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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3123 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3120 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 370, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)

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Journal Cover Animal Behaviour
  [SJR: 1.907]   [H-I: 126]   [176 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-3472 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8282
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Field experiments with wild primates reveal no consistent dominance-based
           bias in social learning
    • Authors: Jennifer Botting; Andrew Whiten; Mathilde Grampp; Erica van de Waal
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Jennifer Botting, Andrew Whiten, Mathilde Grampp, Erica van de Waal
      Directed social learning suggests that information flows through social groups in a nonrandom way, with individuals biased to obtain information from certain conspecifics. A bias to copy the behaviour of more dominant individuals has been demonstrated in captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, but has yet to be studied in any wild animal population. To test for this bias using a field experiment, one dominant and one low-ranking female in each of three groups of wild vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus, was trained on alternative methods of opening an ‘artificial fruit’. Following 100 demonstrations from each model, fruits that could be opened either way were presented to each group and all openings were recorded. Overall, the dominant females were not attended to more than low-ranking females during the demonstrations, nor were their methods preferentially used in the test phase. We conclude that these monkeys show no overall bias to copy high-ranking models that would lead to a high-ranking model's behaviour becoming more prevalent in the group than a behaviour demonstrated by a low-ranking model. However, by contrast, there were significant effects of observer monkeys' rank and sex upon the likelihood they would match the dominant model. Additionally we found that the dominant models were more likely to stick to their initially learned method than were low-ranking models.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.025
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Courtship behaviour and display-site sharing appears conditional on body
           size in a lekking bat
    • Authors: C.A. Toth; A.W. Santure; G.I. Holwell; D.E. Pattemore; S. Parsons
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): C.A. Toth, A.W. Santure, G.I. Holwell, D.E. Pattemore, S. Parsons
      Leks are aggregations of sexually displaying males visited by receptive females and characterized by intense male–male competition to attract mates. Success in lekking species is often contingent upon male display output and/or lek attendance, with energetically costly displays functioning as an honest indicator of male quality. Furthermore, display spaces are vigorously defended by territorial males, and territory characteristics are often linked to male phenotype. Here we describe the courtship and territorial behaviour of lekking lesser short-tailed bats, Mystacina tuberculata, and both behaviours appear to be conditional on body size. During the breeding season, lekking males occupy and defend small tree hollows and sing for long periods of the night to attract females. Although some males sing alone, others form ‘timeshare’ singing roosts, where multiple males visit sequentially to sing each night. In our study, solitary males were significantly smaller than timeshare males and individually had both higher song outputs and higher roost occupancy rates, although timeshare roosts had higher overall occupancy rates. There appeared to be no fitness difference between the two male groups, and while one timeshare roost contained relatively closely related individuals (which roost settlement simulations indicate was not a chance event), four did not. We discuss factors that may promote timeshare formation, including competition for access to desired roosts and potential by-product mutualisms. Courtship and sexual selection in bats is largely undescribed, and thus our study provides a useful description of behaviour in a little-studied taxon.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Sex differences in parental defence against conspecific intruders in the
           burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides
    • Authors: Athina Georgiou Shippi; Matthieu Paquet; Per T. Smiseth
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Athina Georgiou Shippi, Matthieu Paquet, Per T. Smiseth
      In species with biparental care, females often provide more care than males. Previous work has focused on sex differences in parental food provisioning and defence against predators. However, parents often also defend their offspring against conspecific intruders, which could be male or female. Thus, there is a need for studies examining sex differences in the behaviour of both caring parents and intruders, and whether sex differences in the behaviour of caring parents depend upon the intruder's sex. We conducted an experiment on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides where a single female or male resident caring for a brood was confronted with a male or female intruder. Female residents were more successful in defending their brood and engaged in more fights against an intruder than males. Residents engaged in more fights against male intruders and, among those that successfully defended their brood, residents spent more time provisioning food to larvae when confronted with female intruders. There was no evidence that sex differences in the behaviour of caring parents depended upon the intruder's sex. There were no sex differences in any measures of reproductive success among those residents that successfully defended their brood and no sex differences in the life span or mass gain of either residents or intruders. Our study extends the study of sex differences in parental care to the context of defence against conspecific intruders by demonstrating sex differences in the behaviour of both residents and intruders and sex differences in reproductive success in the presence of conspecific intruders.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Experimental anthropogenic noise impacts avian parental behaviour,
           nestling growth and nestling oxidative stress
    • Authors: Allison S. Injaian; Conor C. Taff; Gail L. Patricelli
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Allison S. Injaian, Conor C. Taff, Gail L. Patricelli
      Human-produced noise, from transport, urbanization and industry, is widespread. Studies of noise pollution show a wide range of effects on birds, such as alterations in communication, parental behaviour, physiology and reproductive success. These human-induced changes are likely to have long-term impacts, such as altered nestling physiology and survival, as well as reduced local population size. Further experimental field studies that simultaneously investigate the effects of noise exposure on avian behaviour, physiology and reproductive success are needed. Here, we used an experimental field study to investigate impacts of short-term traffic noise exposure on parental behaviour (i.e. vigilance and feeding rate), nestling body size and oxidative stress (as measured by oxidative status) and nestling fledging success in tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor. Our results show negative consequences of traffic noise exposure, despite a relatively modest playback regime (6h, every other day). Adults in noise-exposed territories were less vigilant earlier in the nestling period and fed at a higher rate later in the nestling period, compared to controls. However, increased feeding rate in noise-exposed nests did not compensate for noise impacts on nestlings: noise-exposed nestlings were smaller and had higher oxidative status, compared to control nestlings. Noise-exposed nestlings took longer to fledge, but we found no effect of noise on fledging success. These results highlight the potential long-term consequences of short-term noise exposure (decreased nestling size and increased oxidative status) and add to a growing body of literature, showing that noise pollution can negatively impact birds through both direct and indirect pathways.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Mating behaviour and postcopulatory fertilization patterns in the southern
           blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa
    • Authors: Peter Morse; Christine L. Huffard; Mark G. Meekan; Mark I. Mccormick; Kyall R. Zenger
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Peter Morse, Christine L. Huffard, Mark G. Meekan, Mark I. Mccormick, Kyall R. Zenger
      Female octopuses are known to store sperm from multiple males they encounter throughout a breeding season, before laying a single clutch with mixed paternity. Although octopuses display a broad range of precopulatory behaviours, and both sperm competition and cryptic female choice have been hypothesized to occur, the current understanding of how these processes influence resulting paternity remains limited. This study aimed to identify behavioural factors associated with paternity patterns and the capacity of females to bias paternity postcopulation to specific males in the southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa. Genetic markers and controlled, sequential, laboratory pairings of genotyped individuals were used to examine paternity patterns and compare them to relative signatures of male sperm remaining in female oviducal glands after egg laying. Multiple paternity was discovered in all 12 laboratory-reared clutches. There was no indication that the relative time spent in copulation affected the resulting paternity. Males that waited for females to terminate the copulation had greater paternity when they were the first candidate male, but this was not the case among second candidate males. The relative quantities of candidate male alleles detected in female oviducal glands after egg laying were consistent with relative paternity of the candidate males in all but three cases. In one of these, sibship analysis revealed that the male that obtained less paternity than expected was in fact the female's full-sibling brother. Although this study found no evidence for female postcopulatory selection of male sperm, anecdotal evidence suggests that female H. maculosa might benefit from polyandry if chemical processes can favour clutch fertilization by unrelated males. Future studies, investigating paternity bias among genotyped males of varying, but known relatedness to the female, might help to validate this pattern.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Social structure as a strategy to mitigate the costs of group living: a
           comparison of gelada and guereza monkeys
    • Authors: R.I.M. Dunbar
      Pages: 53 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): R.I.M. Dunbar
      In mammals, and especially primates, group size and social complexity are typically correlated. However, we have no general explanation why this is so. I suggest that the answer may lie in one of the costs of group living: mammalian reproductive endocrinology is extremely sensitive to stress, and forms one of the hidden costs of living in groups. Fertility declines with group size widely across the social mammals, including primates, and will ultimately place a constraint on group size. However, some species seem to have been able to mitigate this cost by forming bonded relationships that reduce the impact of experienced aggression, even if rates of aggression remain high. The downside is that they reduce network connectivity and hence risk fragmenting the group by providing fracture lines for group fission. To explore this, I compare network indices and fertility patterns across the same range of group sizes for two species of Old World monkeys, Colobus guereza and Theropithecus gelada: the former relatively unsocial, the latter intensely social with frequent use of grooming-based alliances. Compared to those of the guereza, gelada social networks lose density more slowly, maintain connectedness more effectively and are less likely to fragment as they increase in size. Although fertility declines with group size in both species, in gelada the impact of this effect is deferred to larger group sizes. The differences in fertility and network structure both predict the very different maximum group sizes typical of these two species, as well as the typical sizes at which their groups undergo fission. This finding may explain aspects of wider mammalian sociality.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Plasticity and personality of parental care in the clown anemonefish
    • Authors: Tina A. Barbasch; Peter M. Buston
      Pages: 65 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Tina A. Barbasch, Peter M. Buston
      Characterizing individual variation in parental care is critical to understanding how selection shapes and maintains patterns of care, yet little is known about how individual parents vary in their responses to the environment. Reaction norms, functions that describe how phenotypes change across an environmental gradient, provide an elegant framework for studying individual variation in behavioural responses. We use a reaction norm approach to investigate how studying plasticity, which describes variation within an individual through time, and personality, which describes repeatable variation among individuals, together explain individual variation in the parental behaviour of the anemonefish Amphiprion percula. More specifically, we test how resource availability influences individual parental responses to the environment and discuss the consequences for our understanding of plasticity and personality in parental care. Breeding pairs of A. percula were fed either a high or a low food ration and their parental behaviours were monitored. Individuals exhibited plasticity in parental behaviour across the two resource environments. Furthermore, individuals were repeatable in their behaviour through time, as evidenced by significant among-individual variation in intercept. Finally, the slope and elevation of individual reaction norms varied, revealing a level of variation not captured at the population level and providing insight into the potential mechanisms generating individual variation.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Towards an integrated view of escape decisions in birds: relation between
           flight initiation distance and distance fled
    • Authors: Kunter Tätte; Anders Pape Møller; Raivo Mänd
      Pages: 75 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Kunter Tätte, Anders Pape Møller, Raivo Mänd
      Rapid human population growth and increasing habitat fragmentation lead to more frequent direct encounters between humans and animals. Consequently, numerous habitats will become less suitable for some species due to an increase in perceived risk of predation. Studies show that different species vary greatly in their tolerance to human disturbance, but these findings are typically only based on flight initiation distance (FID, the distance at which animals flee when approached by a potential predator including a human). The aim of this study was to broaden the general view of escape behaviour by including distance fled (DF) in the analyses. We measured FID and DF in 699 birds belonging to 17 species in Estonian urban and rural settlements. We calculated the relationships between two types of escape decisions and behavioural, environmental and morphological parameters. There was a positive relationship between FID and DF for heavier species, but not for lighter species suggesting mass-dependent differences in the cost of escape. Flock size and starting distance in rural habitats were important predictors of FID while distance to refuge was only positively correlated with DF. Birds in rural habitats escaped earlier and further and exhibited a positive relationship between starting distance and FID, whereas no such trend was seen in urban birds, possibly due to a narrow zone of awareness. Our findings suggest that DF represents an independent and informative additional measure of antipredator behaviour that together with FID provides a more integrated view of the costs of escape. This, in turn, facilitates finding effective ways for mitigating effects of anthropogenic disturbance on wild animals.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Social behaviour as a predominant driver of sexual, age-dependent and
           reproductive segregation in Mediterranean mouflon
    • Authors: Gilles Bourgoin; Pascal Marchand; A.J. Mark Hewison; Kathreen E. Ruckstuhl; Mathieu Garel
      Pages: 87 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Gilles Bourgoin, Pascal Marchand, A.J. Mark Hewison, Kathreen E. Ruckstuhl, Mathieu Garel
      Segregation between the sexes or related to age and/or reproductive status is common in many animal taxa, particularly in dimorphic species. The causes of this segregation remain difficult to disentangle, despite numerous attempts. This is probably due to the difficulty of obtaining sufficient data on animal behaviour (e.g. habitat use, activity budgets) and group composition (age/sex and reproductive status) during the various phases of the species' reproductive cycle. Based on an intensive long-term monitoring of a Mediterranean mouflon, Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp., population, we concurrently assessed five hypotheses for segregation linked to forage selection (FSH), reproductive strategy (RSH), social preference (SPH), activity budget (ABH), and weather sensitivity (WSH). We found marked segregation between most age/sex classes. Age-dependent segregation among males was increasingly marked as their age difference increased and segregation between the sexes also increased as males became older and larger. Over the year, segregation between sex, age and reproductive status classes was lowest during the rut. We also observed the highest synchrony of activity in groups composed of individuals of similar age/sex class or reproductive status. Females occurred closer to both secure and high-quality food habitats, especially during the lambing and rearing periods, whereas males used less secure and lower quality habitats as they aged. Differences in habitat use between age/sex classes provided partial or full support for the RSH and FSH. Large males were preferentially observed at higher altitude than females during hot summer days to buffer against heat stress, in agreement with the WSH. A preference for interacting and grouping with peers that express similar activity patterns (ABH and SPH) appears to be the main driver of segregation in this population. Our study confirms the strong multifactorial nature of segregation in ungulates.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.027
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Understanding the effect of uncertainty on the development of neophobic
           antipredator phenotypes
    • Authors: Maud C.O. Ferrari; Grant E. Brown; Douglas P. Chivers
      Pages: 101 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Maud C.O. Ferrari, Grant E. Brown, Douglas P. Chivers
      Exposure of prey animals to high background risk environments generates high-risk behavioural phenotypes characterized by prey that often display transient neophobic responses to novel stimuli. To manipulate background risk, researchers have most often used chemical alarm cues from injured conspecifics because these cues provide a general indication of a high-risk environment but no information regarding the identity of the source of the threat. Here, we hypothesized that the expression of neophobia (fear of unknown stimuli) may not be the result of elevated background risk per se, but rather the result of high uncertainty associated with the predation environment. Here we showed that woodfrog, Lithobates sylvaticus, tadpoles exposed to alarm cues alone for several days subsequently displayed neophobic phenotypes. The same was true for tadpoles exposed to alarm cues paired with the odour of a new novel predator each day for several days. However, tadpoles exposed to alarm cues paired with the same predator cue everyday did not develop the neophobic phenotype. This suggests that if the predator environment is certain (i.e. the alarm cue and predator cues always coincide), then the ratio of costs to benefits of neophobia is high and limits its expression. However, if the prey's uncertainty regarding the predator environment is high (i.e. the alarm cues are often associated with new unknown predators), then the potential survival benefits of expressing neophobia likely override the costs. The prey's perception of uncertainty may be a key driver of the expression of neophobic phenotypes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 136 (2018)
       
