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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
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Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
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Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
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Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Behaviour
  [SJR: 1.907]   [H-I: 126]   [157 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-3472 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8282
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Erratum to “Good tutors are not dear enemies in song sparrows” [Anim
           Behav 129 (2017) 223–228]
    • Authors: Çağlar Akçay; S. Elizabeth Campbell; Michael D. Beecher
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Çağlar Akçay, S. Elizabeth Campbell, Michael D. Beecher

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T15:29:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2017)
  • Mobbing calls: a signal transcending species boundaries
    • Authors: Mylène Dutour; Jean-Paul Léna; Thierry Lengagne
      Pages: 3 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Mylène Dutour, Jean-Paul Léna, Thierry Lengagne
      When they detect a predator, some prey exhibit mobbing behaviour and produce mobbing calls that quickly draw a mixed conspecific and heterospecific group against the predator. While the efficiency of this strategy is often linked to interspecific communication, it raises the question of how animals recognize these signals as mobbing calls. It is usually suggested that associative learning about a predator when heterospecific mobbing calls are heard plays a crucial role in communication among species. Alternatively, phylogenetic conservation or evolutionary convergence could also explain this communication process. To determine whether prior experience is required to express a mobbing response, we conducted playback experiments with four European passerine species: great tit, Parus major, blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus, coal tit, Periparus ater, and common chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs. The aim of the study was to examine whether they would respond to the mobbing signals of several North American passerines. As expected, because natural selection might shape a strong response to conspecific mobbing calls, our focal species reacted more strongly towards their own mobbing calls than towards those of American species. Nevertheless, for the three European species of tit, prior experience of heterospecific mobbing calls was not required to elicit a response. Additionally, for great tit and chaffinch, we found that acoustic similarity could explain behavioural responses to allopatric species. In contrast, such similarity was probably not the main mechanism underlying the response for the other two European species. Heterospecific response to mobbing calls probably involved many different mechanisms. Further studies focusing on each of these should allow us to understand their relative contribution to heterospecific communication.

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T15:29:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2017)
  • Coping with catastrophe: foraging plasticity enables a benthic predator to
           survive in rapidly degrading coral reefs
    • Authors: Rucha Karkarey; Teresa Alcoverro; Sanjeev Kumar; Rohan Arthur
      Pages: 13 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Rucha Karkarey, Teresa Alcoverro, Sanjeev Kumar, Rohan Arthur
      Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) disproportionately affects species with specialist traits and long generation times. By circumventing prolonged evolutionary processes, behavioural plasticity is critical in allowing species to cope with rapid environmental changes within their lifetimes. Coral reefs have faced multiple mass mortality events of corals related to climate change in the last two decades. The consequent loss of structural complexity adversely impacts long-lived, structure-dependent fish predators. We attempted to determine how well a guild of groupers (Pisces: Epinephelidae) copes with rapid structural change in the lightly fished Lakshadweep Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Of the 15 species, territorial and site-attached groupers declined exponentially with decreasing structural complexity, while widely ranging species showed no change. However, one site-attached species, the peacock grouper, Cephalopholis argus, maintained high densities across the structural gradient. We explored the mechanisms this species employs to cope with declining habitat structure. Our observations indicate that both a potential release from specialist competitors and plasticity in foraging behaviour (foraging territory size, diet and foraging mode) appeared to favour the peacock grouper's survival in sites of high and low structure. While specialist competitors dropped out of the assemblage, the foraging territory size of peacock groupers increased exponentially with structural decline, but remained constant and compact (50m2) above a threshold of structural complexity (corresponding to a canopy height of 60cm). Interestingly, despite significant differences in prey density in sites of high and low structure, gut content and stable isotope analyses indicated that peacock groupers maintained a specialized dietary niche. In-water behavioural observations suggested that diet specialization was maintained by switching foraging modes from a structure-dependent ‘ambush’ to a structure-independent ‘widely foraging’ mode. The remarkable foraging plasticity of species such as the peacock grouper will become increasingly critical in separating winners from losers and may help preserve specialist ecosystem functions as habitats collapse as a result of climate change.

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T15:29:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2017)
  • Accounting for syntax in analyses of countersinging reveals hidden vocal
           dynamics in a songbird with a large repertoire
    • Authors: Richard W. Hedley; Kaleda K. Denton; Robert E. Weiss
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Richard W. Hedley, Kaleda K. Denton, Robert E. Weiss
      Identifying the signalling strategies employed by animals during vocal interactions is a challenge, especially for species with large vocal repertoires. We propose that efforts to study such vocal dynamics can benefit by integrating models of syntax into their analyses. In this study, we conducted playback experiments on Cassin's vireo, Vireo cassinii, to examine the role of syntax, and more specifically, shared syntactic patterns, in countersinging. We presented 11 males with song sequences ordered according to population norms, and with sequences whose order deviated from population norms. We did not find evidence that individuals markedly altered their responses based on the syntax of the playback, either in their physical approach to the speaker or in the quantity of song they delivered in response. We did, however, find evidence that syntax was important in governing their choice of phrase types in response to the playbacks. Subjects did not match the playback phrase types. Instead, they engaged in a vocal behaviour referred to as song advancing, where they responded to a stimulus phrase type by singing the phrase type that most often followed the stimulus in their own normal song sequences. When playback sequences were ordered according to population norms, song advancing resulted in birds pre-empting the upcoming playback phrase type or delivering another of the prior playback phrase types (i.e. delayed matching) at higher rates than when playback sequences deviated from population norms. The detection of song advancing was only possible with the explicit inclusion of syntax in our analysis, suggesting that studies of the vocal interactions of species with repertoires of multiple vocalizations can benefit from consideration not only of a subject's repertoire, but also their syntax.

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T15:29:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.021
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2017)
  • The transfer of alternative tasks in reciprocal cooperation
    • Authors: Manon K. Schweinfurth; Michael Taborsky
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Manon K. Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
      Direct reciprocity can establish stable cooperation. Nevertheless, the significance of this mechanism is yet unclear. A frequent assumption is that both commodity and context should be the same when help is exchanged between social partners. Yet, an exchange of different favours appears more likely in a natural setting. This is assumed to be cognitively demanding, however, because experienced help in one context needs to change the motivation to help by different means or in a different context. We tested whether Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, transfer help from one cooperative task to another. Individuals could provide food to previously either cooperating or defecting partners by using a different mechanism to produce food for their partner than the partner had used to help them. Test subjects indeed helped previously cooperative partners more often than defecting ones by using a different provisioning mechanism. This implies that rats realize the cooperative propensity of social partners, which they consequently reward by help of a different kind; hence, they do not merely copy experienced helping behaviour. Our results suggest that animals other than primates are capable of transferring help between different contexts, which highlights new possibilities for the occurrence of reciprocal altruism involving different commodities and services in nature.

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T15:29:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2017)
  • Artificial insemination unveils a first-male fertilization advantage in
           the guppy
    • Authors: Martina Magris; Gabriela Cardozo; Francesco Santi; Alessandro Devigili; Andrea Pilastro
      Pages: 45 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Martina Magris, Gabriela Cardozo, Francesco Santi, Alessandro Devigili, Andrea Pilastro
      Several factors are involved in determining the outcome of sperm competition. In addition to sperm number, sperm quality and male phenotype, insemination order is often associated with skewed paternity share. Patterns of sperm precedence can be produced by the mechanics of sperm storage and fertilization, or by active processes under male or female control. However, as males and females always interact during copulation, it is difficult to identify the mechanism responsible. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is a polyandric species characterized by last-male sperm precedence in natural matings. During such matings, females allow attractive males to inseminate more sperm by controlling copulation duration. We used artificial insemination to clarify the extent to which female control of sperm transfer influences the observed pattern of sperm precedence in this species. This technique allowed us to experimentally manipulate the number of sperm transferred and the timing of insemination. We found a significant first-male fertilization advantage. This advantage, however, declined as the time between insemination and parturition increased. Presumably, the anatomy and the physiology of the female genital tract favour egg fertilization by the first ejaculate inseminated, whereas sperm mixing is likely to be responsible for the reduction in first-male advantage associated with longer insemination–parturition intervals. Our results suggest that the last-male precedence detected after two consecutive natural matings is caused by cryptic female preference for attractive males associated with a female trading-up strategy (i.e. the second male is more frequently more attractive than the first male), rather than by insemination order per se. As the pattern of sperm precedence has important consequences for male reproductive strategies (for example mate guarding and male mate choice copying), unravelling its dynamic represents an important contribution to understanding the sexual behaviour of this model species.

