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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 375, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 429, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Anaerobe
  [SJR: 1.066]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Brain abscess and cervical lymphadenitis due to Paraclostridium
           bifermentans: A report of two cases
    • Authors: Udhaya Sankar R; Rakhi Biswas; S. Raja; Sujatha Sistla; M.S. Gopalakrishnan; Sunil Kumar Saxena
      Pages: 8 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 51
      Author(s): Udhaya Sankar R, Rakhi Biswas, S. Raja, Sujatha Sistla, M.S. Gopalakrishnan, Sunil Kumar Saxena
      Paraclostridium bifermentans (current nomenclature of Clostridium bifermentans since 2016) is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium. Here, we describe two cases associated with this organism. The first, primarily a case of tubercular brain abscess where P. bifermentans was isolated as part of a polymicrobial flora, following a neurosurgical procedure for the same and the second, a case of cervical lymphadenitis from which it was isolated as the sole causative agent. There are only a few reported cases of P. bifermentans in literature and these cases illustrate the widening spectrum of infections related to it.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2018)
  • Evaluation of the Cepheid® Xpert® C. difficile binary toxin
           (BT) diagnostic assay
    • Authors: Alan M. McGovern; Grace O. Androga; Peter Moono; Deirdre A. Collins; Niki F. Foster; Barbara J. Chang; Thomas V. Riley
      Pages: 12 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 51
      Author(s): Alan M. McGovern, Grace O. Androga, Peter Moono, Deirdre A. Collins, Niki F. Foster, Barbara J. Chang, Thomas V. Riley
      Strains of Clostridium difficile producing only binary toxin (CDT) are found commonly in animals but not humans. However, human diagnostic tests rarely look for CDT. The Cepheid Xpert C. difficile BT assay detects CDT with equal sensitivity (≥92%) in human and animal faecal samples.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2018)
  • First case of pleural empyema and pulmonary abscess caused by Eggerthia
    • Authors: Pauline Duport; Guillaume Miltgen; Clément Kebbabi; Olivier Belmonte; Nathalie Coolen-Allou; Jérôme Allyn; Nicolas Allou
      Pages: 9 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): Pauline Duport, Guillaume Miltgen, Clément Kebbabi, Olivier Belmonte, Nathalie Coolen-Allou, Jérôme Allyn, Nicolas Allou
      Few data are available on the anaerobic bacterium Eggerthia catenaformis. Here we report the first clinical case of a patient with sepsis caused by pulmonary infection with E. catenaformis, and present the minimal inhibitory concentrations of different antimicrobial agents.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Periprosthetic joint infection caused by anaerobes. Retrospective analysis
           reveals no need for prolonged cultivation time if sensitive supplemented
           growth media are used
    • Authors: Heime Rieber; Andre Frontzek; Jörg Jerosch; Michael Alefeld; Thomas Strohecker; Martin Ulatowski; Thomas Morawietz; Stefan Hinsenkamp; Andreas Bell; Dervis Kücükköylü; Lars Frommelt
      Pages: 12 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): Heime Rieber, Andre Frontzek, Jörg Jerosch, Michael Alefeld, Thomas Strohecker, Martin Ulatowski, Thomas Morawietz, Stefan Hinsenkamp, Andreas Bell, Dervis Kücükköylü, Lars Frommelt
      Background In microbiological diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) culture media and incubation time are controversially discussed, especially if anaerobic bacteria are the causative agent. This study was conducted to demonstrate the influence of sensitive supplemented growth media on the duration of culturing anaerobes. Methods Twenty-five consecutive cases were included in this retrospective study. For definition of PJI, the criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) were considered. Histopathological analysis was interpreted according to the classification by Krenn et al. The quantity and time to positivity of detected anaerobes were monitored. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity within the tissue and sonicate fluid was phenotypically tested. Results In all cases, even if the patients had received antibiotics before recovery, culture of anaerobes (Propionibacterium species, Finegoldia magna, Parvimonas micra and Robinsoniella peoriensis), both from tissue samples and prosthetic components, first became detectable in supplemented liver thioglycollate broth within six days (median: four days). Conclusion Recommendations for prolonged cultivation for up to 14 days mostly aim at detection of anaerobes. Here we present a laboratory procedure that can shorten cultivation time considerably.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Clinical sources and antimicrobial susceptibility of Prevotella timonensis