  • Social information cascades influence the formation of mixed-species
           foraging aggregations of ant-following birds in the Neotropics
    • Authors: Ari E. Martínez; Henry S. Pollock; J. Patrick Kelley; Corey E. Tarwater
      Pages: 25 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Ari E. Martínez, Henry S. Pollock, J. Patrick Kelley, Corey E. Tarwater
      Animals frequently make decisions based on social information obtained from other animals, which can influence interspecific interactions and affect individual fitness. For example, animals eavesdrop on other animals to find profitable food resources, yet the types of cues they use and how these cues influence decisions to approach a resource remain poorly understood. In tropical systems, arthropods inadvertently flushed by army ant, Eciton burchellii, swarms are an important food resource for many bird species, which form mixed-species foraging aggregations at swarms. Competition at swarms is intense and birds vocalize to defend foraging areas, inadvertently producing acoustic social information about the swarm's location. Eavesdropping birds may use these acoustic cues, which provide information about the bird aggregation (i.e. species participating in the aggregation, the size of the aggregation and/or diversity of the aggregation) to assess potential benefits (food resources) and costs (competition for food) of joining an aggregation. To test this hypothesis, we used an acoustic playback experiment to simulate aggregations of birds foraging at ant swarms and we measured community-wide and guild-specific responses of forest birds to playbacks. We included three types of acoustic social information in playbacks that potentially interact to affect an eavesdropping bird's probability of attraction to a swarm: (1) aggregation size, (2) aggregation species richness and (3) degree of specialization on ant swarms for food of birds vocalizing in the aggregation (hereafter ‘dependency’). Using Bayesian generalized linear mixed models, we found that playbacks of obligate ant-following species elicited greater community-wide responses (i.e. attracted more individuals and species) to simulated aggregations compared to playbacks of other, less dependent guilds. We also found that interactions between dependency, species richness and aggregation size influenced the overall community response to playbacks and that species from one guild generally responded to the guild above them (i.e. from less to more specialized). Our results suggest that species evaluate multiple types of acoustic cues representing the costs and benefits of foraging in a mixed-species aggregation at a swarm. We hypothesize that species change from information receivers to information producers upon joining a swarm, ultimately producing an information cascade that further affects the dynamics of feeding aggregations at swarms.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Cohesiveness reduces foraging efficiency in a social herbivore
    • Authors: R.S. Stutz; U.A. Bergvall; O. Leimar; J. Tuomi; P. Rautio
      Pages: 57 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): R.S. Stutz, U.A. Bergvall, O. Leimar, J. Tuomi, P. Rautio
      For social foragers, movement as a group could increase foraging efficiency through collective discovery of high-quality food sources. This would require an efficient mechanism for transferring information about food quality between individuals. Conversely, the constraints of foraging as a cohesive group could decrease efficiency; grouping may persist to serve other functions such as protection from predators. To test what drives cohesion in herbivores, we manipulated patch shape and within-patch pattern of food quality and quantified the effects on group level diet selection by a social herbivore, the fallow deer, Dama dama. We arranged feeders containing fodder in lines or blocks, and manipulated the pattern of food quality within patches by adding tannin, a plant secondary compound that decreases palatability. We quantified the relative consumption of low- and high-tannin food to compare diet selectivity at the group level between patch treatments. If group foraging evolved to increase foraging efficiency, altering the spatial arrangement of food should not affect diet selectivity because information about food location and quality is shared. We found, however, that the herd expressed different levels of selectivity between both patch shapes and food quality patterns. Deer selected better diets in blocks than lines. In lines, the herd selected better diets when quality varied between alternate feeders rather than between the two halves of the patch, suggesting a reliance on personal rather than group information. Deer consumed the most at patch centres in all treatments except in blocks with high-tannin centres, but diet selection was poorer in the latter compared to blocks with low-tannin centres. Aggregation at the centre of patches appears to have restricted exploitation of the best food. Predation pressure and/or resource variability may have favoured the evolution of a foraging strategy that prioritizes social cohesion over effective diet selection.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Acoustic and physical mate guarding have different effects on intruder
           behaviour in a duetting songbird
    • Authors: Jenélle Dowling; Michael S. Webster
      Pages: 69 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Jenélle Dowling, Michael S. Webster
      When males compete for mates, they often defend paternity through mate guarding. In addition to physical guarding, in vocal species, especially duetting birds, individuals may duet with their mates in order to guard them. The acoustic mate-guarding hypothesis posits that duetting deters rivals. We experimentally tested the effectiveness of physical and acoustic mate guarding in a duetting songbird, the red-backed fairy-wren, Malurus melanocephalus, using a novel variation of a classic removal experiment. We temporarily removed males, such that females received either no guarding (mate removed), or only acoustic guarding (mate removed, his duet response played from speaker). We found that rival intrusion rates were highest when all guarding was prevented, slightly lower when only acoustic guarding occurred and lowest when pairs were unmanipulated, and both physical and acoustic guarding occurred. This suggests that both guarding techniques deter intruders, but acoustic guarding less so. Intruder display rate during removals was higher than in unmanipulated trials, regardless of acoustic guarding. Results suggest that acoustic guarding may function as a long-range signal that reduces the likelihood of rival intrusion, but physical guarding is necessary to prevent rivals from courting mates. We confirm that physical and acoustic mate guarding serve as important components of intruder deterrence, although they act at different levels. Our study broadens our understanding of multimodal paternity assurance strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Observational learning of a spatial discrimination task by rats: learning
           from the mistakes of others'
    • Authors: Tiaza Bem; Bartosz Jura; Bruno Bontempi; Pierre Meyrand
      Pages: 85 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Tiaza Bem, Bartosz Jura, Bruno Bontempi, Pierre Meyrand
      Learning by observing others has been acknowledged as a powerful learning strategy. Whereas in several species observation of fear conditioning or other operational procedures can improve subsequent performance during actual learning, much less attention has been paid to observational learning of spatial discrimination tasks. To this end, we developed a set of procedures in which the spatial memory of adult rats, Rattus norvegicus, was tested in an eight-arm radial maze. Moreover, in view of controversial information concerning the incidence of mistakes made by demonstrators on the effectiveness of observational learning, our observer rats watched experienced or nontrained demonstrators. Food-deprived observers and demonstrators were initially habituated to the maze with all arms baited. Then observers were placed in a mesh cage positioned above the maze while a demonstrator rat was locating the spatial position of three baited arms. Rats observing conspecifics progressively learning the spatial discrimination improved subsequent performance compared to a control group watching an empty maze, but only if the configuration of baited arms presented during demonstration and testing matched. Therefore, rats integrated relevant spatial information during observation and used it efficiently when their spatial discrimination was tested in the maze. However, when the information was provided by trained demonstrators, making no mistakes and visiting only baited arms, observer rats failed to exhibit improved performance. Nevertheless, when given an initial habituation without food rewards, rats were subsequently able to benefit from observation of trained demonstrators thus showing that watching mistakes was not necessary for successful observational learning. Together, these findings indicate that rats can acquire spatial information via observation enabling more pertinent search strategies during testing and that for observation to be beneficial, what is observed must be sufficiently relevant or novel to complement existing knowledge (here initial habituation with or without rewards).

