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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3175 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 374, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 429, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Animal Behaviour
  [SJR: 1.907]   [H-I: 126]   [170 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-3472 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8282
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Heterospecific shoaling in an invasive poeciliid: shared history does not
           affect shoal cohesion
    • Authors: Jarome R. Ali; Amy E. Deacon; Keshan Mahabir; Indar W. Ramnarine; Anne E. Magurran
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Jarome R. Ali, Amy E. Deacon, Keshan Mahabir, Indar W. Ramnarine, Anne E. Magurran
      Social behaviour potentially plays an important role in invasion success. New colonists, for example, may glean useful information about predators and food by interacting with native heterospecifics. The extent to which invaders benefit from such social interactions could hinge on their prior exposure to other species. Here we asked how the shoaling decisions of the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a successful invasive species, are mediated by their shared history with a heterospecific, the phenotypically similar Micropoecilia picta. To do this, we monitored shoal cohesion in single-species treatments and in treatments where M. picta was present. We predicted that shoal cohesion would be greater in single- than in mixed-species shoals. We also hypothesized that mixed-species shoals consisting of fish with a shared history would be more cohesive than those where the two species had hitherto occurred allopatrically. We found that shoal cohesion did not differ between single- and two-species treatments, or in relation to shared history with M. picta. However, while guppies were more often found in mixed-species than single-species shoals, they were more likely to have a conspecific individual as their nearest neighbour within mixed-species shoals. These results show that guppies willingly shoal with heterospecifics, even in the absence of a shared history, but also that the resulting shoals are not randomly assembled. This flexibility in shoaling may confer a crucial advantage in the initial stages of invasion.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • Plasticity in extended phenotype increases offspring defence despite
           individual variation in web structure and behaviour
    • Authors: Nicholas DiRienzo; Hitoshi Aonuma
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Nicholas DiRienzo, Hitoshi Aonuma
      Many animals actively defend their offspring using a range of behaviours from calling and mobbing in birds, to physical grappling in crustaceans, and the expression of these behaviours positively scale with offspring value. While this role of behaviour in defence is well studied, very little is known about how other traits, specifically the structure of architectural constructions such as webs and nests, contribute to offspring defence. Additionally, although some taxa show consistent individual differences in offspring defence behaviour, it is completely unknown whether individuals also differ in defensive structures. We addressed these questions in the redback spider, Latrodectus hasselti, by measuring how a female laying an eggcase influences female behaviour and web structure, and whether those traits scale with relative reproductive investment. Our results show that females modified web structure in response to an eggcase, but only the protective elements of web structure positively scaled with the relative value of that eggcase. Finally, despite the significant correlations, fixed effects (e.g. eggcase possession/value) in the models explained only 5–23% of the variation in behaviour and web structure, while the random effect of individual identity explained 46–65% of the variation. This variation drove moderate to high repeatability estimates across all traits, suggesting that some individuals consistently invest relatively more in defence, while some invest less. These results highlight that extended phenotypic traits may be a critical component of offspring defence in some taxa. Furthermore, individual variation in these traits suggest that different reproductive strategies may exist, whereby some individuals invest more in reproduction at a cost to safety/foraging and vice versa.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • When to socialize: perception of time-sensitive social structures among
           social hermit crabs
    • Authors: Katherine M. Bates; Mark E. Laidre
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Katherine M. Bates, Mark E. Laidre
      Animals have been specialized by natural selection to perceive features of their environment that strongly impact their reproductive success. For many social animals, the social world of conspecifics provides the most pertinent information, ultimately enabling individuals to adaptively anticipate future events, like time-sensitive opportunities to acquire rare resources. Here we investigated whether ‘social timing’—joining others at the right time for resource acquisition—ultimately drives the perception of different social structures among highly social terrestrial hermit crabs, Coenobita compressus. These crabs are specialized to live in architecturally remodelled homes, which can only be acquired through coordinated social interactions among conspecifics. We experimentally simulated these social interactions using static arrays of shells that mimicked the temporary social structures formed at each stage in the social shell-acquisition process. Free-wandering crabs in the wild were then allowed to choose among these different social structures. We found that crabs were most attracted to social structures representing early stages of the social shell-acquisition process, which predict forthcoming opportunities and hence allow individuals to join in time to take priority spots in ensuing social formations. In contrast, social structures representing late stages of the social shell-acquisition process were less attractive. When crabs joined such late-stage social structures they did not stay long, assessing they had arrived too late to insert themselves into the existing social arrangement. Broadly, these results suggest that strong selective pressures exist for sensory specializations that are in tune with the temporal and spatial patterning of opportunities in the social world.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.024
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • Inbreeding affects personality and fitness of a leaf beetle
    • Authors: Thorben Müller; Augustinas Juškauskas
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Thorben Müller, Augustinas Juškauskas
      Habitat loss and fragmentation, which are mostly anthropogenically caused, can lead to decreasing population sizes for many species. Consequently, the risk of inbreeding increases and inbreeding depression can be induced, which is likely to lead to a decline in fitness in inbred individuals. We investigated effects of inbreeding on fitness-related traits during ontogeny of a wild leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae, population. We also examined whether the behavioural phenotype, that is, personality, of adult beetles is affected by inbreeding, sex and/or age. We found evidence for inbreeding depression both at the larval stage and in adulthood. We tested the behaviour twice during adulthood and found that beetles show personality, that is, activity, exploration and boldness traits were repeatable and consistent across contexts. Moreover, the personality of inbred and outbred beetles differed significantly. In detail, boldness and exploration traits were affected by inbreeding, partly interacting with the beetles' sex or age. Most notably, inbred beetles were bolder in an unprotected environment than outbred beetles. Inbred individuals may be more risk prone in specific situations, because they have less to lose, since they reproduce less. As well as inbreeding effects on fitness-related traits, the results also show that the personality of arthropods can be affected by inbreeding. This is potentially related to inbreeding depression and thus to fitness declines in inbred individuals. Overall, decreased fitness combined with personality alterations of inbred individuals might affect the further development and survival of populations and thus possibly also (interactions with) other trophic levels of the ecosystem.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • The low-frequency acoustic structure of mobbing calls differs across
           habitat types in three passerine families
    • Authors: Alexis C. Billings
      Pages: 39 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Alexis C. Billings
      The acoustic adaptation hypothesis predicts that animals should adaptively respond to the transmission properties of the habitat in which they communicate. Although there have been many tests of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis with birdsong, there have been very few tests with different types of bird vocalizations. Here I tested the predictions of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis with avian mobbing calls produced in closed, open and urban habitats in three families of passerine birds. I also controlled for body size and phylogeny since these are known to influence acoustic characteristics of vocalizations. I found that body size was important in duration and frequency measurements of mobbing call acoustic structure. Phylogeny explained acoustic variation in only some acoustic variables measured. I also found only the two low-frequency measurements to differ across habitats. First, 5% frequency (a measurement of low-frequency energy distribution) differed between species classified as occurring in predominately open or closed habitats, with species classified as closed having lower 5% frequency than species classified as open. This finding supports the prediction that species in closed habitats will have lower low frequencies than species in open habitats. Additionally, I found that species classified as urban had a lower minimum frequency. This is in direct opposition to the prediction of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis and previous findings for birdsong, where species appear to shift lower minimum frequencies upward, likely to avoid masking by anthropogenic noise. To confirm this finding, I also measured low frequency using power spectra with an amplitude threshold (i.e. threshold method) and confirmed the same result: species classified as urban had lower minimum frequencies than species classified as open or closed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • Bring out your dead: quantifying corpse removal in Bombus terrestris, an
