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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 338, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 422, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Behaviour
  [SJR: 1.907]   [H-I: 126]   [152 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-3472 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8282
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Investment in multiple defences protects a nematode-bacterium symbiosis
           from predation
    • Authors: R.S. Jones; A. Fenton; M.P. Speed; J. Mappes
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): R.S. Jones, A. Fenton, M.P. Speed, J. Mappes
      The act of predation often comprises multiple sequential steps whereby prey can employ defences at all or some of these stages to deter predation. However, investment in defences is costly unless they are outweighed by conferring some benefit to the bearer. One system that employs multiple defences is that of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and its symbiotic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. This nematode–bacterium complex infects and kills soil-dwelling insect larvae, in which they then reproduce and juveniles emerge 2 weeks later. Predation of the infected host cadaver at any point during infection is fatal for the parasitic colony inside. Infected individuals, however, turn red, produce a chemical defence, bioluminesce and smell strongly at various stages of the infection process. We tested whether these colour and scent cues conferred a benefit to the infecting nematode–bacterium complex, utilizing feeding trials of nematode-infected waxworms, Galleria mellonella, with wild-caught great tits, Parus major. We tested for multimodality, as the cues are in different sensory modalities, and found no overall benefit in terms of initial attack on the first prey item, although this does not rule out the possibility of multimodality within this system. We then examined the first five prey attacked and found that scent overshadowed colour at various stages of infection, in terms of reducing levels of attack, but not when both signals were in concert in terms of consumption of infected individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Mutual benefit from exploitation of female foraging motivation may account
           for the early evolution of gifts in spiders
    • Authors: Maria J. Albo; Nuria Macías-Hernández; Trine Bilde; Søren Toft
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Maria J. Albo, Nuria Macías-Hernández, Trine Bilde, Søren Toft
      Male exploitation of female sensory or motivational biases has been proposed to account for the early evolution of nuptial gift-giving behaviour. The hypothesis is supported if females of a species positioned early in a clade respond positively to sexual signals from males of more recent species in the clade, and if these signals are not included in the courtship repertoire of its conspecific males. We tested whether such a scenario may apply to the evolution of gift-giving behaviour in the spider family Pisauridae. Presumably, the Canarian endemic Cladycnis insignis diverged on an early branch from the clade that includes the well-known nuptial gift-giving species Pisaura mirabilis. We first showed that the natural courtship and mating in C. insignis does not include gift-giving behaviour. Second, by staging female C. insignis with gift-carrying males of P. mirabilis, we found that these females accepted the gift and allowed the males to attempt mating. The duration of heterospecific ‘matings’ was much longer than conspecific matings (45–50min versus ca. 1min). Thus, there is scope for exploitation of the females' foraging motivation through a behavioural switch from courting without a prey gift to courting with a prey gift. Such a switch would initially have brought huge fitness benefits to these males in terms of greatly increased mating duration (advantage in sperm competition) and protection against aggressive females (shield effect), and also a benefit to the females from increased food supply.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Evaluating gain functions in foraging bouts using vertical
           excursions in northern elephant seals
    • Authors: Michelle S. Ferraro; Robin R. Decker; Daniel P. Costa; Patrick W. Robinson; Dorian S. Houser; Daniel E. Crocker
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Michelle S. Ferraro, Robin R. Decker, Daniel P. Costa, Patrick W. Robinson, Dorian S. Houser, Daniel E. Crocker
      The marginal value theorem models patch departure decisions for foraging animals when resources are unevenly distributed. A key component of these models is the decelerating energy gain function used to represent patch depletion. However, the within-patch gain function has rarely been assessed in marine predators. We evaluated the gain functions in foraging bouts of northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, using a long-term data set (2004–2012) that included complete foraging trips from 205 individual female northern elephant seals on 303 migrations as revealed by time–depth recorders and satellite tags (Argos System Inc.). Since the majority of putative prey capture attempts are associated with vertical excursions at the bottom of dives, we used vertical excursions to evaluate patch depletion across foraging bouts as defined using dive shapes. Rates of energy gain were measured using changes in mass and body composition across trips. Decelerating gain functions occurred in 83% of 77 820 foraging bouts, with the remainder showing accelerating functions. Rates of patch depletion strongly influenced patch residence times. Despite wide variation between individual patches, mean deceleration exponents did not vary with year or season, suggesting that average rates of patch depletion were relatively stable across the study period. The mean duration and number of dives in foraging bouts showed little annual or seasonal variation; however, the mean rate of vertical excursions during foraging dives varied and predicted rates of energy gain across migrations. The relative mean consistency of individual diving behaviour despite wide variation in geoposition supports the idea that northern elephant seals have evolved a foraging strategy that buffers against short-term variation in prey abundance and optimizes energy acquisition across the duration of the migration.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Joint effects of brood size and resource availability on sibling
    • Authors: Daniel J. Sieber; Matthieu Paquet; Per T. Smiseth
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Daniel J. Sieber, Matthieu Paquet, Per T. Smiseth
      The evolution of sibling competition is promoted when the brood's demand for resources (brood size) exceeds the parents' supply of resources (resource availability). However, little is known about the joint effects of brood size and resource availability and whether these effects are independent of each other. We conducted a study on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, in which we manipulated both brood size and resource availability. We manipulated brood size by providing parents with 5, 10 or 20 larvae and resource availability by providing parents with a 5, 10 or 20g mouse carcass. We found that resource availability had positive effects on parental care, larval body mass and larval survival, while brood size had a negative effect on larval body mass and larval survival. There were positive effects of the interaction between brood size and resource availability on larval begging and larval body mass, suggesting that the slopes describing the effect of brood size on larval begging and larval body mass became less negative as carcass size increased. When we repeated the analysis using larval density (i.e. brood size/resource availability) as a proxy for the shortage of resources, there were negative effects on parental care, larval body mass and larval survival. Our results have important implications by showing that there were main effects of both brood size and resource availability, and that their effects were not always independent of each other. Thus, treating brood size and resource availability as independent factors is preferential to using offspring density.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Effects of age- and sex-specific density on behaviour and survival in a
           territorial lizard (Anolis sagrei)
    • Authors: David M. Delaney; Daniel A. Warner
      Pages: 31 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): David M. Delaney, Daniel A. Warner
      All organisms have specific habitat requirements that allow them to properly function in their environment. For many organisms, individuals shift habitat choice as they age because optimal habitats vary across life stages. Despite age-specific habitat use in a variety of taxa, identification of the causal factors driving such variation is limited by a lack of experimental studies. Field observations of the brown anole lizard, Anolis sagrei, show that juveniles use low, narrow perches whereas adults use relatively higher and thicker perches. We hypothesized that this variation is driven by interactions between age classes, rather than age-specific preference for microhabitat. We manipulated adult and juvenile densities in field enclosures with artificial trees to examine how inter-age class competition influences microhabitat choice. We predicted that juveniles would move to less desired microhabitats as adult density increased (i.e. individual behavioural response) and/or adults would negatively affect juvenile survival (via competition or cannibalism) in ways that would contribute to age-specific habitat use (i.e. natural selection). We found that adult males, but not females, reduced juvenile survival. However, neither adult male nor female density influenced juvenile microhabitat choice (i.e. perch height, width or substrate) via individual behavioural response or natural selection. We also tested whether juveniles influence adult microhabitat choice. As predicted, adults did not vary in microhabitat choice in response to juvenile presence. Our study provides a rare and robust assessment of the role of age- and sex-specific density in generating variation in behaviour and survival under natural conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • The transition to independence: sex differences in social and behavioural
           development of wild bottlenose dolphins
    • Authors: Ewa Krzyszczyk; Eric M. Patterson; Margaret A. Stanton; Janet Mann
      Pages: 43 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Ewa Krzyszczyk, Eric M. Patterson, Margaret A. Stanton, Janet Mann
      Sex differences in adult behaviour are well documented, but less is known about the ontogeny of these differences. In mammals, the transition to independence, from infancy to the juvenile period, is when these sex differences are likely to become prominent. Here, we examined sex differences in behavioural development among calf and juvenile bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, from 2 years preweaning to 2 years postweaning and whether these differences were consistent, or not, with three nonmutually exclusive hypotheses regarding the function of the juvenile period: the social skills, protection/safety and energy allocation hypothesis. All hypotheses received some support, but strikingly so for females. First, sex differences in the nature and quality of juvenile social bonds appear to foreshadow adult association patterns. Juveniles had a greater proportion of same-sex associates than calves. Second, although neither sex increased their number of associates from infancy to juvenility, a pattern that might mitigate predation risk, avoidance between juveniles and adult males suggests that both sexes reduce the likelihood of conspecific aggression. This pattern was more marked for juvenile females. Third, females, but not males, increased foraging rates from late infancy to the early juvenile period, even surpassing typical adult female foraging rates. This is likely related to the future energetic demands of maternal investment and skill development required for specialized foraging tactics, which are female biased in this population. This study provides a first step towards understanding the transition into independence for cetaceans, insight into how sex differences develop and a glimpse into the function of the juvenile period.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:40:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Can females choose to avoid mating failure in the seed bug Lygaeus