           at the university hospital of Montpellier, France
    • Authors: Salim Aberkane; Baptiste Pradel; Yann Dumont; Alida C.M. Veloo; Chrislène Laurens; Lucas Bonzon; Sylvain Godreuil; Hélène Marchandin; Hélène Jean-Pierre
      Pages: 19 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 50
      Author(s): Salim Aberkane, Baptiste Pradel, Yann Dumont, Alida C.M. Veloo, Chrislène Laurens, Lucas Bonzon, Sylvain Godreuil, Hélène Marchandin, Hélène Jean-Pierre
      We describe 84 clinical isolates of Prevotella timonensis recovered between January 2007 and November 2016 at the University Hospital of Montpellier. They were recovered from a variety of clinical samples, mostly of genital and wound origins. All isolates were isolated from a mixed aerobic and anaerobic microbiota. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 50 isolates showed 56% of beta-lactamase production and 40% of resistance to clindamycin. One strain was resistant to metronidazole.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T01:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Clostridial DivIVA and MinD interact in the absence of MinJ
    • Authors: Romana Valenčíková; Eva Krascsenitsová; Naďa Labajová; Jana Makroczyová; Imrich Barák
      Pages: 22 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): Romana Valenčíková, Eva Krascsenitsová, Naďa Labajová, Jana Makroczyová, Imrich Barák
      One of the key regulators ensuring proper Z-ring placement in rod-shaped bacteria is the Min system. It does so by creating a concentration gradient of the MinC septation inhibitor along the cell axis. In Escherichia coli, this gradient is established by a MinE-mediated pole-to-pole oscillation of the MinCDE complex. In Bacillus subtilis, the creation of an inhibitory gradient relies on the MinJ and DivIVA pair of topological determinants, which target MinCD to the newly formed cell poles. Introducing the E. coli oscillating Min system into B. subtilis leads to a sporulation defect, suggesting that oscillation is incompatible with sporulation. However, Clostridia, close endospore-forming relatives of Bacilli, do encode oscillating Min homologues in various combinations together with homologues from the less dynamic B. subtilis Min system. Here we address the questions of how these two systems could exist side-by-side and how they influence one another by studying the Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium difficile Min systems. The toolbox of genetic manipulations and fluorescent protein fusions in Clostridia is limited, therefore B. subtilis and E. coli were chosen as heterologous systems for studying these proteins. In B. subtilis, MinD and DivIVA interact through MinJ; here, however, we discovered that the MinD and DivIVA proteins of both C. difficile, and C. beijerinckii, interact directly, which is surprising in the latter case, since that organism also encodes a MinJ homologue. We confirm this interaction using both in vitro and in vivo methods. We also show that C. beijerinckii MinJ is probably not in direct contact with DivIVACb and, unlike B. subtilis MinJ, does not mediate the MinDCb and DivIVACb interaction. Our results suggest that the Clostridia Min system uses a new mechanism of function.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients with
           antibiotic-associated diarrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Mohammad Javad Nasiri; Mehdi Goudarzi; Bahareh Hajikhani; Mona Ghazi; Hossein Goudarzi; Ramin Pouriran
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Mehdi Goudarzi, Bahareh Hajikhani, Mona Ghazi, Hossein Goudarzi, Ramin Pouriran