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • The function of ultrasonic vocalizations during territorial defence by
           pair-bonded male and female California mice
    • Authors: Nathaniel S. Rieger; Catherine A. Marler
      Pages: 97 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Nathaniel S. Rieger, Catherine A. Marler
      Acoustic communication is vital to complex social behaviours such as territorial defence. The use of ultrasonic vocalizations, particularly in territorial defence by monogamous species and females, remains understudied. We studied ultrasonic vocalization production and associated aggression in the monogamous, biparental and territorial California mouse, Peromyscus californicus, in which both males and females were found to display similar levels of physical aggression against same-sex intruders. We identified specific ultrasonic vocalization calls that are modulated based on social context: (1) sustained vocalizations, which are long, low-bandwidth calls ranging from 22 to 25kHz, and (2) barks, which are short, high-intensity calls beginning and ending in the audible range. Despite similarities in physical aggression, sex differences emerged in vocal communication. Only resident males, and not females, produced sustained vocalizations prior to the onset of physical aggression, and were found to shorten the duration of individual sustained vocalization calls over both the course of the pre-encounter phase and from the pre-encounter to encounter phase. In addition, the degree of sustained vocalization shortening in males predicted offensive aggression of the resident. Males exhibited shorter sustained vocalization calls during encounters than females. Barks occurred more frequently during female–female physical aggression than in male–male encounters, and correlated highly with defensive aggression by intruders. Finally, a newly identified highly complex call, sweep phrases, was recorded in a subset of both sexes in the pre- and post-encounter phases. The overall results indicate that ultrasonic vocalizations may play an important role in territorial defence during both territorial advertisement and aggression in a monogamous rodent. Overall, this monogamous species showed sex similarities in physical aggression but sex differences in vocal communication and a more sophisticated function for sustained vocalizations than previously recognized.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Worker thelytoky allows requeening of orphaned colonies but increases
           susceptibility to reproductive cheating in an ant
    • Authors: Claudie Doums; Pierre Fédérici; Pascaline Chifflet-Belle; Thibaud Monnin
      Pages: 109 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Claudie Doums, Pierre Fédérici, Pascaline Chifflet-Belle, Thibaud Monnin
      In some social insects, workers can produce females asexually through thelytokous parthenogenesis. This allows them to produce replacement queens (i.e. requeening) if the queen has died, but also to compete with the queen to produce females (i.e. reproductive cheating). For the first time, we experimentally tested the role of worker thelytoky under quasinatural conditions in the ant Cataglyphis cursor, where the queen uses both sexual and thelytokous reproduction. We reared pairs of orphaned and queenright colonies in enclosures for almost 3 months, during which they competed for resources. Orphaned colonies lost more workers than queenright colonies over the course of the experiment, presumably because of the costs of reproductive conflicts between workers. Nevertheless, they produced new queens through worker thelytoky and new colonies through colony fission. This is the first unambiguous demonstration that worker thelytoky allows requeening under natural conditions in this species. We further showed that worker thelytoky results in reproductive cheating in the form of a few workers reproducing in the presence of the queen (in queenright colonies) and a few worker lineages producing more new queens than other lineages (in orphaned colonies). In addition, it also results in rare instances of social parasitism, that is, workers entering and reproducing in foreign colonies. These benefits to workers seem too occasional and too low to drive the evolution of thelytoky in this species. We argue that thelytoky probably evolved in the queen caste, where it allows the production of young queens and confers frequent and large benefits by increasing gene transmission, but is also expressed in workers because of genetic correlations between the two castes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Development of object manipulation in wild chimpanzees
    • Authors: Noemie Lamon; Christof Neumann; Klaus Zuberbühler
      Pages: 121 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Noemie Lamon, Christof Neumann, Klaus Zuberbühler
      Chimpanzees' natural propensity to explore and play with objects is likely to be an important precursor of tool use. Manipulating objects provides individuals with pivotal perceptual-motor experience when interacting with the material world, which may then pave the way for subsequent tool use. In this study, we were interested in the influence of social models on the developmental patterns of object manipulation in young chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, of the Sonso community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. This community is interesting because of its limited tool repertoire, with no records of stick-based foraging in over 20 years of continuous observations. Using cross-sectional data, we found evidence for social learning in that young individuals preferentially played with and explored materials manipulated by their mothers. We also found that object manipulation rates decreased with age, whereas the goal directedness of these manipulations increased. Specifically, stick manipulations gradually decreased with age, which culminated in complete disregard of sticks around the age of 10 years, a pattern not found for other tool materials, which were all used throughout adulthood. Overall, young chimpanzees initially explored and played unselectively with any object found in the environment before becoming increasingly influenced by their mothers' goal-directed object manipulations.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Social conformity in solitary crabs, Carcinus maenas, is driven by
           individual differences in behavioural plasticity
    • Authors: Ines Fürtbauer; Amanda Fry
      Pages: 131 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Ines Fürtbauer, Amanda Fry
      Group living is widespread in the animal kingdom and recent studies into the mechanisms underlying group cohesion and behavioural synchrony have highlighted the importance of between-individual behavioural differences (‘animal personality’). In group-living animals, social conformity occurs when animals compromise their own behaviour to the level of a certain behaviour displayed by another individual or a group, and the degree to which individuals conform can depend upon interindividual differences in behavioural types. Social conformity can increase group cohesion and ultimately predator avoidance and/or resource acquisition for group-living individuals. However, it remains unclear whether similar conformity effects exist in solitary species, many of which form temporary aggregations and, if so, whether changes in behaviour in the presence of conspecifics are dependent on individuals' personalities in solitary contexts. We studied the effects of social context (i.e. the presence of a conspecific) on behaviour in solitary shore crabs, using automated video tracking. Individuals differed consistently in their activity levels within and across contexts and were significantly more active in solitary than dyadic contexts. No differences in activity between same- and opposite-sex dyads were found. Crabs' activity levels were more similar when tested together than when tested alone, indicating a social conformity effect. Furthermore, more active behavioural types decreased their activity to a greater extent when paired with a conspecific. The sex composition of the dyad had no effect on changes in activity. Overall, our findings suggest that social conformity is moderated by individual behavioural differences in a solitary organism. It is often presumed that, over evolutionary time, the social structure of animal populations has important consequences for the evolution of personalities and vice versa. We suggest that studying solitary or facultatively social organisms may allow researchers to tease out causality between personality differences and socioecological dynamics.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Does increasing habitat complexity favour particular personality types of
           juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar'
    • Authors: Kathleen D.W. Church; James W.A. Grant
      Pages: 139 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Kathleen D.W. Church, James W.A. Grant
      The costs and benefits of a particular behavioural trait, such as boldness or aggression, may vary depending on the physical environment. We tested whether the common practice of adding physical structure (i.e. boulders) to streams to increase salmonid density has behavioural consequences, as open habitats are predicted to favour individuals that are more bold and aggressive. Wild young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon were captured from habitats of varying physical complexity and placed into seminatural stream enclosures for 11 days while their behaviour was observed and tested in both open and structurally complex environments. We found evidence for personality, or consistent individual behavioural differences across contexts, for avoidance and site attachment, with repeatabilities of 0.287 and 0.206, respectively, but not for activity or frequency of aggression. Fish were significantly more active and aggressive in the open habitats, and more site-attached in the complex habitats. Active and aggressive fish also grew more in the wild, while site-attached fish grew less in the wild, but more in the enclosures. However, contrary to our expectation, the complexity of the original habitat was not a significant predictor of personality. Our results suggest stream restorations involving increasing habitat complexity will alter the behaviour of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon, but will not favour any particular personality types.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Is the quorum threshold for emergent group response in whirligigs absolute
           or proportional'
    • Authors: W.L. Romey; C.D. Kemak
      Pages: 147 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): W.L. Romey, C.D. Kemak
      Groups of animals sometimes coordinate their individual behaviours to produce an emergent group response. Examples of these quorum responses include stampedes in ungulates and orientation flights in honeybee swarms. In these groups, there may be some individuals who are knowledgeable about the threat or direction to go to, and others who are not. Few experimental studies have convincingly addressed whether the number of knowledgeable individuals to trigger an emergent group response is a fixed (absolute) number or a fixed proportion (percentage) of the group. We tested whether this threshold to produce an emergent group response was absolute or proportional in an experimental study of whirligig beetles (Gyrinidae: Dineutes). When whirligig beetles see an aerial predator, individuals make a startle response. If enough beetles startle, then the whole group makes a flash expansion. In our study, we manipulated the numbers of beetles in a group that were able to see the predator model by covering their eyes. We also manipulated group size (12, 24, 48). Our results reject the absolute hypothesis and support the proportional hypothesis for how many knowledgeable whirligigs it takes in a group to elicit an emergent flash expansion. At all three group sizes the threshold was approximately 10%. We also examined the interaction of the ratio of sighted/unsighted beetles and group size on swarm density, group area and longevity (duration of the flash expansion). Longevity was significantly leptokurtic, as would be expected for a stereotyped display. This is one of the first controlled empirical studies to differentiate between absolute and proportional thresholds in producing an emergent predator avoidance response.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Colour alone matters: no predator generalization among morphs of an
           aposematic moth
    • Authors: Katja Rönkä; Chiara De Pasqual; Johanna Mappes; Swanne Gordon; Bibiana Rojas
      Pages: 153 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Katja Rönkä, Chiara De Pasqual, Johanna Mappes, Swanne Gordon, Bibiana Rojas
      Local warning colour polymorphism, frequently observed in aposematic organisms, is evolutionarily puzzling. This is because variation in aposematic signals is expected to be selected against due to predators' difficulties associating several signals with a given unprofitable prey. One possible explanation for the existence of such variation is predator generalization, which occurs when predators learn to avoid one form and consequently avoid other sufficiently similar forms, relaxing selection for monomorphic signals. We tested this hypothesis by exposing the three different colour morphs of the aposematic wood tiger moth, Arctia plantaginis, existing in Finland to local wild-caught predators (blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus). We designed artificial moths that varied only in their hindwing coloration (white, yellow and red) keeping other traits (e.g. wing pattern and size) constant. Thus, if the birds transferred their aversion of one morph to the other two we could infer that their visual appearances are sufficiently similar for predator generalization to take place. We found that, surprisingly, birds showed no preference or aversion for any of the three morphs presented. During the avoidance learning trials, birds learned to avoid the red morph considerably faster than the white or yellow morphs, confirming previous findings on the efficacy of red as a warning signal that facilitates predator learning. Birds did not generalize their learned avoidance of one colour morph to the other two morphs, suggesting that they pay more attention to conspicuous wing coloration than other traits. Our results are in accordance with previous findings that coloration plays a key role during avoidance learning and generalization, which has important implications for the evolution of mimicry. We conclude that, in the case of wood tiger moths, predator generalization is unlikely to explain the unexpected coexistence of different morphs.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • Food supply fluctuations constrain group sizes of kangaroos and in turn
           shape their vigilance and feeding strategies
    • Authors: François-René Favreau; Anne W. Goldizen; Hervé Fritz; Olivier Pays
      Pages: 165 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): François-René Favreau, Anne W. Goldizen, Hervé Fritz, Olivier Pays
      Seasonal variation in food resources and predation risk imposes major constraints on herbivores, which must adjust their behaviour to maximize their energy intake and survival. In seasonally driven landscapes, it is not yet clear what the primary drivers are that shape seasonal variation in vigilance and feeding rates. These rates have been shown to vary in relation to various environmental, social and individual factors, but many of these factors also vary through the year, due to variation in food supply. We studied wild female eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, under low predation risk over a year to investigate whether vigilance and feeding rates varied seasonally and whether this variation was mainly driven by food quantity or quality, group size or individuals' reproductive states. Both vigilance and feeding rates varied seasonally, as did food quantity and quality and group size. Vigilance, including antipredator (head orientation away from the group) and exclusive (i.e. vigilance without chewing) vigilance, decreased and feeding rate increased with increasing group size. However, because group size increased with food quality and quantity, food resources emerged as the primary driver of variation in behavioural strategies. These results suggest that the observed effects of group size on the trade-off between food acquisition and safety are in fact corollaries of the seasonal variation in food supply in our study system, in which the risk of predation on adults is low, and hence are by-products of the foraging choices made by kangaroos in response to the dynamics of the quantity and quality of food.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T19:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2018)
       