    • Authors: E.V. (Ginny) Greenway; Vicki L. Balfour; David M. Shuker
      Pages: 61 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): E.V. (Ginny) Greenway, Vicki L. Balfour, David M. Shuker
      It is becoming increasingly clear that copulation does not necessarily always lead to offspring production in many organisms, despite fertilization success presumably being under both strong natural and sexual selection. In the seed bug Lygaeus simulans, between 40% and 60% of copulations fail to produce offspring, with this ‘mating failure’ representing a significantly repeatable male-associated trait. Mating has been demonstrated to be costly in this species and, as such, we might expect females to minimize the chance of mating failure by displaying a preference for males with higher insemination success where possible. After assaying males for mating failure, we asked whether females preferred males with a history of successful inseminations versus unsuccessful inseminations in pairwise mate choice trials. Contrary to our expectations, females showed no preference for more successful over less successful males. Moreover, females showed no preference for larger males in the choice trials, even though larger males were significantly more likely to successfully inseminate females in the initial assay. This apparent lack of female precopulatory choice suggests that postcopulatory choice mechanisms may be key to mating failure in this species. However, this does not necessarily explain why females pay the cost of mating with males they will then reject via postcopulatory processes. More generally, our results suggest that mating failure may play a largely underappreciated role in mating systems evolution, influencing both the cost of choosiness, and the costs and benefits of polyandry.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Social stability in times of change: effects of group fusion and water
           depth on sociality in a globally invasive fish
    • Authors: Chelsea E. Flood; Marian Y.L. Wong
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Chelsea E. Flood, Marian Y.L. Wong
      Many animals form dynamic societies in which the fission and fusion of subgroups occurs on a regular basis. Such societies are intriguing, because it is unclear whether stable dominance relationships that form within subgroups are retained upon fusion with other subgroups, and what the implications of rank instability may be at higher levels of ecological organization. Additionally, little is known about how environmental change affects the fission–fusion process, even though environments often fluctuate and are predicted to become increasingly variable, in part due to climate change. Here we investigated the social organization, levels of conflict and stability of dominance relationships during group fusion in a globally invasive fish, the eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. To assess the effect of environmental variation, we conducted group fusion experiments at high and low water depths, to simulate normal and drought conditions, and recorded dominance interactions during prefusion, early fusion and late fusion stages. Individuals formed size-based hierarchies within prefusion groups, although the relationship between size and dominance varied with group fusion. Levels of conflict were affected by group fusion and water depth, with higher levels of conflict after fusion and at low depth. Rank relationships in early and late fusion groups were stable and unaffected by water depth. Finally, there was no evidence of coat-tail effects, as familiarity with the alpha dominant in postfusion groups did not lead to a significant increase in subordinate dominance rank. All in all, these results provide key experimental evidence that environmental change in terms of water level is unlikely to impact social organization or rank stability in response to group fusion in this species. More generally, they indicate that sociality in fission–fusion societies may be relatively robust to changes in both social and environmental contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T23:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Age-dependent change in attention paid to vocal exchange rules in Japanese
    • Authors: Hélène Bouchet; Hiroki Koda; Alban Lemasson
      Pages: 81 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Hélène Bouchet, Hiroki Koda, Alban Lemasson
      The mechanisms underlying vocal development in nonhuman primates, so-called ‘nonlearners’, are of special interest because they give an insight in how social factors can shape the expression of an already genetically determined vocal repertoire. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that the acquisition of the complex rules governing vocal exchanges (i.e. context-specific temporal and structural acoustic adjustments) may result from a socially guided development process, with social experience and parental selective feedback playing a key role. Among those conversational rules, call matching is a particularly remarkable phenomenon in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, with interacting adult females matching the frequency range pattern of their own call with another female's preceding call. Here, we investigated whether fine-tuned acoustic adjustments during vocal exchanges in Japanese macaques are subject to developmental processes, specifically testing for the ability of individuals of different age classes to discriminate between vocal exchanges respecting, or not, the matching rule. We performed playback experiments in 10 adult and 10 1-year-old captive Japanese macaque females. Each subject was successively exposed to two stimuli: a pair of calls respecting call matching (i.e. two calls from two individuals with matched frequency ranges) and another pair of calls that did not. Adults discriminated better than juveniles whether stimuli respected the call-matching rule or not, and displayed significantly different levels of interest towards each stimulus type. The latency to look towards the loudspeaker was shorter, and the duration of the directed gaze was longer, after the playback that violated the matching expectation in every adult, but not in juveniles which seemingly displayed a random gaze response. Our findings support the conclusion that the matching rule is relevant for adults, but not for socially inexperienced young monkeys which may not have had enough experience of the conversational rules governing vocal exchanges.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:40:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Individual and ecological determinants of social information transmission
           in the wild
    • Authors: Teri B. Jones; Lucy M. Aplin; Isabelle Devost; Julie Morand-Ferron
      Pages: 93 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Teri B. Jones, Lucy M. Aplin, Isabelle Devost, Julie Morand-Ferron
      Social information, acquired through the observation of others, has been documented in a variety of adaptive contexts. The transmission of social information relies on social connections and therefore it is important to consider that individuals may vary in their access to, and use of, such information. Social network analysis allows for the consideration of individual variation in social connections, which until recently has been ignored in the study of social processes. Furthermore, few previous studies of social information use have considered the potential effects of traits such as dominance and personality, which have been found to influence group social structure. We used network-based diffusion analysis, which incorporates information on individual social associations, to examine whether wild flocks of black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, utilize social information when locating novel foraging patches. Additionally, we incorporated individual traits (age, sex, dominance and exploratory personality) while examining flocks from rural and urban environments, to assess the influence of individual and habitat level characteristics on the rate of information transmission. Social information transmission was found to occur in all flocks, as individual time of discovery of the novel foraging patches was explained by network connections as predicted. However, the only individual level variable found to influence social transmission was dominance rank: dominant individuals had higher rates of information transmission than subordinates. We also found that the rate of social information transmission was higher in rural than urban environments. Our results highlight the importance of considering social associations when examining social information use. Additionally, our results suggest that dominant individuals have greater access to social information than more subordinate individuals, which may demonstrate a previously undocumented additional benefit provided by social dominance.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:40:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Developmental onset of escape-hatching responses in red-eyed treefrogs
           depends on cue type
    • Authors: Karen M. Warkentin; Juliana Cuccaro Diaz; Brandon A. Güell; Julie Jung; Su Jin Kim; Kristina L. Cohen
      Pages: 103 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Karen M. Warkentin, Juliana Cuccaro Diaz, Brandon A. Güell, Julie Jung, Su Jin Kim, Kristina L. Cohen
      Hatching is an essential and often behaviourally mediated process. Many animals can hatch at different developmental stages, and embryos time hatching based on cues indicating threats to eggs or opportunities outside them. However, specific mechanisms enabling such responses, and how their ontogenies combine to determine when environmentally cued hatching is possible, are largely unknown. Many embryos use hatching cues in multiple sensory modalities. Thus, comparing response onset across cue types can distinguish shared ontogenetic constraints, such as hatching ability, from modality-specific constraints, such as sensor development. The arboreal embryos of red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, hatch rapidly in response to physical disturbance in predator attacks and hypoxia if flooded. Prior research documented both responses beginning at age 4 days. Because embryos orient in oxygen gradients long before this, we hypothesized the onset of hypoxia-cued hatching is limited by development of hatching ability. The onset of mechanosensory-cued hatching might share this constraint or be limited by a later-developing sensory mechanism. We tested developmental series for hypoxia-cued hatching, by submerging eggs in degassed water to impose strong hypoxia, and for mechanosensory-cued hatching, by manually jiggling eggs as a simulated attack. We identified morphological markers to distinguish developmental stages across the onset of hatching. Hatching competence begins substantially earlier than previously reported. Across sibships, hypoxia-cued hatching began at a smaller size and less developed stage, and on average 8 h earlier than mechanosensory-cued hatching. Both responses increased from 0% to 100% over just a few hours. Latency to hatch after stimulation was longer in hypoxia-cued hatching and uncorrelated with stage, whereas latency in mechanosensory-cued hatching decreased with development. Hypoxia-cued hatching appears constrained by the development of hatching ability, while mechanosensory-cued hatching appears constrained by mechanosensor development. Hatching ability is not the sole constraint on the onset of escape-hatching responses to attacks.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:40:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • When it's good to signal badness: using objective measures of