      Clostridium difficile is the main infectious cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C. difficile AAD in hospitalized patients. We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane library for subject headings and text words related to C. difficile AAD. Studies that investigated the prevalence or frequency of C. difficile AAD in health care settings were considered eligible. Using a random-effects model, data obtained from the identified studies were combined. Of the 2464 citations identified, twenty studies (5496 patients) met the inclusion criteria of the present study. Pooling all studies, the frequency of C. difficile among AAD patients was 20.0% (95% CI 13.0–28.0). The most frequently used antibiotics in health care settings were the following: Clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins. The current systematic review demonstrated the significant presence of C. difficile among patients with AAD. The limited and rational use of broad spectrum antibiotics and implementation of standard infection control measures are recommended to reduce the risk of C. difficile associated infections in hospitalized patients.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Lactobacillus crispatus represses vaginolysin expression by BV associated
           Gardnerella vaginalis and reduces cell cytotoxicity
    • Authors: Joana Castro; Ana Paula Martins; Maria Elisa Rodrigues; Nuno Cerca
      Pages: 60 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 50
      Author(s): Joana Castro, Ana Paula Martins, Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Nuno Cerca
      Using a chemically-defined medium simulating genital tract secretions, we have shown that pre-adhering Lactobacillus crispatus to Hela epithelial cells reduced cytotoxicity caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. This effect was associated to the expression of vaginolysin and was specific to L. crispatus interference, as other vaginal facultative anaerobes had no protective effect.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Cultivation of multiple genera of hydrogenotrophic methanogens from
           different environmental niches
    • Authors: Akshay Joshi; Vikram Lanjekar; Prashant K. Dhakephalkar; Sumit Singh Dagar
      Pages: 64 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Author(s): Akshay Joshi, Vikram B. Lanjekar, Prashant K. Dhakephalkar, Sumit S. Dagar
      Six genera of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, namely Methanobrevibacter, Methanobacterium, Methanocorpusculum, Methanothermobacter, Methanoculleus, and Methanospirillum were cultivated from diverse environmental niches like rumen, feces, gut, and sediments using BY medium. We also report a putative novel genus and two novel species of methanogens isolated from termite, Indian star tortoise, and green iguana.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2018)
  • Detection and molecular characterization of Clostridium difficile ST 1 in
           Buenos Aires, Argentina
    • Authors: Daniela Cejas; Néstor Raúl Ríos Osorio; Rodolfo Quirós; Roxana Sadorin; María Alejandra Berger; Gabriel Gutkind; Liliana Fernández Canigia; Marcela Radice
      Pages: 14 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49
      Author(s): Daniela Cejas, Néstor Raúl Ríos Osorio, Rodolfo Quirós, Roxana Sadorin, María Alejandra Berger, Gabriel Gutkind, Liliana Fernández Canigia, Marcela Radice
      Thirty one C. difficile isolates recovered in 2015 were characterized. Nineteen/31 were positive for tcdA/B, among them, 4 isolates were also positive for CDT coding genes. Two/4 cdtA/B positives isolates corresponded to ST 1 resembling BI/NAP1/027/ST 1 strain, while the others corresponded to ST 226 and ST 377.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T01:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2018)
  • Fatal thoracic empyema involving Campylobacter rectus: A case report
    • Authors: A. Noël; A. Verroken; L. Belkhir; H. Rodriguez-Villalobos
      Pages: 95 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018
      Author(s): A. Noël, A. Verroken, L. Belkhir, H. Rodriguez-Villalobos
      We report the case of a 69-year-old man admitted for septic shock secondary to necrotic pneumoniae complicated by thoracic empyema of fatal issue. Microbiological examination of pleural liquid revealed a mixed anaerobic flora involving Campylobacter rectus and Actinomyces meyeri. Campylobacter rectus is an infrequent anaerobic pathogen of oral origin To our knowledge, this is the first case report of fatal C. rectus - associated thoracic empyema, and only the second reported case in which identification was successfully performed by MALDI-TOF MS.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2018)
  • Diversity of toxin-genotypes among Clostridium perfringens isolated from
           healthy and diarrheic neonatal cattle and buffalo calves
    • Authors: Cheruplackal Karunakaran Athira; Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton; Avinash Reddy; Arunraj Mekhemadhom Rajendrakumar; Abhishek; Med Ram Verma; Ashok Kumar; Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar; Rajesh Kumar Agarwal
