Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3147 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3147 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 447, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 432, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 490, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Animal Behaviour
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.58
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 239  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0003-3472 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8282
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3147 journals]
  • More social female yellow-bellied marmots, Marmota flaviventer, have
           enhanced summer survival
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Anita Pilar Montero, Dana M. Williams, Julien G.A. Martin, Daniel T. BlumsteinFor many animals, group living mitigates predation risk and ensures survival. However, in yellow-bellied marmots, increased sociality is associated with lower female reproductive success, decreased female longevity and increased overwinter mortality for both males and females, which raises questions about the adaptive value of sociality in this facultatively social mammal. Here we used social network analysis to examine the relationship between sociality and summer survival, which is almost always attributable to predation. Yearling females had enhanced survival when they had stronger social relationships and were more central in their network. Adult female survival was not associated with social network traits, but females were more likely to survive the summer if they lived in larger groups. Survival of yearling and adult males was not associated with either social network trait variation or variation in group size. These findings identify a potential benefit for marmot sociality and an explanation for marmot colony social structuring.
       
  • The history and impact of women in animal behaviour and the ABS: a North
           American perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Zuleyma Tang-MartínezIt has been argued that the influx of women into the fields of primatology and animal behaviour caused a transformation in conventional beliefs, particularly with regard to our understanding of male–female sexual dynamics and the role of females in animal societies. Women members of the Animal Behavior Society (ABS) have played important roles in challenging the accepted wisdom in our field. Simultaneously, at least during the last 40 years, women have become an increasingly vibrant force within the ABS, including playing significant roles within the leadership of the society. As a result, animal behaviour represents a notable exception with regard to gender parity when compared to some other scientific disciplines. This paper examines the synergisms between the influx of women into animal behaviour and novel advances in the field. It also addresses questions debated by feminist scholars regarding the reasons and mechanisms for women's impacts and whether feminism is a factor in disciplinary transformations. Finally, it suggests the integration of women in animal behaviour provides a blueprint for inclusion of other groups under-represented in the sciences.
       
  • Male gibbon loud morning calls conform to Zipf's law of brevity and
           Menzerath's law: insights into the origin of human language
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Mingpan Huang, Haigang Ma, Changyong Ma, Paul A. Garber, Pengfei FanThe study of vocal communication in nonhuman primates, especially apes, offers critical insight into the origins of human language. Although human language represents a highly derived and complex form of communication, researchers have found that the organization of language follows a series of common statistical patterns, known as ‘linguistic laws’. Zipf's law of brevity and Menzerath's law are pervasive across human languages, and these laws have been identified in the communication of a small number of primate species. What remains less clear is whether these two laws also affect long-distance vocal communication in primates. Here, we provide evidence that the long-distance morning calls of male gibbons (cao vit gibbon, Nomascus nasutus, and western black-crested gibbon, Nomascus concolor) follow both Zipf's law of brevity and Menzerath's law. We found that notes of male gibbon calls conform to Zipf's law of brevity, with the most common notes being shortest in duration. Similarly, longer sequences are made up of shorter calls on average, consistent with Menzerath's law; we also found a shortening of specific note type duration and an increase in proportion of shorter call types in longer sequences, which may underpin the emergence of this law. Our findings support the generality of these two linguistic laws beyond human language and provide evidence for compression at two levels of organizations (how frequently different note types are used, and how vocal sequences are constructed) in a long-range communication system.
       
  • Bateman (1948): rise and fall of a paradigm'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Thierry HoquetIn 1948, British geneticist A. J. Bateman published in the journal Heredity the results of his experiments on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Bateman hoped he was bringing evidence for the ‘greater dependence of males for their fertility on frequency of insemination’ (Bateman, 1948, Heredity, 2(3), p. 364), thus purportedly explaining ‘an undiscriminating eagerness in the males and a discriminating passivity in the females’ (p. 365). At first rather neglected, Bateman's results were increasingly cited in the 1970s, especially as Bateman had suggested that what he had discovered in Drosophila could also be applied to humans. However, throughout the years, criticisms of the paper accumulated to the point that biologists are now divided into two groups: those who praise Bateman as one of the founding fathers of the discipline of behavioural ecology, and those who claim his paper was fatally flawed. The present paper follows the ‘strange fate’ of Bateman's article: initially barely cited, the paper was ‘rediscovered’ by Robert Trivers in 1972 (Trivers, 1972, Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. G. Campbell (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of man: The Darwinian pivot, pp. 136–179, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers) and finally, the paper received numerous scathing critiques in more recent years, on a methodological and empirical basis.
       
  • Asian elephants modulate their vocalizations when disturbed
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Nachiketha Sharma, Vijay Prakash S, Shiro Kohshima, Raman SukumarWhen disturbed, animals use various modes of communication to alert conspecifics about the source of danger. Some species have evolved graded or continuous signals specific to the type of threats. African elephants, Loxodonta africana, are known to differentiate between threats from bees and humans by changing the energy concentrations of their alarm calls. However, the mechanism by which Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, use vocalizations to alert conspecifics about imminent danger remains poorly explored. To understand disturbance-induced communication in free-ranging Asian elephants, we compared two call types, ‘rumbles’ (low-frequency calls) and ‘trumpets’ (high-frequency calls), produced in disturbed (by humans or other animals) and undisturbed (social interaction) states. We then analysed acoustic characters for both call types: absolute frequency parameters including fundamental frequency (F0), mean, minimum, maximum and range; temporal parameters including call duration, time to minimum F0, time to maximum F0, peak time and minimum time; and filter-related parameters including mean, minimum and maximum of first (F1) and second (F2) formant locations. We found that under disturbed conditions, Asian elephants increased the duration of rumbles and decreased the duration of trumpets. Similarly, the mean F0 and mean positions of F1 and F2 of rumbles decreased compared with the undisturbed condition; among trumpets, no significant differences were observed in mean F0 or formant position in either F1 or F2 between the two contexts. We also found that the duration of rumbles was influenced by an interaction between group size and context: smaller groups produced longer rumbles when disturbed. These results suggest that when disturbed Asian elephants can modify vocal signals whose likely function could be to alert conspecifics about potential threats.
       