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T00:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2017)
  • Migration by breeders and floaters of a long-lived raptor: implications
           for recruitment and territory quality
    • Authors: Fabrizio Sergio; Alessandro Tanferna; Renaud De Stephanis; Lidia López Jiménez; Julio Blas; Fernando Hiraldo
      Pages: 59 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Fabrizio Sergio, Alessandro Tanferna, Renaud De Stephanis, Lidia López Jiménez, Julio Blas, Fernando Hiraldo
      Animal migration is receiving increasing research attention through ever more sophisticated tracking technologies, but the difficulty of trapping nonbreeding floaters has prevented comprehensive tracking studies of how migration varies in young breeders and floaters and whether this has consequences for recruitment (i.e. the transition from floating to breeding). To fill this gap, we satellite-GPS tracked young black kites, Milvus migrans, which start to breed when 1–7 years old. In the prebreeding migration, floaters departed and arrived later than breeders, travelled faster with fewer days at stopovers, as if in a hurry, and suffered more from cross-winds. Survival, recruitment, the territory quality and offspring production of the first reproductive attempt, as well as eventual longevity, declined rapidly with small departure delays. The high payoffs for small gains in timing set young kites on a race for early arrival: individuals improved their departure through early life and late migrants were progressively removed from the population or lingered as old floaters. As a result, individual improvements and selective mortality caused each cohort to progressively split after 3 years of age between a vanishing tail of late floaters and a body of early travelling individuals that then shaped the migratory traits of the adult population. Thus, migration in early life acted as a demographic bottleneck that filtered the transition to the next stage of the life cycle through a carryover effect that linked events operating on different continents.

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T00:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2017)
  • A computational model of mapping in echolocating bats
    • Authors: Dieter Vanderelst; Herbert Peremans
      Pages: 73 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Dieter Vanderelst, Herbert Peremans
      Echolocating bats can navigate to salient places relying solely on their sonar system. Currently, much about the mechanism underlying sonar-based navigation in bats remains unknown, and no computational models of this ability have been proposed. In this paper, we propose a computational model of sonar-based navigation in bats. In particular, we advance a model explaining how bats could assemble a cognitive map from their environment using only their sonar readings. The model consists of two loops. The first loop performs low-level obstacle avoidance. This gives rise to stable and environment-derived flight corridors (i.e. preferred pathways for bats flying through the environment). The second high-level loop runs on top of the low-level loop and performs mapping. Mapping is done by combining local view information extracted from echo signals with local self-motion information to recognize previously visited places and memorize their spatial relationships. Using this model, we simulate a bat exploring unstructured environments while constructing a cognitive map using a biologically plausible algorithm. The model we propose allows the simulated bat to construct a global map of its flight paths through the environment without the bat ever reconstructing the three-dimensional layout of the local environment from any of its received echo signals. Indeed, neither the obstacle avoidance strategy that guides the bat through space nor the mapping algorithm requires the three-dimensional geometric structure of the environment to be accessible to the bat.

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T00:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 131 (2017)
  • Male mate choice contributes to behavioural isolation in sexually
           dimorphic fish with traditional sex roles
    • Authors: Natalie S. Roberts; Tamra C. Mendelson
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Natalie S. Roberts, Tamra C. Mendelson
      Behavioural isolation between closely related species with exaggerated male mating traits is traditionally thought to be mediated by female preference for conspecific male ornaments. The role of male mate choice in maintaining boundaries between highly sexually dimorphic species is therefore comparatively neglected. However, mounting theoretical and empirical evidence supports the existence of male mate choice both within, and increasingly, between species with exaggerated male ornaments. We therefore tested the role of male mate choice in the maintenance of species boundaries for two sexually dimorphic species of darters (Percidae: Etheostoma). Using dichotomous choice assays, we measured male preferences of sympatric species Etheosotma barrenense and Etheosotma zonale for size-matched conspecific and heterospecific females, thus reducing the possibility that males would select for general indicators of fecundity. Our results show that males of both species strongly prefer conspecific females. A comparison with published data showed that the strength of preference for conspecific mates is just as strong for males as it is for females in E. barrenense. We also estimated the relative contribution of male mate choice, female mate choice and male–male competition to behavioural isolation. We found that male mate choice contributes as much as female mate choice to total behavioural isolation and thus likely plays an important role in behavioural isolation in these sexually dimorphic species. Our results suggest that the contribution of male choice to behavioural isolation should be studied in a larger variety of animal species to appreciate the relative roles of the sexes in the maintenance of species boundaries.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Competitive superiority versus predation savvy: the two sides of
           behavioural lateralization
    • Authors: Douglas P. Chivers; Mark I. McCormick; Donald T. Warren; Bridie J.M. Allan; Ryan A. Ramasamy; Brittany K. Arvizu; Matthew Glue; Maud C.O. Ferrari
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Douglas P. Chivers, Mark I. McCormick, Donald T. Warren, Bridie J.M. Allan, Ryan A. Ramasamy, Brittany K. Arvizu, Matthew Glue, Maud C.O. Ferrari
      Many animals respond differentially to stimuli on one side of their body compared to the other. This is a reflection of being lateralized, and is a feature common in vertebrates. Given that any particular stimulus that an animal encounters, be it food, a predator or a competitor, has an equal probability of coming from either side of the body, there may be negative selection for lateralization. However, the costs of lateralization may be offset if being lateralized confers a considerable advantage in other contexts, including cognition. Here, we showed that learned responses of juvenile ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, to a novel predator was strongly influenced by the degree of lateralization. While both lateralized and nonlateralized fish were able to learn the predator, lateralized fish showed much stronger responses to the learned predator than nonlateralized fish. When we paired lateralized and nonlateralized fish and allowed them to interact over a shelter resource, we observed that lateralized fish were poorer competitors. They attacked less often, showed fewer displays and exhibited greater avoidance of their competitor. For many gregarious species, the expression of lateralization likely reflects a fine balance of competing selection pressures. Our work highlights the need for integrative studies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Divergent mechanisms of acoustic mate recognition between closely related
           field cricket species (Teleogryllus spp.)