      Pages: 99 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Author(s): Athira Cheruplackal Karunakarnan, Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Avinash Reddy, Arunraj Mekhemadhom Rajendrakumar, Abhishek, Med Ram Verma, Ashok Kumar, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal
      The diversity of toxin-genotypes of C. perfringens in neonatal calves was determined in this study. A total of 682 fresh faecal samples comprising 559 healthy and 123 diarrheic neonatal calves (cattle and buffalo) were collected from various farms in Northern India. The samples were processed for isolation of C. perfringens and toxin-genotyping by multiplex PCR. The overall prevalence of C. perfringens was 37.2%. The most predominant toxin-genotype was type A (59.7%) and the least prevalent was type C. There was no association between toxin genotypes and diarrhea of cattle and buffalo neonatal calves (P > .05). Also, 38 (14.6%) and 16 (6.1%) isolates out of the 259 carried enterotoxin (cpe) and beta 2 toxin (cpb2) genes, respectively. Ten different toxin-genotypes were identified, and iota toxin gene was not detected in any of the sample.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2018)
  • Non-conventional antimicrobial and alternative therapies for the treatment
           of Clostridium difficile infection
    • Authors: Niloufar Roshan; Katherine A. Hammer; Thomas V. Riley
      Pages: 103 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
      Author(s): Niloufar Roshan, Katherine A. Hammer, Thomas V. Riley
      Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus that causes disease ranging from self-limiting diarrhoea to severe pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile infection (CDI) commonly affects hospitalised patients and is increasingly identified in patients in the community with no hospital contact. For the last 15 years the incidence of CDI worldwide has been rising, especially in the northern hemisphere. The yearly average number of hospitalizations as a result of this disease is estimated to be over a quarter of a million per year in the United States alone. The main risk factor for CDI is exposure to antimicrobials that affect the gut microflora and, paradoxically, the most common treatments for CDI are the antimicrobials, metronidazole and vancomycin. However, the increasing frequency of highly virulent C. difficile strains, antimicrobial treatment failures, hospital outbreaks, patients with severe complications and cases with multiple recurrences have driven the search for new therapies. Several novel or popular complementary and alternative therapies are self-prescribed for treatment of other diarrheal diseases, and these may also be appropriate for treating CDI. In general, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is mainly used by patients when conventional therapeutic agents show limited success against C. difficile and other antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Among these alternative approaches, a number of treatments, such as herbal remedies, are embraced less by pharmaceutical and medical professions. This review summarises current knowledge of non-conventional antimicrobial and alternative therapies for treatment of CDI. As the demand for non-conventional antimicrobial therapies increases, further studies are required in the field of CAM, especially natural products, for the treatment of CDI.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2018)
  • Acute periprosthetic joint infection due to Fusobacterium nucleatum in a
           non-immunocompromised patient. Failure using a Debridement, Antibiotics +
           Implant retention approach
    • Authors: Pablo S. Corona; Mayli Lung; Dolors Rodriguez-Pardo; Carles Pigrau; Francisco Soldado; Carles Amat; Luis Carrera
      Pages: 116 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Author(s): Pablo S. Corona, Mayli Lung, Dolors Rodriguez-Pardo, Carles Pigrau, Francisco Soldado, Carles Amat, Luis Carrera
      Fusobacterium nucleatum is an obligately anaerobic gram-negative rod, a component of the microbiome of the oropharynx and the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts, causing an array of human infections which often include periodontal pathologies. As far as we know, there are no previous publications about acute periprosthetic joint infection due to Fusobacterium sp.; we report the first case in the medical literature of an aggressive, acute knee prosthetic infection due to F. nucleatum in a non-immunocompromised patient, unsuccessfully treated with a DAIR approach (Debridement + Antibiotics + Implant Retention).