           annual eusocial insect
    • Authors: Zoe Munday; Mark J.F. Brown
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Zoe Munday, Mark J.F. Brown
      Corpse removal is a hygienic behaviour involved in reducing the spread of parasites and disease. It is found in social insects such as honeybees, wasps, ants and termites, insect societies that experience high populations and dense living conditions that are ideal for the spread of contagion. Previous studies on corpse removal have focused on perennial species that produce thousands of workers, a life history that may incur a greater need for hygienic behaviours. However, whether and how corpse removal occurs in annual species of social insect, which may experience different selection pressures for this behaviour, remains largely unknown. Here the corpse removal behaviour of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris was investigated by artificially adding larval and adult corpses into colonies. Larvae were removed more rapidly than adults, with adult corpses eliciting significantly more antennating and biting behaviours. Workers that removed larval corpses were significantly more specialized than the worker population at large, but this was not the case for workers that removed adult corpses. Workers that were previously observed spending more time inactive were slightly, but significantly less likely to perform corpse removal. Size did not affect whether a worker removed corpses, but workers that removed larvae were significantly larger than those that removed adult corpses. Finally, infecting larvae with the virulent parasite Nosema bombi did not elicit prophylactic removal. Our results provide the first quantification of corpse removal in an annual social insect and set the scene for comparative analyses of this important behaviour across social insect life histories.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • The adaptive significance of age-dependent changes in the tendency of
           individuals to explore
    • Authors: Thomas N. Sherratt; Julie Morand-Ferron
      Pages: 59 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Thomas N. Sherratt, Julie Morand-Ferron
      Many organisms show a reduced tendency to investigate unfamiliar objects as they age. Although the phenomenon could arise for a range of reasons, it is possible that this age-related increase in conservatism is adaptive. In particular, we propose that novel objects encountered late in life will be perceived as being relatively rare, so the value of information from investigating their properties will be estimated to be low. In addition, agents that investigate novel objects late in their lives will have little time left to exploit this information should the objects turn out to be profitable. We formalize the above arguments by developing an exploration–exploitation (‘bandit’) model. In this model, agents must decide whether to explore or ignore a novel object that it has just encountered at a given stage in its life, despite uncertainty regarding the commonness of the object in the environment and the likelihood that the object is profitable/unprofitable. We assume that, as agents encounter (and possibly investigate) unfamiliar objects, they use Bayesian inference to update their beliefs about the objects' commonness and profitability. Dynamic programming is concurrently used to identify the conditions under which the agent should explore or ignore these objects. If the benefit/cost ratio of investigating novel objects is high, then all individuals will be selected to explore regardless of their age. Likewise, if the ratio is low, then all individuals should ignore novel objects. Under intermediate conditions, young individuals that encounter novel objects should investigate their properties, while older ones should ignore them. The optimal switch in strategy arises as a consequence of age-dependent variation in both the novel object's perceived abundance and the future value of information regarding the object's profitability. We highlight several additional testable predictions of the model and discuss alternative adaptive explanations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • While males fight, females choose: male phenotypic quality informs female
           mate choice in mammals
    • Authors: Daniel L. Morina; Steve Demarais; Bronson K. Strickland; Jamie E. Larson
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Daniel L. Morina, Steve Demarais, Bronson K. Strickland, Jamie E. Larson
      Theoretical support exists for an exaggerated male structure to serve as both a weapon for intrasexual competition and as an ornament to signal quality and promote female choice. However, there is little, if any, evidence to support this theory in male–male competition breeding systems. Using white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, as a model species, we manipulated antler size on males while controlling for body size and age and allowed 25 oestrous females the opportunity to choose between pairs of segregated males with either large or small antlers. By segregating males, we were able to remove any intrasexual male competition and isolate the effects of female choice. Using various behavioural indications of female choice, we demonstrate that females prefer males with large antlers to those with small antlers. Because antler size is heritable in deer, this female preference for larger antlers may be adaptive by increasing the reproductive success of her male offspring. Our unique antler manipulation study supports the armament-ornament model where male weapons can simultaneously serve as ornaments to females and weapons in male–male competition breeding systems.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • The ‘hot male’ hypothesis: do female crickets prefer males with
           increased body temperature in mate choice scenarios'
    • Authors: Bettina Erregger; R. Matthias Hennig; Heiner Römer
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Bettina Erregger, R. Matthias Hennig, Heiner Römer
      Insects have been extensively used as model systems to study mating preferences based on variation in acoustic signals. In many species, females perform phonotaxis towards attractive, long-range acoustic signals produced by males, whereas the final mating decision is based on an assessment of additional, multimodal, close-range cues. The production of acoustic signals is costly, because invested energy is inefficiently converted into acoustic power. Here, we investigated whether heat released as a by-product during song generation might serve as an additional cue during mate choice decisions. Males that broadcast highly energetic calling songs increased their thoracic temperature considerably above ambient temperatures. The use of this additional cue would turn the acoustic signal into an inherently bimodal one, indirectly indicating the quality of the sender. To test this hot male hypothesis, we performed trackball and Y-maze experiments with Anurogryllus muticus. For comparison, additional trackball experiments were conducted with Gryllus bimaculatus females. In all paradigms, females of both species showed no evidence of a preference for hot males and, therefore, we conclude that increases in thoracic temperature do not seem to play a role as a multimodal component in mate choice decisions in A. muticus.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • Combat in a cave-dwelling wētā (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae)
           with exaggerated weaponry
    • Authors: Murray Fea; Gregory Holwell
      Pages: 85 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Murray Fea, Gregory Holwell
      Animals sometimes possess extraordinarily enlarged or specialized structures used as weaponry for intrasexual combat. The way in which an animal's mating system leads to the diversity of exaggerated armaments we see in nature is a matter of current and ongoing research. Central to this enquiry is the question of how animal weapons are involved in assessment: how, when and why is the decision made to retreat from a contest by combatants fighting over their future fertilization success' We investigated the agonistic role of highly elongated male hindlegs in an Orthopteran insect found in dense aggregations in New Zealand caves: the cave wētā, Pachyrhamma waitomoensis (Rhaphidophoridae). We found a large degree of sexual dimorphism in the hindlegs. In contests among males in the field, males with longer hindlegs were more likely to win contests, while body size did not influence contest outcome. We also assessed the influence of winner, loser and relative hindleg length on contest escalation, finding that fights among males with greater differences in leg length were resolved by less-escalated contests. In addition, the level of contest escalation was positively correlated with the loser's, but not the winner's, leg length, matching the predictions of self-only models of animal assessment.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • Evidence for plasticity in magnetic nest-building orientation in
           laboratory mice
    • Authors: Michael S. Painter; Madison Davis; Shruthi Ganesh; Ella Rak; Kelsie Brumet; Hunter Bayne; E. Pascal Malkemper; John B. Phillips
      Pages: 93 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Michael S. Painter, Madison Davis, Shruthi Ganesh, Ella Rak, Kelsie Brumet, Hunter Bayne, E. Pascal Malkemper, John B. Phillips
      Previous studies have shown that mammals exhibit two distinct forms of magnetic behaviour: spontaneous magnetic alignment and learned magnetic compass orientation. However, it remains to be determined whether the type of magnetic response is species specific (i.e. species exhibit either learned magnetic compass responses or spontaneous magnetic orientation). Alternatively, learned and spontaneous magnetic orientation may be context dependent and expressed in the same species under different conditions, e.g. motivational, physiological and/or environmental. Using C57BL/6J laboratory mice, we provide evidence for multiple spatial responses to magnetic cues in the same species. In a series of three similar nest-building experiments in which mice were trained to construct nests in one of four magnetic directions, mice either positioned nests along a fixed northeast–southwest magnetic axis (Series 1), independent of the trained direction, and similar to spontaneous magnetic alignment responses in other vertebrates, or exhibited learned magnetic compass orientation in the direction away from (Series 2) or towards (Series 3) the sheltered end of the magnetic axis they had been exposed to during the training period. Importantly, the responses elicited in each series paralleled changes in the experimental protocols and may help to explain the variation in magnetic behaviours. Furthermore, the plasticity in the magnetic orientation exhibited by laboratory mice suggests that magnetic cues play important role in the spatial ecology of epigean rodents. Characterizing the factors that elicit these responses will shed light on the adaptive significance of spontaneous magnetic alignment, a widespread but poorly understood spatial behaviour. In addition, future studies with similar nest-building assays will likely play a role in helping to determine whether magnetic compass orientation and spontaneous magnetic alignment are mediated by the same underlying mechanisms of magnetoreception.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • Mating success in fruit flies: courtship interference versus female choice