    • Authors: Nathan W. Bailey; Peter A. Moran; R. Matthias Hennig
      Pages: 17 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Nathan W. Bailey, Peter A. Moran, R. Matthias Hennig
      Effective recognition of conspecific mating signals reduces the risk of maladaptive hybridization. Dissecting the signal recognition algorithms that underlie preferences is a useful approach for testing whether closely related taxa evaluate the same or different signal features to achieve mate recognition. Such data provide information about potential constraints and targets of selection during evolutionary divergence. Using a series of mate choice trials, we tested whether closely related, but genetically and phenotypically divergent, field cricket species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and Teleogryllus commodus) use shared or distinct recognition algorithms when evaluating acoustic male calling songs. These species overlap in sympatry, show premating isolation based on female discrimination of male calling songs, yet are capable of producing hybrid offspring. Unexpectedly, female selectivity for features of male song differed between the two species. We found that the two species use a combination of shared and unique signal filtering mechanisms, and we characterized how information about male carrier frequency, pulse rate and temporal patterning is integrated to achieve song recognition in each species. These results illustrate how comparatively few, simple modifications in key components of signal recognition algorithms can lead to striking interspecific discrimination between closely related taxa, despite apparent signal complexity. The finding that some steps during signal recognition and filtering are shared between the species, while others differ, can help to identify behavioural traits targeted by selection during evolutionary divergence.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Individual versus collective decision making: optimal foraging in the
           group-hunting termite specialist Megaponera analis
    • Authors: Erik T. Frank; K. Eduard Linsenmair
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Erik T. Frank, K. Eduard Linsenmair
      Collective decision making is one of the main mechanisms of organization in social insects. However, individual decision making can also play an important role, depending on the type of foraging behaviour. In the termite-hunting ant species Megaponera analis information about foraging sites is collected by only a handful of individual scouts that have to convey this information to the colony as accurately as possible to optimize their foraging behaviour. We therefore looked at predictions made by optimal foraging theory to better understand the interplay between collective and individual decision making in this obligate group-raiding predator. We found a clear positive relation between raid size (200–500 ants) and termite abundance at the foraging site thereby confirming predictions of the maximization of energy theory. Furthermore, selectivity of the food source increased with distance, thus confirming central place prediction theory. The confirmation of these theories suggests that individual scouts must be the main driver behind raid size, choice and raiding behaviour. The marginal value theorem was also confirmed by our results: time spent at the hunting ground increased with distance and prey quantity. This raises questions on how foraging time at the food source is regulated in a group-hunting predator. Hunger decreased selectivity of scouts with respect to food sources, while average raid size increased and more scouts left the nest in search of prey, thus implying that scouts are aware of the hunger state of the colony and adapt their decision making accordingly. Remarkably, most central place foraging behaviours in M. analis were not achieved by collective decisions but rather by individual decisions of scout ants. Thus, 1% of the colony (10–20 scouts) decided the fate and foraging efficiency of the remaining 99%.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Feeling anxious' The mechanisms of vocal deception in tufted capuchin
    • Authors: Donna Kean; Barbara Tiddi; Martin Fahy; Michael Heistermann; Gabriele Schino; Brandon C. Wheeler
      Pages: 37 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Donna Kean, Barbara Tiddi, Martin Fahy, Michael Heistermann, Gabriele Schino, Brandon C. Wheeler
      An ability to deceive conspecifics is thought to have favoured the evolution of large brains in social animals, but evidence that such behaviours require cognitive complexity is lacking. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) have been documented to use false alarm calls during feeding in a manner that functions to deceive competitors. However, comparative evidence suggests that the production of vocalizations by nonhuman primates is largely underpinned by emotional mechanisms, calling into question more cognitive interpretations of this behaviour. To determine whether emotional states are plausibly necessary and sufficient to proximately explain deceptive alarm call production, we examined the association between self-directed behaviours (SDBs), as a proxy for anxiety, and the production of spontaneous false alarm calls among tufted capuchins. Specifically, we predicted that if anxiety is necessary for the production of false alarms, then individuals that produce spontaneous false alarms should exhibit more SDBs in those contexts in which they call. If anxiety is also sufficient to explain the false alarm call production, then we predicted that individuals that call more in a given context would show higher rates of SDBs in that context, and that high rates of calling would be temporally associated with high rates of SDBs. Our results support the contention that states of anxiety are necessary for an individual to spontaneously produce false alarms, but that such states are not sufficient to explain patterns of calling. The link between anxiety and deceptive calling thus appears complex, and cognitively based decision-making processes may play some role in call production.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Tennis grunts communicate acoustic cues to sex and contest outcome
    • Authors: Jordan Raine; Katarzyna Pisanski; David Reby
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Jordan Raine, Katarzyna Pisanski, David Reby
      Despite their ubiquity in human behaviour, the communicative functions of nonverbal vocalizations remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed the acoustic structure of tennis grunts, nonverbal vocalizations produced in a competitive context. We predicted that tennis grunts convey information about the vocalizer and context, similar to nonhuman vocal displays. Specifically, we tested whether the fundamental frequency (F0) of tennis grunts conveys static cues to a player's sex, height, weight, and age, and covaries dynamically with tennis shot type (a proxy of body posture) and the progress and outcome of male and female professional tennis contests. We also performed playback experiments (using natural and resynthesized stimuli) to assess the perceptual relevance of tennis grunts. The F0 of tennis grunts predicted player sex, but not age or body size. Serve grunts had higher F0 than forehand and backhand grunts, grunts produced later in contests had higher F0 than those produced earlier, and grunts produced during contests that players won had a lower F0 than those produced during lost contests. This difference in F0 between losses and wins emerged early in matches, and did not change in magnitude as the match progressed, suggesting a possible role of physiological and/or psychological factors manifesting early or even before matches. Playbacks revealed that listeners use grunt F0 to infer sex and contest outcome. These findings indicate that tennis grunts communicate information about both the vocalizer and contest, consistent with nonhuman mammal vocalizations.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.022
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Quantifying social complexity
    • Authors: Julia Fischer; Max S. Farnworth; Holger Sennhenn-Reulen; Kurt Hammerschmidt
      Pages: 57 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Julia Fischer, Max S. Farnworth, Holger Sennhenn-Reulen, Kurt Hammerschmidt
      Social complexity has been invoked as a driving force shaping communicative and cognitive abilities, and brain evolution more generally. Despite progress in the conceptual understanding of societal structures, there is still a dearth of quantitative measures to capture social complexity. Here we offer a method to quantify social complexity in terms of the diversity of differentiated relationships. We illustrate our approach using data collected from Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, at ‘La Forêt des Singes’ in Rocamadour, France, as well as simulated data sets for a proof-of-concept. Based on affiliative and agonistic behavioural categories, we calculated four indices that characterize social relationships (diversity of behavioural patterns, dyadic composite sociality index, relative interaction frequency and tenor). Using cluster analyses, we identified four different relationship types: rarely interacting agonistic dyads, rarely interacting affiliative dyads, moderately frequently interacting ambivalent dyads and frequently interacting affiliative dyads. We then calculated for each individual a derived diversity score that integrates information about the number and diversity of relationships each subject maintained. At the individual level, one may be interested to identify predictors of this individual diversity score, such as age, rank or sex. At the group level, variation in the relative shares of affiliative and agonistic interactions affects the distribution of individual diversity scores more than the interaction frequency, while the omission of ambivalent relationships (i.e. a discontinuous variation in the share of affiliative or agonistic relationships) leads to greater variation in diversity scores. The number of realized relationships had only a moderate effect. Overall, this method appears to be suited to capture social complexity in terms of the diversity of relationships at the individual and group level. We suggest that this approach is applicable across different species and facilitates quantitative tests of putative drivers in brain evolution.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • The curse of being single: both male and female Gammarus pulex benefit
           energetically from precopulatory mate guarding
    • Authors: Corentin Iltis; François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont; Matthias Galipaud; Jérôme Moreau; Loïc Bollache; Philippe Louâpre
      Pages: 67 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Corentin Iltis, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Matthias Galipaud, Jérôme Moreau, Loïc Bollache, Philippe Louâpre
