwolak; Leszek Rychlik
      Pages: 125 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Sophie von Merten, Rafał Zwolak, Leszek Rychlik
      Animal personalities have been studied extensively in the last decade. It is still not entirely understood, however, how different personalities evolve and persist. The social niche specialization hypothesis suggests that in group-living animals the combination of social conflicts and alternative options on how to deal with them are of key importance for the development and evolution of animal personality. Here we predicted that, following the social niche specialization hypothesis, a more social species should have more pronounced personality differences. We tested this prediction using four species of shrews that differ in ecology and sociability. Three species (Neomys fodiens, Sorex araneus and Sorex minutus) are strictly solitary outside the breeding season; the fourth species (Neomys anomalus) is intraspecifically more tolerant and able to live in groups. These four species offer a good model to assess our questions as N. anomalus can, in many other respects (e.g. body size, habitat, foraging mode), be considered as an ‘in-between’ species. We tested individuals of all species for their solitary activity and their activity and agonistic behaviour in within- and between-species dyadic encounters. We found that individuals of N. anomalus, but not the other species tested, showed consistent behavioural variation in agonistic behaviour. Consistent individual differences in activity were, however, also present in other species and activity was further correlated between the different contexts in all tested species. Finding more pronounced personality differences in N. anomalus than in the other, less sociable species supports the hypothesis that social niche specialization can influence the evolution of animal personalities.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • To seek or speak? Dual function of an acoustic signal limits its
           versatility in communication
    • Authors: Nikita M. Finger; Anna Bastian; David S. Jacobs
      Pages: 135 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Nikita M. Finger, Anna Bastian, David S. Jacobs
      The perception of different attributes of conspecifics is an integral part of intraspecific communication. It can facilitate the recognition of interaction partners or the assessment of potential mates. Acoustic signals can encode fine-scaled information through the interplay of acoustic variability and specificity. A reliable vocal signature is both unique within a class and variable between classes. Therefore, acoustic complexity might be associated with the number of classes to be discriminated. We investigated the assumption that limitations to signal design may affect the communicative functionality of a signal. To do so, we chose a signal with potentially dual functionality which may therefore display such limitations. In bats, echolocation is used primarily for foraging and orientation but there is increasing support for its additional role in communication. An acoustic analysis of echolocation pulses of the bat Rhinolophus clivosus confirmed sex and individual vocal signatures in echolocation pulses. A habituation–dishabituation playback experiment suggested that bats perceived these signatures because listening bats clearly discriminated between the sexes (two classes) and between individuals (representatives of a multiclass category), although to different degrees. The simple acoustic structure of these vocalizations provides sufficient specificity for sex discrimination but has limitations for individual discrimination because pulse parameters of individuals increasingly overlapped with increasing group size. We conclude that selection for the primary function of echolocation restricts the acoustic space available for communication. However, we frequently observed echolocation pulses with conspicuous structural modifications. Statistical analyses revealed that these vocalizations yielded increased individual distinctiveness. Such added systematic variation may indicate a communicative function and perhaps a signalling intent of the emitter, although the latter has yet to be tested. The findings suggest that the required specificity for effective communication could be obtained through modification of echolocation variants when adaptations for orientation and foraging constrain the evolution of complex communication signatures.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Huddling is more important than rest site selection for thermoregulation
           in southern bamboo lemurs
    • Authors: Timothy M. Eppley; Julia Watzek; Kathrin H. Dausmann; Jörg U. Ganzhorn; Giuseppe Donati
      Pages: 153 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Timothy M. Eppley, Julia Watzek, Kathrin H. Dausmann, Jörg U. Ganzhorn, Giuseppe Donati
      Resting site selection can have important effects on the behaviour and fitness of organisms. The maintenance of optimal body temperatures (T b) when faced with environmental variables has often been attributed to either specific microhabitat rest site characteristics or to behavioural strategies. Among many small group-living endotherms, social thermoregulation (i.e. huddling) is utilized as an energy conservation mechanism at low ambient temperatures (T a), thus decreasing the metabolic cost of maintaining T b. Although unusual among primates, lemurs maintain a low metabolic rate and exhibit a diversity of thermoregulatory strategies; however, objective T b measurements have thus far been limited to small-bodied lemurs (e.g. Cheirogaleids). As such, we sought to determine whether a medium-sized lemur model, the southern bamboo lemur, Hapalemur meridionalis, would maintain thermoregulation through microhabitat rest site selection, huddling behaviour, or potentially both strategies. Within a degraded littoral forest fragment in southeast Madagascar, we conducted full-day focal observations on three groups of H. meridionalis between January and December 2013. Adult individuals were collared with data-loggers that collected instantaneous skin temperature T sk (°C). We calculated the mean T sk of the focal individual during each resting bout, and the proportional rate of huddling between the focal individual and conspecifics. In addition, we recorded all resting sites utilized for at least 15min and collected standard tree characteristics. We fitted linear mixed-effects models to determine the thermoregulatory combined effect of specific resting site characteristics, huddling behaviour and environmental variables on T sk. Our results showed that lemurs selected tree sites with larger diameter at breast height; however, huddling was most predictive of increasing T sk whereas resting site characteristics were not included in the best-fit model. It is possible that microhabitat rest site selection is not significant in a degraded forest as the potential environmental buffering is limited; thus, thermoregulatory mechanisms are probably best served by behavioural strategies, i.e. social huddling.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Impact of group size and social composition on group vocal activity and
           acoustic network in a social songbird
    • Authors: M.S.A. Fernandez; C. Vignal; H.A. Soula
      Pages: 163 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): M.S.A. Fernandez, C. Vignal, H.A. Soula
      In social species individuals living in the same group may synchronize activities such as movements, foraging or antipredator vigilance. Synchronization of activities can also be observed between partners especially during breeding and can be crucial for breeding success. Vocalizations are behaviours that can be coordinated between individuals, but simultaneous vocalizations in groups have mostly been considered as noise that does not bear any information. Indeed, little is known about the structure and function of vocal communications involving a network of individuals. How individual vocal activity forms part of the communal sound and how the group influences individual vocal activity are questions that remain to be studied. Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, are social, monogamous songbirds that form lifelong pair bonds. In the wild, they are typically found in small groups, with the pair as the primary social unit, and they gather in ‘social’ trees where both females and males produce vocalizations. Here we investigated in the laboratory the influence of group size and composition on general vocal activity and synchrony, as well as the influence of pair bond and spatial location on the finer characteristics of dyads' vocal interactions. We used a set-up that locked the birds at fixed spatial positions of our choosing to control the proximity network and allowed us to match most of the vocalizations with specific individuals. We used an in-house software suite that automatically detects vocalizations from hours of passive recording. We found that zebra finch groups synchronized their general vocal activity with waves of collective vocalizations, which depended on both the size and the composition of the group. The acoustic network was shaped by pair bonds at different timescales. Birds preferentially vocalized close in time to (synchrony) or directly after (turn taking) their partner when it was present and the nearest neighbour when the partner was not available.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Tall trails: ants resolve an asymmetry of information and capacity in