    • Authors: Carling Baxter; Joseph Mentlik; Ieta Shams; Reuven Dukas
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Carling Baxter, Joseph Mentlik, Ieta Shams, Reuven Dukas
      The outcomes of sexual selection often differ when mating success is determined by male contest rather than female choice. Many studies, however, inferred sexual selection driven by female choice without carefully assessing the role of subtle male aggression. Relying on close-up video analyses, we documented novel courtship interference between male fruit flies, a key model system in research on sexual selection, sexual conflict and speciation. In experiments comparing male mating success under choice (2 males+1 female) and no-choice (1 male+1 female) conditions, we found that, in some cases, courtship interference altered male mating success. Both choice and no-choice protocols have known weaknesses. Choice protocols do not control for male–male interactions while no-choice protocols do not allow females to compare and choose between males. To overcome these weaknesses, we developed a new protocol (true-choice), which allows females to freely visit and assess each of two males while preventing direct male–male interactions. Results from the true-choice protocol suggest that traits enhancing male aggression have a greater role in determining mating success in fruit flies. Furthermore, it is possible that the mating system of scramble competition observed in many species should be reclassified as subtle male contest, which can drive sexual selection for aggressive male features.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • The effects of the social environment and physical disturbance on
           personality traits
    • Authors: Fabian S. Rudin; Joseph L. Tomkins; Leigh W. Simmons
      Pages: 109 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Fabian S. Rudin, Joseph L. Tomkins, Leigh W. Simmons
      The environment can have a considerable impact on behaviour. The social environment is predicted to be a particularly important driver of behavioural variation and evolution through the indirect genetic effects that arise whenever individuals interact with conspecifics. We used male Australian field crickets, Teleogryllus oceanicus, to examine the effects of changes in the social environment (recorded acoustic sexual signals of other males) on the expression and consistency of boldness, activity and exploration, and their between-individual covariation. Switching from a silent environment to being exposed to male acoustic sexual signals resulted in crickets becoming less bold, active and explorative. Switching from an acoustic to a silent environment resulted in increased boldness and activity. We also looked at the effects of changes in the nonsocial environment via a physical disturbance that mimicked the presence of a potential predator (mechanical shaking). The effects of physical disturbance (and changes thereof) on behaviour were far less pronounced than the effects of changes in the social environment. Neither the repeatability of nor correlations between behaviours were affected by changes in physical disturbance. Only the average level of exploration was affected significantly when crickets were moved from an undisturbed to a disturbed environment, with crickets becoming less explorative. Although changes in the social and the nonsocial environment affected the repeatability of and correlations between some of the behaviours measured, changes in the social environment had the greater effect. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of our findings and how they relate to our current understanding of social and nonsocial environmental effects on behaviour.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • Is flight-calling behaviour influenced by age, sex and/or body
    • Authors: Amy K. Tegeler; Kyle G. Horton; Sara R. Morris
      Pages: 123 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 138
      Author(s): Amy K. Tegeler, Kyle G. Horton, Sara R. Morris
      Migratory organisms face many challenges as they travel to take advantage of changing resources, exhibiting a variety of strategies to successfully move between locations. Birds are a model taxa for understanding migratory systems, relying on a multitude of cues and showing diverse behaviours, one of which is their propensity to give calls during migratory flight. However, this behaviour is understudied and may have implications in orientation, navigation and migration monitoring. Because a variety of migratory behaviours differ among and within species as a function of age, sex and body condition, we evaluated whether flight-calling behaviour was related to any of these variables. We studied flight-calling behaviour in four species of passage migrant warblers in captivity during autumn migration at Powdermill Avian Research Center (Rector, PA, U.S.A.) and Braddock Bay Bird Observatory (Greece, NY, U.S.A.). Our results demonstrate extensive variation in flight-calling behaviour by migrant warblers. When all species were combined, young birds were more likely to call and call at a higher rate than adults. All species-specific models were consistent in suggesting a higher propensity and rate of calling by young birds, although the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens, was the only species-specific model with significant age-related differences. When all species were combined, sex did not have a significant effect on either propensity or rate of calling. The effect of sex was inconsistent across species, and only magnolia warbler, Setophaga magnolia, males were significantly more likely to respond to calls than females. Surprisingly, body condition did not significantly affect the propensity or rate of calling. While our results reflect the complexity of flight-calling behaviour, our finding that young migrants consistently gave more calls has broad utility, particularly in quantitative migration monitoring. These results demonstrate the need for additional study to determine the selective forces influencing flight-calling behaviour.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2018)
  • Birdsong performance studies: correcting a commentary on Cardoso and
           Atwell (2016)
    • Authors: Gonçalo C. Cardoso; Jonathan W. Atwell
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Gonçalo C. Cardoso, Jonathan W. Atwell

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.024
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Eavesdropping in an African large mammal community: antipredator responses
           vary according to signaller reliability
    • Authors: Meredith S. Palmer; Abby Gross
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Meredith S. Palmer, Abby Gross
      Alarm calls can provide nontarget receivers with potentially life-saving information on predation risk. However, patterns of eavesdropping among species may be shaped by the reliability of the intercepted information, that is, the degree to which the alarm call represents a pertinent threat to the eavesdropping species (‘relevance’). Prey are predicted to respond strongly to alarm calls from species that are attacked by the same predator guild, whereas species consumed by a larger or different subset of the carnivore community may act as a less reliable source of predator information. We used a playback experiment to examine whether the degree of antipredator responses to heterospecific alarm calls varied with the reliability of the calling species in three large African mammals: impala, Aepyceros melampus, common wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and plains zebra, Equus quagga. Alarm calls of all three species were broadcast randomly to herds of their own species or to either of the other two species. In accordance with the reliability hypothesis, we found that all species reacted strongly to zebra alarm calls. Lions are the primary predator of zebra and represent a significant threat to all three prey species. In contrast, impala are consumed by a greater number of predators, and their alarm calls evoked weaker, mixed responses in the other two species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • A battle of wits' Problem-solving abilities in invasive eastern grey
           squirrels and native Eurasian red squirrels
    • Authors: Pizza Ka Yee Chow; Peter W.W. Lurz; Stephen E.G. Lea
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Pizza Ka Yee Chow, Peter W.W. Lurz, Stephen E.G. Lea
      Behavioural flexibility has been argued to be an evolutionarily favourable trait that helps invasive species to establish themselves in non-native environments. Few studies, however, have compared the level of flexibility (whether considered as an outcome or as a process) in mammalian invaders and related native species. Here, we tested whether flexibility differs between groups of free-ranging invasive eastern grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, and native Eurasian red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, in the U.K., using an easy and a difficult food extraction task. All individuals of both species showed flexibility, at the outcome level, in solving the easy task and solution time was comparable between species across a series of successes. A higher proportion of grey squirrels than red squirrels solved the difficult task. However, for those squirrels that did solve the task, solving efficiency was comparable between species on their first success, and a few red squirrels outperformed the grey squirrels in subsequent successes. Between-species analysis showed that instantaneous flexibility, flexibility at the process level that was measured as the rate of switching between tactics after a failed attempt, was higher in red squirrels than in grey squirrels. Within-species analysis also revealed that red squirrel problem solvers showed higher flexibility at the process level than their nonsolver counterparts. Nonsolvers also failed to make ‘productive’ switches (switching from ineffective to effective tactics). Together, the results suggest that problem-solving ability overlaps in the two species, but is less variable, and on average higher, in grey squirrels than in red squirrels. The superior behavioural flexibility of the grey squirrels, shown here by success at problem solving, may have facilitated their invasion success, but it may also have resulted from selective pressures during the invasion process.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • A lifetime of changing calls: North Atlantic right whales, Eubalaena