  • Animal territoriality, property and access: a collaborative exchange
           between animal behaviour and the social sciences
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Ambika Kamath, Ashton B. WesnerTerritoriality is central to animal behaviourists' understanding of many facets of animal behaviour, including resource acquisition, space use behaviour, communication and mating systems. However, the term itself, how it is conceptualized and defined, has long been nebulous and contentious. Here, we ask whether juxtaposing debates about territoriality from animal behaviour with parallel discussions of territoriality from the social sciences can offer a historically and sociologically informed path out of the conceptual gridlock in which animal territoriality has been located for decades. We delineate two key problems with territoriality identified in the animal behaviour literature: First, that it focuses on how animals are expected to behave rather than how they actually behave and, second, that it assumes rather than demonstrates the function of, and specific relationships among, individuals. We then link these problems to social scientists' theorizations of the difference between property and access: whereas property is focused on how people are expected to behave under juridical–legal rules governing resource use, access focuses on a wide array of means by which people actually access resources. We thus argue that longstanding problems with animal territoriality have arisen due to implicitly embedded notions of property and ownership. Our juxtaposition raises two further problems with territoriality: first, it unwarrantedly serves to attribute authority to individuals described as territory ‘owners’ and casts others (‘intruders’, ‘sneakers’) as transgressors and, second, conceiving of ownership is unfeasible in animal societies lacking the particular juridical–legal institutions that establish and enforce property rights. Instead, we advocate for an access-based approach that will obviate these problems. Ultimately, we argue that the theory of access, as developed in social science literatures on spatial and relational resource use, will allow for a fuller and more nuanced understanding of variation in animal behaviour than that afforded by current dominant notions of territoriality.
       
  • Continuously choosy males and seasonally faithful females: sex and season
           differences underlie size-assortative pairing
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Whitney L. Heuring, Melissa HughesIn monogamous mating systems, pair mates frequently share similar characteristics, such as size or ornamentation, a pattern suggesting mutual mate choice. When pairs persist across multiple seasons, preferences for familiar pair mates can either reinforce or disrupt patterns of assortative pairing. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus angulosus) are socially monogamous shrimp that can be found in size-assortative pairs year-round; both sexes could benefit from pairing with larger individuals. To determine the role of pair mate preferences for either size or established pair mates in size-assortative pairing, we performed simultaneous choice trials to test whether (1) either or both sexes prefer larger pair mates, (2) females prefer males with larger claws, or (3) either or both sexes prefer current pair mates over size-matched unfamiliar potential mates. Males, but not females, preferred larger potential pair mates in both the reproductive and nonreproductive seasons; males also showed more mate-searching behaviour, switching more frequently between choice options than females. Females, but not males, preferred their current pair mate over a novel potential pair mate; females also engaged in more frequent switching between pair mates and novel males, but only during the nonreproductive season. Thus, while both males and females exhibit preferences in pairing, size-assortative pairing in snapping shrimp does not result from mutual mate choice for size, but rather preferences for size in one sex, with size-assortative pairing reinforced by preferences for established pair mates in the other. Furthermore, pairing behaviour may be dynamic, shifting across seasons even in a year-round socially monogamous species.
       
  • Fitness benefits to intrasexual aggression in female house wrens,
           Troglodytes aedon
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Cara A. Krieg, Thomas GettyMales frequently compete for access to mates, sometimes at a cost to parental behaviour and self-maintenance. Theory predicts that aggressive competition among females should be less common and intense due to a trade-off between competition and future reproductive investment. However, the consequences of female aggression across the reproductive cycle are unknown in many species. In this study, we addressed four questions about female intrasexual aggression in the house wren. (1) Does intrasexual aggression help females during periods of increased competition over breeding resources' (2) Do aggressive females have higher-quality mates' (3) Do aggressive females invest less in reproduction' (4) Does female aggression affect offspring size and survival' We experimentally increased competition over nestboxes in one year by evicting a subset of birds. Females that were more aggressive during previous simulated female intrusions protected more eggs from house wren ovicide, which increased following our manipulation. In two other years, we monitored the mating patterns and reproductive performance of females. Aggressive females had mates that provided more direct benefits in the form of nestling provisioning. They did not invest less in reproduction and, in fact, provisioned their nestlings more frequently. As a result, aggressive females had heavier offspring at multiple points during development. The offspring of more aggressive females were also more likely to fledge. Overall, female aggression appeared to have fitness benefits directly following an experimental increase in competition and throughout the reproductive cycle in nonexperimental years.
       