           collective maintenance of infrastructure
    • Authors: Andrew I. Bruce; Tomer J. Czaczkes; Martin Burd
      Pages: 179 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Andrew I. Bruce, Tomer J. Czaczkes, Martin Burd
      Information asymmetry is common in many aspects of natural and economic systems. Collective self-organized behaviour in social insects may involve asymmetries in which an individual may possess information but only another individual is able to act on it. We examined this phenomenon on foraging trails of leaf-cutting ants (Atta colombica) to determine whether workers can resolve such an asymmetry. Cleared trails facilitate the transfer of resources and information but require constant maintenance to remove obstacles that arise in a dynamic environment. Overhead obstructions, which occur frequently along trails, present a specific asymmetry for collective behaviours. Returning foragers carrying leaf fragments above their heads may be hindered by such obstructions but must rely on unladen workers to remove them. Can leaf-cutting ants resolve this asymmetry? Do they do so in an indiscriminate or discriminate fashion? We created experimental overhead obstructions that hindered laden but not unladen ants. Clearing efforts by unladen workers were sensitive to the experience of their laden nestmates; they intensified attacks on a low barrier that impeded traffic but not on an equivalent barrier too high to strike leaf fragments. By contrast, a low barrier in the absence of laden ants or an ineffective visual ‘barrier’ did not elicit increased clearance attempts. Our results demonstrate that leaf-cutting ants can overcome an information asymmetry challenge, in which one group possesses the information that another must act upon. This allows the ants to adaptively modulate their trail-clearing efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:11:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Consistent behavioural differences between migratory and resident
           hoverflies
    • Authors: Jannic Odermatt; Joachim G. Frommen; Myles H.M. Menz
      Pages: 187 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jannic Odermatt, Joachim G. Frommen, Myles H.M. Menz
      Many animals differ consistently in the way they behave across time and context. This animal personality has been linked to traits such as life history strategies or dispersal. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between consistent behavioural differences and migration. This is of particular interest with respect to partial migration, in which only part of a population migrates while the other remains resident. We investigated whether two behavioural traits (activity and stress response) are consistent across time in individuals of two partially migratory hoverfly species, Episyrphus balteatus and Scaeva selenitica. We also investigated whether there were consistent behavioural differences between migratory and resident flies within species. Individual activity was consistent across time in both species. Additionally, activity of female E. balteatus differed between the phenotypes, with summer insects being more active than migrating and overwintering individuals in our assays. Furthermore, females of S. selenitica were more active and less easily stressed than E. balteatus. The results not only highlight that hoverflies behave consistently across time, but also that behavioural differences also occur between migratory and resident flies. They also provide evidence for the possible role of behavioural differences in influencing partial migration decisions within populations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:11:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Flamboyant sexual signals: multiple messages for multiple receivers
    • Authors: Amod M. Zambre; Maria Thaker
      Pages: 197 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Amod M. Zambre, Maria Thaker
      Animals are often faced with the challenge of signalling to multiple receivers that might differ in their detection abilities and preferences. Such conditions are expected to favour the evolution of complex signals. The superb fan-throated lizard, Sarada superba, possesses one of the most complex sexual trait of any lizard: an enlarged dewlap with blue, black and orange patches that is flapped rapidly during both courtship and aggressive displays. We examined the use of the tricoloured dewlap in social signalling to determine whether (1) movement enhances signal detection, and whether (2) males and females differ in their preference for colours. Using robotic lizard stimuli, we measured receiver responses to movement and colour individually, and found that movement attracted both sexes, but the latency to respond was faster when dewlaps had all three colours compared to none (white). Furthermore, the sexes did not differ in the ability to detect colours, as more than 80% of lizards preferred coloured to white dewlaps. Most strikingly, however, the sexes showed strong preferences for different colours. Females preferentially responded to orange colour on dewlaps, and males responded to blue and black, indicating that different colours are targeted at different receivers. These results highlight that complex signals can evolve due to simultaneous inter- and intrasexual selection.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:11:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Voices of Africa: acoustic predictors of human male vocal attractiveness
    • Authors: Pavel Šebesta; Karel Kleisner; Petr Tureček; Tomáš Kočnar; Robert Mbe Akoko; Vít Třebický; Jan Havlíček
      Pages: 205 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Pavel Šebesta, Karel Kleisner, Petr Tureček, Tomáš Kočnar, Robert Mbe Akoko, Vít Třebický, Jan Havlíček
      Robust evidence shows that voice quality affects various social interactions, including mate preferences. Previous research found that male voices perceived as attractive are characterized by low voice pitch, lower or sexually typical formants and relatively high breathiness. These features tend to be seen as markers of an individual's quality as a potential mate. Although there are considerable differences between languages in vocal parameters that could influence the perceived attractiveness, the above-mentioned findings rely on research based mainly on participants from European or North American countries. In our study, we therefore tested the main acoustic predictors of vocal attractiveness using two male samples from Cameroon and Namibia. Standardized vocal recordings were then assessed for vocal attractiveness by a panel of female raters from the Czech Republic. Our results show that in the Cameroonian voices, fundamental frequency was strongly negatively associated with perceived vocal attractiveness. In the Namibian sample, however, it was not the fundamental frequency but lower mean formants and harmonics-to-noise ratio that were negatively associated with vocal attractiveness. This pattern may be partly attributed to differences in morphological characteristics such as the body mass index, indicating variation across individual populations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:11:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Caring males do not respond to cues about losses in paternity in the
           burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides
    • Authors: Matthieu Paquet; Ross Wotherspoon; Per T. Smiseth
      Pages: 213 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Matthieu Paquet, Ross Wotherspoon, Per T. Smiseth