           glacialis, refine call production as they age
    • Authors: Holly Root-Gutteridge; Dana A. Cusano; Yu Shiu; Douglas P. Nowacek; Sofie M. Van Parijs; Susan E. Parks
      Pages: 21 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Holly Root-Gutteridge, Dana A. Cusano, Yu Shiu, Douglas P. Nowacek, Sofie M. Van Parijs, Susan E. Parks
      The trajectory of development and refinement of communication signals closely map physical and social development in many vertebrate species. Although marine mammals exhibit highly complex and diverse communication signals, asking similar questions about signal development can be challenging when dealing with long-lived species that roam widely at sea. North Atlantic right whales, a large baleen whale species, are intensely studied due to their endangered status. We examine whether right whale acoustic signals vary with the physical and social development of individuals from birth to adulthood using a latitudinal analysis. Data included 986 high-quality calls recorded from 49 individuals of known age spanning from 1 month to 37 years, with two individuals measured at different ages. Calls produced by calves younger than 1 year were easily distinguished by their short duration, a high degree of frequency modulation and a high percentage of nonlinear phenomena. Nonlinear phenomena within calls shifted from disorder (deterministic chaos) to increased control (biphonation and subharmonics) with increasing age. The overall percentage of calls containing nonlinear phenomena decreased with increasing age. Duration of the calls and calling bouts increased in direct correlation with age. Notably there was no clear indication of fixation in any of the measured parameters with age, with directional changes continuing over the entire age range studied. This study presents the first evidence that acoustic maturation does not stop at sexual maturity (∼9 years) in right whales and that refinement of calls continues through adulthood. Clear age-related voice cues have been documented in a range of terrestrial species with increases in call duration often reflecting increased stamina or condition in older adults. This study shows a similar trend in right whale sound production, with changes detectable across three-decade age range of available data.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Sibling competition and not maternal allocation drives differential
           offspring feeding in a sexually size-dimorphic bird
    • Authors: Juan C. Alonso; Enrique Martín; Manuel B. Morales; Javier A. Alonso
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Juan C. Alonso, Enrique Martín, Manuel B. Morales, Javier A. Alonso
      Sex allocation models still fail to predict the complex sex ratio patterns in broods of vertebrates. A major problem when studying mother–brood interactions is the difficulty in disentangling hypotheses involving maternal preferences from processes that do not imply maternal manipulation. We studied maternal resource allocation in mixed-sex, same-sex and single-chick broods in the great bustard, Otis tarda. Females normally rear a single chick, and previous work has shown that maternal investment influences male more than female breeding success. Therefore, mothers of two-chick broods were assumed to be in good condition and candidates to show a preference for sons. Results showed that male chicks of mixed-sex broods remained close to the mother for twice as long as their sisters, and received double the number of maternal feedings. However, sex differences in maternal feeding rate disappeared when considering only simultaneous begging approaches from both siblings. Proximity to the mother and its interaction with begging approach intensity were the factors determining the higher begging success of male chicks. In single-chick broods, females did not receive fewer maternal feedings than males. Overall, our results suggest that female chicks of mixed-sex broods become outcompeted by their larger brothers, which remain close to the mother much longer, preventing their sisters from taking a larger share of maternal feedings. We conclude that mothers do not show a preference for feeding male over female chicks, and that the sex differences in feeding rate are determined by the higher food requirements of male chicks due to their sexually selected, much faster growth rates. The higher mortality of females in mixed-sex broods contrasts with the pattern of male-biased mortality typical in this species, and supports our interpretation of an asymmetric competitive ability of male offspring as the mechanism responsible for the sex bias in maternal expenditure.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:34:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Birdsong characteristics are related to fragment size in a neotropical
    • Authors: Patrick J. Hart; Esther Sebastián-González; Ann Tanimoto; Alia Thompson; Tawn Speetjens; Madolyn Hopkins; Michael Atencio-Picado
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Patrick J. Hart, Esther Sebastián-González, Ann Tanimoto, Alia Thompson, Tawn Speetjens, Madolyn Hopkins, Michael Atencio-Picado
      The oscine passerines, an avian suborder that comprises almost half of all bird species worldwide, learn their song primarily through cultural transmission. As the world's forests become increasingly fragmented and the population sizes of many forest-dwelling species decline, there may be increasingly restricted opportunities for the transmission of cultural information. However, the effects of forest fragmentation on birdsong have not been well documented. In this paper, we examine the relationship between forest fragment size and song characteristics for two forest bird species, an oscine passerine (orange-billed sparrow, Arremon aurantiirostris) that learns its song culturally, and a suboscine passerine (scale-crested pygmy tyrant, Lophotriccus pileatus) that does not. Recordings were taken from individuals in 12 premontane wet forest fragments ranging in size from approximately 1.4ha–360ha in southern Costa Rica. As predicted under the ‘cultural erosion’ hypothesis, we found that acoustic characteristics associated with song complexity such as the number of syllables per song and song duration decreased with decreasing fragment size for the oscine but not for the suboscine species. This study supports the idea that learned cultural elements are sensitive to fragment size and that cultural diversity should be considered along with other forms of biodiversity in the conservation of social learning species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:34:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • The role of ancestral phenotypic plasticity in evolutionary
           diversification: population density effects in horned beetles
    • Authors: Sofia Casasa; Armin P. Moczek
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Sofia Casasa, Armin P. Moczek
      Plasticity's role in shaping phenotypic diversification continues to receive considerable attention. One especially debated issue concerns the significance of genetic accommodation in diversification, and the proposed role of ancestrally plastic responses in facilitating or biasing subsequent genetically canalized differentiation among taxa. Here, we investigated whether pre-existing plasticity in response to variation in population density present in the ancestral Mediterranean range of the bull-headed dung beetle Onthophagus taurus may have mediated previously documented rapid canalized divergences among descendent exotic populations that have been subject to dramatically different levels of competition for mates and resources in the field. We focused on two maternal behavioural traits, two life history traits and two morphological traits. We find that (1) Mediterranean O. taurus exhibited plasticity in response to adult densities for four of our six focal traits; (2) in two of those, plastic responses matched the direction of canalized divergences among natural populations; and (3) the presence and direction of plasticity appeared unrelated to trait type. More generally, our results provide partial support for the hypothesis that evolution by genetic accommodation could have contributed to the very early stages of population differentiation in a subset of traits in O. taurus.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Costly culture: differences in nut-cracking efficiency between wild
           chimpanzee groups
    • Authors: Lydia V. Luncz; Giulia Sirianni; Roger Mundry; Christophe Boesch
      Pages: 63 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Lydia V. Luncz, Giulia Sirianni, Roger Mundry, Christophe Boesch
      Cultural diversity among social groups has recently been documented in multiple animal species. Investigations of the origin and spread of diverse behaviour at group level in wild-ranging animals have added valuable information on social learning mechanisms under natural conditions. Behavioural diversity has been especially informative in the case of dispersal, where the transfer of individuals between groups leads to a sudden exposure to unfamiliar behaviour. Little is known, however, about the underlying costs and benefits of cultural transmission in animals and humans alike, as efficiency of cultural variants is often difficult to measure. The chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, of the Taï National Park in Ivory Coast are known to exhibit a number of cultural differences between social groups, including hammer selection for nut cracking. This provides the unique opportunity to quantify the efficiency of cultural variants. We compared foraging speed and number of hits applied during nut-cracking events between three neighbouring chimpanzee groups. Our results showed significant differences in nut-cracking efficiency, caused by hammer material selection and differences in the applied power of impact per nut. Persistent behavioural coherence within the respective groups implies that immigrants adjust their behaviour to local nut-cracking techniques, even when individual foraging success might be compromised. This suggests that the benefit of belonging to a social group might outweigh the benefits of maximizing individual foraging efficiency. The differences in nut-cracking efficiency between chimpanzee groups add to the ever-growing body of cultural variants in wild chimpanzees and expand our knowledge of the importance of group belonging and conformity in wild chimpanzees.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Evolution of mate guarding under the risk of intrasexual aggression in a
           mite with alternative mating tactics
    • Authors: Anna Maria Skwierzyńska; Agata Plesnar-Bielak; Michał Kolasa; Jacek Radwan