      Precopulatory mate guarding (PCMG) is frequently presented as a classic case of sexual conflict between partners. For instance, long-lasting PCMG is regarded as an adaptive male strategy to secure a female in a context of strong intrasexual competition, while females guarded for a long time are assumed to bear many costs. This assumption has been derived from guarding systems where females obviously resist males' attempts to initiate early guarding. However, females of some species such as the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex do not seem to possess adaptations to reduce PCMG duration, which remains to be explained from an evolutionary perspective. In this model organism for sexual conflict research, a male grasps a female several days before her sexual receptivity. Here we tested the hypothesis that G. pulex females might benefit from being passively transported by their partner during PCMG, whereas the male alone bears the costs of swimming while carrying his mate. We therefore compared the energetic states of paired and single individuals and found that, after 5 days of PCMG in controlled conditions, paired individuals contained more protein, lipid and glycogen reserves than single individuals in both sexes. Our results suggest that PCMG might be energetically beneficial not only to the female, but also to the male. We discuss overall fitness consequences of PCMG for both partners given the mutual benefits we highlighted here. We plead for a more precise estimation of the cost/benefit ratio for each sex to improve our understanding of how sexual conflict shapes guarding patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Avoiding the serpent's tooth: predator–prey interactions between
           free-ranging sidewinder rattlesnakes and desert kangaroo rats
    • Authors: Malachi D. Whitford; Grace A. Freymiller; Rulon W. Clark
      Pages: 73 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Malachi D. Whitford, Grace A. Freymiller, Rulon W. Clark
      Many species perform complex antipredator displays that deter attacks by informing predators that continued attempts at prey capture will be costly. However, because of the difficulties in studying the behaviour of free-ranging predators, we have a limited understanding of how predators respond to those signals. Here, we took advantage of our ability to quantify predatory behaviours of free-ranging sidewinder rattlesnakes, Crotalus cerastes, to examine the influence of anti-snake behaviours performed by desert kangaroo rats, Dipodomys deserti. We recorded natural encounters and quantified the predator-deterrent behaviours displayed by the kangaroo rats, as well as any strikes performed by the rattlesnakes and whether the strikes were successful. We found that predator-deterrent signalling significantly reduced the probability that a rattlesnake would strike. This was most likely due to the ability of kangaroo rats to mobilize extremely rapid evasive leaps; even rats that appeared unaware of the snakes were almost always able to avoid rattlesnake strikes. The degree of effectiveness of this evasive leaping in countering rattlesnake predation was unexpected and indicates that this may be a rich system for exploring the biomechanics of extreme physical performance in a naturalistic context.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Hens vary their vocal repertoire and structure when anticipating different
           types of reward
    • Authors: Nicky McGrath; Rebecca Dunlop; Cathy Dwyer; Oliver Burman; Clive J.C. Phillips
      Pages: 79 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Nicky McGrath, Rebecca Dunlop, Cathy Dwyer, Oliver Burman, Clive J.C. Phillips
      The vocalizations of nonhuman animals are considered potential indicators of motivational or internal state. In many species, different call types, and structural variation within call types, encode information about physical characteristics such as age or sex, or about variable traits such as motivation. Domestic chickens, Gallus gallus, have an elaborate vocal repertoire, enabling investigation into whether reward-related arousal is encoded within their call type and structure. Twelve hens were given a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using sound cues to signal the availability of two food rewards (mealworms, normal food), one nonfood reward (a container of substrate suitable for dustbathing), and a sound-neutral event (sound cue, no reward). A muted-neutral treatment (no sound cue, no reward) provided a baseline for vocal behaviour. Sound cues preceded a 15s anticipation period during which vocalizations were recorded. Hens produced a ‘Food call’ (previously defined in other studies) in anticipation of all rewards, including the nonfood reward. ‘Food calls’ and ‘Fast clucks’ were more prevalent in anticipation of rewards, and most prevalent following the cue signalling the dustbathing substrate, suggesting that this reward induced the most arousal in hens. The peak frequency of ‘Food calls’ made in anticipation of the dustbathing substrate was significantly lower than those made in anticipation of food rewards, potentially reflecting differences in arousal. Vocalizations that reliably indicate hens' motivational state could be used as measures of welfare in on-farm assessment situations. Our study is the first to reveal variation in the frequency-related parameters of the ‘Food call’ in different contexts, and to show the prevalence of different call types in reward and nonreward contexts, which may have implications for welfare assessments.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T21:01:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.025
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Integrating trait multidimensionality, predation and autotomy to explain
           the maintenance of boldness
    • Authors: Vienna Delnat; Sara Debecker; Robby Stoks
      Pages: 97 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Vienna Delnat, Sara Debecker, Robby Stoks
      There is an ongoing debate on how personality types are maintained within populations. We tested, for the first time, the potential of trait multidimensionality and trait compensation, where prey compensate for the costs of one trait by relying more on another one, in maintaining variation in boldness within a population. We studied how four boldness-related traits and swimming escape performance covary and shape the probability of survival and autotomy of Ischnura pumilio damselfly larvae in an experiment with predatory dragonfly larvae. Our results did not support the common belief that bold individuals are selected against in terms of survival selection by predation. Instead, we found survival selection favouring individuals combining being bold for two boldness-related traits. The four boldness-related traits did not covary frequently, supporting the multidimensionality of boldness. Moreover, animals bolder for one trait (activity in the presence of predator cues) were shyer for another trait (response to predator cues), which indicated trait compensation. However, the support for trait compensation was limited. The only other case of trait compensation was that bold larvae compensated for their increased risk-taking behaviour in the presence of a predator with a higher probability of autotomy. These patterns may contribute to maintaining variation in boldness in damselfly populations. Just as boldness-related traits are multidimensional, the mechanisms underlying their persistence in natural populations are also likely to be multifaceted.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • How variation in prey aposematic signals affects avoidance learning,
           generalization and memory of a salticid spider
    • Authors: Jan Raška; Pavel Štys; Alice Exnerová
      Pages: 107 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Jan Raška, Pavel Štys, Alice Exnerová
      Most studies of aposematism focus on the effect of warning signals on vertebrate predators, especially birds. In our experiments, we used jumping spiders, Evarcha arcuata (Araneae: Salticidae) as predators, and larvae of three colour forms (red, white, yellow) of an unpalatable firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) as prey. The experiments were divided into four successive steps, focusing on different aspects of predator–prey interaction. (1) When presented with a firebug for the first time, the spiders captured the white, least conspicuous colour form more often than the other two. No differences in the attack latencies were observed between the colour forms. (2) In the avoidance-learning test, the spiders were offered in succession five firebugs of one of the three colour forms. The attack and capture rate decreased in all colour forms, more notably in the red, most conspicuous form. (3) After five presentations of the same prey, the spiders were presented with a different firebug colour form. The results of the generalization process were asymmetric: spiders' attack rate increased when the red prey was followed by the yellow or white one, but decreased when the red form was presented after the other colour forms. (4) Spiders attacked the same prey more often the next day, but the attacks were seldom fatal. Similarly to the initial reaction, spiders captured the white firebugs more often. Our results show that for E. arcuata, the red coloration can represent an effective aposematic signal. Red prey coloration decreased the attack rate during the avoidance-learning process and favoured the prey in generalization between different colour forms. Yellow coloration was moderately effective against E. arcuata, whereas white coloration was the least effective because of low innate bias against this signal.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Individual consistency in multiple cognitive performance: behavioural
           versus cognitive syndromes
    • Authors: Anja Guenther; Vera Brust
      Pages: 119 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Anja Guenther, Vera Brust
      Individuals within species differ consistently in their behaviour. Such individual differences may represent adaptations. Recently, researchers have started to implement the same adaptive framework to individual differences in cognition, leading to the suggestion that personality and cognition should covary. To determine the contextual consistency of cognitive traits and their covariation with several personality traits, 24 guinea pigs, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, were tested using a battery of 12 cognitive tests. Four tests each were conducted to test for problem solving, association learning and social learning. We assessed consistency within each of these three domains and tested for cognitive and behavioural syndromes between domains. Problem solving and social learning were consistent across contexts and positively correlated with each other. In addition, both correlated positively with boldness, and problem solving showed a negative correlation with aggressiveness and sociopositive behaviour. Association learning was neither consistent nor correlated with personality or performance in the other cognition tasks. We showed contextual consistency of two cognitive traits and found multiple links to personality traits that were predicted by recent theory. Surprisingly, associative learning was not consistent, demonstrating the importance of testing the relation between personality and multiple cognitive traits to increase our understanding of individual variation in cognition and personality.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Lifelong effects of trapping experience lead to age-biased sampling:
           lessons from a wild bird population
    • Authors: Carlos Camacho; David Canal; Jaime Potti
      Pages: 133 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Carlos Camacho, David Canal, Jaime Potti
      Long-term monitoring of individually marked animals is usually required for reliable estimation of numerous life history parameters. However, capture, marking and manipulation can dramatically alter the animals' behaviour after capture, and thus affect subsequent recapture success. Here, we used a pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, population as an example to illustrate the sampling bias resulting from the repeated capture of free-ranging individuals. By using repeated measures of the same individuals obtained during our long-term survey, we specifically evaluated the interannual response of breeding adults to capture-related stress, measured as latency to enter nestboxes equipped with a swing-trap. Moreover, we examined changes in the mean and variance of bird age with varying trapping effort using subsamples of the data set. Birds without any previous trapping experience entered nests more quickly than experienced ones, after controlling for other factors affecting latency, such as the sex, offspring quality and the order of capture relative to the other pair member. Birds' reluctance to enter the nest furthermore increased as the number of captures in previous years accumulated, implying that individual pied flycatchers became progressively more difficult to capture over the course of the study. Our results indicate that repeated exposure to capture stress over an animal's lifetime may induce long-lasting behavioural modifications that may influence trappability of the older segments of the population. We also provide evidence that this may ultimately lead to sampling bias towards younger ages, especially when effort is limited. We conclude that systematic age bias due to trapping experience can have important implications for the estimation of variation in a range of traits and should therefore be carefully checked in longitudinal studies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.018
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Bestial boredom: a biological perspective on animal boredom and
           suggestions for its scientific investigation
    • Authors: Charlotte C. Burn
      Pages: 141 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Charlotte C. Burn
      Boredom is likely to have adaptive value in motivating exploration and learning, and many animals may possess the basic neurological mechanisms to support it. Chronic inescapable boredom can be extremely aversive, and understimulation can harm neural, cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Wild and domesticated animals are at particular risk in captivity, which is often spatially and temporally monotonous. Yet biological research into boredom has barely begun, despite having important implications for animal welfare, the evolution of motivation and cognition, and for human dysfunction at individual and societal levels. Here I aim to facilitate hypotheses about how monotony affects behaviour and physiology, so that boredom can be objectively studied by ethologists and other scientists. I cover valence (pleasantness) and arousal (wakefulness) qualities of boredom, because both can be measured, and I suggest boredom includes suboptimal arousal and aversion to monotony. Because the suboptimal arousal during boredom is aversive, individuals will resist low arousal. Thus, behavioural indicators of boredom will, seemingly paradoxically, include signs of increasing drowsiness, alongside bouts of restlessness, avoidance and sensation-seeking behaviour. Valence and arousal are not, however, sufficient to fully describe boredom. For example, human boredom is further characterized by a perception that time ‘drags’, and this effect of monotony on time perception can too be behaviourally assayed in animals. Sleep disruption and some abnormal behaviour may also be caused by boredom. Ethological research into this emotional phenomenon will deepen understanding of its causes, development, function and evolution, and will enable evidence-based interventions to mitigate human and animal boredom.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Natal philopatry: local experience or social attraction' An experiment
           with Spanish imperial eagles
    • Authors: Virginia Morandini; Miguel Ferrer
      Pages: 153 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Virginia Morandini, Miguel Ferrer
      We investigated juvenile dispersal strategy of a territorial long-lived species with deferred maturity, the Spanish imperial eagle, Aquila adalberti. Here we used a reintroduction programme as an experimental approach to test separately predictions of the two hypotheses about natal philopatry: social attraction and local experience. We determined the maximum juvenile dispersal distance of 90 young eagles in three different categories: (1) 31 translocated young released without adults in the area; (2) 29 translocated young released with adults breeding in the area; and (3) 30 wild nonmanipulated individuals. No differences between the sexes were found but there was a highly significant difference between the three categories, with longer distances in young released without adults in the area and similar distances in the other two categories. Our results thus showed that social attraction determined the juvenile dispersal strategies in this species.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.017
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • A trap and a lure: dual function of a nocturnal animal construction
    • Authors: Chih-Wei Lai; Shichang Zhang; Dakota Piorkowski; Chen-Pan Liao; I-Min Tso
      Pages: 159 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Chih-Wei Lai, Shichang Zhang, Dakota Piorkowski, Chen-Pan Liao, I-Min Tso
      Animals that use deceptive visual signals to attract prey often employ colour mimicry or bioluminescence but less commonly self-excreted lures. The conspicuous web decorations and silks of some web-building spiders have been shown to visually lure prey in the daytime. However, it remains unknown whether spider webs can also lure prey at night with these self-produced silks. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating the coloration of the webs of Psechrus clavis and the presence of the web dwellers. We monitored the foraging performance of four treatment groups (spider present, normal web; spider present, blackened web; spider absent, normal web; spider absent, blackened web) and measured the reflectance spectra of spider body parts and web silks. We found that both spider body colour and web silk can lure insect prey at night. Lepidopteran insects comprised the majority of attracted prey. This study is the first to empirically demonstrate that animals can use self-produced substances to visually lure prey in a nocturnal environment and improve foraging success.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Biotremology: Do physical constraints limit the propagation of vibrational
    • Authors: Beth Mortimer
      Pages: 165 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Beth Mortimer
      Vibrations are a ubiquitous source of information in the environment, and are utilized by a wide range of animals. In this review, I concentrate on the propagation of vibrations across and through substrates, which are materials and surfaces. During the propagation process, physical constraints act on vibrational signals and cues, including loss of energy, filtering or distortion of information. An understanding of these physical mechanisms is important for answering biological questions about communication and information gathering, particularly the reach of signals/cues and how information can be separated from background noise. In this review, I explore the interdisciplinary links central to the field of biotremology to probe the extent to which physical laws limit information propagation. In what follows, I start with a primer in wave theory, before focusing on how the physical factors of wave type and substrate properties affect vibration propagation. I then turn to the interacting biological factors that influence signal/cue propagation during animal-substrate coupling, discussing the numerous behavioural and morphological adaptations employed to mitigate physical constraints. Following this, I then move from limits to possibilities, discussing how animals harness physical laws to provide useful information. Using examples from a wide range of animal systems and biological contexts, I highlight the array of evolutionary strategies to promote the propagation of information given inevitable physical constraints.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Using whole-group metabolic rate and behaviour to assess the energetics of
           courtship in red-sided garter snakes
    • Authors: Christopher R. Friesen; Donald R. Powers; Robert T. Mason
      Pages: 177 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Christopher R. Friesen, Donald R. Powers, Robert T. Mason
      Reproductive effort is an important aspect of life history as reproductive success is arguably the most important component of fitness. Males tend to compete for access to females and, in the process, expend their energetic capital on mate searching, male–male competition and courtship rather than directly on offspring. Red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, are an exceptional model for studying energetic costs of courtship and mating as they fast during the spring mating season, which segregates the cost of energy acquisition from the cost of courtship and mating. However, measuring an individual male's metabolic rate during courtship is complicated by the fact that male courtship behaviour in red-sided garter snakes is dependent on both the detection of a female sexual attractiveness pheromone and on facilitated courtship (i.e. vigorous courtship is only exhibited in the presence of other males). Thus, traditional techniques of placing a mask over the head of individuals would prevent male courtship behaviour, and single animals placed in a flow-through chamber would not yield ecologically realistic levels of courtship, which are only seen in the context of a mating aggregation in this species. Because of these difficulties, we placed groups of males in a flow-through metabolic chamber together with a single female whose respiratory gases were vented outside the chamber to yield a whole-group metabolic rate during competitive courtship. We also measured the standard metabolic rates (SMR) of the males individually for comparison with active metabolic rates. Conservative estimates of peak group metabolic rates during courtship are 10–20 times higher than resting group metabolic rate, which was 1.88 times higher than SMR. These measurements, coupled with the fact that these males are aphagous during the breeding, indicates that costs of courtship may be high for males and has implications for the male mating tactics in this system.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.020