      In species with biparental care, males may be under selection to adjust the amount of care they provide for their offspring in response to losses in paternity. Previous work on birds and fishes provide mixed empirical evidence for facultative adjustments in male care to losses in paternity. One potential reason for this inconsistency is that males need access to reliable cues of losses in paternity, and that it might be difficult to assess what cues, if any, are used by males. Here we manipulated three cues of losses in paternity in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides: the presence of a (dead) rival male (N =44), the temporary absence of the female (N =41) and the presence of a rival male's cuticular hydrocarbons on the female (N =44). We focused on these three cues because there is evidence that males respond to these cues in other species and there is also evidence that our study species responds to these cues in other contexts. We found no effect of the three cues on the amount of direct or indirect care provided by the male, male weight change, or the number and weight of offspring. Our results provide no evidence that single male parents adjust their investment in the current brood based on cues of losses in paternity. As previous work showed that most wild females arriving on a carcass already store sperm, it is likely that males have evolved a fixed response to female polyandry by mating very frequently with the female.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:11:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Sheep in wolf's clothing: multicomponent traits enhance the success of
           mimicry in spider-mimicking moths
    • Authors: Mu-Yun Wang; Vera Vasas; Lars Chittka; Shen-Horn Yen
      Pages: 219 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Mu-Yun Wang, Vera Vasas, Lars Chittka, Shen-Horn Yen
      Predator mimicry occurs when prey resemble their predator to gain protection. We explored the relative importance of the morphological and locomotor signals that spider-mimicking moths use to deceive their jumping spider predators. Two hypotheses explain why animals use multicomponent signals for communication: the ‘back-up signal’ hypothesis which suggests that multiple traits increase accuracy, and the ‘multiple message’ hypothesis which suggests that the different traits serve different purposes or target different signal receivers. We conducted predation tests using the putative spider-mimicking moths Brenthia coronigera (visual and locomotor mimicry) and Choreutis hyligenes (only locomotor mimicry) and a control moth species displaying no mimicry. We found that B. coronigera used multicomponent signals, i.e. pattern, display posture and jumping behaviour, to deceive its jumping spider predators, and thus experienced lower predation rates and more time for escaping. Spiders suffered a decreased predation rate when they encountered B. coronigera, relative to the other two moth species. Spiders displayed leg-waving behaviour (which is used in courtship and territorial display) to both live and lure B. coronigera, suggesting that the spiders considered the moths to be another jumping spider. When the eyespots of B. coronigera were erased, the predation rate increased. In addition, the latency of first attacks was significantly longer in live B. coronigera moths than in lures fixed in the display posture. This suggests that the eyespots, the ‘peacock-like’ display position and the jumping movement all add to the similarity with jumping spiders. Our results support the ‘back-up signal’ hypothesis: that multiple signals can deceive the predators better. Our experimental paradigm enabled us to explore the recognition ability of predators, and gave insight into the ways evolution shapes the mimicry system.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:11:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Herbivores employ a suite of antipredator behaviours to minimize risk from
           ambush and cursorial predators
    • Authors: Douglas F. Makin; Simon Chamaillé-Jammes; Adrian M. Shrader
      Pages: 225 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Douglas F. Makin, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, Adrian M. Shrader
      Prey species may adjust their use of antipredator behaviours to counter the hunting strategies (e.g. ambush versus cursorial) and the level of risk imposed by different predators. Studies of suites of behaviours across well-defined contrasts of predation risk and type are rare, however. Here we explored the degree to which six herbivore species adjusted their antipredator behaviours to two predator treatments (lion, Panthera leo, versus cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and wild dogs, Lycaon pictus). We focused on prey behaviour (vigilance, grouping, temporal use) at waterholes. We predicted that if the hunting strategy of the predator was the key driver of antipredator behaviour, ambushing lions would elicit a greater response than cursorial cheetah and wild dogs. Alternatively, if predator preference was the main driver, then we expected prey species to adjust their antipredator behaviours in response to the predators that specifically target them (i.e. preferred prey of the different predators). Overall, we found that the herbivores maintained greater vigilance, generally moved in larger groups and used waterholes less at dawn, at dusk or at night (when lions are active) when exposed to the potential threat of ambushing lions. However, some species within the accessible prey range of cheetah and/or wild dogs (i.e. red hartebeest, warthog, gemsbok) moved in larger groups when exposed to these predators. Yet, the magnitude of the differences in group size for these herbivores were small. Thus, we suggest that, overall, the potential threat of ambushing lions was the main driver of antipredator behaviour around waterholes, probably determined by prey weight preference and the possibility of being ambushed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:11:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Condition dependence of female-specific UV-induced fluorescence in a
           jumping spider
    • Authors: Christina J. Painting; Chia-chen Chang; Jia Fen Seah; Daiqin Li
      Pages: 233 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Christina J. Painting, Chia-chen Chang, Jia Fen Seah, Daiqin Li
      Male ornaments, commonly explained as being a result of sexual selection, are typically more elaborate than female ornaments. Interestingly, the bright and showy sexually selected traits of some female ornaments, like those of males, might be variable and condition dependent, and hence relate to individual quality. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced fluorescence is one such ornament known to be intricately involved in intraspecific communication in several animals; however, the role of fluorescence in signalling individual quality is unknown. The ornate jumping spider, Cosmophasis umbratica, exhibits female-specific UV-induced fluorescence on its palps to facilitate effective intersex communication but whether the fluorescence informs males of the female's condition and individual quality is unknown. We tested the prediction that UV-induced fluorescence in adult female C. umbratica depended on postmaturation age, mating status and feeding regime. We found that postmaturation age and feeding regime, but not mating status, affected female fluorescence. Middle-aged females were brighter than younger and older females, but the older females had a greener hue; well-fed females were brighter than starved females. We conclude that the UV-induced fluorescence of female C. umbratica is highly condition dependent, highlighting the importance of considering female as well as male ornamentation, particularly when this may have implications for mate choice and the maintenance of coloration in animals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:11:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
       
  • Understanding repeatability and plasticity in multiple dimensions of the
           sociability of wild female kangaroos
    • Authors: Clementine S. Menz; Anne W. Goldizen; Simon P. Blomberg; Natalie J. Freeman; Emily C. Best
      Pages: 3 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Clementine S. Menz, Anne W. Goldizen, Simon P. Blomberg, Natalie J. Freeman, Emily C. Best