      Pages: 75 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Anna Maria Skwierzyńska, Agata Plesnar-Bielak, Michał Kolasa, Jacek Radwan
      Mate-guarding strategies are known to evolve in response to changes in the environment, but little is known about the genetic and plastic components of this source of variation. Here, we investigated how risk associated with aggression shapes postcopulatory association time between mates in the bulb mite, Rhizoglyphus robini, a species in which aggressive, armoured fighters often coexist with unarmoured scramblers. In some populations, scramblers have been reported to prevent females remating by remaining in copula for over 6h. In this study, we investigated whether mate guarding by scramblers is affected by the presence of aggressive fighters in populations. We investigated whether guarding is riskier in the presence of fighters and found that guarding males were more likely to be attacked. Our data allowed us to determine whether the presence of fighters can affect mate-guarding duration, by comparing guarding duration between populations (both natural and artificially selected). We found that in both types of population, males guarded longer when fighters were absent. Comparisons between lines selected for the presence of fighters, lines selected for the presence of scramblers and their source populations indicated that scrambler morphs evolved prolonged guarding. We also investigated whether males show plasticity and shorten guarding in response to the presence of fighters in a social group. Surprisingly, we found that males in a mixed-morph context copulated significantly longer than males from single-morph groups. Our results demonstrate that mate guarding may evolve in response to the presence or absence of fighters in populations, but males are not able to adjust guarding behaviour to the risk of being attacked by fighters. The study provides insight into the role of genetics and plasticity in guarding strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Wild hummingbirds require a consistent view of landmarks to pinpoint a
           goal location
    • Authors: David J. Pritchard; T. Andrew Hurly; Susan D. Healy
      Pages: 83 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): David J. Pritchard, T. Andrew Hurly, Susan D. Healy
      One outcome of the extensive work on the ways that birds and insects use visual landmarks to return to a rewarded location is that they use landmarks differently. But this conclusion may have been reached because the almost exclusive training and testing of birds in small laboratory environments may prevent birds from using the view-matching strategies seen in insects. To test how birds use landmarks in an open-field environment, we trained free-living hummingbirds to search for a reward near two experimental landmarks. When the angular size and panoramic position of the landmarks were kept consistent, the hummingbirds searched in the direction of the flower and matched either the retinal angle of the landmarks or the absolute distance of the flower during training, even when the actual size and distance between landmarks changed. These data are more similar to data from view-matching ants solving a similar problem than they are to data from birds trained to use landmarks in the laboratory. This suggests that hummingbirds may also use a remembered view to relocate a rewarded site. Regardless of whether hummingbirds use a remembered view for navigation or just to recognize landmarks, data on landmark use collected from birds tested in the laboratory may not fully reflect how birds return to locations in the wild.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Nonreversing mirrors elicit behaviour that more accurately predicts
           performance against live opponents
    • Authors: Cheng-Yu Li; Caitlin Curtis; Ryan L. Earley
      Pages: 95 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Cheng-Yu Li, Caitlin Curtis, Ryan L. Earley
      Mirror image stimulation has a long history of being used to quantify aggressive behaviour but its suitability has recently been questioned because behavioural responses towards a mirror image and towards a real opponent are not always correlated, and are associated with different physiological responses. These discrepancies might result from lateral-display behaviour, which provides a way for animals, particularly fish, to assess fighting ability during early stages of a contest. With a regular mirror, species that prefer head–tail orientation during lateral display are unable to do so, which might lead to aberrant responses that would not accurately reflect behaviour in a real contest. We designed a nonreversing mirror test by connecting two regular mirrors at a 90-degree angle, allowing animals to see and interact with their image in head–tail postures. We compared behavioural indices in three standardized aggression tests (using a regular mirror, a nonreversing mirror or a size-matched, three-dimensional inanimate model) and in real fights to examine which test best predicted aggression in real fights between mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus. Individuals tested with both regular and nonreversing mirrors preferred using right-lateral displays, while those tested with a nonreversing mirror delivered more attacks than those tested with the regular mirror and the model. Individuals with higher frequencies of attack towards the nonreversing mirror had higher winning probabilities in real fights. Contests involving individuals that differed considerably in aggression exhibited towards the nonreversing mirror were less intense and shorter in duration. However, individual differences in performance in tests using the regular mirror and model did not predict contest dynamics. These results support the hypothesis that nonreversing mirrors, but not regular mirrors or models, elicit behaviour that corresponds with the fishes' performance during real fights. Our study validated the nonreversing mirror as a new method for quantifying aggression with the potential to broadly impact research ranging from neurobiology and behaviour to population ecology and evolutionary biology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Calf age and sex affect maternal diving behaviour in Shark Bay bottlenose
    • Authors: M.L. Miketa; E.M. Patterson; E. Krzyszczyk; V. Foroughirad; J. Mann
      Pages: 107 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): M.L. Miketa, E.M. Patterson, E. Krzyszczyk, V. Foroughirad, J. Mann
      Maternal care varies across taxa from brief, minimal care to long-term, intensive care. Mammalian mothers provide extensive and energetically expensive care by definition through pregnancy and lactation, which can extend for years, resulting in behavioural trade-offs between resource acquisition and direct care. In marine environments, mammalian mothers face unique challenges, such as the inability to cache or den their offspring while diving for prey. Dolphin newborns are precocious, accomplishing shallow dives in the first few weeks of life, however, fully mature diving and breath-holding capabilities take years to develop. Consequently, mothers are faced with a trade-off between diving and foraging or remaining close to and protecting their calves at the surface. Here we examined this trade-off, specifically by investigating whether mothers change their dive durations, especially during foraging, as a function of calf age. We used a longitudinal (1988–2014) data set on wild bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, in Shark Bay, Western Australia, which included 27 388 dive bouts from mothers (N =26) and calves (N =41). Our results show that maternal diving behaviour changes in response to calf age and sex. While both male and female calves increased their dive durations with age as expected, mothers were more likely to adjust their diving behaviour to accommodate female but not male calves, especially when daughters were in close proximity. This is consistent with findings that vertical social learning is more critical for daughters than for sons, and may reflect the sex-specific foraging and social tactics of the males and females more generally.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:29:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • The fast and the flexible: cognitive style drives individual variation in
           cognition in a small mammal
    • Authors: Valeria Mazza; Jana A. Eccard; Marco Zaccaroni; Jens Jacob; Melanie Dammhahn
      Pages: 119 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Valeria Mazza, Jana A. Eccard, Marco Zaccaroni, Jens Jacob, Melanie Dammhahn
      Patterns of individual differences in cognition have been studied empirically and systematically in the last decade, but causes and consequences of this variation are still largely unclear. A recent hypothesis suggests that one predictor of individual variation in cognition is personality, and specifically that personality types are linked to cognitive styles through a speed–accuracy trade-off. We tested specific predictions of this hypothesis, measuring individual differences in associative learning speed and flexibility, quantified via reversal learning, of 86 bank voles, Myodes glareolus, along with their activity and boldness. We found that bolder and more active individuals were fast, inflexible and persistent in the associative learning tasks, whereas shyer and less active individuals were slow and flexible. We also found evidence for a speed–accuracy trade-off: correct choices in the cognitive tasks required more time for all individuals compared to incorrect choices, but bolder, more active voles always made their decisions faster than reactive ones. The difference between the time required for a correct and an incorrect choice was most pronounced in initial learning for shyer and less active individuals, but for bolder, more active individuals it was most pronounced in the reversal learning task. We also found differences related to sex and age: females were faster than males to update information or correct incorrect choices and older animals took longer to initiate the test. Our results confirm the hypothesis that individual differences in behaviour are reflected in different ‘cognitive styles’, differentially trading off speed for flexibility and accuracy in cognitive tasks. Moreover, we provide the first evidence for the mechanisms of such a trade-off in a small mammal.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Discrimination of introduced predators by ontogenetically naïve prey
           scales with duration of shared evolutionary history
    • Authors: Lisa A. Steindler; Daniel T. Blumstein; Rebecca West; Katherine E. Moseby; Mike Letnic
      Pages: 133 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Lisa A. Steindler, Daniel T. Blumstein, Rebecca West, Katherine E. Moseby, Mike Letnic