  • Age-related patterns of neophobia in an endangered island crow:
           implications for conservation and natural history
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Alison L. Greggor, Bryce Masuda, Alison M. Flanagan, Ronald R. SwaisgoodTheory suggests that the balance between unknown dangers and novel opportunities drives the evolution of species-level neophobia. Juveniles show lower neophobia than adults, within mammals and birds, presumably to help minimize the costs of avoiding beneficial novelty, and adults tend to be more neophobic, to reduce risks and focus on known stimuli. How these dynamics function in island species with fewer dangers from predators and toxic prey is not well understood. Yet, predicting neophobia levels at different age classes may be highly valuable in conservation contexts, such as species' translocation programmes, where responses to novelty can influence the effectiveness of prerelease training and animals' survival postrelease. To better understand how neophobia and its age-related patterns are expressed in an island corvid, we surveyed object neophobia in 84% of the world's critically endangered ‘alalā, Corvus hawaiiensis. Individuals repeatedly demonstrated high neophobia, suggesting that neither captivity nor their island evolution has erased this corvid-typical trait. Unexpectedly, juveniles were exceedingly more neophobic than adults, a pattern in stark contrast to common neophobia predictions and known mammalian and avian studies. We discuss the potential conservation ramifications of this age-structured result within the larger context of neophobia theory. Not only may the expression of neophobia be more complicated than previously thought but predicting such responses may also be important for conservation management that requires exposing animals to novelty.
       
  • Individual preference functions exist without overall preference in a
           tropical jumping spider
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Leonardo B. Castilho, Regina H. Macedo, Maydianne C.B. AndradeFemale mate choice is a widespread and well-recognized phenomenon. Nevertheless, individual variation in female preference has not yet received the same attention, although such preferences can have important effects on evolutionary dynamics. Here we assess and compare population- and individual-level female preferences for male ornaments and size in the tropical jumping spider Hasarius adansoni in two sets of laboratory experiments. First, we paired females with a single male and quantified receptive behaviours (e.g. receptive posture, number of copulations) and unreceptive behaviours (e.g. attacking the male, running away from a male). We assessed whether these male traits were related to offspring quality and quantity to determine whether there was selection on female preferences. Then, we paired different females with three different-sized males, one per day, and scored similar behaviours to measure preference functions (relationship between male traits and female receptivity). Generally, the population of females did not show a consistent average preference for male traits, despite our finding that females mated to larger males produced more offspring. However, at the individual level, females showed different preference functions for male size, such that some females preferred larger males, while others preferred smaller males. We discuss these data in terms of the causes and consequences of individual preference functions, highlighting the importance of including individual preference functions in future studies that focus on sexual selection and how individual preference can maintain phenotypic variation in wild populations.
       
  • Investment of group members is contingent on helper number and the
           presence of young in a cooperative breeder
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Dario Josi, Michael Taborsky, Joachim G. FrommenIn cooperatively breeding societies dominant breeders are assisted by other individuals in raising their young. In many of these species helping behaviours and their benefits for breeders have been studied by investigating the helpers' contribution to direct offspring care, even though a significant proportion of help is not targeted specifically to offspring. Here, we investigated how breeders and helpers share the effort in shelter maintenance and how their investment is influenced by the presence of dependent young in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus savoryi. Shelters provide essential protection from predators, independently of a group's breeding status. Shelter maintenance is costly in terms of time investment and energy expenditure. In the field we manipulated the workload of groups that differed in the presence and number of helpers and the reproductive state of breeders by increasing the need for digging out the breeding shelter. Helper presence correlated with workload reduction of dominant females, even in the absence of dependent young. This emphasizes the importance of shelters for the whole group, independently of the current reproductive status of the breeding pair. The described benefits increased with the number and body size of the helpers. Additionally, breeding females and helpers visited the breeding chamber more often if young were present, and helper presence enhanced the reproductive success of breeders. These findings highlight the importance of studying the role of helpers and their benefits to breeders not only in the context of direct brood care, but also for other cooperative tasks, in order to understand the evolution of complex animal societies.
       
  • Limits to male reproductive potential across mating bouts in
           Drosophila melanogaster
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Tracy Douglas, Raleigh Anderson, Julia B. SaltzUnderstanding the sources of variation in reproductive fitness is a central goal of sexual selection research. Research investigating factors limiting male reproductive potential typically focus on limited mate availability or mate access. This focus often minimizes the potential relevance of physiological or other limitations on male reproductive potential, in contrast to the emphasis on studying such limitations in females. This gap in knowledge leaves open questions about how variation in male reproductive success emerges across successive mating bouts. Here, we contribute to bridging this gap by examining male reproductive potential across successive matings and across time. To reveal limits to male reproductive potential, and sources of variation in these limits, we measured mating rate and offspring production in Drosophila melanogaster males under conditions in which mate limitation was abrogated and food was abundant. Even under these ideal conditions, we discovered distinct limits to male reproductive potential after just a few mating bouts. After males mated two to five times on a given day, additional matings often resulted in zero progeny. Furthermore, we found nonlinear relationships between the number of females a male mated with and the number of progeny he sired; and these relationships depended on the male's genotype, early life social environment and recent mating experience. These findings suggest that males who obtain more mates do not always sire the most offspring and that males who are highly successful in obtaining mates during one time period may not be able to continue this success on subsequent mating bouts and days. Together, these findings suggest trade-offs between current and future reproduction for males. More broadly, these results highlight how sexual selection studies may be expanded across individuals' lifetimes to develop a fuller picture of how sexual selection shapes variation.
       