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2018)
  • Assessing the clinical relevance of Fenollaria massiliensis in human
           infections, using MALDI-TOF MS
    • Authors: K.E. Boiten; H. Jean-Pierre; A.C.M. Veloo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Author(s): K.E. Boiten, H. Jean-Pierre, A.C.M. Veloo
      Within the European Network for the Rapid Identification of Anaerobes (ENRIA) project eight clinical isolates of Fenollaria massiliensis were encountered. In this study a more extensive description of this species is given and the MALDI-TOF MS database is optimized for its identification. F. massiliensis is an anaerobic Gram positive rod with the tendency to decolorize quickly. It is mostly encountered in clinical samples from the groin region. Less common and non-valid species are not represented in the MALDI-TOF MS database. Therefore, F. massiliensis can only be identified by laboratories performing 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The addition of less common and non-valid species to the database will give insight in their clinical relevance.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.008
  • Validation of a for anaerobic bacteria optimized MALDI-TOF MS biotyper
           database: The ENRIA project
    • Authors: A.C.M. Veloo; H. Jean-Pierre; U.S. Justesen; T. Morris; E. Urban; I. Wybo; M. Kostrzewa; A.W. Friedrich; T. Morris; H. Shah; H. Jean-Pierre; U.S. Justesen; I. Wybo; E. Nagy; E. Urban; M. Kostrzewa; A. Veloo; A.W. Friedrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018
      Author(s): A.C.M. Veloo, H. Jean-Pierre, U.S. Justesen, T. Morris, E. Urban, I. Wybo, M. Kostrzewa, A.W. Friedrich
      Within the ENRIA project, several ‘expertise laboratories’ collaborated in order to optimize the identification of clinical anaerobic isolates by using a widely available platform, the Biotyper Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Main Spectral Profiles (MSPs) of well characterized anaerobic strains were added to one of the latest updates of the Biotyper database db6903; (V6 database) for common use. MSPs of anaerobic strains nominated for addition to the Biotyper database are included in this validation. In this study, we validated the optimized database (db5989 [V5 database] + ENRIA MSPs) using 6309 anaerobic isolates. Using the V5 database 71.1% of the isolates could be identified with high confidence, 16.9% with low confidence and 12.0% could not be identified. Including the MSPs added to the V6 database and all MSPs created within the ENRIA project, the amount of strains identified with high confidence increased to 74.8% and 79.2%, respectively. Strains that could not be identified using MALDI-TOF MS decreased to 10.4% and 7.3%, respectively. The observed increase in high confidence identifications differed per genus. For Bilophila wadsworthia, Prevotella spp., gram-positive anaerobic cocci and other less commonly encountered species more strains were identified with higher confidence. A subset of the non-identified strains (42.1%) were identified using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The obtained identities demonstrated that strains could not be identified either due to the generation of spectra of insufficient quality or due to the fact that no MSP of the encountered species was present in the database. Undoubtedly, the ENRIA project has successfully increased the number of anaerobic isolates that can be identified with high confidence. We therefore recommend further expansion of the database to include less frequently isolated species as this would also allow us to gain valuable insight into the clinical relevance of these less common anaerobic bacteria.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.007
  • Species-specific serine-threonine protein kinase Pkb2 of Bifidobacterium
           longum subsp. longum: Genetic environment and substrate specificity
    • Authors: V.Z. Nezametdinova; D.A. Mavletova; M.G. Alekseeva; M.S. Chekalina; N.V. Zakharevich; V.N. Danilenko
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Author(s): V.Z. Nezametdinova, D.A. Mavletova, M.G. Alekseeva, M.S. Chekalina, N.V. Zakharevich, V.N. Danilenko
      The objective of this study was to determine for phosphorylated substrates of the species-specific serine-threonine protein kinase (STPK) Pkb2 from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum GT15. Two approaches were employed: analyses of phosphorylated membrane vesicles protein spectra following kinase reactions and analyses of the genes surrounding pkb2. A bioinformatics analysis of the genes surrounding pkb2 found a species-specific gene cluster PFNA in the genomes of 34 different bifidobacterial species. The identified cluster consisted of 5–8 genes depending on the species. The first five genes are characteristic for all considered species. These are the following genes encoding serine-threonine protein kinase (pkb2), fibronectin type III domain-containing protein (fn3), AAA-ATPase (aaa-atp), hypothetical