           discriminability to test the value of being distinctive
    • Authors: Timothy J. Polnaszek; Tricia L. Rubi; David W. Stephens
      Pages: 113 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Timothy J. Polnaszek, Tricia L. Rubi, David W. Stephens
      The hypothesis that prey organisms can reduce the risk of predation by overtly signalling their unprofitability, or aposematism, has a long history in behavioural and evolutionary biology. To fully understand this longstanding idea, we need to measure and manipulate traits of aposematic prey, such as their distinctiveness from other prey, from the perspective of the potential predator. Specifically, we need measurements that are not anthropomorphic and that are based on the principles of discrimination developed by psychophysicists. This paper utilizes an experimentally tractable measure of discriminability based on signal detection theory as originally studied by psychophysicists. In addition, we develop and experimentally test a model to characterize the predator avoidance advantages derived from being distinct from other prey. By experimentally varying discriminability (and thus distinctiveness) we find that increased discriminability does confer a predator avoidance advantage, but the extent of this effect depends on the unprofitability of prey and the relative frequency of unprofitable prey.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T09:48:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Low heritability in tool use skills in a wild vulture population
    • Authors: Martina Carrete; Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros; María Méndez; Rosa Agudo; José A. Donázar
      Pages: 127 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Martina Carrete, Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros, María Méndez, Rosa Agudo, José A. Donázar
      Tool use is widespread among animals and has been under intense study due to its prominence in human society and evolution. A lack of detailed genetic information for wild populations has perpetuated assumptions regarding associations between individual differences in tool use and cognition and learning processes. However, captive birds and mammals can use tools in the absence of opportunities for social learning, indicating a genetic basis. Here, we used animal models and relatedness analysis to disentangle the role played by genetics and learning in tool use in an insular population of a long-lived vulture, Neophron percnopterus. Our results show a low heritability in this behaviour, perhaps because of the low variability observed among birds. However, not all individuals used stones to break eggs, and those that did so behaved consistently. Importantly, there was no evidence of learning at the timescale considered. Our results suggest that repeatability in tool use within individuals may indicate a link with some personality traits, with strong evolutionary and ecological consequences.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T09:48:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Loss of attraction for social cues leads to fungal-infected Myrmica rubra
           ants withdrawing from the nest
    • Authors: Jean-Baptiste Leclerc; Claire Detrain
      Pages: 133 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Jean-Baptiste Leclerc, Claire Detrain
      In social insects, individuals infected by pathogens withdraw from the nest, preventing the spread of diseases among genetically related nestmates and thereby contributing to the ‘social immunity’ of the colony. Here we investigated the extent to which the isolation of sick ants correlates with changes in their behavioural responses to environmental stimuli that serve as nest-related cues, including light, colony odour and physical presence of nestmates. Myrmica rubra ant workers infected by Metarhizium brunneum fungus showed a weak but constant attraction to light. By contrast, the progressive withdrawal of moribund workers from the nest appeared to be concomitant with a decline in their attraction towards nestmates or colony odour, which started on the third day after infection. We hypothesized that the fungus impaired the olfactory system of infected ants, preventing them from adequately reacting to chemical blends involved in colony marking and nestmate recognition. Instead of being an active behaviour, the social seclusion of sick ants appears to be the simple outcome of their increasing difficulty in orienting themselves towards nest-related cues. This phenomenon was reinforced by minor positive phototropism and the progressive dysfunction of motor skills as the infection progressed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T09:48:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • The role of lipid metabolism during parental care in two species of
           burying beetle (Nicrophorus spp.)
    • Authors: Kyle M. Benowitz; Elizabeth C. McKinney; Eileen M. Roy-Zokan; Christopher B. Cunningham; Allen J. Moore
      Pages: 143 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Kyle M. Benowitz, Elizabeth C. McKinney, Eileen M. Roy-Zokan, Christopher B. Cunningham, Allen J. Moore
      Despite the ubiquity of energetic costs as an explanation for behavioural evolution, the proximate basis of these costs is often unclear. One candidate that predictably regulates energetic expenditure in insects is the lipid metabolism pathway, which is used in behavioural activities such as flight. Here, we investigated lipid metabolism and its role in parental behaviour of males and females in two species of burying beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis and Nicrophorus vespilloides, which provide pre-hatching care by burying and preparing vertebrate carcasses before larvae arrive, and then post-hatching care by directly regurgitating food to begging offspring. We took two approaches: first, we investigated changes in the lipid stores of parenting beetles during pre-hatching and post-hatching care by measuring triglyceride concentration, compared to beetles not involved in care. Second, we quantified expression of the lipid transporter gene apolipophorin-III (apoLp-III) in these three behavioural states. Females and males of both species were similar in triglyceride use, but there were species differences. We observed a loss of triglycerides during pre-hatching but not post-hatching care in N. vespilloides, but no change in triglycerides during either pre- or post-hatching care in N. orbicollis. There were both species and sex differences in apoLp-III expression. Expression decreased during caring in both male and female N. orbicollis, and male N. vespilloides, but only decreased in female N. vespilloides providing post-hatching care. This roughly corresponded to changes in triglyceride abundance. These results indicate that either parental care is not energetically costly or, more likely, that lipid metabolism plays only a partial role in regulating energetic expenditure during Nicrophorus parental care. We suggest that the energy source used varies, perhaps between species but certainly across behavioural states. Furthermore, our results suggest that ApoLp-III may provide an alternate behavioural or immune function during parental care besides its canonical role as a lipid transporter.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T09:48:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.019
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • A sequential collective action game and its applications to cooperative
           parental care in a songbird
    • Authors: Ching-Chun Lin; Lee Alan Dugatkin; Hsiao-Wei Yuan; Pei-Fen Lee; Sheng-Feng Shen
      Pages: 151 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Ching-Chun Lin, Lee Alan Dugatkin, Hsiao-Wei Yuan, Pei-Fen Lee, Sheng-Feng Shen
      Collective action problems arise when two or more individuals can free ride on one another's efforts when investing jointly in a common good. Many collective action tasks in nature, such as parental care, require multiple stages of investments to complete a task, but how the costs of consecutive periods of investment and the excludability and diminishability of a collective good influence investment strategy remains poorly understood. Here, we first developed an evolutionary game-theoretical model to explore the theoretical consequences of sequential investment strategies in collective good problems. We then investigated cooperative parental care during both incubation and provisioning stages in the joint-nesting Taiwan yuhina, Yuhina brunneiceps, to test the key theoretical predictions of the model. We found that yuhina females that laid eggs earlier than other females invested more than they did in incubation (the first stage in the collective action problem). Intriguingly, but as predicted by our model, females that laid eggs earlier brought less food to nestlings in the joint brood during the nestling provisioning stage (the second stage in the collective action problem). This seemingly puzzling pattern can be explained by the fact that females that laid eggs earlier started incubation earlier and continued incubating eggs, which led to their offspring hatching earlier and being competitively superior (obtaining more food) at the nestling provisioning stage. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the complex nature of investment strategies parsed over different development stages in collective action problems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T02:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Body size predicts between-individual differences in exploration behaviour
           in the southern corroboree frog
    • Authors: Shannon R. Kelleher; Aimee J. Silla; Niels J. Dingemanse; Phillip G. Byrne
      Pages: 161 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Shannon R. Kelleher, Aimee J. Silla, Niels J. Dingemanse, Phillip G. Byrne
      Proximate mechanisms underpinning between-individual variation in repeatedly expressed behaviours (animal personality) remain poorly understood. Recent theoretical models have focused on the concept of adaptive state-dependent behaviour, proposing that repeatable differences in behaviour emerge due to individual differences in repeatable state variables such as metabolic rate, age, sex or body size. Few studies have attempted to investigate the effect of state on personality empirically, and evidence for links between individual variation in state and personality remains equivocal. We used a captive colony of southern corroboree frogs, Pseudophryne corroboree, to (1) test for innate, temporally repeatable behavioural differences (animal personality) along the activity, exploration/avoidance and boldness/shyness behavioural axes, (2) test for behavioural syndromes (between-individual correlations between behavioural traits) and (3) determine whether behavioural traits are correlated with body size at the between-individual level. Individuals exhibited repeatable variation along all three behavioural axes, but between-individual correlations did not deviate from zero, providing no evidence for behavioural syndromes. Body size explained 40% of the between- individual variance in exploration behaviour, with larger frogs exhibiting greater mobility and travelling further in a novel environment. These associations indicate that there is potential for innate body size variation in P. corroboree to act as an important state variable underpinning repeatable between-individual behavioural differences. Future research may test this idea experimentally. Continued investigation of state-dependent individual behaviour in P. corroboree and other animals is likely to provide important insights into the proximate causes of animal personality.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T02:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Functionally referential alarm calls in noisy miners communicate about