  • Larger female brains do not reduce male sexual coercion
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Zachary W. Culumber, Nancy Engel, Joseph Travis, Kimberly A. HughesSexual conflict generates a reproductive arms race that often involves behavioural adaptations of females to avoid male sexual coercion. Given the cognitive demands underlying behavioural adaptations, it is surprising that there has been little exploration of whether sexual conflict plays an important role in the evolution of female brain size. Here we used a livebearing fish, Gambusia holbrooki, from a natural population to examine the influence of female and male traits, including female brain size, on mating behaviours. Female body size was the best predictor of avoidance of attempted copulations, and the primary result suggesting an effect of female brain size indicated that females with smaller, not larger, brains displayed greater avoidance. Male coloration (silver or melanic) and female approaches to males were the primary determinants of interactions between the sexes. Melanic males directed more attention to females than did silver males. The positive association between female and male attention highlights the intriguing possibility that females may exert more control on male mating behaviour than previously acknowledged in this species. Overall, our results indicate that female brain size may have little impact on reducing male sexual coercion. Additional studies across taxonomic groups are needed to understand the generality of this pattern.
       
  • Cognitive styles: speed–accuracy trade-offs underlie individual
           differences in archerfish
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Nick A.R. Jones, Mike Webster, Cait Newport, Christopher N. Templeton, Stefan Schuster, Luke RendellIndividuals exhibit consistent differences in behaviour and related cognitive performance. ‘Cognitive styles’-based hypotheses suggest the trade-off between speed and accuracy is an important factor where an individual's behavioural traits and linked decision speeds may account for its cognitive performance. The expected relationship between accuracy and decision speed, however, is not always clear and some studies have suggested that faster individuals do not suffer the expected cost to accuracy. Contradictory findings may be attributed to taxon-specific differences but may also be due to the difficulty in separating intraindividual from interindividual variation or the use of insufficiently challenging tasks in tests. We trained archerfish, Toxotes chatareus, to shoot at artificial targets for food, and then conducted a visual discrimination study to test the cognitive styles hypothesis. To reduce potential confounding effects, we used a longitudinal design, and increased the challenge of the test by using differentially rewarded targets. We also tested fish in one of two conditions with either two or three targets in each test. As expected, archerfish showed repeatable differences in latency to shoot and consistently fast individuals were quicker to achieve initial learning criteria than slower individuals. Repeated tests revealed an inverse relationship between discrimination accuracy and speed, with slower individuals having greater accuracy in initial trials on each day, supporting the cognitive styles hypothesis. However, this relationship was statistically significant only in the three-target condition, underscoring how task design can strongly affect the ability of researchers to detect robust individual variation in cognition. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that speed–accuracy trade-offs can underlie some observed interindividual differences in cognition.
       
  • Alternative mating tactics in a cannibalistic widow spider: do males
           prefer the safer option'
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 160Author(s): Lenka Sentenská, Gabriele Uhl, Yael LubinMating generally occurs with adult females, which undergo a suite of changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour during maturation. In the brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus, however, males can mate with immature females during a short period before they moult to the adult stage. Mating with immature females seems beneficial for males, because they are not at risk of being cannibalized, whereas cannibalism inevitably occurs in matings with adult females. We conducted choice experiments to elucidate male preference, courtship and mating behaviour with immature and adult females of different ages. We controlled for age of the females’ webs to provide males with potential web-borne attractants of similar age. We tested whether males distinguish immature females that are ready to mate (late subadult stage) from adult females and from immature females that do not mate (early subadults), and we examined male response to young versus old adult females. Males approached and mated with adult females more frequently than late subadult females, but there were no differences in the frequencies of approach to early and late subadults or to adult females of different ages. Once on the web, however, males attempted to mate with the late subadults. We suggest that web-borne volatile cues, typical of adult females, may be reduced or lacking in late subadult females, yet less volatile cues may indicate receptivity.
       
  • Guidelines for the treatment of animals in behavioural research and
           teaching
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s):
       
  • Environmental and genetic constraints on cuticular hydrocarbon composition
           and nestmate recognition in ants
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): Irene Villalta, Léa Rami, Paloma Alvarez-Blanco, Elena Angulo, Xim Cerdá, Raphaël BoulayIn insects, cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles are complex phenotypic traits with several functions: they provide protection against pathogens and water loss and convey information about insect identity. They are particularly important in ants as they are the basis for colony-specific signatures, which allow nestmate recognition and thus help colonies protect their resources from competitors. Several studies have shown that levels of n-alkanes are strongly influenced by the environment and that, alongside methyl-branched alkanes, n-alkanes are involved in various signalling tasks. Here, we analysed the CHCs of the ant Aphaenogaster iberica along an elevational gradient running from sea level to 2000 m. Across this gradient, we found a considerable difference in mean daily temperature of more than 10 °C between the populations on either end of the gradient as well as a marked degree of genetic structuring among populations. Moreover, genetic distance between populations increased with elevational distance but was independent of horizontal distance. Low-elevation populations had larger amounts of heavier compounds, including nonacosane (C29), and smaller amounts of lighter compounds, including hexacosane (C26) and heptacosane (C27). The level of aggression among non-nestmates increased with elevational distance, horizontal distance and CHC dissimilarity. However, mean within-population aggression (i.e. among colonies of the same population) did not differ across elevation. We also found that aggression was related to CHC levels: the correlation between the level of aggression and CHC dissimilarity remained significant even after we accounted for the correlation between genetic distance and aggression. We propose that climatic differences at different elevations may constrain CHC diversity and, consequently, the process of nestmate recognition.
       