  • The spatial dynamics of female choice in an exploded lek generate benefits
           of aggregation for experienced males
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Emily H. DuVal, Carla C. Vanderbilt, Leithen K. M'Gonigle
      The spatial distribution of prospective mates can dramatically affect the process and outcome of mate choice. In a variety of species, spacing between males influences the likelihood that females visit particular individuals or respond to competing signals. Discrimination by females is expected to be highest among neighbouring males, yet males of some species aggregate in ways that apparently facilitate such comparisons. To better understand the selective pressures affecting male aggregation, we investigated how spatial organization of male territories related to female mate sampling tactics and male mating success in the lance-tailed manakin, Chiroxiphia lanceolata. This species displays in a dispersed lek of alpha males, each of which usually has a subordinate beta partner that participates in displays but does not mate with females attracted by their cooperative courtship. We video-recorded courtship activity at display perches of 12 alpha–beta pairs for 42 days in 2013, and documented 478 visits by 82 banded females. We further quantified the relationship of aggregation with genetic mating success for 49 alphas displaying at georeferenced locations in 5 years. Males with close neighbouring alphas were visited by more females, but geographic centrality was unrelated to female visit frequency. Females moved shorter distances between consecutive courtship visits than expected at random, but only 20.5% of 73 females visiting males with video-monitored nearest neighbours visited both neighbouring alpha males. Effects of aggregation on annual genetic reproductive success were only evident after accounting for the stronger effects of alpha age and experience, and only experienced alphas benefited from having close neighbours. Selection for aggregation more likely influences social behaviour of older alphas than settlement decisions by younger males. Benefits of aggregation for experienced alphas mitigate declines in old age, and may generate selective pressure favouring the long-term social alliances that are a key characteristic of this mating system.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136