      Hypotheses on the discrimination and recognition of predators by prey are divided as to whether the prey species' ability to recognize and avoid predators is proportionate to the duration of evolutionary exposure to specific predators or is a result of more generalized discrimination processes. Moreover, understanding of the timeframes necessary for prey species to maintain or acquire appropriate responses to introduced predators is poorly understood. We studied a population of wild, ontogenetically predator naïve greater bilbies, Macrotis lagotis, living within a large (60km2) predator-free exclosure, to determine whether they modified their burrow-emergence behaviour in response to olfactory stimuli from introduced predators, dogs, Canis familiaris, and cats, Felis catus. Greater bilbies have shared over 3000 years of coevolutionary history with dogs but less than 200 years with cats. Bilbies spent more time only partially emerged (with at most head and shoulders out) as opposed to fully emerged (standing quadrupedally or bipedally) from their burrows when dog faeces were present, in comparison to faeces of cats, rabbits and an unscented control. Our results were consistent with the ‘ghosts of predator past’ hypothesis, which postulates that prey species' abilities to respond to the odours of predators scales with their period of coexistence. Our study supports the notion that introduced predators should be regarded as naturalized if prey possess an innate ability to detect their cues and respond accordingly.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • The hairy–downy game revisited: an empirical test of the interspecific
           social dominance mimicry hypothesis
    • Authors: Gavin M. Leighton; Alexander C. Lees; Eliot T. Miller
      Pages: 141 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Gavin M. Leighton, Alexander C. Lees, Eliot T. Miller
      Understanding the emergence and persistence of convergent phenotypes is the subject of considerable debate. Species may converge on nearly identical phenotypes for a variety of reasons, including occupying similar environments, exhibiting similar foraging ecologies, and for signalling reasons such as mimicry. Interspecific social dominance mimicry (ISDM) is a hypothesis that states that socially subordinate species evolve a phenotype mimicking a dominant species so as to accrue resources and avoid aggression. A recently proposed test case for this phenomenon asserts that downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, evolved mimetic plumage to avoid attacks from hairy woodpeckers, Picoides villosus. We examined this claim with a large behavioural data set collected by citizen scientists. We employed phylogenetic methods and simulations to test whether downy woodpeckers avoid aggression, and whether downy woodpeckers are more dominant than expected based on body mass. Contrary to the expectations of ISDM, we found that downy woodpeckers were markedly more often the target of hairy woodpecker attacks than expected based on their relative abundances. Our empirical data thus offers no support for the strict ISDM hypothesis as an explanation for downy–hairy woodpecker plumage convergence. However, downy woodpeckers are slightly more dominant than expected based on their body mass, albeit not significantly so. Our data therefore lend weight to previous suggestions that the benefits of mimicry potentially accrue from third-party species mistaking the mimic for the model, rather than the model mistaking the mimic for another model.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Memory in wild mountain chickadees from different elevations: comparing
           first-year birds with older survivors
    • Authors: Maria C. Tello-Ramos; Carrie L. Branch; Angela M. Pitera; Dovid Y. Kozlovsky; Eli S. Bridge; Vladimir V. Pravosudov
      Pages: 149 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Maria C. Tello-Ramos, Carrie L. Branch, Angela M. Pitera, Dovid Y. Kozlovsky, Eli S. Bridge, Vladimir V. Pravosudov
      Understanding both inter- and intraspecific variation in animals' cognitive abilities is one of the central goals of cognitive ecology. We developed a field system for testing spatial learning in wild chickadees using radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled feeders that allowed us to track individuals across multiple years. Mountain chickadees, Poecile gambeli, inhabit a continuous montane gradient, and individuals inhabiting higher elevations experience harsher winters than those at lower elevations. Previous studies found that chickadees at higher elevations cached more food and demonstrated better spatial memory, but they performed worse during reversal learning than chickadees at lower elevations. Here, we employed spatial learning, reversal learning and memory retention tasks to compare elevation-related performance of first-year juvenile birds with that of adults that had survived at least 1 year. Chickadees from high elevation performed better in the initial learning task but worse in the reversal task than birds from low elevation. There were no differences between first-year birds and adults in the initial learning task, but adults performed significantly better in the reversal test. First-year birds also made more errors associated with the initial target, which suggests higher levels of proactive interference. There were no significant differences between elevations or between juvenile and adults in memory performance after a 16-day retention. After retention, chickadees did not discriminate between the feeders that provided food during the initial task or during the reversal task prior to retention. These results are also consistent with the effects of proactive interference, as birds should have only visited the most recently rewarding feeder. Our findings suggest that the ability to quickly learn changing information is critical for chickadees at both elevations as surviving adults did better in the reversal task than first-year birds. Our results also suggest that selection may favour better reversal learning abilities associated with lower levels of proactive interference.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Intraspecific variation in cue-specific learning in sticklebacks
    • Authors: Miles K. Bensky; Alison M. Bell
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Miles K. Bensky, Alison M. Bell
      Animals must identify reliable cues amidst environmental noise during learning, and the cues that are most reliable often depend on the local ecology. Comparing the performance of populations of the same species across multiple versions of a cognitive task can reveal whether some populations learn to use certain cues faster than others. Here, using a criterion-based protocol, we assessed whether two natural populations of sticklebacks differed in how quickly they learned to associate two different discrimination cues with the location of food. One version of the discrimination task required animals to use visual (colour) cues while the other required animals to use egocentric (side) cues. There were significant behavioural differences between the two populations, but no evidence that one population was generally better at learning, or that one version of the task was generally harder than the other. However, the two populations excelled on different tasks: fish from one population performed significantly better on the side version than they did on the colour version, while the opposite was observed in the other population. These results suggest that the two populations are equally capable of discrimination learning, but are primed to form associations with different cues. Ecological differences between the populations in environmental stability might account for the observed variation in learning. These findings highlight the value of comparing cognitive performance on different variations of the same task in order to understand variation in cognitive mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Experimental manipulation of incubation period reveals no apparent costs
           of incubation in house wrens
    • Authors: Scott K. Sakaluk; Charles F. Thompson; E. Keith Bowers
      Pages: 169 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Scott K. Sakaluk, Charles F. Thompson, E. Keith Bowers
      Fitness costs of incubation ensue whenever the trade-off between incubation and foraging leads to suboptimal incubation or decreased parental body condition. We examined the costs of incubation in a wild population of house wrens, Troglodytes aedon, by experimentally extending or decreasing the incubation period by cross-fostering eggs between nests at different stages of incubation (eggs from control nests were cross-fostered at the same stage of incubation). We determined whether parents or offspring bear the costs of incubation by measuring effects on females and offspring within the same breeding season during which the manipulation occurred, but also by evaluating potential trade-offs between current and future reproduction by monitoring return rates of experimental females and recruitment rates of offspring in subsequent breeding seasons. There was no difference in hatching or fledging success across treatments. There was also no effect of incubation duration on female size-corrected mass, and females from different treatments were equally likely to produce a second brood. Nestlings produced by control and experimental females did not differ in body mass, tarsus length or residual mass. Neither return rates of females, nor the number of offspring recruited, differed across treatments. We conclude, therefore, that although prolonged incubation entails increased energy expenditures, females are able to offset these losses while foraging, thereby mitigating the costs of incubation. This resiliency is more likely to be seen in income breeders, such as house wrens, that retain some ability to recoup energy expended in incubation, than in capital breeders that are constrained by stored energy reserves.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Male Gammarus roeseli provide smaller ejaculates to females infected with
           vertically transmitted microsporidian parasites
    • Authors: Christelle Couchoux; François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont; Thierry Rigaud; Loic Bollache
      Pages: 179 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Christelle Couchoux, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Thierry Rigaud, Loic Bollache