           predator behaviour
    • Authors: Sean Cunningham; Robert D. Magrath
      Pages: 171 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): Sean Cunningham, Robert D. Magrath
      Many vertebrates have alarm calls that warn conspecifics about danger, and some species even communicate about the type of predator or its behaviour, allowing for appropriate responses. However, such ‘functionally referential’ communication has been shown experimentally in only a handful of species, and requires demonstrating that individuals give acoustically distinct calls to different threats, and that the calls alone are sufficient to prompt listeners to behave as if a specific threat is present. We carried out model presentations, acoustic analyses and a playback experiment to test whether the alarm calls of noisy miners, Manorina melanocephala, are functionally referential. Miners gave different calls to airborne raptor models compared to terrestrial or perched raptor models, and even switched from ‘aerial’ alarm calls to ‘chur’ alarm calls when a hawk glider landed on the ground. They also behaved differently to these two types of threats, showing avoidance to aerial threats, including fleeing or freezing, but deterrent behaviour to terrestrial threats, including vigilance, approach and mobbing. The two alarm call types were acoustically distinct, and consistent with calls to live predators. Blind scoring of video revealed that birds responded appropriately to playbacks of alarm calls alone, typically fleeing to aerial alarm calls yet becoming vigilant, approaching and calling to chur calls. Noisy miners produce alarm calls that therefore meet both criteria for functional reference, and thus become one of the few bird species in which such calls have been confirmed. Many birds appear to give different calls to airborne predators compared to during mobbing of terrestrial or stationary predators, so functionally referential alarms are likely to be common and may often categorize predators by their behaviour and not simply their taxonomic type.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T02:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.021
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Effects of lifetime exposure to artificial light at night on cricket
           (Teleogryllus commodus) courtship and mating behaviour
    • Authors: L. Michael Botha; Therésa M. Jones; Gareth R. Hopkins
      Pages: 181 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 129
      Author(s): L. Michael Botha, Therésa M. Jones, Gareth R. Hopkins
      Increasing evidence suggests that key fitness-related behaviours of animals related to courtship and mating may be disrupted by anthropogenic stressors, including artificial light at night (i.e. light produced from anthropogenic sources). Despite its ubiquity in urban habitats, we currently know very little about how artificial night lighting affects the reproductive behaviours of most animals. Our study examined the effects of chronic (lifetime) exposure to one of four ecologically relevant intensities of artificial light at night (0, 1, 10 or 100 lx at night) on courtship and mating behaviours and acoustic sexual signalling in a common nocturnal and crepuscular insect, the Australian black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We found that lifetime exposure to brighter (10–100 lx) artificial light at night affected some aspects of courtship and mating behaviour: it influenced mate choice and mating efficiency in a sex-specific manner, but did not affect the multivariate structure of male courtship calls. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to bright light at night may affect some aspects of mate choice and reproductive behaviour in this common insect, and warrants further study across taxa.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T02:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.05.020
      Issue No: Vol. 129 (2017)
  • Role of fecundity selection on the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in
    • Authors: Marcelo H. Cassini
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Marcelo H. Cassini

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T22:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.030
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Lines, loops and spirals: an intraclonal continuum of host location
           behaviours in walking aphids
    • Authors: D. Gottlieb; M. Inbar; R. Lombrozo; M. Ben-Ari
      Pages: 5 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): D. Gottlieb, M. Inbar, R. Lombrozo, M. Ben-Ari
      A given animal species may employ various strategies to make searching for resources more efficient. In clonal species, in which a parent and its offspring share identical genetic information, survival of even one individual can still ensure the survival of the colony. Thus, clonal species should display a variety of resource-searching strategies rather than discrete behaviours to counter an unknown environment. However, previous studies of host location behaviours of aphids that have dropped from their host plant identified two discrete behaviours: walking in a straight line and turning frequently to search for a nearby plant. We analysed the course characteristics of individuals originating from a single genetic clone of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, that dropped to the ground from their host plant. We found that the use of high-resolution behaviour analysis is crucial in determining whether a behavioural phenotype is continuous or discrete. In contrast to previous studies, we found a wide continuum of walking behaviours. While some aphids progressed in a straight line, moving quickly away from the dropping point, others walked in paths with increasing levels of tortuosity. Tortuous paths were characterized by a series of loops (2–18 per path), presumably to locate nearby plants. Each loop took the aphid further from its dropping location. Aphids increased the speed of their searching, so that each loop took the same time to complete. Aphids performing fewer loops increased their speed more rapidly, hinting that the number of loops an aphid performs is determined at the outset of its movement. Aphids performing more loops were more inclined to climb a new host plant. This intraclonal continuum allows dropping aphids to counter the uncertainty of a new and possibly hazardous environment and maximize the probability that at least some individuals will survive and form a new colony.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T22:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.028
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Motor pattern during fights in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus:
           evidence for the role of skill in animal contests
    • Authors: Mark Briffa; Katlyn J. Fortescue
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Mark Briffa, Katlyn J. Fortescue
      Fighting involves the repeated performance of demanding agonistic behaviours and winners usually fight more vigorously than losers. While ‘vigour’ describes the rate and duration of a behaviour, ‘skill’ refers to well-coordinated motor movements. We investigated the role of skill in animal contests for the first time, focusing on the shell-rapping behaviour of hermit crabs during contests over the ownership of gastropod shells. We quantified vigour by recording the total number of raps and the mean number of raps per bout, and we quantified skill by measuring the distances that attackers displaced their shell during each rap. Winners displaced their shells through shorter distances than losers, indicating that motor pattern, as well as vigour, differed between contest outcomes. Both vigour and skill improved as fights progressed for eventual winners, but worsened for losers. We suggest that in a contest, skilful motor movements allow vigorous fighting, and both aspects deteriorate with fatigue. Skill may be important in the wide range of contests where outcomes are driven by energetic constraints. Understanding the links between skill, vigour and energy could provide new insights into strategic decision making during animal contests.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T22:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.031
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Male great tits assort by personality during the breeding season
    • Authors: Katerina V.-A. Johnson; Lucy M. Aplin; Ella F. Cole; Damien R. Farine; Josh A. Firth; Samantha C. Patrick; Ben C. Sheldon
      Pages: 21 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Katerina V.-A. Johnson, Lucy M. Aplin, Ella F. Cole, Damien R. Farine, Josh A. Firth, Samantha C. Patrick, Ben C. Sheldon
      Animal personalities can influence social interactions among individuals, and thus have major implications for population processes and structure. Few studies have investigated the significance of the social context of animal personalities, and such research has largely focused on the social organization of nonterritorial populations. Here we address the question of whether exploratory behaviour, a well-studied personality trait, is related to the social structure of a wild great tit, Parus major, population during the breeding season. We assayed the exploration behaviour of wild-caught great tits and then established the phenotypic spatial structure of the population over six consecutive breeding seasons. Network analyses of breeding proximity revealed that males, but not females, show positive assortment by behavioural phenotype, with males breeding closer to those of similar personalities. This assortment was detected when we used networks based on nearest neighbours, but not when we used the Thiessen polygon method where neighbours were defined from inferred territory boundaries. Further analysis found no relationship between personality assortment and local environmental conditions, suggesting that social processes may be more important than environmental variation in influencing male territory choice. This social organization during the breeding season has implications for the strength and direction of both natural and sexual selection on personality in wild animal populations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T23:27:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • A larval ‘princess pheromone’ identifies future ant queens based on
           their juvenile hormone content
    • Authors: Clint A. Penick; Jürgen Liebig
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Clint A. Penick, Jürgen Liebig