      Sociability, how individuals interact with conspecifics, is considered to be a key axis of animal personality. Consistent differences between individuals in measures of sociability have been demonstrated in some taxa, yet individuals also exhibit plasticity in their sociability across differing ecological conditions, particularly in gregarious species that do not occur in stable cohesive groups. Although repeatability and plasticity of measures of sociability are both important for understanding animal personality they have rarely been studied concurrently. Between and even within species, multiple behaviours have been considered to represent sociability, but there is still little understanding of the degree to which different measures of sociability reflect distinct traits. In this study, our first aim was to determine the repeatability of four different measures, representing two broad aspects of individual females' sociability, in a wild population of eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus. Our second aim was to investigate how shorter-term environmental conditions and individuals' states related to plasticity in these measures. Using data collected each month over a 5-year period on over 100 adult females, we analysed factors contributing to variation in individuals' grouping patterns (to reflect general gregariousness) and in the number of different conspecifics with which individuals associated (their ‘choosiness’ of social partners). Rainfall, body condition and reproductive state were all related to females' mean group sizes, and females with older dependent young foraged further from their neighbours. Females were more selective about group members when there was more food, and when they were in poor or excellent body condition. Although social preferences exist among females in this population, and females' measures of sociability are repeatable and differ between individuals over the long term, these current findings suggest that the influences of individuals' states and environmental conditions contribute to variation in females' patterns of sociability over shorter periods.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Enemies are not always dear: male song sparrows adjust dear enemy effect
           expression in response to female fertility
    • Authors: Christopher Moser-Purdy; Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton; Daniel J. Mennill
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Christopher Moser-Purdy, Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton, Daniel J. Mennill
      The dear enemy effect arises when territorial animals respond more intensely to unfamiliar strangers than to familiar neighbours. This widespread behavioural phenomenon occurs because strangers represent a threat to both an animal's territory and parentage, whereas neighbours represent a threat only to parentage. Recent research in birds demonstrates some flexibility in the dear enemy effect across the breeding season. Given that neighbours often sire extrapair young, male animals may benefit by responding more aggressively to neighbours during periods of female fertility. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the dear enemy effect varies with female fertility by testing the prediction that male birds will respond more strongly to neighbours when their own mates are fertile than when they are not fertile. We conducted a playback experiment with wild song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, repeating playback sessions to paired territorial males over the course of a breeding season, including periods when females were fertile and periods when they were not. Male song sparrows displayed a dear enemy effect only when their social mate was not fertile. We conclude that male song sparrows adjust behaviour towards neighbours based on their own mate's fertility status, presumably because neighbours threaten a territorial male's parentage during his breeding partner's fertile period. When paternity is not at stake, reduced aggression towards neighbours may enhance fitness, but when paternity is at stake, normal levels of aggression towards neighbours may be favoured as a mate-guarding tactic.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • The price of attack: rethinking damage costs in animal contests
    • Authors: Sarah M. Lane; Mark Briffa
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Sarah M. Lane, Mark Briffa
      Theoretical models of injurious animal contests, such as the cumulative assessment model (CAM), predict that an individual's decision to give up and retreat from a fight is determined by reaching a maximum cost threshold (C max). Under this model, an individual gives up when the accumulated costs of persisting exceed this threshold. CAM predicts that the velocity with which C max is reached depends on both the energetic (physiological) costs of remaining in the fight and the damage costs of injuries received. Here we propose that damage costs are accumulated not only by receiving injuries, but in some cases also by inflicting injury (attacking). We argue that these self-inflicted damage costs need to be incorporated into theoretical frameworks to fully understand what drives an individual to make the decision to give up, and we call for further research into this area.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Causes and consequences of intergroup conflict in cooperative banded
           mongooses
    • Authors: Faye J. Thompson; Harry H. Marshall; Emma I.K. Vitikainen; Michael A. Cant
      Pages: 31 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Faye J. Thompson, Harry H. Marshall, Emma I.K. Vitikainen, Michael A. Cant
      Conflict between groups is a notable feature of many animal societies. Recent theoretical models suggest that violent intergroup conflict can shape patterns of within-group cooperation. However, despite its prevalence in social species, the adaptive significance of violent intergroup conflict has been little explored outside of humans and chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. A barrier to current understanding of the role of intergroup conflict in the evolution of social behaviour is a lack of information on the causes and consequences of aggression between groups. Here, we examined the causes and fitness consequences of intergroup conflict in the banded mongoose, Mungos mungo, using a 16-year data set of observed intergroup interactions, life history and behaviour. Banded mongooses are cooperative breeders that live in highly territorial groups and engage in frequent, aggressive and violent intergroup interactions. We found that intensified population-wide competition for food and mates increased the probability of intergroup interactions, and that increased intergroup conflict was associated with periods in which groups were growing in size. Intergroup conflict had fitness costs in terms of reduced litter and adult survival but no cost to pregnant females: in fact, females were less likely to abort following an intergroup interaction than when there had been no recent intergroup conflict. Our results suggest that intergroup conflict has measurable costs to both individuals and groups in the long and short term, and that levels of conflict among groups could be high enough to affect patterns of within-group cooperative behaviour. Establishing the consequences of intergroup conflict in cooperative species can shed light on patterns of conflict and cooperation within groups and, in turn, facilitate our understanding of social evolution.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Individual differences in cooperative communicative skills are more
           similar between dogs and humans than chimpanzees
    • Authors: Evan L. MacLean; Esther Herrmann; Sunil Suchindran; Brian Hare
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Evan L. MacLean, Esther Herrmann, Sunil Suchindran, Brian Hare
      By 2.5 years of age humans are more skilful than other apes on a set of social, but not nonsocial, cognitive tasks. Individual differences in human infants, but not chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, are also explained by correlated variance in these cooperative communicative skills. Relative to nonhuman apes, domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, perform more like human infants in cooperative communicative tasks, but it is unknown whether dog and human cognition share a similar underlying structure. We tested 552 dogs in a large-scale test battery modelled after similar work with humans and nonhuman apes. Unlike chimpanzees, but similarly to humans, individual differences in dogs were explained by correlated variance in skills for solving cooperative communicative problems. Direct comparisons of data from all three species revealed similar patterns of individual differences in cooperative communication between human infants (N = 105) and domestic dogs (N = 430), which were not observed in chimpanzees (N = 106). Future research will be needed to examine whether the observed similarities are a result of similar psychological mechanisms and evolutionary processes in the dog and human lineages.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Age-dependent changes in behavioural plasticity: insights from Bayesian
           models of development
    • Authors: Judy A. Stamps; V.V. Krishnan