      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136


      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Field tests of multiple sensory cues in sex recognition and harassment of
           a colour polymorphic damselfly
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Manuela Rebora, Francesca Frati, Silvana Piersanti, Gianandrea Salerno, Roberto Selvaggini, Ola M. Fincke
      The use of multiple sensory modalities in mating decisions has prompted a reassessment of sexual selection in many species. Odonate males have long been assumed to use only visual cues in mate recognition. Using only airborne cues in the laboratory, a previous study of Ischnura elegans found that males discriminate between the sexes and exhibit an odour preference for male-like female colour morphs. In a field experiment that required free-flying males to detect and recognize potential mates, we scored nonsexual and sexual reactions of free-flying males to live conspecifics (andromorphic females, which mimic male body colour and pattern; heteromorphic females, which differ from males in body colour and pattern; and males) and empty control dowels positioned at ponds. ‘Nonvisual’ treatments concealed under a muslin bag offered only olfactory cues, whereas the unbagged ‘visual’ treatments offered visual plus odour cues. Live conspecifics in the nonvisual treatments did not elicit more sexual reactions than control dowels. In contrast, live individuals in the visual treatment elicited more sexual responses than did controls, suggesting that odour alone was insufficient for detection of conspecifics. However, even with visual cues, males reacted sexually towards other males as often as they did towards either female morph, indicating a failure to discriminate between sex or morph. A second, more realistic visual treatment away from water, where 77% of the solitary mature individuals were males, produced similar results. Thus, we measured natural harassment rates of marked, free-flying females. Both female colour types used similar behaviours to evade males. We found no difference in harassment or mating rates between colour morphs. Our results suggest that visual cues of female I. elegans act similarly to the context-dependent signal apparency of Enallagma colour morphs, and emphasize the need for laboratory results to be validated by comparison of sensory abilities under natural conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • The role of extragroup encounters in a Neotropical, cooperative breeding
           primate, the common marmoset: a field playback experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Christini B. Caselli, Paulo H.B. Ayres, Shalana C.N. Castro, Antonio Souto, Nicola Schiel, Cory T. Miller
      In cooperatively breeding species, encounters with intruders may serve multiple functions, ranging from reaffirming group territory ranges to facilitating assessments for additional breeding opportunities. While these distinctive events offer the opportunity to investigate the delicate balance of these social dimensions within animal societies, their unpredictable occurrence makes witnessing and controlling these events in the wild particularly challenging. Here we used a field playback approach to simulate conspecific territorial incursions in cooperatively breeding common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, to distinguish between the three following nonmutually exclusive functions of intergroup encounters in this species of New World primate: territorial defence, mate defence and assessment of breeding opportunities. For these experiments, we systematically broadcast species-typical long-distance contact calls (‘phees’) commonly used in intergroup interactions from the core and periphery of three groups' territories using either male or female vocalizations. Consistent with a territorial defence hypothesis, a group's reaction was independent of the simulated intruder's sex and the response strength was greater when the playback stimulus was broadcast from the core area of a group's territory relative to the periphery. However, sex differences in some facets of the marmosets' responses suggest that this is not the only potential function for these encounters. Mated males and females started to move first in response to simulated intruders of the opposite sex, suggesting that these events offered opportunities to assess extrapair breeding opportunities. However, mated females also showed piloerection towards simulated female intruders, which is suggestive of mate guarding. These data provide unique experimental evidence for the theory that excursions by conspecific intruders may serve multiple functions in a cooperatively breeding vertebrate and are reflective of the known complexities of common marmoset sociobiology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • How pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection influence male mating
           decisions in a promiscuous species
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Inês Órfão, Alfredo F. Ojanguren, Miguel Barbosa, Luís Vicente, Susana A.M. Varela, Anne E. Magurran
      When females mate multiply, male reproductive success depends on both pre- and postcopulatory processes, including female choice and sperm competition. However, these processes can favour different mating tactics in males. Here we used the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, system to understand how this conflict is resolved. We asked whether knowledge of recent female mating history leads males to adjust their mating effort with respect to the time devoted to mating activity, and the frequency and the sequence of mating tactics employed. To do this we quantified male mating behaviour in three competitive scenarios: (1) Single, when a focal male arrives near a single female and remains alone with her; (2) First, when a focal male is joined by a rival male; and (3) Second, when a focal male arrives after a rival male. We hypothesized that males adjust their behaviour based on arrival order. If female sequential mate choice is the main process shaping male mating behaviours (favouring First males in guppies), males should avoid competition and invest most when Single. Alternatively, if last-male sperm precedence is the major driver of decision making, males should invest more in mating attempts in the Second scenario. Greatest investment when First implies an intermediate strategy. We found that order of arrival influenced mating decisions with most mating activity during the First rather than the Single and Second scenarios. This result suggests that both pre- and postcopulatory processes influence mating investment, and that individual males make contingent decisions to maximize both mating and fertilization success.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Volume-concentrated searching by an aerial insectivore, the common swift,
           Apus apus
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Emmanuel de Margerie, Cécile Pichot, Simon Benhamou
      How predators search for prey is a cornerstone question in behavioural ecology, which has yet to be investigated for animals foraging in 3D airspace. Do insectivorous birds such as swifts (Apodidae), swallows and martins (Hirundinidae) use similar strategies to those performed by terrestrial predators in 2D, or do they rely on different spatial search strategies because of some properties of the aerial open space' We addressed this question in the common swift, one of the most aerial birds, using a novel 3D optical tracking method. The analysis of fine-scale flight tracks revealed how birds distribute their presence in 3D space while foraging near their breeding colony. Common swifts concentrated the time spent per volume unit by adopting a tortuous path, and, to a much lesser extent, by decreasing their movement speed. By independently observing the birds' posture on tracking images, we were able to identify the occurrence of putative prey captures along flight tracks. We show that swifts' presence was concentrated mainly in the vicinity of prey captures, unveiling a volume-concentrated search (VCS) strategy in this aerial insectivore. This is an extension in 3D of the area-concentrated search classically described in terrestrial 2D space. VCS can (but does not necessarily) take place in thermal updrafts, where small insects can be concentrated in patches. In contrast to terrestrial and aquatic predators that can easily slow down or stop their movement in profitable places, a different speed–cost relationship underlying aerial movement prevents swifts from stopping in prey patches and explains why these birds rely mainly on movement tortuosity to perform intensive search. Our study thus shows how some physical properties of the environment can modulate the way an animal concentrates its search in profitable places.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Moving beyond structure to function
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Daniel I. Rubenstein