  • Individual differences in learning ability are negatively linked to
           behavioural plasticity in a frequency-dependent game
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): Marie Barou Dagues, Carolyn Louise Hall, Luc-Alain GiraldeauBehavioural plasticity can be costly, but is advantageous when it allows animals to adjust their behaviour to current conditions. Since individual differences in learning ability could be a source of differences in behavioural plasticity, the frequency dependence of payoffs within a foraging group may permit the coexistence of both plastic, fast-learning individuals and nonplastic, slow-learning individuals; in a frequency-dependent context the adjustments of a few benefit all. In this study, we investigated whether individuals that learned faster in a simple associative learning task were also more likely to adjust their behaviour in a social foraging game context than their slower-learning groupmates. We measured the associative learning ability of female Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, in a colour discrimination task and their degree of behavioural plasticity in tactic use when foraging conditions called for changes in the flock's producer–scrounger equilibrium. We found that behavioural plasticity was affected by learning speed. However, in contrast to our expectation, the slower learners were most plastic. We argue that behavioural plasticity in the producer–scrounger game context may require learning that is different from colour matching. We also propose that our results may be related to the fast–slow continuum; being proactive or fast and inaccurate could favour being responsive in simple asocial contexts while being reactive or slow and accurate could favour being plastic in more complex social contexts. Future empirical studies need to compare differences in behavioural plasticity in tactic use with learning speed measured in other types of learning tasks and with personality traits relevant to the fast–slow continuum.
       
  • Beyond infant death: the hidden costs of male immigration in geladas
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): India Schneider-Crease, Kenneth L. Chiou, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Thore J. Bergman, Jacinta C. Beehner, Amy LuThe experience of traumatic events can catalyse physiological trade-offs that increase the vulnerability of organisms to disease and death. Among potential sources of trauma, the arrival of new males in female-philopatric species may be particularly salient due to the accompanying threat of infanticide. In such social systems, the killing of dependent offspring benefits these new males by accelerating females' return to receptivity. Despite widespread interest in the evolutionary drivers of infanticide, there is little known about the collateral effects of male immigration on other group members. That is, do the periods following male immigration act as ‘windows of adversity’ that carry costs for group members over and above the direct victims of infanticide' Here, we examined how the immediate aftermath of new male immigration in a female-philopatric species (Theropithecus gelada) was related to the risk of injury for all individuals. Analysing 139 injuries and 41 male immigration events across 9 years of data collection, we found that male immigration was accompanied by increases in injury risk for all natal individuals (adult males were excluded from the analysis), with the most severe effects for dependent infants and lactating females. Females with injuries had longer interbirth intervals, highlighting the reproductive consequences of injury. This study is among the first to quantify costs associated with male immigration beyond infant mortality and highlights that these periods can act as windows of adversity that may affect lifetime health and fitness outcomes.
       
  • Fight or flight trade-offs and the defensive behaviour of the mountain
           katydid, Acripeza reticulata
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): Sebastiano De Bona, Thomas E. White, Kate D.L. UmbersThe defensive repertoires of prey are shaped by diverse ecological and evolutionary demands. This can generate trade-offs between the components of defences, as in the classic ‘fight or flight’ dichotomy, or dedicated investment in a singular end, allowing individuals in better condition to mount a more effective defence all round. Further, sexual dimorphism may drive sex differences in such responses, although our understanding of the interaction between sexual selection and defensive behaviour is in its infancy. Deimatic, or ‘startle’, defences typically combine multiple protective strategies, such as camouflage and aposematism, with a rapid transition between them, and thus offer unique opportunities for studying the dynamics of suites of defensive behaviours. Here we examined the display of the sexually dimorphic mountain katydid, with the goal of identifying the factors influencing individuals' escape response and display intensity. In experimental assays designed to simulate encounters with predators, we found that sex and repeated exposure to predation attempts affected components of the defensive behaviour of individuals in diverse ways. Both short-distance (sprint) and longer-distance (endurance) speeds differed between the sexes, primarily via an interaction between the intensity of displays and exposure to repeated predation attempts. Display intensity was best explained by an interaction between experience and sex: males maintained their intensity across 3 days of repeated attacks, while females decreased it. These results reveal complex influences on the expression of antipredator behaviour, and identify potential trade-offs mediating individual responses which differ between the sexes. Our findings also highlight the need to consider sexual dimorphism and the effect of individual condition when studying complex behavioural defences.
       