      Pages: 53 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Judy A. Stamps, V.V. Krishnan
      Recent models of sensitive periods and age-dependent changes in plasticity are based on the premise that animals use Bayesian-like processes to update information across ontogeny. Here we adopt this approach to consider how cues in the rearing environment, cues in the test environment and an individual's information state at birth or hatching (its naïve prior distribution) combine to generate age-dependent changes in ‘plasticity of belief’ (i.e. the effects of exposure to a given cue on the individual's estimate of a variable in the external world). Our models were based on experimental designs (within-individual, replicate-individual) that empiricists routinely use to study age-dependent changes in behavioural plasticity. We found that for parameter values representing a wide range of naïve prior distributions and likelihood functions for the stimuli in the rearing and the test environment, the plasticity of belief nearly always eventually declined with age, results that are consistent with empirical observations of age-dependent declines in behavioural plasticity. However, plasticity of belief was maintained with age when individuals were reared in the absence of any cues, in agreement with data indicating that sensitive periods are often prolonged if subjects are reared in the absence of potentially informative stimuli. For a few combinations of naïve prior distributions and likelihood functions we found that the plasticity of belief briefly increased early in life, before declining later in life. These results imply that patterns of age-dependent plasticity during the early juvenile period might predictably vary among genotypes that express different levels of behaviour at birth or hatching, as a function of the cues with which those genotypes were reared and tested. More generally, given that information updating would usually encourage age-dependent declines in behavioural plasticity, we suggest that future theory should focus on explaining situations in which this does not occur.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T11:46:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Habitat-dependent variation in motion signal structure between allopatric
           populations of lizards
    • Authors: Jose A. Ramos; Richard A. Peters
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Jose A. Ramos, Richard A. Peters
      Habitat characteristics influence the efficacy of animal communication, and population differences in signal structure due to habitat variation are well known for sound and colour signals. However, this variation in signal structure has not been reported for motion-based signals. Here we tested the motion-based signalling displays of two populations of an Australian agamid lizard, Amphibolurus muricatus, in the context of their respective habitats. We employed a novel approach that calculates the distribution of motion speeds of lizard signals and environmental noise independently, before computing the difference in these distributions to obtain a measure of signal–noise contrast. Our results revealed variation in signal structure between the two populations and support the hypothesis that this variation can be explained by differences in the signalling environment. Signals from both populations showed similar contrast values at their respective habitats, but differed significantly when considered in the habitats of the allopatric population. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that habitat structure affects signal efficacy and causes population differences in motion signalling behaviour as a consequence of adaptations to enhance efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T09:12:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Wintering in Europe instead of Africa enhances juvenile survival in a
           long-distance migrant
    • Authors: Shay Rotics; Sondra Turjeman; Michael Kaatz; Yehezkel S. Resheff; Damaris Zurell; Nir Sapir; Ute Eggers; Wolfgang Fiedler; Andrea Flack; Florian Jeltsch; Martin Wikelski; Ran Nathan
      Pages: 79 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Shay Rotics, Sondra Turjeman, Michael Kaatz, Yehezkel S. Resheff, Damaris Zurell, Nir Sapir, Ute Eggers, Wolfgang Fiedler, Andrea Flack, Florian Jeltsch, Martin Wikelski, Ran Nathan
      Increased human-induced environmental changes and global warming alter bird migration timing and routes. Recently, many Holarctic species, including white storks, Ciconia ciconia, were reported to overwinter at higher latitudes, closer to breeding grounds. We aimed to understand the causes and implications of this phenomenon by examining bird survival and behaviour during overwintering in Europe versus Africa. We compared GPS and body acceleration data of 54 juvenile (first-year) white storks that originated from the same European natal population and overwintered in Europe or Africa. All six juveniles that overwintered in Europe survived through their first year, which was significantly higher than only 38% of the 48 overwintering in the species' traditional grounds in Africa. During overwintering, storks in Europe differed from those in Africa by (1) reducing movement and foraging range, (2) spending less time flying and more time resting, thus using less energy (estimated from overall dynamic body acceleration) and (3) reducing foraging effort, while relying more on anthropogenic resources (landfills and agricultural areas). Timing affected overwintering site as juveniles that overwintered in Europe hatched and started migrating later. We emphasize, however, that late hatching by itself did not yield a survival benefit as not all late juveniles curtailed their migration. We suggest that wintering in Europe was less demanding compared to Africa which may explain the increased survival of juveniles that wintered in Europe. Our findings correspond to the general increase in the European wintering population of white storks, and shed light on the contemporary trend of shortened bird migration; a phenomenon with potentially broad ecological implications.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T09:12:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Telomere length and dynamics of spotless starling nestlings depend on
           nest-building materials used by parents
    • Authors: Juan J. Soler; Cristina Ruiz-Castellano; Jordi Figuerola; Manuel Martín-Vivaldi; Josué Martínez-de la Puente; Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez; Gustavo Tomás
      Pages: 89 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Juan J. Soler, Cristina Ruiz-Castellano, Jordi Figuerola, Manuel Martín-Vivaldi, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez, Gustavo Tomás
      Nest materials used by animals can have profound effects on developing offspring. They can modify the bacterial and parasitic environment of the nest, and can influence parental investment through sexual signalling processes. In spotless starlings, Sturnus unicolor, green plants and feathers are known nest materials with such functions. The aim of our study was to experimentally assess their influence on nestlings' telomere length and attrition, which are good predictors of their survival prospects. In a full-factorial experiment, we explored these effects in two different populations, together with the potential effects of hatching date, ectoparasitism, bacterial environment and nestling growth. Telomere length and attrition largely depended on population identity and hatching date. After correcting for these effects, the addition of feathers resulted in higher rates of telomere attrition. The addition of plants did not affect nestling telomeres in general, but did in interaction with location: in Hueneja, the experimental addition of green plants resulted in longer telomeres. Feather pigmentation also did not affect telomere length or attrition in general, but did in interaction with location: in Hueneja, the experimental addition of unpigmented feathers resulted in nestlings with longer telomeres and lower attrition rates. Moreover, prevalence of staphylococci on the skin of 8-day-old nestlings was negatively related to telomere lengths of fledglings. Taken together, these results suggest a direct link between nest material composition and nestling telomere length and dynamics. This relationship could be partially mediated by the antimicrobial and/or antiparasitic properties of nest materials or by sexual signalling processes. We discuss possible roles of maternal effects, parasites, immunity and nestling growth in explaining these experimental effects.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T09:12:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • The ‘strength of weak ties’ among female baboons: fitness-related