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • It's complicated: the association between songbird extrapair paternity and
           within-song complexity
    • Authors: Samuel D. Hill; Christophe Amiot; Michael G. Anderson; Weihong Ji
      Pages: 187 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Samuel D. Hill, Christophe Amiot, Michael G. Anderson, Weihong Ji
      Many songbird species are socially monogamous while exhibiting varying extrapair paternity frequencies. Song complexity, often subject to sexual selection, similarly varies across songbird taxa. Some species form highly complex songs whereas others produce simple songs. The basis of this variability, however, is unresolved. Because selection pressures generally favour the evolution of sexually selected characteristics reflecting male quality, such as song complexity, it should be subject to extrapair mate selection. We therefore predicted a positive association between extrapair paternity frequency and songbird song complexity. In addition, we predicted that broadcast (long-range) rather than interactive songs (short-range) would be more likely to contain sexually selected characteristics, such as higher complexity, especially in species with high extrapair paternity frequencies. This was tested using tui, Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae, a species with high extrapair paternity frequency. First, analyses on 78 songbird species indicated a significant positive association between extrapair paternity frequency and within-song complexity (the level of complexity within a species-specific song) but not between-song complexity (size of species-specific song or syllable repertoire), while no phylogenetic trait conservation was found. Additionally, our results suggested tui broadcast songs had higher song complexity than interactive songs. The findings in this study indicate extrapair mate selection may play a role in the evolution of within-song complexity in songbirds.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.026
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Tolerant Barbary macaques maintain juvenile levels of social attention in
           old age, but despotic rhesus macaques do not
    • Authors: Alexandra G. Rosati; Laurie R. Santos
      Pages: 199 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Alexandra G. Rosati, Laurie R. Santos
      Complex social life is thought to be a major driver of complex cognition in primates, but few studies have directly tested the relationship between a given primate species' social system and their social cognitive skills. We experimentally compared life span patterns of a foundational social cognitive skill (following another's gaze) in tolerant Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, and despotic rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Semi-free-ranging monkeys (N =80 individuals from each species) followed gaze more in test trials where an actor looked up compared to control trials. However, species differed in ontogenetic trajectories: both exhibited high rates of gaze following as juveniles, but rhesus monkeys exhibited declines in social attention with age, whereas Barbary macaques did not. This pattern indicates that developmental patterns of social attention vary with social tolerance, and that diversity in social behaviour can lead to differences in social cognition across primates.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T15:18:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.019
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • A comparison of animal personality and coping styles in the red junglefowl
    • Authors: Josefina Zidar; Alexandra Balogh; Anna Favati; Per Jensen; Olof Leimar; Hanne Løvlie
      Pages: 209 - 220
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Josefina Zidar, Alexandra Balogh, Anna Favati, Per Jensen, Olof Leimar, Hanne Løvlie
      There is an increased focus in biology on consistent behavioural variation. Several terms are used to describe this variation, including animal personality and coping style. Both terms describe between-individual consistency in behavioural variation; however, they differ in the behavioural assays typically used, the expected distribution of response variables, and whether they incorporate variation in behavioural flexibility. Despite these differences, the terms are often used interchangeably. We conducted experiments using juvenile and adult red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, as subjects to explore the degree to which animal personality and coping styles overlap. We demonstrate that animal personality and coping styles can be described in this species, and that shyer individuals had more flexible responses, as expected for coping styles. Behavioural responses from both personality and coping style assays had continuous distributions, and were not clearly separated into two types. Behavioural traits were not correlated and, hence, there was no evidence of a behavioural syndrome. Further, behavioural responses obtained in personality assays did not correlate with those from coping style tests. Animal personality and coping styles are therefore not synonymous in the red junglefowl. We suggest that the terms animal personality and coping style are not equivalent and should not be used interchangeably.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T15:18:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.024
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Novelty induces behavioural and glucocorticoid responses in a songbird
           artificially selected for divergent personalities
    • Authors: Alexander T. Baugh; Kailyn R. Witonsky; Sarah C. Davidson; Laura Hyder; Michaela Hau; Kees van Oers
      Pages: 221 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Alexander T. Baugh, Kailyn R. Witonsky, Sarah C. Davidson, Laura Hyder, Michaela Hau, Kees van Oers
      Stress physiology is thought to contribute to individual differences in behaviour. In part this reflects the fact that canonical personality measures consist of responses to challenges, including novel objects and environments. Exposure to novelty is typically assumed to induce a moderate increase in glucocorticoids (CORT), although this has rarely been tested. We tested this assumption using great tits, Parus major, selected for divergent personalities (bold-fast and shy-slow explorers), predicting that the shy birds would exhibit higher CORT following exposure to a novel object. We also scored behavioural responses to the novel object, predicting that bold birds would more frequently approach the novel object and exhibit more abnormal repetitive behaviours. We found that the presence of a novel object did induce a moderate CORT response, but selection lines did not differ in the magnitude of this response. Furthermore, although both selection lines showed a robust CORT elevation to a subsequent restraint stressor, the CORT response was stronger in bold birds and this effect was specific to novel object exposure. Shy birds showed a strong positive phenotypic correlation between CORT concentrations following the novel object exposure and the subsequent restraint stress. Behaviourally, the selection lines differed in their response during novel object exposure: as predicted, bold birds more frequently approached the novel object and shy birds more strongly decreased overall locomotion during the novel object trial, but birds from both selection lines showed significant and similar frequencies of abnormal repetitive behaviours during novel object exposure. Our findings support the hypothesis that personality emerges as a result of correlated selection on behaviour and underlying endocrine mechanisms and suggest that the relationship between endocrine stress physiology and personality is context dependent.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T15:18:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.028
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Conflict or consensus' Synchronous change in mother–young vocal
           communication across weaning in the cat
    • Authors: Oxána Bánszegi; Péter Szenczi; Andrea Urrutia; Robyn Hudson
      Pages: 233 - 240
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Oxána Bánszegi, Péter Szenczi, Andrea Urrutia, Robyn Hudson
      Since parent–offspring conflict theory was first proposed, a number of studies in a range of mammalian species have questioned its importance, suggesting that coordination, rather than conflict, occurs during weaning. In this study we propose a set of behaviours for studying the development of the mother–offspring relationship: offspring separation calls and the corresponding maternal response, which can be used to describe the continually developing motivational changes in both parties accompanying weaning. We recorded and analysed separation calls of kittens of the domestic cat, Felis silvestris catus, during the first two postnatal months, and performed playback experiments to observe their mothers' behavioural response. Three different stimuli were played back: calls of the mothers' kittens at their correct age, calls of their kittens from an earlier age (1 week old) and a control sound. We found that kittens' separation calls changed in several respects across the 8 weeks of the study. After the first postnatal month, the number, intensity and fundamental frequency of calls declined markedly, while kittens' latency to call increased. In parallel, we found that during playback tests, mothers' willingness to return to the nest or reunite with their kittens decreased notably as the kittens approached weaning age. Since this decline was present even when mothers were played back the calls of their own kittens previously recorded at an earlier age, we conclude that the decline in responsiveness was not due to a change in the kittens' vocalizations, but rather to a change in the mothers' motivational state. Our findings support the view that weaning in the domestic cat is a well-synchronized process between mothers and offspring, at least under the favourable nutritional conditions of the present study.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T15:18:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.06.025
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Feeding upon and preserving a carcass: the function of prehatch parental