  • Mothering influences domestic chick's laterality
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): Soline Galuret, Sophie Lumineau, Damien Pouzol, Isabelle GeorgeLaterality is the prevalence of one side of the body to perform motor acts and perceptual functions. The evolution of directional biases that are consistent across individuals of a group may have been constrained by the opportunity for asymmetric animals to interact with other asymmetric animals. If we assume that social animals have more opportunity to interact with each other than solitary animals, we could expect that the more social animals are, the more lateralized and the more aligned they are. In precocial birds, the mother is the first and most important social partner and she has a strong influence on her offspring's social motivation. We therefore wondered whether she could also influence its laterality. To see whether mothering influences the chick's laterality, we compared behaviours of nonbrooded and brooded domestic chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus. We assessed both individual and group level laterality during the mothering period. We also measured sociality and emotivity of both types of chicks. We found that nonbrooded chicks were more strongly lateralized, more social and less emotional than brooded chicks. Asymmetrical bias was also more consistent across nonbrooded chicks than across brooded chicks. These results show a postnatal influence of mothering on the development of laterality in the domestic chick, and a link between laterality and sociality. Several hypotheses could explain how the mother's presence and behaviour can modify her offspring's laterality. We need to test these hypotheses to uncover the mechanisms that are at play. The influence of mothering on the lateralization of young may have implications in both individual and group performance and fitness. Studying it further may therefore help us to understand better the evolution of laterality and its potential benefits.
       
  • Males sacrifice their legs to pacify aggressive females in a sexually
           cannibalistic spider
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): Rainer Neumann, Jutta M. SchneiderMonogynous male mating strategies have repeatedly evolved in spiders along with female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and extreme male mating investment. As a manifestation of sexual conflict, male African golden-silk spiders, Trichonephila fenestrata, are regularly attacked by females during copulation, and sexual cannibalism is common. Curiously, attacked males actively cast off (autotomize) their front legs and copulation continues while the female is feeding on these legs. Since the loss of legs is costly in reducing males’ ability to mate guard, it should yield significant benefits. In a series of experiments, we investigated the behavioural mechanism of male leg ejection and tested three hypotheses. First, we performed feeding experiments to test whether conspecific male legs are particularly attractive for females and act as a sensory trap. Second, we conducted mating experiments with sibling and nonsibling pairings to test whether males preferentially invest in high-quality mates. Third, by offering male legs during copulations, we tested whether male leg ejection serves to distract and pacify females. In support of the female pacifier hypothesis, our results confirm a significantly reduced probability of attacks in females that had been offered a male leg, but we found no relationship between simulated leg ejection and male survival. While there was no evidence for special properties of male legs, females accepted male legs significantly more often than insect food. The degree of male leg sacrifice did not depend on male–female relatedness, but large males lost more legs than small males, and small males achieved more copulations. However, total copulation duration was unrelated to male size. Male leg sacrifice in T. fenestrata may represent a rare example of an evolutionary transition in which the antipredation behaviour of autotomizing body parts has changed its function into a sexual context, here to pacify females and to facilitate undisturbed copulations.
       
  • Size, species and audience type influence heterospecific
           female–female competition
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): A.M. Makowicz, L. Murray, I. SchluppFemale–female competition for mates can be as intense as male–male competition, but it has received little attention until recently. Typically, such competition is expressed as context-dependent aggressive encounters between individuals of the same species within a complex social environment. Unlike male competition, in cases of sexual parasitism, female competition includes important heterospecific interactions. We explore how competitor body size and species influence female–female aggression in a sexual–unisexual mating system where heterospecific females compete for males of the sexual species. Specifically, we examined whether (1) the size and species of female competitors and (2) the sex and species of an audience influence female–female aggression in sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna. We found that competitor body size had a secondary effect on the amount of aggression a female performed when compared to the species of her female competitor. Female sailfin mollies were more aggressive towards conspecifics than they were towards Amazon mollies, Poecilia formosa, especially in front of a sailfin molly male and female audience. These results demonstrate that the social environment greatly influences how females regulate their aggressive behaviours, and they highlight not only the role of female competition for males, but also the importance of understanding the impact of the social environment on female competition.
       
  • Plasticity in diurnal activity and temporal phenotype during parental care
           in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): C. Maury, M.W. Serota, T.D. WilliamsWe used an automated radiotelemetry system to determine diurnal patterns of activity and temporal phenotype (onset and cessation of activity) in female European starlings during breeding. Parental care is thought to be the most ‘costly’ part of reproduction, with high rates of intense activity due to foraging and provisioning for chicks, so we predicted that variation in timing of activity should be closely related to breeding success. Diurnal variation in activity varied systematically with breeding stage in a way consistent with specific demands of each phase of parental care: incubating females were more active late in the day (1600–1800 hours), while chick-rearing females were more active early in the morning (0700–1100 hours). There was marked individual variation in timing of onset, and to a lesser extent cessation, of activity, e.g. chick-rearing females first became active 7–127 min after morning civil twilight, with low to moderate repeatability within and among breeding stages (individual explained 2–62% of total variation). On average, females were active later, and ceased being active earlier, during chick rearing compared with incubation. Chick-rearing birds had a longer active day, but only by 2.3% (36% of the seasonal increase in total available daylength). Thus, chick-rearing females were relatively less active (‘lazier’), which is consistent with the idea that parents work more efficiently rather than simply working harder. We found little evidence that chick-rearing activity was associated with variation in measures of current reproduction (provisioning rate, number and quality of chicks), future fecundity (initiating a second brood, cumulative 2-year productivity) or survival (local return rate). Our study demonstrates that time-keeping mechanisms show plasticity in response to reproductive state and can be modulated by ‘biotic’ (e.g. prey availability) or ‘social’ time (demands of parental care).
       