      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Social stability in semiferal ponies: networks show interannual stability
           alongside seasonal flexibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Christina R. Stanley, Claudia Mettke-Hofmann, Reinmar Hager, Susanne Shultz
      Long-term relationships that underlie many stable mammalian groups often occur between philopatric kin. Although stable groups of nonrelatives appear to be less common, there is increasing evidence that social bonds between nonkin may confer sufficient intrinsic fitness benefits for these groups to persist. Here we evaluate whether social stability occurs in a bisexually dispersing species where social bonds have been shown to have reproductive benefits: the feral horse, Equus caballus. First, we quantified female social stability by applying a three-level framework to a 3-year data set of associations in semiferal ponies; this tested for stability at the individual, dyadic and subpopulation levels. Despite the relative weakness of these female bonds, we found significant social stability across all levels, as shown by stable association preferences, social networks and individual network positions. Second, we investigated how seasonality impacts on social bond strength and grouping patterns. We found seasonal fluctuations in female gregariousness, with a peak during the mating season. We therefore propose that significant social stability in female horses is coupled with a degree of flexibility that allows for effects of ecological fluctuations. Although social network analysis is widely used in behavioural ecological research, this is one of only a handful of studies to assess the temporal dynamics of networks over a significant timescale. Temporal stability in female relationships suggests that equid social structures are multifaceted: although bonds between stallions and mares are clearly strong, long-term relationships between mares underpin the social network structure. We suggest this framework could be used to assess social stability in other group-living species in order to improve our understanding of the nature of social bonds.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Social network dynamics precede a mass eviction in group-living rhesus
           macaques
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Sam M. Larson, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Michael L. Platt, Lauren J.N. Brent
      Network dynamics can reveal information about the adaptive function of social behaviour and the extent to which social relationships can flexibly respond to extrinsic pressures. Changes in social networks occur following changes to the social and physical environment. By contrast, we have limited understanding of whether changes in social networks precede major group events. Permanent evictions can be important determinants of gene flow and population structure and are a clear example of an event that might be preceded by social network dynamics. Here we examined the social networks of a group of rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, in the 2 years leading up to the eviction of 22% of adult females, which are the philopatric sex. We found that females engaged in the same amount of aggression and grooming in the 2 years leading up to the eviction but that there were clear changes in their choice of social partners. Females that would eventually be evicted received more aggression from lower-ranking females as the eviction approached. Evicted females also became more discriminating in their grooming relationships in the year nearer the split, showing a greater preference for one another and becoming more cliquish. Put simply, the females that would later be evicted continued to travel with the rest of the group as the eviction approached but were less likely to interact with other group members in an affiliative manner. These results have potential implications for understanding group cohesion and the balance between cooperation and competition that mediates social groups.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Integrating social networks, animal personalities, movement ecology and
           parasites: a framework with examples from a lizard
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Andrew Sih, Orr Spiegel, Stephanie Godfrey, Stephan Leu, C. Michael Bull
      We describe a conceptual framework integrating animal personalities, movement ecology, social networks and parasite transmission. For directly transmitted parasites, parasite transmission depends on social interaction patterns that can be quantified using social network metrics. For indirectly transmitted parasites, the key can be transmission networks that quantify time-lagged contacts (e.g. where potential hosts visit locations used earlier by infected hosts). Social network connections (time-lagged or not) often result from shared space use determined by individual movements in response to key environmental factors. Movement ecology provides a framework for understanding these responses. Finally, individuals with different personalities likely respond differently to environmental factors in ways that influence the movements and space use that underlie network connectivity, which, in turn, affects parasite loads and transmission. We illustrate these key points with recent work on sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, and their ticks. By GPS tracking of nearly all adult lizards at our site, we found that lizards that more frequently shared the same refuges (where ticks detach and reattach to a new host) used earlier by other lizards tended to indeed have higher tick loads. Higher shared refuge use was associated with greater shared space use, in general. Shared space use with conspecifics was reduced by the lizards' general propensity (quantified by analyses of 279 985 GPS locations for 72 lizards) to avoid conspecifics, but enhanced by their general tendency to prefer areas with more resources and better refuge (in particular, late in the season when food was scarce and conditions were hotter and drier). Both of these tendencies were personality dependent. Less aggressive lizards exhibited both a stronger attraction to areas with more food and better refuge, and a stronger tendency to avoid other lizards. We conclude by discussing implications of our results for the general conceptual framework and suggest future directions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Association indices for quantifying social relationships: how to deal with
           missing observations of individuals or groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): William J.E. Hoppitt, Damien R. Farine
      Social network analysis has provided important insight into many population processes in wild animals. Constructing social networks requires quantifying the relationship between each pair of individuals in the population. Researchers often use association indices to convert observations into a measure of propensity for individuals to be seen together. At its simplest, this measure is just the probability of observing both individuals together given that one has been seen (the simple ratio index). However, this probability becomes more challenging to calculate if the detection rate for individuals is imperfect. We first evaluate the performance of existing association indices at estimating true association rates under scenarios where (1) only a proportion of all groups are observed (group location errors), (2) not all individuals are observed despite being present (individual location errors), and (3) a combination of the two. Commonly used methods aimed at dealing with incomplete observations perform poorly because they are based on arbitrary observation probabilities. We therefore derive complete indices that can be calibrated for the different types of incomplete observations to generate accurate estimates of association rates. These are provided in an R package that readily interfaces with existing routines. We conclude that using calibration data is an important step when constructing animal social networks, and that in their absence, researchers should use a simple estimator and explicitly consider the impact of this on their findings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T23:06:50Z
       
  • Sibling competition and not maternal allocation drives differential
           offspring feeding in a sexually size-dimorphic bird
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Juan C. Alonso, Enrique Martín, Manuel B. Morales, Javier A. Alonso
      Sex allocation models still fail to predict the complex sex ratio patterns in broods of vertebrates. A major problem when studying mother–brood interactions is the difficulty in disentangling hypotheses involving maternal preferences from processes that do not imply maternal manipulation. We studied maternal resource allocation in mixed-sex, same-sex and single-chick broods in the great bustard, Otis tarda. Females normally rear a single chick, and previous work has shown that maternal investment influences male more than female breeding success. Therefore, mothers of two-chick broods were assumed to be in good condition and candidates to show a preference for sons. Results showed that male chicks of mixed-sex broods remained close to the mother for twice as long as their sisters, and received double the number of maternal feedings. However, sex differences in maternal feeding rate disappeared when considering only simultaneous begging approaches from both siblings. Proximity to the mother and its interaction with begging approach intensity were the factors determining the higher begging success of male chicks. In single-chick broods, females did not receive fewer maternal feedings than males. Overall, our results suggest that female chicks of mixed-sex broods become outcompeted by their larger brothers, which remain close to the mother much longer, preventing their sisters from taking a larger share of maternal feedings. We conclude that mothers do not show a preference for feeding male over female chicks, and that the sex differences in feeding rate are determined by the higher food requirements of male chicks due to their sexually selected, much faster growth rates. The higher mortality of females in mixed-sex broods contrasts with the pattern of male-biased mortality typical in this species, and supports our interpretation of an asymmetric competitive ability of male offspring as the mechanism responsible for the sex bias in maternal expenditure.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:34:33Z
       
  • Birdsong characteristics are related to fragment size in a neotropical
           forest
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 137
      Author(s): Patrick J. Hart, Esther Sebastián-González, Ann Tanimoto, Alia Thompson, Tawn Speetjens, Madolyn Hopkins, Michael Atencio-Picado
      The oscine passerines, an avian suborder that comprises almost half of all bird species worldwide, learn their song primarily through cultural transmission. As the world's forests become increasingly fragmented and the population sizes of many forest-dwelling species decline, there may be increasingly restricted opportunities for the transmission of cultural information. However, the effects of forest fragmentation on birdsong have not been well documented. In this paper, we examine the relationship between forest fragment size and song characteristics for two forest bird species, an oscine passerine (orange-billed sparrow, Arremon aurantiirostris) that learns its song culturally, and a suboscine passerine (scale-crested pygmy tyrant, Lophotriccus pileatus) that does not. Recordings were taken from individuals in 12 premontane wet forest fragments ranging in size from approximately 1.4ha–360ha in southern Costa Rica. As predicted under the ‘cultural erosion’ hypothesis, we found that acoustic characteristics associated with song complexity such as the number of syllables per song and song duration decreased with decreasing fragment size for the oscine but not for the suboscine species. This study supports the idea that learned cultural elements are sensitive to fragment size and that cultural diversity should be considered along with other forms of biodiversity in the conservation of social learning species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:34:33Z
       