           care in a burying beetle
    • Authors: Stephen T. Trumbo
      Pages: 241 - 249
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Stephen T. Trumbo
      Parental care must respond to variation in environmental challenges and some of these challenges result from the altered niche during the evolution of care. One important variable is the quality of the resources for young. Burying beetles prepare small, vertebrate carcasses in varying states of decay as food for their young by removing hair, rounding and applying antimicrobial secretions. The present study examined carcass preparation (prehatch care), an elaborate behaviour whose benefits have been surprisingly difficult to demonstrate. Benefits were assessed by comparing brood success when a parent completed care using a fully prepared carcass or when using a substitute, same-age carcass that had not been prepared by a parent. The outcome was very different depending on whether the substitute carcass was intact (no holes) or had simulated feeding holes that a parent would normally make during the prehatch period. When Nicrophorus orbicollis utilized a prepared carcass, the brood mass was no greater than when using an intact, nonprepared carcass. When the substituted nonprepared carcass had simulated feeding holes, however, a prepared carcass resulted in a greater brood mass and heavier larvae on both fresh and aged carcasses. The importance of attending to holes opened in the carcass was clear from the rapid repair of experimentally introduced holes. While offspring fared worse when developing on an aged carcass, the parent's future reproduction and longevity were not compromised, suggesting that parents protect their future reproduction in a challenging environment. It is hypothesized that a primary benefit of resource handling in burying beetles is to minimize microbial activity at holes the parent must make in the carcass, a need that was amplified as carrion beetles evolved to breed on small, preempted carcasses without fly larvae as a nutritional resource.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T15:18:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Relatedness predicts male mating success in a pond-breeding amphibian
    • Authors: Hugo Cayuela; Jean-Paul Léna; Thierry Lengagne; Bernard Kaufmann; Nathalie Mondy; Lara Konecny; Adeline Dumet; Antonin Vienney; Pierre Joly
      Pages: 251 - 261
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Hugo Cayuela, Jean-Paul Léna, Thierry Lengagne, Bernard Kaufmann, Nathalie Mondy, Lara Konecny, Adeline Dumet, Antonin Vienney, Pierre Joly
      When deciding to mate, it is assumed that females choose males bearing genes that will improve the genetic quality of their offspring, which is affected by both additive and nonadditive genetic variation. In this context, a ‘compatible genes’ model has been put forward to explain female mating decisions. According to this model, females are assumed to increase the genetic quality of their offspring by choosing mates on the basis of interactions between maternal and paternal genomes. Yet, this model is mainly supported by empirical data in endotherm vertebrates. Few studies have investigated this issue in terrestrial ectotherms like amphibians. These organisms often live in spatially structured populations characterized by small subpopulations and a high degree of philopatry, leading to striking reduction in gene flow, high genetic drift and relatively high inbreeding levels. In such a situation, one might expect that natural selection should favour mating tactics limiting the risk of inbreeding depression. In this paper, using an experimental approach controlling for the reproductive state of males, we examined how genetic compatibility may affect mating behaviour in an anuran, the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata. First, our analyses confirmed a high degree of inbreeding in the studied population. Yet, we did not find any mating tactic that reduced the risk of inbreeding depression. Contrary to our expectations, males more closely related to the female had the higher mating success. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of these results.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T15:18:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.028
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2017)
  • Investment in multiple defences protects a nematode-bacterium symbiosis
           from predation
    • Authors: R.S. Jones; A. Fenton; M.P. Speed; J. Mappes
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): R.S. Jones, A. Fenton, M.P. Speed, J. Mappes
      The act of predation often comprises multiple sequential steps whereby prey can employ defences at all or some of these stages to deter predation. However, investment in defences is costly unless they are outweighed by conferring some benefit to the bearer. One system that employs multiple defences is that of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and its symbiotic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. This nematode–bacterium complex infects and kills soil-dwelling insect larvae, in which they then reproduce and juveniles emerge 2 weeks later. Predation of the infected host cadaver at any point during infection is fatal for the parasitic colony inside. Infected individuals, however, turn red, produce a chemical defence, bioluminesce and smell strongly at various stages of the infection process. We tested whether these colour and scent cues conferred a benefit to the infecting nematode–bacterium complex, utilizing feeding trials of nematode-infected waxworms, Galleria mellonella, with wild-caught great tits, Parus major. We tested for multimodality, as the cues are in different sensory modalities, and found no overall benefit in terms of initial attack on the first prey item, although this does not rule out the possibility of multimodality within this system. We then examined the first five prey attacked and found that scent overshadowed colour at various stages of infection, in terms of reducing levels of attack, but not when both signals were in concert in terms of consumption of infected individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Mutual benefit from exploitation of female foraging motivation may account
           for the early evolution of gifts in spiders
    • Authors: Maria J. Albo; Nuria Macías-Hernández; Trine Bilde; Søren Toft
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Maria J. Albo, Nuria Macías-Hernández, Trine Bilde, Søren Toft
      Male exploitation of female sensory or motivational biases has been proposed to account for the early evolution of nuptial gift-giving behaviour. The hypothesis is supported if females of a species positioned early in a clade respond positively to sexual signals from males of more recent species in the clade, and if these signals are not included in the courtship repertoire of its conspecific males. We tested whether such a scenario may apply to the evolution of gift-giving behaviour in the spider family Pisauridae. Presumably, the Canarian endemic Cladycnis insignis diverged on an early branch from the clade that includes the well-known nuptial gift-giving species Pisaura mirabilis. We first showed that the natural courtship and mating in C. insignis does not include gift-giving behaviour. Second, by staging female C. insignis with gift-carrying males of P. mirabilis, we found that these females accepted the gift and allowed the males to attempt mating. The duration of heterospecific ‘matings’ was much longer than conspecific matings (45–50min versus ca. 1min). Thus, there is scope for exploitation of the females' foraging motivation through a behavioural switch from courting without a prey gift to courting with a prey gift. Such a switch would initially have brought huge fitness benefits to these males in terms of greatly increased mating duration (advantage in sperm competition) and protection against aggressive females (shield effect), and also a benefit to the females from increased food supply.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Evaluating gain functions in foraging bouts using vertical
           excursions in northern elephant seals
    • Authors: Michelle S. Ferraro; Robin R. Decker; Daniel P. Costa; Patrick W. Robinson; Dorian S. Houser; Daniel E. Crocker
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Michelle S. Ferraro, Robin R. Decker, Daniel P. Costa, Patrick W. Robinson, Dorian S. Houser, Daniel E. Crocker
      The marginal value theorem models patch departure decisions for foraging animals when resources are unevenly distributed. A key component of these models is the decelerating energy gain function used to represent patch depletion. However, the within-patch gain function has rarely been assessed in marine predators. We evaluated the gain functions in foraging bouts of northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, using a long-term data set (2004–2012) that included complete foraging trips from 205 individual female northern elephant seals on 303 migrations as revealed by time–depth recorders and satellite tags (Argos System Inc.). Since the majority of putative prey capture attempts are associated with vertical excursions at the bottom of dives, we used vertical excursions to evaluate patch depletion across foraging bouts as defined using dive shapes. Rates of energy gain were measured using changes in mass and body composition across trips. Decelerating gain functions occurred in 83% of 77 820 foraging bouts, with the remainder showing accelerating functions. Rates of patch depletion strongly influenced patch residence times. Despite wide variation between individual patches, mean deceleration exponents did not vary with year or season, suggesting that average rates of patch depletion were relatively stable across the study period. The mean duration and number of dives in foraging bouts showed little annual or seasonal variation; however, the mean rate of vertical excursions during foraging dives varied and predicted rates of energy gain across migrations. The relative mean consistency of individual diving behaviour despite wide variation in geoposition supports the idea that northern elephant seals have evolved a foraging strategy that buffers against short-term variation in prey abundance and optimizes energy acquisition across the duration of the migration.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Joint effects of brood size and resource availability on sibling
    • Authors: Daniel J. Sieber; Matthieu Paquet; Per T. Smiseth
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Daniel J. Sieber, Matthieu Paquet, Per T. Smiseth