  • Collective displays as signals of relative colony size: meat ants,
           Iridomyrmex purpureus, are economical with the truth
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): Penelope A. Orbell, Jessica R. Potter, Mark A. ElgarSignals of resource-holding potential in dyadic (one-on-one) contests are relatively straightforward, typically reflected in the attributes of the individual, including body size and resource ownership. However, conveying this information is considerably more complex in social species: the outcome of collective contests will be influenced by both individual and group level effects, and the signal must be subsequently transmitted to the colony in order to elicit a colony response. Australian meat ants engage in collective displays where aggregations of many hundreds of pairs of workers from neighbouring colonies antennate one another while adopting a tip-toe posture with the abdomen raised. These displays rarely escalate into physical contests with their typically fatal consequences. A display between two workers may cease by one worker leaving or if one displaying worker is replaced by a nestmate. We asked whether these collective displays act to convey reliable information about relative colony size. Our field experiments and observations reveal that these displays do not necessarily convey precise information about relative colony size, and that it is possible for colonies to signal an exaggerated colony size, at least in the short term.
       
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s):
       
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s):
       
  • Exploratory behaviour is associated with microhabitat and evolutionary
           radiation in Lake Malawi cichlids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Zachary V. Johnson, Emily C. Moore, Ryan Y. Wong, John R. Godwin, Jeffrey T. Streelman, Reade B. RobertsEncountering and adaptively responding to unfamiliar or novel stimuli is a fundamental challenge facing animals and is linked to fitness. Behavioural responses to novel stimuli can differ strongly between closely related species; however, the ecological and evolutionary factors underlying these differences are not well understood, in part because most comparative investigations have focused on only two species. In this study, we investigate behavioural responses to novel environments, or exploratory behaviours, sampling from a total of 20 species in a previously untested vertebrate system, Lake Malawi cichlid fishes, which comprises hundreds of phenotypically diverse species that have diverged in the past one million years. We show generally conserved behavioural response patterns to different types of environmental stimuli in Lake Malawi cichlids, spanning multiple assays and paralleling other teleost and rodent lineages. Next, we demonstrate that more specific dimensions of exploratory behaviour vary strongly among Lake Malawi cichlids, and that a large proportion of this variation is explained by species differences. We further show that species differences in open field behaviours are explained by microhabitat and by a major evolutionary split between the mbuna and benthic/utaka radiations in Lake Malawi. Lastly, we track some individuals across a subset of behavioural assays and show that patterns of behavioural covariation across contexts are characteristic of modular complex traits. Taken together, our results tie ecology and evolution to natural behavioural variation, and highlight Lake Malawi cichlids as a powerful system for understanding the biological basis of exploratory behaviours.
       
  • Group size and social rank predict inhibitory control in spotted hyaenas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Lily Johnson-Ulrich, Kay E. HolekampInhibitory control is the ability to resist performing a prepotent, but ultimately incorrect, behaviour in situations that demand restraint. Inhibitory control is linked to brain size and intelligence in humans and animals, but it is unclear just how it evolves. Inhibitory control is thought to be particularly important in complex social environments where demands can shift frequently based on the social context and the identities or behaviours of other individuals in a group. Indeed, the social intelligence hypothesis suggests that the demands of living in complex social groups led to the evolution of sophisticated cognition. Here, we tested inhibitory control in wild spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta, whose large social groups are structured by linear dominance hierarchies. We tested inhibitory control using the cylinder test, which requires subjects to inhibit going straight for a food reward. In support of our predictions, hyaenas living in larger groups had greater inhibitory control. In particular, the size of the cohort in which young hyaenas grew up, rather than the size of adult groups, had the strongest effect. In addition, the effect of group size was significantly stronger for low-ranking hyaenas, which must frequently inhibit both feeding and aggression in the presence of higher-ranking hyaenas. Contrary to our predictions, adult male hyaenas, which always occupy very low rank positions as adults, did not have better inhibitory control than adult females. This suggests that inhibition is not a canalized trait, but instead may be a flexible one such that its development is influenced by early life social environments.
       
  • Ethology and animal behaviour in Latin America
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 December 2019Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Klaus Jaffe, Juan Carlos Correa, Zuleyma Tang-MartínezLatin America was fundamental in the intellectual formation of the founders of modern biology (e.g. Alexander von Humboldt, Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, Henry Bates and William D. Hamilton), but these pioneers directed their findings primarily to a European audience. Only later did European ethological influence reach Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. From there, the study of behaviour moved to Ecuador and Colombia; Brazilians and Mexicans were further influenced by networks of researchers from the U.S.A. Latin American contributions to ethology and animal behaviour are broadly visible, with a few important centres, especially in Brazil and Mexico. More recently, there also has been a Latin American scientific diaspora, mainly to Europe, U.S.A., Canada and Australia (among other countries), with many ethologists and behavioural scientists becoming active members of the Animal Behavior Society. Latin American scholars, both those who stayed in Latin America and those who are part of the diaspora, have made significant scientific advances, while also demonstrating an ongoing commitment to the development of science in Latin America. Information on the ethology of endemic Latin American species has provided some fundamental theoretical insights, which have also enhanced ethological knowledge.
       