           benefits of social bonds
    • Authors: Richard McFarland; Derek Murphy; David Lusseau; S. Peter Henzi; Jessica L. Parker; Thomas V. Pollet; Louise Barrett
      Pages: 101 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Richard McFarland, Derek Murphy, David Lusseau, S. Peter Henzi, Jessica L. Parker, Thomas V. Pollet, Louise Barrett
      Studies across a range of species have shown that sociability has positive fitness consequences. Among baboons, both increased infant survival and adult longevity have been associated with the maintenance of strong, equitable and durable social bonds. However, not all baboon populations show these patterns of bonding. South African chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, in the Drakensberg Mountains and De Hoop Nature Reserve show cyclical variation in social relations across time, with strong bonds formed only during certain times of the year. Using long-term data from the De Hoop baboons, we tested whether social relations influence female reproductive success in our study group in a manner similar to other baboon populations. Our results show that the number of strong bonds a female maintained predicted birth rate, and that the number of weak bonds a female possessed predicted infant 12-month survival and infant longevity. Fitness-related benefits of sociability were, however, independent of female dominance rank, and there was no relationship between the number of weak and strong bonds a female maintained. One possible explanation for the influence of weak as well as strong bonds in our study group may be that variation in demographic and ecological conditions across populations may favour the use of different social strategies by females. In our sample, weak bonds as well as strong bonds appear to be instrumental to achieving fitness-related benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T09:12:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Discrimination of male black-capped chickadee songs: relationship between
           acoustic preference and performance accuracy
    • Authors: Allison H. Hahn; Lauren M. Guillette; Marisa Hoeschele; Kenneth A. Otter; Laurene M. Ratcliffe; Christopher B. Sturdy
      Pages: 107 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Allison H. Hahn, Lauren M. Guillette, Marisa Hoeschele, Kenneth A. Otter, Laurene M. Ratcliffe, Christopher B. Sturdy
      Many species form social groups with dominance hierarchies. Often, individuals possess a status signal that indicates dominance rank. Songbirds produce songs that are used to attract mates or repel rivals, and acoustic features within songs can also indicate an individual's quality, including dominance rank. Acoustic status signals have been reported in the songs of male black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, a nonmigratory North American songbird. Here we used two operant conditioning tasks to examine acoustic preference for and discrimination of conspecific songs produced by males varying in dominance rank. We used a choice preference task to examine birds' preferences for listening to dominant or subordinate songs and conducted an instrumental learning task to determine whether chickadees considered dominant and subordinate songs as belonging to separate signal categories based on acoustic features. Overall, our results provide little evidence that birds used open-ended categorization when discriminating, but there is evidence that songs from different geographical regions may contain acoustic similarity based on dominance rank. Consistent with previous song discrimination studies with black-capped chickadees, we found sex differences in discrimination abilities, with females learning the discrimination faster than males. We also found evidence that performance accuracy during the instrumental learning task correlates with acoustic song preference. Overall, these results suggest that when biologically relevant signals (e.g. male songs) are used as stimuli during a perceptual task, the birds' responses may be differentially affected based on individual differences among the subjects performing the task (including sex and underlying preference) and the salience associated with the stimuli (e.g. dominance rank of the singer).

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T09:12:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Multiple rewards have asymmetric effects on learning in bumblebees
    • Authors: Felicity Muth; Daniel R. Papaj; Anne S. Leonard
      Pages: 123 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Felicity Muth, Daniel R. Papaj, Anne S. Leonard
      In their natural environments, most animals must learn about multiple kinds of rewards, both within and across contexts. Despite this, the majority of research on animal learning involves a single reward type. For example, bees are an important model system for the study of cognition and its ecological consequences, but nearly all research to date on their learning concerns a single reward, nectar (carbohydrates), even though foragers often simultaneously collect pollen (protein). Features of learning under more ecologically realistic conditions involving multiple reward types are thus largely unexplored. To address this gap, we compared performance on a colour-learning task when floral surrogates offered bumblebees, Bombus impatiens, a single type of floral reward versus multiple, nutritionally distinct rewards. In one experiment, bees learned a floral association with nectar either alone or while simultaneously collecting pollen. In a reciprocal experiment, bees learned a floral association with pollen either alone or while simultaneously collecting nectar. Bees that collected pollen while learning about nectar did not suffer any detriment to learning which flower colour offered nectar. However, this was not the case for the reciprocal task: collecting nectar impaired bees' ability to learn and remember associations between floral colour and pollen. Our findings offer new insight into how bees learn in relation to ecologically realistic rewards and how cognitive constraints may shape their behaviour under ecologically realistic foraging scenarios.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T09:56:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Neophobia is linked to behavioural and haematological indicators of stress
           in captive roe deer
    • Authors: Chloé Monestier; Nicolas Morellet; Hélène Verheyden; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Eric Bideau; Anaïs Denailhac; Bruno Lourtet; Nicolas Cebe; Denis Picot; Jean-Luc Rames; A.J. Mark Hewison
      Pages: 135 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Chloé Monestier, Nicolas Morellet, Hélène Verheyden, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Eric Bideau, Anaïs Denailhac, Bruno Lourtet, Nicolas Cebe, Denis Picot, Jean-Luc Rames, A.J. Mark Hewison
      Neophobia is an important personality trait that allows animals to minimize exposure to threat. We investigated the existence of consistent individual differences in the level of neophobia in captive roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, using an experimental set-up. Our main objective was to explore the link between an individual's level of neophobia with behavioural and physiological responses measured during a stressful situation, i.e. capture and restraint, to facilitate characterization of neophobia in the wild. We found that the probability of initiating a feeding bout and the feeding efficiency over bouts both decreased in the presence of a novel object. However, there was pronounced variation in the degree to which individuals were affected by the experimental treatment. First, feeding efficiency decreased the most among individuals that reacted less markedly to an acutely stressful situation (capture). Second, latency between the first visit and the first feeding bout increased the most among individuals that had a higher concentration of fructosamine in their blood, an indicator of chronic stress. Our results indicate that individuals that are more neophobic (high latency to first feeding bout and low feeding efficiency in the presence of a novel object) are also less proactive (low behavioural response to capture, high levels of fructosamine), suggesting the existence of a behavioural syndrome. We conclude that behavioural and physiological parameters measured during capture provide reliable indicators of neophobia for roe deer, providing an exciting new avenue for the study of animal personality in the wild.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T09:12:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Pace of life and behaviour: rapid development is linked with increased