  • Mate guarding and male body condition shape male fertilization success and
           female mating system in the common quail
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): Ines Sanchez-Donoso, Carles Vilà, Manel Puigcerver, José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro
      In species with female polygamy, pair bonds are frequently established since mate guarding can determine male fertilization success. However, extending the duration of pair bonds also implies reducing the chances of finding new mates. Males face a trade-off between mate guarding and looking for new mates, which can be shaped by their body condition. Here, we investigated the effect of male body condition and mate guarding over the female mating system (genetic monogamy or polygamy) and the male fertilization success in the common quail, Coturnix coturnix, a species with sperm storage and thus the potential for postcopulatory selection, and without paternal care. We monitored 20 females and 32 males. We genotyped them, the 21 clutches laid by these females and a large proportion of the males present in the population, which could have sired the clutches, to perform paternity analyses. We tested whether it is the pairing order or the duration of the pair bond that determines the fertilization outcome in clutches with multiple fathers. We hypothesized that males with better body condition might be able to find a mate faster, reducing the cost of mate switching and increasing fertilization success by spending less time in a pair bond. We observed socially monogamous and polygamous females, and our genetic analyses revealed that broods could be sired by one and by multiple fathers. Female genetic polygamy was more frequent when first matings were with males in good body condition. We detected two or three different fathers in multiple paternity broods. The male that mate guarded for longest was the one that sired most of the clutch. Although males in better body condition seemed to establish shorter pair bonds, further data are needed to confirm this trend.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:34:33Z
       
  • Beware the F test (or, how to compare variances)
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 136
      Author(s): D.J. Hosken, D.L. Buss, D.J. Hodgson
      Biologists commonly compare variances among samples, to test whether underlying populations have equal spread. However, despite warnings from statisticians, incorrect testing is rife. Here we show that one of the most commonly employed of these tests, the F test, is extremely sensitive to deviations from normality. The F test suffers greatly elevated false positive errors when the underlying distributions are heavy tailed, a distribution feature that is very hard to detect using standard normality tests. We highlight and assess a selection of parametric, jackknife and permutation tests, consider their performance in terms of false positives, and power to detect signal when it exists, then show correct methods to compare measures of variation among samples. Based on these assessments, we recommend using Levene's test, Box–Anderson test, jackknifing or permutation tests to compare variances when normality is in doubt. Levene's and Box–Anderson tests are the most powerful at small sample sizes, but the Box–Anderson test may not control type I error for extremely heavy-tailed distributions. As noted previously, do not use F tests to compare variances.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:34:33Z
       
  • Birdsong performance studies: correcting a commentary on Cardoso and
           Atwell (2016)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Gonçalo C. Cardoso, Jonathan W. Atwell


      PubDate: 2018-02-05T02:34:33Z
       
  • Social costs are an underappreciated force for honest signalling in animal
           aggregations
    • Authors: Michael S. Webster; Russell A. Ligon; Gavin M. Leighton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Michael S. Webster, Russell A. Ligon, Gavin M. Leighton
      Animals in social aggregations use signals of quality or motivation to attract mates and intimidate rivals. Theory indicates that honesty can be maintained in these signals if the costs of signalling affect low-quality individuals more than they affect high-quality individuals. Considerable research has focused on identifying the nature of those costs and their ability to maintain honest signals. Much of this research, particularly in recent years, has focused on receiver-independent physiological costs of signal production. Less research attention has been paid to receiver-dependent costs that might arise from conspecific responses to signals. Here we survey the literature on these different types of costs, focusing in particular on case studies from a diversity of taxa. We find that signals often do carry significant physiological production costs, but this is not universal, as many signals appear to be physiologically inexpensive to produce. More importantly, very few studies have tested the key prediction that physiological production costs differentially affect low-quality individuals over high-quality individuals. In contrast, research from a diversity of taxa indicates that signals such as coloration and vocalizations often affect agonistic interactions, which in turn affect the production of signals, and that deceptive signallers receive more aggression than do honest signallers in at least some systems. Social costs are a plausible but understudied mechanism for maintaining honest signalling.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.12.006
       
  • Editors Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135


      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
       
  • Association Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135


      PubDate: 2018-01-16T09:21:20Z
       
  • Are all motivation tests the same' The effect of two adaptations to a
           three-chamber consumer demand study in ferrets
    • Authors: Marsinah L. Reijgwart; Claudia M. Vinke; Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen; Miriam van der Meer; Nico J. Schoemaker; Yvonne R.A. van Zeeland
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Marsinah L. Reijgwart, Claudia M. Vinke, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Miriam van der Meer, Nico J. Schoemaker, Yvonne R.A. van Zeeland
      Ferrets, Mustela putorius furo, are increasingly used in infectious disease studies, particularly in influenza research. Which specific housing conditions and environmental enrichments are of particular importance for ferrets have not been part of a systematic evaluation. The motivation ferrets showed to reach different enrichments was assessed in multiple consumer demand study set-ups. To address the question whether these consumer demand set-ups give similar results, we assessed the effects of two ways of offering enrichments concurrently instead of consecutively. Six ovariectomized female ferrets were successively tested in a seven-chamber (7Ch), three-chamber (3Ch) and three-chamber ‘all-but-one’ (ABO) set-up. We compared the maximum price paid, visit number, visit duration and interaction time with the enrichments in the 3Ch versus the 7Ch and ABO set-ups, respectively. Compared to the 3Ch set-up, the ferrets in the ABO and 7Ch set-up showed a lower motivation to access, paid fewer and shorter visits to and interacted less with the enrichments. In the 7Ch, the ferrets especially showed a lower motivation for the less preferred enrichments and the empty chamber. These findings indicate that testing all the enrichments concurrently in the 7Ch set-up forced the ferrets to make more economic decisions, thereby providing more valuable information on how different enrichments are valued relative to one other. Adding preferred enrichment items to the home chamber, as was done in the ABO set-up, might have reduced the motivation to access or look for additional enrichment items. However, this set-up might not have a closed economy, making the ABO set-up unsuitable. Based on these findings, we advise testing all the enrichment categories concurrently instead of consecutively and keeping the number of items in the home cage to a minimum when performing a consumer demand study, as this appears the most optimal set-up to determine motivational priorities for resources in ferrets.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Social networks of spotted hyaenas in areas of contrasting human activity
           and infrastructure
    • Authors: Lydia E. Belton; Elissa Z. Cameron; Fredrik Dalerum
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Lydia E. Belton, Elissa Z. Cameron, Fredrik Dalerum
      In group-living animals, the structure of social interactions among group members can have important consequences for individual fitness. Changes in resource abundance can influence social interactions with an expected weakening of social ties during times of resource scarcity. Although human activity and infrastructure often impose a disturbance on animal populations, they can also be a source of reliable resources that are relatively easy to access. We evaluated whether the social networks differed between four spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta, clans experiencing contrasting levels of human activity and infrastructure in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. The clan living in an area of high human activity and infrastructure had a less dense social network than the other clans, and the clan living in an area with limited human activity and infrastructure had shorter path lengths than the other clans, suggesting that it had more closely associated individuals. Our results did not support substantial differences between clans in the relative social network positions of animals from different age and rank classes. Contrary to our expectations, we suggest that anthropogenic resources may have weakened the social cohesiveness within spotted hyaena clans. We also argue that our study supports previous suggestions that there may be individual variation within broader classes of rank, age and sex in the position of individual animals in social networks.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Lateralization of spontaneous behaviours in the domestic cat, Felis
           silvestris
    • Authors: Louise J. McDowell; Deborah L. Wells; Peter G. Hepper
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Louise J. McDowell, Deborah L. Wells, Peter G. Hepper
      Recent research has drawn attention to the link between lateral bias and cerebral functional asymmetry in animals. Most studies of animal laterality have focused on limb use arising from forced experimental challenges as opposed to spontaneous behaviours. This study explored, for the first time, the expression of lateralized spontaneous behaviour in the domestic cat, a species that exhibits motor bias in the form of paw preferences. The side used by 44 pet cats to perform three spontaneous behaviours (lying side, stepping down a flight of stairs, stepping over a raised object) was recorded. Paw preferences were also assessed using a more traditional forced food reaching challenge. Cats showed a significant lateral bias for food reaching, stepping down and stepping over. Those with a paw preference, however, did not differ significantly in their tendency towards left or right sidedness. The direction of the cats' side preferences was significantly correlated for most measures, whether forced or spontaneous. The strength of the cats' motor bias was significantly related to the task; animals displayed a weaker lateral bias for lying side than any other measure. The study revealed a sex split in the direction, although not the strength, of the cats' lateral bias for food reaching, stepping down and stepping over. Males showed a significant preference for using their left paw on these measures, while females were more inclined to use the right one. The study provides the first evidence that the domestic cat displays motor laterality on specific spontaneous behaviours, and that the direction, although not the strength, of these lateral biases is largely consistent with that of an experimental task. The results suggest that the more forced food-reaching test traditionally used to assess motor bias in the cat offers a biologically valid measure of limb use in this species.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Thermal parental effects on offspring behaviour and their fitness
           consequences
    • Authors: Stephanie McDonald; Lisa E. Schwanz
      Pages: 45 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Stephanie McDonald, Lisa E. Schwanz
      Environmental and developmental conditions can drive substantial variation in offspring behaviour and developmental trajectory. While incubation temperature is well known to influence development in oviparous animals, little is known of the role of parental temperature on offspring phenotype (i.e. thermal parental effects). Following exposure of male and gravid female jacky dragons, Amphibolurus muricatus, to one of two thermal treatments (short-bask versus long-bask) and incubation of their eggs at a constant temperature, we examined whether the preovipositional parental treatment influenced offspring performance-related behaviours. We detected main and interactive effects of parental treatment on offspring behaviours including feeding, exploration and antipredator. Sex-specific effects of parental treatment included long-bask sons being more likely to feed and being bolder following predatory attack than short-bask sons, while the differences between treatments for daughters were smaller. Behaviours were not consistent between 1 week and 1 month of age and showed little correlation across behavioural contexts. Some behaviours emerged as promising mechanisms of documented parental effects on offspring growth and survival in these individuals. In particular, boldness among long-bask sons in an antipredator context may be linked to their greater rates of growth posthatching. Overall, our findings suggest that thermal parental effects influence variation in animal behaviours relevant for subsequent fitness outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Susceptibility to ecological traps is similar among closely related taxa
           but sensitive to spatial isolation
    • Authors: Bruce A. Robertson; Isabel A. Keddy-Hector; Shailab D. Shrestha; Leah Y. Silverberg; Clara E. Woolner; Ian Hetterich; Gábor Horváth
      Pages: 77 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Animal Behaviour, Volume 135
      Author(s): Bruce A. Robertson, Isabel A. Keddy-Hector, Shailab D. Shrestha, Leah Y. Silverberg, Clara E. Woolner, Ian Hetterich, Gábor Horváth
      Ecological traps are maladaptive behavioural scenarios in which animals prefer to settle in habitats with the lowest survival and/or reproductive success. Aquatic insect species, for example, are attracted to sources of horizontally polarized light associated with natural water bodies, but today they commonly prefer to lay their eggs upon asphalt roads and buildings that reflect an unnaturally high percentage of polarized light. Ecological traps are a rapidly emerging threat to the persistence of animal populations, but the degree to which species vary in their susceptibility to them remains uninvestigated. We designed a field experiment to (1) assess the relative susceptibility of aquatic flies (Diptera) to a single maladaptive behavioural cue: variation in degree of horizontally polarized light (d), and (2) quantify how the isolation of an ecological trap from a high-quality habitat affects its relative attractiveness. We exposed wild dipterans to experimental test surfaces varying in d at three distances from natural streams and mapped behavioural reaction norms of habitat preference as a function of d and distance from high-quality habitat. All seven of the dipteran families were captured most in traps with progressively higher d values, especially those (d =90–100%) that exceeded that of natural water bodies (30–80%). In most taxa, the height and slope of numerical responses to d were influenced by the distance of an ecological trap from a natural water body. Our results illustrate that dipterans have broadly evolved the use of a habitat selection behaviour that treats more strongly polarized light sources as indicative higher-quality habitats, making them broadly susceptible to ecological traps driven by polarized light pollution. We also found that the spatial isolation of ecological traps from higher-quality, but less attractive, habitats can either increase or reduce species' susceptibility to them.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 135 (2017)
       