      Numerous studies have identified cuticular compounds that distinguish adult queens from workers in social insect colonies, but how future queens are identified at the larval stage is poorly understood. Nevertheless, the ability of workers to discriminate queen and worker larvae is necessary for them to regulate caste determination and queen production. In the ant Harpegnathos saltator, workers bite larvae to inhibit queen development, and we used biting as an assay to test how workers identify queens at the larval stage. The transfer of cuticular compounds from queen to worker larvae through direct physical contact (rubbing) or using a hexane extract both elicited biting. Gas chromatography revealed significant differences in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of queen and worker larvae that could be induced by treatment with a juvenile hormone (JH) analogue. Finally, treatment of male larvae with a JH analogue also elicited worker biting, which suggests a direct connection between JH levels and the production of a larval queen signal. These results demonstrate that workers identify larval caste using a chemical signal present on the cuticle, a ‘princess pheromone’, that reflects endocrine changes associated with queen development. Based on the connection between JH levels and the production of a larval queen signal, we developed a model for caste determination in H. saltator that incorporates endocrine, pheromonal and behavioural control of caste development.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T22:05:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.029
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • When do acoustic cues matter? Perceived competition and reproductive
           plasticity over lifespan in a bushcricket
    • Authors: Darren Rebar; Michael D. Greenfield
      Pages: 41 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Darren Rebar, Michael D. Greenfield
      Individuals often modify their behaviour in response to environmental cues and their own condition. Here we asked whether males modify ejaculates based on information from the sociosexual environment and their physiological age, and how those two factors may interact. We used two populations of the chorusing bushcricket, Ephippiger diurnus, to test whether males strategically adjust large, costly spermatophores they transfer to females during mating based on experience of rivals' calls, and whether males change their investment strategies with age. Males broadcast highly consistent, rhythmically repeated calls of syllables in daily choruses. Populations differ in average syllable number, an important trait under selection via female preference, and females from our two populations prefer calls with more syllables than the population mean. We reared males in one of five acoustic environments that varied in call syllable number. We then mated males twice, as young and old adults, measuring spermatophore size each time. We found that acoustic experience, age and their interaction all significantly influenced male investment, resulting in reaction norms with different slopes. Young males differentially invested in spermatophores in response to acoustic experience, whereas old males generally invested in larger spermatophores across environments. We then tested for a broad pattern of age-related investment with eight different field-collected populations, finding the majority of old males significantly increased spermatophore investment. Our findings demonstrate that both environmental context and an individual's life history state influence plasticity in reproductive investment, and such adjustments may optimize their reproductive success.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T23:27:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Effects of early life adversity and sex on dominance in European starlings
    • Authors: Tom Bedford; Caitlin Jade Oliver; Clare Andrews; Melissa Bateson; Daniel Nettle
      Pages: 51 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Tom Bedford, Caitlin Jade Oliver, Clare Andrews, Melissa Bateson, Daniel Nettle
      Dominance in socially foraging animals may be related to sex and to variation in individual quality. Individual quality may in turn reflect conditions during early development. We studied dominance in a cohort of adult European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, that had been subject to experimental manipulations of food supply and begging effort when they were nestlings. We measured dominance in two different contexts, contests over a food resource and relative position on a sloping perch, over the course of 3 weeks. Dominance in food contests was extremely stable over the 3 weeks and relative perch position somewhat stable. Males were dominant over females in contests over food and perched in higher positions. These sex differences were not explained by males' greater size or body weight. Food dominance and perch position were uncorrelated. Neither early life food supply nor early life begging effort affected food dominance; nor did an alternative measure of developmental stress, developmental telomere attrition. Birds that had been made to beg more as nestlings perched in higher positions than those that had begged less. Our results did not support the hypothesis that early life adversity leads to lower adult dominance rank in the context of feeding, and we suggest that relative perch position may have measured individual preference rather than competitive ability.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T23:27:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Sex differences during place learning in the túngara frog
    • Authors: Yuxiang Liu; Sabrina S. Burmeister
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Yuxiang Liu, Sabrina S. Burmeister
      The adaptive specialization hypothesis states that sex differences in cognition are shaped by differences in cognitive demands to solve ecological problems. While it is widely accepted that female mate choice can lead to the evolution of exaggerated male traits, mate choice might also select for different cognitive abilities in males and females. In the túngara frog, Physalaemus (= Engystomops) pustulosus, males call from a fixed position in breeding ponds while females visit multiple males before returning to the preferred mate. Thus, we predicted that females have better place memory than males. We tested this prediction in a place-learning task in which the rewarded arm of a maze was associated with a visual cue. We found that females were able to use the visual cue to solve the task while males were not, even though both males and females could discriminate the cues in an optomotor test. In contrast, males attempted to solve the task using egocentric cues (remember body-turn direction) in spite of the fact that our training procedure interrupted their use of such cues. Finally, we found that males and females had similar motivation to solve the task but females showed a greater ability to inhibit incorrect responses, leading to improved learning. Our finding that females could use a visual cue to remember locations in space is consistent with the idea that place memory could improve sequential mate assessment in túngara frogs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:08:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Ravens remember the nature of a single reciprocal interaction sequence
           over 2 days and even after a month
    • Authors: J.J.A. Müller; J.J.M. Massen; T. Bugnyar; M. Osvath
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): J.J.A. Müller, J.J.M. Massen, T. Bugnyar, M. Osvath
      To explain reciprocity, direct or indirect, several proximate mechanisms have been proposed, yet little attention has been given to the specific underlying cognitive mechanisms. Regardless of what proximate rules underlie reciprocity, some kind of memory would be paramount. Corvids in general, and ravens, Corvus corax, specifically, have been shown to possess an array of sophisticated cognitive mechanisms involved in memory. In this study, we tested the memory of nine ravens in an exchange paradigm where they could exchange a low-quality for a high-quality food item. Specifically, we tested whether they remembered who was a reliable ‘fair’ experimenter and who would not reliably exchange (the ‘unfair’ experimenter), and whether they would subsequently choose to interact with the former when given the choice. In addition, we tested whether ravens that observed the initial seeding of information about who was ‘fair’ or ‘unfair’ could transform bystander information into first-person interactions, i.e. also preferring to interact with the ‘fair’ experimenter when given the choice. The results show that ravens with first-hand experience were more likely to interact with experimenters with whom they had had a positive previous experience, and that this memory lasted at least 1 month. In contrast, observers did not distinguish between the experimenters when given the choice to interact with them. Previous first-hand experience with the paradigm, however, seemed to help observers to be more successful in solving the task, albeit not significantly above chance. In sum, this study shows memory for direct reciprocity in ravens, and tentatively suggests memory for indirect reciprocity. Accordingly, these results provide hints for the underlying mechanism of memory in raven social interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:08:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Hoo are you? Tits do not respond to novel predators as threats
    • Authors: Nora V. Carlson; Susan D. Healy; Christopher N. Templeton
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Nora V. Carlson, Susan D. Healy, Christopher N. Templeton
      To combat the threat of predation, prey species have developed a variety of ways to recognize and respond appropriately to novel predators. While there is evidence that predator recognition does not require learning in certain species, learning appears to play an important role for other species. In systems where learning is important, it is less clear whether predator identification requires prior experience with specific predators or, whether general experience with predators provides sufficient tools for identifying similar species of novel predators. Here we test whether wild-living adult birds recognize a dangerous predator that occurs in only part of their geographical range. We presented taxidermy mounts of little owls, Athene noctua, and sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus, to blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, and great tits, Parus major. All populations of both tit species co-occur with sparrowhawks, but populations differ in their prior experience with little owls. We found that tits that overlap geographically with little owls responded to little owls using the same intensity of mobbing behaviour exhibited toward sparrowhawks. In populations with no historical contact with little owls, however, both blue and great tits treated little owls as a lower threat than sparrowhawks. These results suggest that blue tits and great tits do not generalize ‘predatory features’ to novel predators and instead need prior experience with specific predators before they assign the correct level of threat.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T07:08:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Albatrosses prospect before choosing a home: intrinsic and extrinsic
           sources of variability in visit rates
    • Authors: Letizia Campioni; José Pedro Granadeiro; Paulo Catry
      Pages: 85 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Letizia Campioni, José Pedro Granadeiro, Paulo Catry