           activity and voracity in the wolf spider Pardosa agrestis
    • Authors: Zoltán Rádai; Balázs Kiss; Zoltán Barta
      Pages: 145 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Zoltán Rádai, Balázs Kiss, Zoltán Barta
      Modern life history theory hypothesizes that pace of life is a strong predictor of life history traits. Recently, the notion that life history studies should integrate animal behaviour has emerged, because between-individual differences in behaviour are often coupled with fitness differences. So far, studies have mainly focused on interspecies or interpopulation perspectives, and research on the effects of life history differences on individual behaviour remain scarce. In the present study we aimed to contribute to the understanding of how pace of life is related to consistent individual behaviour. We investigated the relationship between developmental speed and consistent behaviour of the field wolf spider, Pardosa agrestis. In this species, individuals originating from the same clutch can typically follow either a slow or a rapid developmental pathway, characterized by a developmental time of about 10 or 3 months, respectively. We found that spiders, regardless of their developmental speed, behaved consistently in most of the tests. Our results also show that individuals developing rapidly were significantly more active during exploration and more successful in prey-catching tests than slowly developing spiders. Although rapidly developing spiders were bolder in one of the tests, this difference did not persist over the repeated measurements. Our work seems to support the notion that pace of life and animal personality are correlated, and pace of life might predict the behavioural types of individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T08:06:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Geographical variation in male territory defence strategies in an avian
           ring species
    • Authors: Elizabeth S.C. Scordato
      Pages: 153 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Elizabeth S.C. Scordato
      Interactions between sexual selection and ecology can drive phenotypic divergence between populations. Geographical variation in female preferences has been linked to ecology in several studies, but much less is known about patterns of geographical variation in male competition. I asked whether male aggressive territorial behaviour varied among three breeding populations of a ring species, the greenish warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides. I measured aggressive response to playbacks of conspecific song at multiple time points to determine how territorial behaviour varied throughout the breeding season both within and between populations. Differences in the abundance and timing of resources necessary for raising offspring can shape male competitive strategies, and competition may consequently vary as a function of resource availability. I therefore combined assays of temporal variation in aggressive behaviour with season-long measures of food abundance, population density and parental provisioning rates. I found that the populations differed in intensity of aggressive response, the seasonal pattern of territoriality and the traits used in territorial responses. Overall intensity of aggression was lowest but most prolonged in the population with the lowest food abundance and highest population density, and males responded to playback primarily by singing. By contrast, birds in the two populations that experienced high food abundance and low population density exhibited a burst of aggressive display behaviour only when females were fertile. The results suggest that territorial strategies vary geographically and respond to limited resources, switching in function from season-long food defence where food is scarce to mate guarding where mates are scarce. Interactions between sexual selection and ecology across large geographical scales may ultimately lead to population divergence. The geographical variation in territorial behaviour observed in the greenish warbler implies that male competition may be an important diversifying force in this system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T08:06:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • What's in a squeak? Female vocal signals predict the sexual behaviour of
           male house mice during courtship
    • Authors: Caitlyn J. Finton; Sarah M. Keesom; Kayleigh E. Hood; Laura M. Hurley
      Pages: 163 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Caitlyn J. Finton, Sarah M. Keesom, Kayleigh E. Hood, Laura M. Hurley
      Vocal production can be a two-way channel for the exchange of information between males and females during courtship. Although the ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of male house mice, Mus musculus, during interactions with females have been a focus of communication research, the vocalizations of females in this context remain poorly understood. During interactions with males, female mice produce audible vocalizations with a broadband harmonic structure (‘broadband vocalizations’, or BBVs) that are often described by human listeners as ‘squeaks’. We tested the hypothesis that the production of BBVs corresponds to male and female behaviours, as well as to contextual variables like oestrous phase, by measuring BBVs, USVs and nonvocal behaviours during 39 unique male–female pairings. We found that the relationship of BBVs to other behaviours depends on the phase of courtship. A high incidence of BBVs accompanied by male-directed kicks and lunges early in interactions predicted a lack of later male mounting and male-produced ‘50kHz harmonic’ USVs. In contrast, there was significant temporal overlap between BBVs and 50kHz harmonic USVs at later stages of courtship, potentially driven by mounting events. The duration of acoustically nonlinear segments of BBVs varied significantly among females, even across interactions with different males, but also varied across oestrous phase within females. These findings suggest that vocalizations could play a role in signalling acute female motivational state, identity or oestrous state during opposite-sex interactions. Since the information-bearing features of BBVs are relatively easily measured, they are potentially a useful readout of negative motivational state suitable for many research and educational applications.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T08:06:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Spontaneous discrimination of urine odours in wild African lions, Panthera
           leo
    • Authors: Geoffrey D. Gilfillan; Jessica D.T. Vitale; J. Weldon McNutt; Karen McComb
      Pages: 177 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126
      Author(s): Geoffrey D. Gilfillan, Jessica D.T. Vitale, J. Weldon McNutt, Karen McComb
      Olfactory communication is the primary mode of communication for many mammals, yet research on this form of signalling is still largely descriptive in most species. Thus, despite the apparent importance of scent marking in the social lives of wild felids, experimental studies directly investigating the function of olfactory communication are lacking. We conducted scent presentation experiments to investigate whether wild African lions can discriminate another lion's social group and sex from a sample of its urine. Our results indicated that lion urine has the potential to signal depositor sex and social group, and that lions can use urine to discriminate males from females and residents from nonresidents. The response of lions to urine was also dependent on both the sex and age of the subject receiving the presentation. Female lions responded less frequently to urine from resident females than to either nonresident females or resident males. Males responded more strongly to urine from resident males than resident females, but did not appear to differentiate urine from nonresident and resident females. Observations of flehmen and further scent-marking responses from lions provide additional evidence that lion urine functions in scent marking. These results establish that urine scent-marks contain sufficient information for receivers to discriminate the sex and social affiliation of the signaller, and demonstrate the functional relevance of scent marking in African lions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T08:06:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2017)
       
  • Leaf extracts from an exotic tree affect responses to chemical cues in the
           palmate newt, Lissotriton helveticus