      The effects of parasites on the reproduction of their hosts are widespread, but studies investigating the effect of female parasitic status on sperm allocation in males, a form of postcopulatory mate choice, remain scarce. Because males are often sperm limited, strategic sperm investment, in which females of low reproductive value receive fewer sperm, is predicted to occur to maximize long-term male reproductive success. In this study based on pairs collected in natura, we investigated how Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Amphipoda) males allocated sperm when paired with females infected with the vertically transmitted, sex ratio-distorting, microsporidian parasites, Nosema granulosis or Dictyocoela sp. Since infected females had similar fecundity to uninfected ones, and offspring of females infected with N. granulosis showed a higher survival rate, we predicted equivalent or even larger sperm investment from males paired with infected females. Contrary to our predictions, males paired with infected females had a lower sperm count before insemination and provided smaller ejaculates than those paired with uninfected females. This pattern suggests either a strategic sperm investment as a function of the female's parasitic status, or that males in good condition had a higher probability of pairing with uninfected females than those in poor condition.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • The evolution of beauty: how Darwin's forgotten theory of mate choice
           shapes the animal world—and us, Richard O. Prum. Doubleday, New York
           (2017), 448
    • Authors: Gerald Borgia; Gregory F. Ball
      Pages: 187 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Gerald Borgia, Gregory F. Ball

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Male mate choice in a sexually cannibalistic widow spider
    • Authors: Shevy Waner; Uzi Motro; Yael Lubin; Ally R. Harari
      Pages: 189 - 196
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Shevy Waner, Uzi Motro, Yael Lubin, Ally R. Harari
      Males of the brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus (Theridiidae), invest energy in courtship displays and are often cannibalized after mating; accordingly, partial sex role reversal is expected. In this species, subadult females are able to mate and produce viable offspring. In contrast to mature females, these subadult females do not cannibalize their mates after copulation. Nevertheless, when given a choice, males preferred mature over subadult females and older over young mature females. We found no benefit for males in mating with the females of their choice. Older females were significantly less fecund than young mature females, and were not more fecund than subadult females. We tested possible advantages in mating with cannibalistic (mature) females, such as an increased probability of plugging the female's genital duct or longer copulations, or disadvantages in mating with subadult females, such as higher remating risk. None of these explanations was supported. Thus, we lack an adaptive explanation for male preference for mature older females. We suggest that older females produce more pheromone to attract males and that males are thus misled into mating with older, more aggressive and less fecund females.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Body size, not phylogenetic relationship or residency, drives
           interspecific dominance in a little pocket mouse community
    • Authors: Rachel Y. Chock; Debra M. Shier; Gregory F. Grether
      Pages: 197 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Rachel Y. Chock, Debra M. Shier, Gregory F. Grether
      The role of interspecific aggression in structuring ecological communities can be important to consider when reintroducing endangered species to areas of their historic range that are occupied by competitors. We sought to determine which species is the most serious interference competitor of the endangered Pacific pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris pacificus, and more generally, whether interspecific aggression in rodents is predicted by body size, residency status or phylogenetic relatedness. We carried out simulated territory intrusion experiments between P. longimembris and four sympatric species of rodents (Chaetodipus fallax, Dipodomys simulans, Peromyscus maniculatus, Reithrodontomys megalotis) in a field enclosure in southern California sage scrub habitat. We found that body size asymmetries strongly predicted dominance, regardless of phylogenetic relatedness or the residency status of the individuals. The largest species, D. simulans, was the most dominant while the smallest species, R. megalotis, was the least dominant to P. longimembris. Furthermore, P. longimembris actively avoided encounters with all species, except R. megalotis. One management recommendation that follows from these results is that P. longimembris should not be reintroduced to areas with high densities of D. simulans until further research is carried out to assess the fitness consequences of the interactions. Our finding that the species least similar in body size is the most serious interference competitor of P. longimembris highlights an important distinction between interference and exploitative competition in rodent communities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Song is not a reliable signal of general cognitive ability in a songbird
    • Authors: Adrienne L. DuBois; Stephen Nowicki; Susan Peters; Karla D. Rivera-Cáceres; William A. Searcy
      Pages: 205 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Adrienne L. DuBois, Stephen Nowicki, Susan Peters, Karla D. Rivera-Cáceres, William A. Searcy
      Learned aspects of song affect female mating preferences in a number of species of songbirds, including swamp sparrows, Melospiza georgiana. One explanation for why female songbirds attend to such song features is that these song attributes convey information on the general cognitive ability of singers. The fact that song attributes and cognitive ability are affected during development by the same stressors makes a connection between the two plausible. Here we test the hypothesis that song is a signal of cognitive ability by relating five measures of song quality to five measures of cognitive performance in 49 captive male swamp sparrows. The five song measures are repertoire size, mean and minimum vocal deviation (measures of vocal performance), and mean and maximum typicality (measures of song learning). Cognitive performance was measured as the speed with which five cognitive tasks were mastered: a novel foraging task, a colour association, a colour reversal, a spatial learning problem and a detour-reaching test. In general linear mixed models controlling for neophobia, none of the song measures were predictive of any of the cognitive performance measures. Thus the results do not support the hypothesis that song attributes signal general cognition in swamp sparrows.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Migratory hummingbirds make their own rules: the decision to resume
           migration along a barrier
    • Authors: Theodore J. Zenzal; Frank R. Moore; Robert H. Diehl; Michael P. Ward; Jill L. Deppe
      Pages: 215 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Theodore J. Zenzal, Frank R. Moore, Robert H. Diehl, Michael P. Ward, Jill L. Deppe
      Knowing how naïve migrants respond to intrinsic and extrinsic factors experienced en route will allow a more thorough understanding of the endogenous migratory programme. To understand how inexperienced individuals respond to ecological features, we tracked the migratory departures of juvenile ruby-throated hummingbirds, Archilochus colubris, one of the smallest (∼ 3g) and least-studied migrants, along the Gulf of Mexico during southbound migration using an international automated radiotelemetry system. The recent miniaturization of radiotags provides a novel method to track one of the smallest migratory birds, rendering the first information on departure decisions of known hummingbirds in relation to an ecological barrier. Using weather conditions and individual attributes, we also determined which factors influenced the time and direction of departure from a coastal stopover site. Most migrants (83%) departed in the morning, and daily departure time was only influenced by stopover duration, the amount of time spent at a stopover site. The majority (77%) of departure orientations paralleled the coastline, and we found little influence of any factor on departure direction. Our results reveal that (1) juvenile hummingbirds departing coastal Alabama move in a direction indicative of a circum-Gulf path during southbound migration and (2) departure decisions support a fly-and-forage strategy in which hummingbirds likely take advantage of resources along the coast while moving towards their destination.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Testing experience and environmental enrichment potentiated open-field
           habituation and grooming behaviour in rats
    • Authors: Mijail Rojas-Carvajal; Jaime Fornaguera; Andrea Mora-Gallegos; Juan C. Brenes
      Pages: 225 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Mijail Rojas-Carvajal, Jaime Fornaguera, Andrea Mora-Gallegos, Juan C. Brenes
      In laboratory rats, one of the most used paradigms to assess habituation to novelty is the open-field test. Environmental enrichment has proved to be a reliable way to enhance open-field test habituation. Experiment 1, therefore, was designed to test whether grooming behaviour in the open-field test increases concomitantly with the habituation of exploratory behaviours (locomotion and rearing behaviour, an alert upright posture). To this aim, after a baseline measure, rats were raised in environmentally enriched and standard housing conditions and then tested 30 and 60 days later. As some grooming subtypes are differentially displayed in the open-field test, we hypothesized that only the grooming subtype that included longer and more complex sequences (e.g. body licking) would increase with habituation. We found that environmental enrichment enhanced short-term (within days) and long-term (between days) open-field test habituation, and increased grooming, particularly body licking. To provide evidence that grooming in the open-field test is part of the habituation process and not a by-product of environmental enrichment, habituation was promoted by exposing a different group of rats that had been reared in standard housing to four consecutive open-field tests in experiment 2. We supposed that the diminution of exploratory open-field test behaviours would be accompanied by an increase in body licking. We found that as locomotion and rearing behaviour decreased, body licking increased gradually both within and between days, suggesting that the appearance of more complex and longer grooming sequences are part of a de-arousal inhibition system subserving novelty habituation. A detailed analysis of grooming, therefore, may provide information about the emotional state of the rat that cannot otherwise be obtained from assessing exploratory activity.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 137 (2018)
  • Field experiments with wild primates reveal no consistent dominance-based
           bias in social learning
    • Authors: Jennifer Botting; Andrew Whiten; Mathilde Grampp; Erica van de Waal