      The evolution of sibling competition is promoted when the brood's demand for resources (brood size) exceeds the parents' supply of resources (resource availability). However, little is known about the joint effects of brood size and resource availability and whether these effects are independent of each other. We conducted a study on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, in which we manipulated both brood size and resource availability. We manipulated brood size by providing parents with 5, 10 or 20 larvae and resource availability by providing parents with a 5, 10 or 20g mouse carcass. We found that resource availability had positive effects on parental care, larval body mass and larval survival, while brood size had a negative effect on larval body mass and larval survival. There were positive effects of the interaction between brood size and resource availability on larval begging and larval body mass, suggesting that the slopes describing the effect of brood size on larval begging and larval body mass became less negative as carcass size increased. When we repeated the analysis using larval density (i.e. brood size/resource availability) as a proxy for the shortage of resources, there were negative effects on parental care, larval body mass and larval survival. Our results have important implications by showing that there were main effects of both brood size and resource availability, and that their effects were not always independent of each other. Thus, treating brood size and resource availability as independent factors is preferential to using offspring density.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Effects of age- and sex-specific density on behaviour and survival in a
           territorial lizard (Anolis sagrei)
    • Authors: David M. Delaney; Daniel A. Warner
      Pages: 31 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): David M. Delaney, Daniel A. Warner
      All organisms have specific habitat requirements that allow them to properly function in their environment. For many organisms, individuals shift habitat choice as they age because optimal habitats vary across life stages. Despite age-specific habitat use in a variety of taxa, identification of the causal factors driving such variation is limited by a lack of experimental studies. Field observations of the brown anole lizard, Anolis sagrei, show that juveniles use low, narrow perches whereas adults use relatively higher and thicker perches. We hypothesized that this variation is driven by interactions between age classes, rather than age-specific preference for microhabitat. We manipulated adult and juvenile densities in field enclosures with artificial trees to examine how inter-age class competition influences microhabitat choice. We predicted that juveniles would move to less desired microhabitats as adult density increased (i.e. individual behavioural response) and/or adults would negatively affect juvenile survival (via competition or cannibalism) in ways that would contribute to age-specific habitat use (i.e. natural selection). We found that adult males, but not females, reduced juvenile survival. However, neither adult male nor female density influenced juvenile microhabitat choice (i.e. perch height, width or substrate) via individual behavioural response or natural selection. We also tested whether juveniles influence adult microhabitat choice. As predicted, adults did not vary in microhabitat choice in response to juvenile presence. Our study provides a rare and robust assessment of the role of age- and sex-specific density in generating variation in behaviour and survival under natural conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • The transition to independence: sex differences in social and behavioural
           development of wild bottlenose dolphins
    • Authors: Ewa Krzyszczyk; Eric M. Patterson; Margaret A. Stanton; Janet Mann
      Pages: 43 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Ewa Krzyszczyk, Eric M. Patterson, Margaret A. Stanton, Janet Mann
      Sex differences in adult behaviour are well documented, but less is known about the ontogeny of these differences. In mammals, the transition to independence, from infancy to the juvenile period, is when these sex differences are likely to become prominent. Here, we examined sex differences in behavioural development among calf and juvenile bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, from 2 years preweaning to 2 years postweaning and whether these differences were consistent, or not, with three nonmutually exclusive hypotheses regarding the function of the juvenile period: the social skills, protection/safety and energy allocation hypothesis. All hypotheses received some support, but strikingly so for females. First, sex differences in the nature and quality of juvenile social bonds appear to foreshadow adult association patterns. Juveniles had a greater proportion of same-sex associates than calves. Second, although neither sex increased their number of associates from infancy to juvenility, a pattern that might mitigate predation risk, avoidance between juveniles and adult males suggests that both sexes reduce the likelihood of conspecific aggression. This pattern was more marked for juvenile females. Third, females, but not males, increased foraging rates from late infancy to the early juvenile period, even surpassing typical adult female foraging rates. This is likely related to the future energetic demands of maternal investment and skill development required for specialized foraging tactics, which are female biased in this population. This study provides a first step towards understanding the transition into independence for cetaceans, insight into how sex differences develop and a glimpse into the function of the juvenile period.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:40:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Can females choose to avoid mating failure in the seed bug Lygaeus
    • Authors: E.V. (Ginny) Greenway; Vicki L. Balfour; David M. Shuker
      Pages: 61 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): E.V. (Ginny) Greenway, Vicki L. Balfour, David M. Shuker
      It is becoming increasingly clear that copulation does not necessarily always lead to offspring production in many organisms, despite fertilization success presumably being under both strong natural and sexual selection. In the seed bug Lygaeus simulans, between 40% and 60% of copulations fail to produce offspring, with this ‘mating failure’ representing a significantly repeatable male-associated trait. Mating has been demonstrated to be costly in this species and, as such, we might expect females to minimize the chance of mating failure by displaying a preference for males with higher insemination success where possible. After assaying males for mating failure, we asked whether females preferred males with a history of successful inseminations versus unsuccessful inseminations in pairwise mate choice trials. Contrary to our expectations, females showed no preference for more successful over less successful males. Moreover, females showed no preference for larger males in the choice trials, even though larger males were significantly more likely to successfully inseminate females in the initial assay. This apparent lack of female precopulatory choice suggests that postcopulatory choice mechanisms may be key to mating failure in this species. However, this does not necessarily explain why females pay the cost of mating with males they will then reject via postcopulatory processes. More generally, our results suggest that mating failure may play a largely underappreciated role in mating systems evolution, influencing both the cost of choosiness, and the costs and benefits of polyandry.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Social stability in times of change: effects of group fusion and water
           depth on sociality in a globally invasive fish
    • Authors: Chelsea E. Flood; Marian Y.L. Wong
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Chelsea E. Flood, Marian Y.L. Wong
      Many animals form dynamic societies in which the fission and fusion of subgroups occurs on a regular basis. Such societies are intriguing, because it is unclear whether stable dominance relationships that form within subgroups are retained upon fusion with other subgroups, and what the implications of rank instability may be at higher levels of ecological organization. Additionally, little is known about how environmental change affects the fission–fusion process, even though environments often fluctuate and are predicted to become increasingly variable, in part due to climate change. Here we investigated the social organization, levels of conflict and stability of dominance relationships during group fusion in a globally invasive fish, the eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. To assess the effect of environmental variation, we conducted group fusion experiments at high and low water depths, to simulate normal and drought conditions, and recorded dominance interactions during prefusion, early fusion and late fusion stages. Individuals formed size-based hierarchies within prefusion groups, although the relationship between size and dominance varied with group fusion. Levels of conflict were affected by group fusion and water depth, with higher levels of conflict after fusion and at low depth. Rank relationships in early and late fusion groups were stable and unaffected by water depth. Finally, there was no evidence of coat-tail effects, as familiarity with the alpha dominant in postfusion groups did not lead to a significant increase in subordinate dominance rank. All in all, these results provide key experimental evidence that environmental change in terms of water level is unlikely to impact social organization or rank stability in response to group fusion in this species. More generally, they indicate that sociality in fission–fusion societies may be relatively robust to changes in both social and environmental contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Behaviour, development and evolution, Patrick Bateson. Cambridge Open Book
           Publishers, Cambridge, U.K. (2017)
    • Authors: Clare Cunningham
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Clare Cunningham

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T00:54:18Z
  • The sensory ecology of birds, G.R. Martin. Oxford University Press,
           Oxford, U.K. (2017), 320
    • Authors: Kate Durrant
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Kate L. Durrant

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T15:29:33Z
  • Mammal societies, Tim Clutton-Brock. J. Wiley, Chichester, U.K. (2016),
    • Authors: Lauren J.N.; Brent
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 131
      Author(s): Lauren J.N. Brent

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T15:29:33Z
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T15:29:33Z
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T15:29:33Z
  • Animal behaviour: a very short introduction, Tristram D. Wyatt. Oxford
           University Press, Oxford, U.K. (2017), 146
    • Authors: Mark Briffa
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 130
      Author(s): Mark Briffa

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T15:10:18Z
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