      In long-lived species with delayed maturity, prebreeders are expected to gather information by visiting and sampling the quality of potential nesting areas (prospecting), before they choose where to breed. In most seabirds, this process is important because, once recruited, individuals generally remain site-faithful throughout their long reproductive life. As many seabirds are believed to display low levels of natal dispersal, it is possible that natal philopatry is an obligate strategy for most individuals, with prospecting being a negligible activity during the prebreeding stage. Using ringing information and GPS technology, we tracked breeding adults and prebreeder black-browed albatrosses, Thalassarche melanophris, from a colony of the Falkland Islands, during the breeding season. Breeding adults rarely engaged in prospecting, whereas prebreeders showed a high propensity to visit other colonies. Most prebreeders started prospecting ashore when 4–5 years old and most of the younger individuals prospected more than one breeding colony, with some prospecting up to five colonies in just 9 days. Prospecting activity did not differ between males and females and rapidly declined as prebreeders aged, by which time individuals had probably already selected their future nesting site. Nestling body mass at 60 days of age and hatching date did not influence prospecting behaviour later in life. Prospecting was mostly directed at colonies within 10km from the natal place, but occurred regularly up to 55–65km. While distance from the natal place was a strong predictor of the probability of a colony being prospected, colony size and growth rate were not. Our results provide new insights into the role of prospecting in the process of recruitment, showing that even for highly philopatric birds, recruitment to the natal colony (or to another nesting site) has the potential to be informed, not done blindly.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T03:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Individual and genetic task specialization in policing behaviour in the
           European honeybee
    • Authors: Ulrich R. Ernst; Dries Cardoen; Vincent Cornette; Francis L.W. Ratnieks; Dirk C. de Graaf; Liliane Schoofs; Peter Verleyen; Tom Wenseleers
      Pages: 95 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Ulrich R. Ernst, Dries Cardoen, Vincent Cornette, Francis L.W. Ratnieks, Dirk C. de Graaf, Liliane Schoofs, Peter Verleyen, Tom Wenseleers
      Cooperation in biological systems is frequently maintained by social enforcement mechanisms, where individually egoistic and group-costly behaviour is mutually suppressed by other group members. One of the best examples in nature is worker policing in the honeybee, Apis mellifera, where workers selectively remove or ‘police’ eggs laid by workers that egoistically try to produce their own offspring instead of working for the good of the colony. It has long been suggested that worker policing behaviour should be genetically determined, as theory has shown that queen polyandry in the honeybee would be expected to give rise to clear indirect genetic or ‘inclusive fitness’ benefits of worker policing, thereby causing genes for policing to spread in the population. In the present study, we tested the theory that worker policing should have a genetic component by determining whether workers belonging to different patrilines, derived from different fathers, differ in their tendency to police eggs. This analysis showed that variation in policing behaviour indeed has a genetic basis, with the trait having an estimated broad-sense heritability of 0.25 ([0.013–0.46] 95% confidence limits). In addition, there was clear individual specialization in policing, as just a few individuals within each patriline were observed to police. Remarkably though, there was no evidence for age specialization, as workers of all ages, except those younger than 10 days and older than ca. 40 days, engaged in policing. This contrasts with most other behaviours in the honeybee, which usually follow a strict age-linked pattern of division of labour. Overall, we conclude that worker policing behaviour in the honeybee is genetically heritable and that workers of all ages engage in policing to help maintain the social order in the colony.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T03:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Long-term effects of early nutrition and environmental matching on
           developmental and personality traits in zebra finches
    • Authors: E. Tobias Krause; Oliver Krüger; Holger Schielzeth
      Pages: 103 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): E. Tobias Krause, Oliver Krüger, Holger Schielzeth
      Developmental plasticity is a key feature of many organisms and individuals can benefit from early programming to optimize their phenotypes for the expected environmental conditions. However, environmental conditions may sometimes change unexpectedly. Mismatches between early and adult life, for example, can have important repercussions for adult phenotypes, potentially leading to better performance under matched than mismatched conditions as predicted by the predictive adaptive response hypothesis. We conducted a long-term experimental manipulation of dietary conditions in a population of zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata. Broods were exposed to two early nutritional treatments until independence and we used a split-brood design to independently manipulate nutritional conditions after independence to create matched and mismatched nutritional environments in later life. Developmental trajectories of all individuals were followed for more than 5 years and we scored behavioural responses in trials in a special environment and while interacting with a special object three times during adult life. Overall, we found no evidence for early programming affecting morphology. Tarsus and wing length were exclusively influenced by the early nutrition. Body weight showed lasting effects of the early treatment and independent effects of nutritional condition during adulthood, but no effects of environmental matching or mismatching. Special-object trials showed effects of the adult nutritional treatment while environmental matching affected hopping activity in special environments. These behavioural responses showed substantial long-term individual stability over a 3-month period and were only marginally smaller when measured over a period of more than 4 years. Interestingly, survival of individuals from low-quality early nutritional condition was higher compared with high-quality early condition individuals, which became evident only after years of survival monitoring. Beyond the nutritional treatment itself, we found sizable brood identity effects that slowly but steadily declined with age, indicating a significant but decaying effect of natural variation in parental provisioning on adult phenotypes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T03:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Different or alike? Female rainbow kribs choose males of similar
           consistency and dissimilar level of boldness
    • Authors: U. Scherer; M. Kuhnhardt; W. Schuett
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): U. Scherer, M. Kuhnhardt, W. Schuett
      Although the existence of consistent between-individual differences in behaviour (‘personality differences’) has been well documented during the last decade, the adaptive value of such behavioural limitations remains an open field for researchers of animal behaviour. Personalities clearly restrict individuals in their ability to adjust their behaviour to different conditions. However, sheer costs of flexibility cannot explain the polymorphism created by personality variation. In a correlative approach, we here tested whether mate choice might act as a major driving force maintaining personality variation in the monogamous, biparental rainbow krib, Pelvicachromis pulcher. We personality-typed all males and females for their boldness (activity under simulated predation risk) and allowed females to choose between two males that differed in their boldness (behavioural level and consistency). Prior to the choice, females were allowed to observe both males, expressing their natural boldness towards a video-animated natural predator. Both sexes showed personality differences in boldness over the short and long term. Furthermore, when removing side-biased females, we found a disassortative mating preference for the behavioural level and an assortative preference for behavioural consistency in boldness. These preference patterns might facilitate effective parental role allocation during offspring care and/or provide genetic benefits. Our results suggest that sexual selection plays an important role in the evolution of personality differences.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T03:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Safekeeping of tools in Goffin's cockatoos, Cacatua goffiniana
    • Authors: A.M.I. Auersperg; C. Köck; A. Pledermann; M. O'Hara; L. Huber
      Pages: 125 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): A.M.I. Auersperg, C. Köck, A. Pledermann, M. O'Hara, L. Huber
      Tool use in animals can be costly as foraging tools need to be actively searched for or manufactured. Consequently, some habitually tool-using species keep their tools safe and ‘recycle’ them for further use. We tested the Indonesian Goffin's cockatoo, a parrot with the capacity but no apparent adaptive specialization for tool use to investigate how tool safekeeping can arise innovatively. In this case, we further intended to test whether and how such safekeeping changes in different feeding contexts. We demonstrate that, in a set-up allowing for tool losses, the birds quickly started to keep their tools safe in between tool-using events. They used different individual strategies, suggesting that the behaviour was a product of innovation rather than inherited predispositions. The frequency of safekeeping improved over time indicating individual learning. Furthermore, the birds flexibly adjusted their performance depending on different contexts: paralleling previous results in the habitually tool-using New Caledonian crow, Corvus moneduloides, the cockatoos saved their tools more often when the foraging site was elevated and when the food item was easy rather than difficult to process. Furthermore, when feeding at heights, the birds tended to use a different safekeeping mode than when the foraging site was low.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T03:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Temperature affects frequency but not rhythmicity of nocturnal awakenings
           in free-living great tits, Parus major
    • Authors: E.F. Stuber; N.J. Dingemanse; J.C. Mueller
      Pages: 135 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): E.F. Stuber, N.J. Dingemanse, J.C. Mueller
      Several bird species display periodic nocturnal sleep–wake patterns, resembling the ultradian rhythms expressed by mammals. Although relatively little is known about the underlying molecular properties of ultradian biological clocks, field observations demonstrate that the frequency of nocturnal awakenings (which may relate to rhythmicity) increases with ambient environmental temperature. To understand how ambient environmental temperature conditions affect the nocturnal sleep–wake pattern of birds, we experimentally heated nestboxes during the night and monitored the frequency and rhythmicity of awakening behaviour of roosting great tits. More than 80% of great tits displayed ultradian rhythmicity in major nocturnal awakenings, with awakenings occurring every 50–170min. Experimental increases in temperature, on average, 5°C, caused birds to wake up approximately 30% more frequently over the course of the night, with the strongest temperature effect occurring during the first part of the night. However, the period length of the predominant nocturnal awakening rhythm was unaffected by increased temperature, likely because most additional awakenings were arrhythmic and clustered during the beginning of the night. We suggest that short-duration awakenings elicited primarily during the first part of the night may not be regulated by an ultradian biological clock, and may respond directly to current environmental conditions, such as the risk environment. Longer-duration awakening bouts, which were not affected by experimental heating, may instead be endogenously regulated by an ultradian clock to optimize clock-controlled sleep patterns and sleep homeostasis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T03:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Boldness: are open field and startle tests measuring the same personality
    • Authors: C.H. Yuen; I. Schoepf; C. Schradin; N. Pillay