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Jennifer Botting, Andrew Whiten, Mathilde Grampp, Erica van de Waal
      Directed social learning suggests that information flows through social groups in a nonrandom way, with individuals biased to obtain information from certain conspecifics. A bias to copy the behaviour of more dominant individuals has been demonstrated in captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, but has yet to be studied in any wild animal population. To test for this bias using a field experiment, one dominant and one low-ranking female in each of three groups of wild vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus, was trained on alternative methods of opening an ‘artificial fruit’. Following 100 demonstrations from each model, fruits that could be opened either way were presented to each group and all openings were recorded. Overall, the dominant females were not attended to more than low-ranking females during the demonstrations, nor were their methods preferentially used in the test phase. We conclude that these monkeys show no overall bias to copy high-ranking models that would lead to a high-ranking model's behaviour becoming more prevalent in the group than a behaviour demonstrated by a low-ranking model. However, by contrast, there were significant effects of observer monkeys' rank and sex upon the likelihood they would match the dominant model. Additionally we found that the dominant models were more likely to stick to their initially learned method than were low-ranking models.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.025
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
  • Courtship behaviour and display-site sharing appears conditional on body
           size in a lekking bat
    • Authors: C.A. Toth; A.W. Santure; G.I. Holwell; D.E. Pattemore; S. Parsons
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): C.A. Toth, A.W. Santure, G.I. Holwell, D.E. Pattemore, S. Parsons
      Leks are aggregations of sexually displaying males visited by receptive females and characterized by intense male–male competition to attract mates. Success in lekking species is often contingent upon male display output and/or lek attendance, with energetically costly displays functioning as an honest indicator of male quality. Furthermore, display spaces are vigorously defended by territorial males, and territory characteristics are often linked to male phenotype. Here we describe the courtship and territorial behaviour of lekking lesser short-tailed bats, Mystacina tuberculata, and both behaviours appear to be conditional on body size. During the breeding season, lekking males occupy and defend small tree hollows and sing for long periods of the night to attract females. Although some males sing alone, others form ‘timeshare’ singing roosts, where multiple males visit sequentially to sing each night. In our study, solitary males were significantly smaller than timeshare males and individually had both higher song outputs and higher roost occupancy rates, although timeshare roosts had higher overall occupancy rates. There appeared to be no fitness difference between the two male groups, and while one timeshare roost contained relatively closely related individuals (which roost settlement simulations indicate was not a chance event), four did not. We discuss factors that may promote timeshare formation, including competition for access to desired roosts and potential by-product mutualisms. Courtship and sexual selection in bats is largely undescribed, and thus our study provides a useful description of behaviour in a little-studied taxon.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
  • Sex differences in parental defence against conspecific intruders in the
           burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides
    • Authors: Athina Georgiou Shippi; Matthieu Paquet; Per T. Smiseth
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Athina Georgiou Shippi, Matthieu Paquet, Per T. Smiseth
      In species with biparental care, females often provide more care than males. Previous work has focused on sex differences in parental food provisioning and defence against predators. However, parents often also defend their offspring against conspecific intruders, which could be male or female. Thus, there is a need for studies examining sex differences in the behaviour of both caring parents and intruders, and whether sex differences in the behaviour of caring parents depend upon the intruder's sex. We conducted an experiment on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides where a single female or male resident caring for a brood was confronted with a male or female intruder. Female residents were more successful in defending their brood and engaged in more fights against an intruder than males. Residents engaged in more fights against male intruders and, among those that successfully defended their brood, residents spent more time provisioning food to larvae when confronted with female intruders. There was no evidence that sex differences in the behaviour of caring parents depended upon the intruder's sex. There were no sex differences in any measures of reproductive success among those residents that successfully defended their brood and no sex differences in the life span or mass gain of either residents or intruders. Our study extends the study of sex differences in parental care to the context of defence against conspecific intruders by demonstrating sex differences in the behaviour of both residents and intruders and sex differences in reproductive success in the presence of conspecific intruders.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T07:01:06Z
  • Breeding clusters in birds: ecological selective contexts, mating systems
           and the role of extrapair fertilizations
    • Authors: Regina H. Macedo; Jeffrey Podos; Jeff A. Graves; Lilian T. Manica
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Regina H. Macedo, Jeffrey Podos, Jeff A. Graves, Lilian T. Manica
      Sociality beyond mated pairs, whether in the form of nesting colonies, clustered territories or leks, presents an evolutionary puzzle because densely packed individuals typically incur high fitness costs. One hypothesis to explain clustered distributions is that they overlie clumped distributions of resources. However, numerous studies have shown that resource distributions are often insufficient to explain individuals' settlement decisions, suggesting that clustered breeding distributions are driven by other types of benefits, possibly related to ecological, social and genetic factors. One can ask more specifically whether animals cluster because of some underlying ecological factor, or whether aspects of their reproductive behaviour and mating systems are more influential. Accordingly, evaluating the influence of sexual selection upon the evolution of mating systems can be crucial for understanding the underlying causes of animal aggregations. In this article, we review the behavioural ecology of three types of mating systems where breeding occurs in clusters: colonial, lekking and socially monogamous clustered territorial systems. We highlight sexual selection as a potential explanation for the emergence of aggregations in all three cases. In particular, we discuss the hidden lek hypothesis, which postulates that aggregations in colonial and territorial species can be driven by increased opportunities for extrapair copulations. Finally, we feature our work with the blue-black grassquit, Volatinia jacarina, which illustrates the complexity of selective mechanisms that may favour territorial aggregations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:29:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.021
  • Does the handicap principle explain the evolution of dimorphic
    • Authors: Szabolcs Számadó; Dustin J. Penn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Szabolcs Számadó, Dustin J. Penn

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:29:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.005
  • Next steps for modelling the evolution of ornamental signals
    • Authors: Sara M. Clifton; Rosemary I. Braun; Daniel M. Abrams
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Sara M. Clifton, Rosemary I. Braun, Daniel M. Abrams

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:29:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.017
  • The spatial dynamics of female choice in an exploded lek generate benefits
           of aggregation for experienced males
    • Authors: Emily H. DuVal; Carla C. Vanderbilt; Leithen K. M'Gonigle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Emily H. DuVal, Carla C. Vanderbilt, Leithen K. M'Gonigle
      The spatial distribution of prospective mates can dramatically affect the process and outcome of mate choice. In a variety of species, spacing between males influences the likelihood that females visit particular individuals or respond to competing signals. Discrimination by females is expected to be highest among neighbouring males, yet males of some species aggregate in ways that apparently facilitate such comparisons. To better understand the selective pressures affecting male aggregation, we investigated how spatial organization of male territories related to female mate sampling tactics and male mating success in the lance-tailed manakin, Chiroxiphia lanceolata. This species displays in a dispersed lek of alpha males, each of which usually has a subordinate beta partner that participates in displays but does not mate with females attracted by their cooperative courtship. We video-recorded courtship activity at display perches of 12 alpha–beta pairs for 42 days in 2013, and documented 478 visits by 82 banded females. We further quantified the relationship of aggregation with genetic mating success for 49 alphas displaying at georeferenced locations in 5 years. Males with close neighbouring alphas were visited by more females, but geographic centrality was unrelated to female visit frequency. Females moved shorter distances between consecutive courtship visits than expected at random, but only 20.5% of 73 females visiting males with video-monitored nearest neighbours visited both neighbouring alpha males. Effects of aggregation on annual genetic reproductive success were only evident after accounting for the stronger effects of alpha age and experience, and only experienced alphas benefited from having close neighbours. Selection for aggregation more likely influences social behaviour of older alphas than settlement decisions by younger males. Benefits of aggregation for experienced alphas mitigate declines in old age, and may generate selective pressure favouring the long-term social alliances that are a key characteristic of this mating system.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:29:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2018.01.009
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
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