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Maider Iglesias-Carrasco, Megan L. Head, Michael D. Jennions, José Martín, Carlos Cabido
      Chemical communication in aquatic species can affect many key life history traits, such as prey and predator detection and mate searching. However, changes in the environment can disrupt the effectiveness of signals and the ability of individuals to detect these signals. Many studies have examined the effect of secondary compounds from exotic plants on the ecology and physiology of a range of taxa, but whether the replacement of natural forests with exotic trees influences the behavioural responses of animals by disrupting chemical communication has rarely been investigated. We experimentally tested how eucalypt tree chemicals influenced three key aspects of chemical communication in adult male palmate newts. We tested for effects of both exposure to eucalypt water (i.e. extracts obtained by soaking leaves in mineral water) and the origin of newts (eucalypt plantations and natural oak forests). We examined whether exposure to eucalypt water altered the chemosensory ability of males to detect pools containing females or conspecific alarm cues and to find food. We found that eucalypt leachates had different effects on each behavioural trait. Fewer males detected female chemicals when exposed to the eucalypt than the oak water treatment, independent of the males' habitat of origin. Newts from oak forest were less able to detect conspecific alarm cues signalling predatory events when exposed to eucalypt water than when exposed to oak water, or than newts from eucalypt plantations for either water treatment. The ability of males to find food using chemical cues was similar in oak and eucalypt treatments. Our results suggest that chemical compounds not previously encountered during the evolutionary history of the species can influence the ability to respond to predators and locate mates. Future studies should explore the fitness costs associated with a reduced ability to respond to predators or detect mates.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T05:02:52Z
       
  • Ecological factors influence timing of departures in nocturnally migrating
           songbirds at Falsterbo, Sweden
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Sissel Sjöberg, Thomas Alerstam, Susanne Åkesson, Rachel Muheim
      Most songbirds depart from stopover sites after sunset and migrate during the night. Several recent studies have reported larger variation in departure time than previously thought; yet, it is still unclear which factors govern departure timing. We investigated the departure timing of four species of nocturnally migrating songbirds using an automated radiotelemetry system at Falsterbo peninsula in southwest Sweden. We made a comprehensive analysis to test a range of factors that have been hypothesized to affect departure timing of nocturnal migrants, such as night duration, season, sun elevation and the birds' intrinsic and environmental conditions. We hypothesized that birds in good condition (large fuel reserves) and under advantageous flight conditions would depart sooner after sunset, in the expected migratory direction. Our analyses showed that the birds departed sooner after sunset during spring than autumn, and different species departed at different times in relation to sunset. In addition, birds departed earlier when nights were shorter, suggesting that night duration is an important factor that may drive much of the observed timing differences between seasons and species. Lean birds delayed their departures compared to fat individuals. When birds experienced favourable wind conditions (tail wind or weak winds) at sunset, they departed earlier. Thus, it appears that the decision to take off for a long-distance flight depends on both body condition and wind conditions. Timing of departure was not correlated with sun elevation, which would have been expected if availability of specific orientation cues (sun, skylight polarization pattern, stars) acted as triggers for departures. These results stress high flexibility and adaptive responses to a complex of ecological factors as the determinants for timing of nocturnal flights in songbirds.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T05:02:52Z
       
  • Primer effects of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queen pheromone 9-ODA on
           drones
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Gabriel Villar, Christina M. Grozinger
      In many social insect species, pheromones coordinate defining features of social life. Queen-produced pheromones mediate many of these processes, and thus there is substantial interest in understanding both the mechanisms by which queen pheromones organize behaviour and how these chemical communication systems evolved. It is hypothesized that queen social pheromones evolved from sex pheromones found in their solitary ancestors. Here we begin to test this theory in the honeybee, where the queen-produced pheromone 9-ODA (9-oxo-2-decenoic acid) serves as both a social pheromone (priming physiological processes mediating worker behavioural maturation) and sex pheromone (attracting males during mating flights). While we expected the primer effects of 9-ODA on workers to represent a derived worker-specific function, we surprisingly found similar effects in drones. Exposure to 9-ODA resulted in a significant increase in expression levels of vitellogenin in drones. Since previous studies in workers found that vitellogenin levels regulate behavioural maturation, we investigated 9-ODA's effects on sexual maturation in drones. Drones exposed to 9-ODA initiated mating flights later and took fewer flights than control drones. Our results demonstrate that honeybee queen pheromone has primer effects on drone bees, and thus chemical communication systems involving honeybee drones are more complex than previously appreciated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T05:02:52Z
       
  • Size-dependent ejaculation strategies and reproductive success in the
           yellow dung fly, Scathophaga stercoraria
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Brian E. Gress, Scott Pitnick
      Theory predicts that sperm competition will favour the production of larger ejaculates. However, because the benefits of greater reproductive investment are balanced by the costs of spermatogenesis, expenditure should depend on male physiology, mating rate and the relationship between additional investment and fertilization gains. In the yellow dung fly, S cathophaga stercoraria, males adopt size-dependent alternative mating tactics that are associated with discrete ecological resources (foraging and oviposition substrates), although males switch between these environments throughout their lives. By copulating on foraging substrate (fruit or flowers), males can bypass intense mate competition that occurs at oviposition sites (cow dung), but as a consequence, must occupy a disfavoured mating role (i.e. face a greater risk that their ejaculate will be displaced from storage prior to fertilization). Small males often mate on foraging substrate, whereas large males mate in this environment only during feeding bouts. Optimal ejaculate expenditure should therefore depend on male size and their current mating role. By measuring copula duration (i.e. ejaculate expenditure) of natural matings and assigning paternity to resulting offspring, we confirmed that copulations on dung sire approximately three times as many offspring as those on foraging substrate. Furthermore, large males reduced copula duration on fruit, as predicted, since this strategy enables greater investment into high-payoff matings on dung. Conversely, small males copulated for shorter durations on dung than on foraging substrate, perhaps to minimize the risk of being displaced from copula by a rival. These patterns of ejaculate expenditure translated into greater offspring production for large males on dung and for small males on fruit. We discuss the possible proximate factors driving these size- and context-dependent patterns of ejaculate allocation by yellow dung fly males. Together, our findings shed light on the allocation strategies and reproductive consequences of alternative mating tactics.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T05:02:52Z
       
  • Editors' Acknowledgments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour


      PubDate: 2017-04-19T09:11:40Z
       
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126


      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
       
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 126


      PubDate: 2017-04-12T09:04:23Z
       
 
 
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