  • Edge weight variance: population genetic metrics for social network
           analysis
    • Authors: David B. McDonald; Elizabeth A. Hobson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): David B. McDonald, Elizabeth A. Hobson
      We present novel metrics for analysis of weighted social networks that focus explicitly on the distribution of edge weights at hierarchical scales from node to egonet to community and to the network as a whole. The formulae are adapted from existing measures, originally developed in the context of population genetics to analyse variance in gene frequencies at different levels of organization. Our metrics, including ‘effective degree’ (by analogy to effective number of alleles), ‘concentration’ (by analogy to the inbreeding coefficient), ‘observed’ and ‘expected edge weight diversity’ (by analogy to observed and expected gene diversity) and F statistics allow one to partition the variance in edge weights among hierarchical levels of organization within networks. They provide a quantitative method for addressing issues as diverse as disease transmission, social complexity, the spread of learned behaviours and the evolution of cooperation. We illustrate the utility of these new metrics by applying them to three empirical social networks: long-tailed manakins, Chiroxiphia linearis, monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T18:02:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.017
       
  • Consistent individual variation across interaction networks indicates
           social personalities in lemurs
    • Authors: Ipek G. Kulahci; Asif A. Ghazanfar; Daniel I. Rubenstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Ipek G. Kulahci, Asif A. Ghazanfar, Daniel I. Rubenstein
      Group members interact with each other during multiple social behaviours that range from aggressive to affiliative interactions. It is not known, however, whether an individual's suite of social behaviours consistently covaries through time and across different types of social interactions. Consistent social behaviour would be advantageous in groups, especially when individuals need to remember their group members' social roles and preferences in order to keep track of social relationships and predict conspecifics' future behaviour. Here, we address whether social behaviour of ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, is consistent through time and across four interaction networks (aggression, grooming, contact calling, scent marking). We quantified variation in social behaviour through four network centrality measures including outdegree, outstrength, betweenness and eigenvector centrality. Comparing lemurs' measures across 2 years revealed that network centrality remained consistent between years. Lemurs' centrality also stayed consistent across interaction networks: individuals with high centrality in one interaction network also had high centrality in the other networks, even when we controlled for sex-based variation in social behaviour. Thus, regardless of their sex, some individuals were highly social and frequently groomed others, initiated aggressive interactions and responded to others' contact calls and scent marks. Lemurs also had preferred social partners they frequently interacted with across years and across multiple behaviours. In particular, lemurs frequently responded to the contact calls and the scent marks of the conspecifics they had frequently groomed. Together, these results demonstrate that individual variation in lemur social behaviour is not context specific, but instead persists through time and across multiple social interactions. Such consistent behaviour provides evidence of social personalities, which may influence individuals' interaction styles, including how socially active they are and with whom they interact.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.012
       
  • Where should we meet' Mapping social network interactions of sleepy
           lizards shows sex-dependent social network structure
    • Authors: Orr Spiegel; Andrew Sih; Stephan T. Leu; C. Michael Bull
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Animal Behaviour
      Author(s): Orr Spiegel, Andrew Sih, Stephan T. Leu, C. Michael Bull
      Social network analyses allow researchers to describe patterns of social interactions and their consequences in animal societies. Since direct observations in natural settings are often difficult, researchers often use tracking technologies to build proximity-based social networks. However, because both social behaviour (e.g. conspecific attraction) and environmental heterogeneity (e.g. resources attracting individuals independently) affect rates of interaction, identifying the processes that shape social networks is challenging. We tracked sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, using global positioning system (GPS) telemetry to investigate whether they show conspecific attraction or avoidance beyond any shared space use driven by environmental heterogeneity. Since these lizards have strong pair bonds and nonoverlapping core home ranges, we predicted different interaction rates between inter- and intrasex dyads and compared social network indices among dyad types (male–male, female–female and intersex) using node-identity permutation tests. We also mapped interactions onto the home ranges (using distance from the centre as an index) and contrasted observed social networks with those expected from a spatially explicit null model. We found that dyad types differed in their interaction patterns. Intersex dyads had stronger connections (higher edge weight) than a null expectation, and stronger than for same-sex dyads. Same-sex dyads did not differ in edge weight from the null expectation, but were significantly more common (higher degree). Males had larger home ranges than females and consequently male–male dyads interacted further away from their home range centres. Moreover, the locations of these interactions also differed from the null expectations more strongly than other dyad types. Hence, we conclude that males predominantly interacted with each other at the peripheries of their home range, presumably reflecting territorial behaviour. By applying a novel analysis technique, we accounted for the nonsocial component of space use and revealed sex-specific interaction patterns and the contribution of conspecific attraction to the social structure in this species. More generally we report how mapping the locations of nonrandom interaction rates provides broad information on the behaviours they represent.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T02:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.001
       
 
 
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