      Pages: 143 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): C.H. Yuen, I. Schoepf, C. Schradin, N. Pillay
      Boldness, the willingness of individuals to engage in risky behaviour, is one of the most studied personality traits. It has been measured using a variety of tests; however, measuring a behaviour using different assays may lead to a jingle fallacy. The few studies that have attempted to determine whether these different assays are comparable have produced mixed results. A lack of repeatability between boldness measures under standardized and natural conditions may be the source of this variation. Here, we tested whether risk-taking behaviour of free-living African striped mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, measured in a laboratory using open field tests is comparable with measures of risk-taking behaviour from startle tests. These measures were then compared with measures of risk-taking behaviour obtained from equivalent open field and startle tests performed on the same individuals under natural conditions. During open field tests, we assessed the time an individual spent away from the wall of the arena (in the laboratory) or from its nest (in nature). During startle tests, we measured the latency to re-emerge from either a protective box (in the laboratory) or a nest (under natural conditions) after an individual was scared away. Our results showed that risk-taking behaviour measured using the open field and the startle tests were repeatable within the same context (tested twice per assay) and across contexts (laboratory, nature). However, open field measures of risk-taking behaviour were not correlated with startle measures, supporting the idea that the two tests are assaying different personality traits. The variations in the outcome observed in the two assays probably resulted from the presentation of threatening stimuli in the startle test. We propose that, at least in striped mice, the startle test is more suitable for measuring anxiety than boldness.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T07:37:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Grooming decisions under structural despotism: the impact of social rank
           and bystanders among wild male chimpanzees
    • Authors: Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher; Stefano S.K. Kaburu
      Pages: 153 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher, Stefano S.K. Kaburu
      Understanding the evolution of cooperation remains a central concern in studies of animal behaviour, with fundamental issues being how individuals avoid being cheated, or ‘short-changed’, and how partners are chosen. Economic decisions made during social interactions should depend upon the availability of potential partners nearby, as these bystanders generate temptations to defect from the current partner. The influence of bystanders is highlighted in two theoretical approaches, biological markets theory and parcelling, both economic models of behaviour. Here, we tested predictions of these models using the grooming behaviour of wild male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, living under strong structural despotism, where grooming is exchanged both for agonistic support and for itself, and so we provide the first investigation of both presence and value of bystanders on chimpanzees' grooming decisions. We found that male chimpanzees took into account the relative value (rank) of bystanders compared to that of their current partner, with this more important than bystander numbers. High-ranking bystanders appeared to generate incentives to defect from a potentially cooperative interaction and we found that grooming effort was parcelled into discrete episodes, with smaller parcels used when a bystander outranked the current partner. The number of bystanders also generated a temptation to defect, as bidirectional (reciprocated) bouts were more likely to occur with fewer bystanders. Such bouts were more likely with smaller rank distances between groomer and recipient. We found no influence of grooming relationship on initial investment: groomers did not appear to trust that they would receive grooming in return, even from those with whom they had a history of strongly reciprocal grooming. Our findings are consistent with an economic-benefits, markets-based approach, but not a relationship model paradigm. Our work highlights the importance of considering the immediate social context (number and quality of bystanders) in studies of cooperation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T07:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
  • Face recognition in the Tanganyikan cichlid Julidochromis transcriptus
    • Authors: Takashi Hotta; Shun Satoh; Naoya Kosaka; Masanori Kohda
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Takashi Hotta, Shun Satoh, Naoya Kosaka, Masanori Kohda
      The face is an important cue for discriminating conspecifics in some primates (including humans), other mammals and birds. Although there is considerable evidence that fish can discriminate between conspecifics based on familiarity, the actual traits used to do so remain unclear. However, recent studies showed that two cichlid species used face colour patterns similarly to other vertebrates, and have suggested that social signals have evolved around the eyes, even in fish (face-specific hypothesis). In this study, we tested whether the striped, rock-dwelling Tanganyikan cichlid Julidochromis transcriptus can discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics using facial patterns alone. We used a monitor to present fish with four digital models of combinations of facial and body patterns from familiar and unfamiliar fish. Focal fish spent more time near the monitor when presented with unfamiliar face models regardless of the body pattern. Therefore, we concluded that J. transcriptus recognizes familiar conspecifics using facial patterns alone, despite having distinct stripe patterns on the whole body. Our results are consistent with the face-specific hypothesis and indicate that social signals have evolved around the eyes of fish.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
  • Calling for help: dwarf mongoose recruitment calls inform receivers about
           context and elicit disparate responses
    • Authors: Janneke Rubow; Michael I. Cherry; Lynda L. Sharpe
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Janneke Rubow, Michael I. Cherry, Lynda L. Sharpe
      Social complexity and communicative complexity appear to have coevolved in terrestrial vertebrates. Understanding the information conveyed within the social signals of group-living taxa can illuminate the selection pressures impacting on a species and help to identify the factors promoting sociality. Within vocal communication, recruitment calls are of great importance to many social species, helping to maintain group cohesion and facilitating cooperative behaviour. Yet recruitment vocalizations have received limited scientific attention and it is not clear whether they convey context-specific information to receivers. We investigated the recruitment calls of wild dwarf mongooses, Helogale parvula, to ascertain whether they showed context-specific acoustic differences and whether receivers displayed context-specific responses to recruitment calls in the absence of external cues. We recorded recruitment calls (from four wild groups of dwarf mongooses) from two contexts: when an individual became separated from its group and when an individual encountered a snake. Acoustic analysis revealed that calls from the two contexts differed in acoustic structure and were distinguishable with a discriminant function analysis. Playbacks of calls from both contexts successfully recruited target mongooses, but snake calls elicited a stronger reaction (with mongooses vigilant for longer and approaching the speaker more closely). More importantly, target mongooses also displayed behaviours that were unique to call context, exhibiting head bobbing, creeping and searching of the vegetation during snake call playbacks but never during isolation call playbacks. We conclude that dwarf mongoose recruitment calls refer to context and are perceived as functionally referential by receivers.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
  • Early social isolation impairs development, mate choice and grouping
           behaviour of predatory mites
    • Authors: Peter Schausberger; Marian Gratzer; Markus A. Strodl
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Peter Schausberger, Marian Gratzer, Markus A. Strodl
      The social environment early in life is a key determinant of developmental, physiological and behavioural trajectories across vertebrate and invertebrate animals. One crucial variable is the presence/absence of conspecifics. For animals usually reared in groups, social isolation after birth or hatching can be a highly stressful circumstance, with potentially long-lasting consequences. Here, we assessed the effects of social deprivation (isolation) early in life, that is, absence of conspecifics, versus social enrichment, that is, presence of conspecifics, on developmental time, body size at maturity, mating behaviour and group-living in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Socially deprived protonymphs developed more slowly and were less socially competent in grouping behaviour than socially enriched protonymphs. Compromised social competence in grouping behaviour was evident in decreased activity, fewer mutual encounters and larger interindividual distances, all of which may entail severe fitness costs. In female choice/male competition, socially deprived males mated earlier than socially enriched males; in male choice/female competition, socially deprived females were more likely to mate than socially enriched females. In neither mate choice situation did mating duration or body size at maturity differ between socially deprived and enriched mating opponents. Social isolation-induced shifts in mating behaviour may be interpreted as increased attractiveness or competitiveness or, more likely, as hastiness and reduced ability to assess mate quality. Overall, many of the social isolation-induced behavioural changes in P. persimilis are analogous to those observed in other animals such as cockroaches, fruit flies, fishes or rodents. We argue that, due to their profound and persistent effects, early social deprivation or enrichment may be important determinants in shaping animal personalities.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
  • Dwarf mongooses use sex and identity cues in isolation calls to
           discriminate between callers
    • Authors: Janneke Rubow; Michael I. Cherry; Lynda L. Sharpe
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Janneke Rubow, Michael I. Cherry, Lynda L. Sharpe
      The information transmitted by acoustic signals has attracted much scientific interest in recent years. However, isolation calls, which are long-distance vocalizations used by lost group members to reunite with their social group, have been surprisingly neglected. These calls assist in maintaining group cohesion and are thus particularly important in species that depend on the group for survival or reproduction such as cooperative breeders. Our study therefore examined the information transmitted by the isolation vocalization in a wild cooperatively breeding carnivore: the dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula. We ran an acoustic analysis for informative cues within isolation calls, and conducted a series of playback experiments to identify whether mongooses could discriminate between callers based on these cues. The acoustic structure of dwarf mongoose isolation vocalizations contained information concerning the caller's identity, sex and potentially also group membership. Target mongooses discriminated between callers of their own and other groups and biased their response based on the sex of the caller. They responded more quickly and for longer, and approached more closely, for calls of foreign females than calls of female group mates. This is the first time that sex specificity has been demonstrated in the vocalization of an herpestid, and we suggest that dwarf mongooses eavesdrop on the calls of isolated foreigners and may use isolation calls to attract and identify potential mates.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