  • When will the Bruce effect evolve' The roles of infanticide, feticide
           and maternal death
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Matthew N. ZippleIn many mammalian species, males are selected to kill unrelated infants and/or fetuses in order to cause lactating and pregnant females to begin cycling sooner than they otherwise would. As a result, females have evolved numerous counterstrategies to prevent infanticide and feticide. One such proposed counterstrategy is the Bruce effect, an apparently costly strategy in which inseminated or pregnant females cease reproductive investment in a developing embryo or fetus following exposure to nonsire males. Here I present a quantitative model that seeks to explain under what conditions females will be selected to exhibit the Bruce effect (i.e. to block or terminate pregnancy) rather than risking future infanticide or feticide. I first present an analytical model of the costs of the Bruce effect relative to the costs of potential feticide or infanticide. I then test the resulting predictions using an individual-based model operating under ecologically relevant conditions. The individual-based model predicts that moderate and high, but not low, levels of infanticide can produce selection for the Bruce effect. In contrast, feticide risk alone is unlikely to lead to selection for the Bruce effect, although feticide risk coupled with a substantial risk of female mortality following feticidal attack can. The model correctly predicts the evolution of the Bruce effect in geladas, Theropithecus gelada, and correctly predicts the absence of a Bruce effect in chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, and yellow baboons, Papio cynocephalus. Finally, I present a framework by which researchers can predict whether they expect to find infanticide, feticide and/or the Bruce effect in their study species.
       
  • Social learning in solitary juvenile sharks
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): Catarina Vila Pouca, Dennis Heinrich, Charlie Huveneers, Culum BrownSocial learning can be a shortcut for acquiring locally adaptive information. Animals that live in social groups have better access to social information, but gregarious and nonsocial species are also frequently exposed to social cues. Thus, social learning might simply reflect an animal's general ability to learn rather than an adaptation to social living. Here, we investigated social learning and the effect of frequency of social exposure in nonsocial, juvenile Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. We compared (1) Individual Learners, (2) Sham-Observers, paired with a naïve shark, and (3) Observers, paired with a trained demonstrator, in a novel foraging task. We found that more Observers learnt the foraging route compared to Individual Learners or Sham-Observers, and that Individual Learners took more days to learn. Training frequency did not affect learning rate, suggesting acquisition occurred mostly between training bouts. When demonstrators were absent, 30% of observers maintained their performance above the learning criterion, indicating they retained the acquired information. These results indicate that social living is not a prerequisite for social learning in elasmobranchs and suggest social learning is ubiquitous in vertebrates.
       
  • Body weight of the two sexes determines the occurrence of polyandry in a
           moth
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): Jin Xu, Qiao WangPolyandry has been a central topic in the study of animal behaviour. Yet, it is still not clear how the body weight of each sex affects the probability of female remating, and what each sex gains from polyandry. Here we aimed to shed some light on these questions using the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We found that virgin pairs mated regardless of their weight to ensure fertilization. However, only 58% of once-mated females remated. The probability of female remating increased when the female and/or the second male was heavier. Our findings indicate that fecundity, polygamy and longevity are functions of body weight in each sex. The nature of the last male sperm precedence in this species allows males and nonvirgin females to regulate their mating decisions. We propose that once-mated females would benefit from accepting heavier second males to replace most sperm from the lighter first mates and rejecting lighter second males to avoid displacement of sperm from the first heavier mates. Heavier males are more coercive, probably also preferred by females, and thus more likely to achieve mating with heavier nonvirgin females to replace most sperm from the previous males and dominate paternity. As body weight is heritable, we suggest that the fitness of both sexes rises when they pass on genes for this trait through female encouragement or avoidance of sperm displacement and male coercion of mated females into remating. We conclude that the two sexes play interactive roles in determining polyandrous patterns depending on their body weight.
       
  • Maternal protectiveness in feral horses: responses to intraspecific and
           interspecific sources of risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 159Author(s): Ellyssia T. Watts, Christopher N. Johnson, Scott Carver, Catherine Butler, Andrea M. Harvey, Elissa Z. CameronIn most mammalian species, mothers must protect offspring from multiple sources of risk. In Australia, feral horses, Equus ferus caballus, have naturalized in many ecosystems, and foals are at risk from both predation by dingoes and sexually selected infanticide by nonpaternal stallions. This study tested maternal responses to these two forms of risk: risk of predation through dingo call playbacks and infanticide risk through a comparison of maternal protectiveness of foals in single- and multistallion bands. Mares were more vigilant and spent more time close to foals in bands with multiple resident stallions, where there is a higher risk of infanticide, relative to bands with a single stallion. Dominant stallions spent more time close to foals following the dingo call playbacks, indicating that stallions may play an important role in detecting and protecting foals from interspecific sources of risk. There was no significant increase in maternal protectiveness in response to dingo call playbacks, indicating that mares did not perceive dingo calls to be an immediate threat to foals. While predators were present, infanticide risk appeared to be the most significant modifier of maternal behaviour in this study.
       
  • Niko Tinbergen and questions of instinct
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Animal BehaviourAuthor(s): Colin BeerNiko Tinbergen characterized ethology as ‘the biological study of behaviour’ involving four kinds of question: causation, ontogeny, adaptive function and phyletic evolution (Tinbergen, 1963; Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410–433). He said the science should give equal attention to each and to their integration. This division was prefigured in his book The study of instinct (Tinbergen, 1951; Oxford University Press). The book offered a conception of instinct as a built-in motivational system analogous to a hydraulic mechanism. The assumption of innateness and the lack of physiological credibility of the instinct model met with adverse criticism, which Tinbergen conceded to a large extent. His later work concentrated on functional issues, which anticipated the direction dominating subsequent ethological studies. Nevertheless Tinbergen's four questions, and his insistence that they be given equal attention continue to present an agenda for ethological aspiration.
       
 
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