  • The floater's dilemma: use of space by wild solitary Azara's owl monkeys,
           Aotus azarae, in relation to group ranges
    • Authors: Maren Huck; Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Maren Huck, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
      The fate and behaviour of animals that leave their natal group (‘floaters’) is usually poorly understood, which can limit the understanding of a species' population dynamics. Attempted immigrations can have serious negative effects on residents who therefore may forcibly reject intruders. Consequently, floaters face a dilemma: they need to leave their natal range to find a breeding territory while trying to avoid potentially lethal rejections from established groups. To examine the hypothesis that floating Azara's owl monkeys avoid established groups temporally, we compared time-matched locations of floaters and groups with randomly selected distances. To examine the hypothesis that floaters avoid established groups spatially, we compared the utilization distribution overlap indices (U
      DOI s) for core areas of floaters and groups with randomly expected U
      DOI s. Based on average home range sizes and areas of overlap between floaters, we estimated the floater density in the study area to be 0.2–0.5 per group. The temporal avoidance hypothesis was not supported, since time-matched distances were smaller than distances of random locations, and not larger as predicted under this hypothesis. The spatial avoidance hypothesis, in contrast, was supported, with smaller U
      DOI s for core ranges than predicted. In conclusion, solitary owl monkeys seem to solve the floater's dilemma by trying to stay in relatively close proximity to groups while still avoiding their core ranges. Floaters thus maximize the number of groups with which they have contact, while being able to leave a group's territory quickly if detected by residents. While no marked sex differences in patterns were detected, there was a strong stochastic element to the number of floaters of a particular sex, thus resulting in a locally uneven operational sex ratio. This, in turn, can have important consequences for various aspects of the population dynamics.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
  • Contextual variation in the alarm call responses of dwarf mongooses,
           Helogale parvula
    • Authors: Julie M. Kern; Philippa R. Laker; Andrew N. Radford
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Julie M. Kern, Philippa R. Laker, Andrew N. Radford
      Alarm calling is a widespread antipredator behaviour, but it is not always a reliable indication of real danger. Individuals must decide when to respond to alarm calls as a function of the relative costs and benefits, but experiments investigating contextual influences are rare. We used playback experiments in conjunction with supplementary feeding and the presentation of direct predator cues to examine variation in receiver responses to alarm calls in a habituated population of wild dwarf mongooses. First, we investigated whether individuals adjust their response to alarm calls depending on their own satiation level and spatial position of the caller. Individuals were more likely to respond to alarm calls when they had received supplementary food, and hence could prioritize minimization of predation risk over starvation. There was also increased responsiveness to alarm calls given by individuals from elevated positions compared to those on the ground; sentinels (raised guards) are more likely to detect potential predators than foragers, and alarm calls from elevated positions are probably perceived as more reliable. When individuals did respond, they were more likely to flee following an alarm call given from ground level; foragers are likely to detect predators in closer proximity than sentinels, requiring more urgent escape responses. Second, we examined how individuals combine social information provided by alarm calls with personal information relating to predator presence. Receiver responses to terrestrial and aerial alarm calls did not differ when they followed interaction with an olfactory predator cue compared to an olfactory control cue. Following interaction with a terrestrial predator cue, however, latency to nonvigilance was significantly longer after hearing an aerial alarm call than after hearing a terrestrial alarm call, potentially because of social information novelty. Our results provide experimental evidence that receivers respond flexibly to alarm calls depending on receiver, signaller and external factors.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
  • Adaptive significance of arboreality: field evidence from a tree-climbing
           land snail
    • Authors: Ikuyo Saeki; Shigeru Niwa; Noriyuki Osada; Fujio Hyodo; Tamihisa Ohta; Yoshitaka Oishi; Tsutom Hiura
      Pages: 53 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Ikuyo Saeki, Shigeru Niwa, Noriyuki Osada, Fujio Hyodo, Tamihisa Ohta, Yoshitaka Oishi, Tsutom Hiura
      Arboreality has evolved in a wide range of taxa, but its adaptive significance has rarely been examined in natural ecosystems. Euhadra brandtii sapporo is an arboreal land snail distributed in a restricted area of Hokkaido, Japan. We hypothesized that arboreality provides the species with significant survival advantages, which we tested via field observations and experiments. A monitoring census showed that E. b. sapporo hibernates in winter in the ground litter, climbs into the canopy in early spring and returns to the ground in late autumn. This seasonal movement appears to be effective for escaping from predation by ground-dwelling carabine beetles, whose activity was high during the summer based on a pitfall-trap census. Manipulative field experiments were conducted to compare survival rates in arboreal and ground-dwelling environments. We collected 120 E. b. sapporo individuals in summer and tethered 40 in tree canopies and 80 on the ground; half those on the ground were covered by baskets to prevent predation by large animals. The survival rate after 11 days was highest in the canopy, followed by that on the ground with a basket and was lowest on the ground without a basket. Predation was the main cause of death, but some died from other causes. Similar results were obtained in autumn, except for higher survival rates of the ground treatments. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios suggest that the land snail uses epiphytic lichens and mosses as food resources. In conclusion, arboreality has a marked advantage in reducing mortality in E. b. sapporo and is probably supported by food availability as well.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
  • Species differences in egocentric navigation: the effect of burrowing
           ecology on a spatial cognitive trait in mice
    • Authors: Jason N. Bruck; Noah A. Allen; Kelsey E. Brass; Brian A. Horn; Polly Campbell
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127
      Author(s): Jason N. Bruck, Noah A. Allen, Kelsey E. Brass, Brian A. Horn, Polly Campbell
      Efficient navigation is a critical component of fitness for most animals. While most species use a combination of allocentric (external) and egocentric (internal) cues to navigate through their environment, subterranean environments present a unique challenge in that visually mediated allocentric cues are unavailable. The relationship between egocentric spatial cognition and species differences in ecology is surprisingly understudied. We used a maze-learning task to test for differences in egocentric navigation between two closely related species of mice, the eastern house mouse, Mus musculus musculus, and the mound-building mouse, Mus spicilegus. The two species are sympatric in Eastern Europe and overlap in summer habitat use but differ dramatically in winter space use: whereas house mice occupy anthropogenic structures, mound-building mice survive the winter underground in intricate burrow systems. Given species differences in burrowing ecology, we predicted that M. spicilegus would learn the maze significantly faster than M. m. musculus when tested in complete darkness, a condition that eliminated allocentric spatial information and served as a proxy for the subterranean environment. We found strong support for this prediction. In contrast, the two species performed equally well when different mice were tested in the same maze with lights on. This context-specific species difference in spatial cognition suggests that enhanced egocentric navigation in M. spicilegus is an adaptation to the burrow systems on which the overwinter survival of young mound-building mice depends. The results of this study highlight the importance of ecological adaptations to the evolution of cognitive traits.

      PubDate: 2017-03-29T06:47:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2017)
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:40:25Z
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T07:40:25Z
  • Predation on reproducing wolf spiders: access to information has
           differential effects on male and female survival
    • Authors: Ann Rypstra; Chad Hoefler Matthew Persons
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 128
      Author(s): Ann L. Rypstra, Chad D. Hoefler, Matthew H. Persons
      Predation has widespread influences on animal behaviour, and reproductive activities can be particularly dangerous. Males and females differ in their reactions to sensory stimuli from predators and potential mates, which affects the risk experienced by each sex. Thus, the information available can cause differential survival and have profound implications for mating opportunities and population structure. The wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, detects and responds in a risk-sensitive manner to chemotactile information from a larger predator, the wolf spider Tigrosa helluo. Male P. milvina use similar chemotactile cues to find females whereas female P. milvina focus on the visual, and perhaps vibratory, aspects of the male display. Our aim was to document the risk posed by T. helluo predators on P. milvina during reproduction and to determine whether augmenting chemotactile information would affect that outcome. In the laboratory, we explored the effects of adding predator and/or female cues on the predatory success of T. helluo on P. milvina males or observing females. Additional cues from prospective mates or from predators enhanced male survival. The addition of female cues increased predation on females whereas predator cues augmented female survival. In field enclosures, we documented the impact of T. helluo, with and without additional predator cues, on the sex ratio of survivors and the reproductive success of females. Additional predator cues shifted the sex ratio towards males, however, 90% of the remaining females in that treatment produced eggsacs whereas less than 60% reproduced in female-biased populations. Thus, augmenting the available predator information shifted the risk from males to females, presumably due to differences in their sensory priorities. By altering the availability of potential mates, this shift appears to have influenced the intensity of sexual selection for this spider.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T07:46:17Z
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T23:27:57Z
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 127

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T23:27:57Z
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