protein with DUF58 domain (duf58) and transglutaminase (tgm). The sixth (protein phosphatase, prpC), seventh (hypothetical protein, BLGT_RS02790), and eighth (FHA domain-containing protein, fha) genes are included in this cluster, but they are not found in all species. The operon organization of the PFNA gene cluster was confirmed with transcriptional analysis. AAA-ATPase, which is encoded by a gene of the PFNA gene cluster, was found to be a substrate of the STPK Pkb2. Fourteen AAA-ATPase sites (seven serine, six threonine, and one tyrosine) phosphorylated by STPK Pkb2 were revealed. Analysis of the spectra of phosphorylated membrane vesicles proteins allowed us to identify eleven proteins that were considered as possible Pkb2 substrates. They belong to several functional classes: proteins involved in transcription and translation; proteins of the F1-domain of the FoF1–ATPase; ABC-transporters; molecular chaperone GroEL; and glutamine synthase, GlnA1. All identified proteins were considered moonlighting proteins. Three out of 11 proteins (glutamine synthetase GlnA1 and FoF1-ATPase alpha and beta subunits) were selected for further in vitro phosphorylation assays and were shown to be phosphorylated by Pkb2. Four phosphorylated substrates of the species-specific STPK Pkb2 from B. longum subsp. longum GT15 were identified for the first time. They included the moonlighting protein glutamine synthase GlnA, FoF1-ATPase alpha and beta subunits, and the chaperone MoxR family of AAA-ATPase. The ability of bifidobacterial STPK to phosphorylate the substrate on serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues was shown for the first time.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.003
  • Toxin profile of fecal Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from
           children with autism spectrum disorders
    • Authors: Góra Bartłomiej; Gofron Zygmunt; Grosiak Magdalena; Aptekorz Małgorzata; Kazek Beata; Kocelak Piotr; Radosz-Komoniewska Halina; Chudek Jerzy; Martirosian Gayane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Author(s): Góra Bartłomiej, Gofron Zygmunt, Grosiak Magdalena, Aptekorz Małgorzata, Kazek Beata, Kocelak Piotr, Radosz-Komoniewska Halina, Chudek Jerzy, Martirosian Gayane
      Infectious factors are taken into consideration in pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD patients often suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. The intestinal microbiota of autistic patients significantly differs from that in healthy individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the profile of toxins produced by C. perfringens strains isolated from feces of children with ASD, with healthy individuals and obese subjects. This study included 111 strains of C. perfringens: 49 isolates from 29 children with ASD, 30 - from 17 healthy individuals and 32 - from 24 young obese subjects. Alpha, beta, beta2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin genes were detected using appropriate PCRs. The alpha toxin gene (cpa) was present in all 111 examined strains (100%). The beta2 gene (cpb2) was detected in 45/49 strains (91.8%) isolated from children with ASD, 17/30 (56.7%) isolates from healthy subjects, and 12 of 32 (37.5%) isolates from obese subjects. C. perfringens strains with cpb2 gene were detected in 27/29 ASD patients (93.1%), 10/17 healthy subjects (58.8%) and 11/24 (45.8%) obese subjects. Beta2 toxin encoding cpb2 gene was significantly more common in strains isolated from ASD patients, with no significant difference between control subjects regardless of diet. Further research to explain observed phenomena and pathomechanism of beta2 toxin is required.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.005
  • Binary Clostridium difficile toxin (CDT) - A virulence factor disturbing
           the cytoskeleton
    • Authors: Klaus Aktories; Panagiotis Papatheodorou; Carsten Schwan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Author(s): Klaus Aktories, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Carsten Schwan
      Clostridium difficile infection causes antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Major virulence factors of C. difficile are the Rho-glucosylating toxins TcdA and TcdB. In addition, many, so-called hypervirulent C. difficile strains produce the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CDT. CDT causes depolymerization of F-actin and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Thereby, many cellular functions, which depend on actin, are altered. CDT disturbs the dynamic balance between actin and microtubules in target cells. The toxin increases microtubule polymerization and induces the formation of microtubule-based protrusions at the plasma membrane of target cells. Moreover, CDT causes a redistribution of vesicles from the basolateral side to the apical side, where extracellular matrix proteins are released. These processes may increase the adherence of clostridia to target cells. Here, we review the effects of the action of CDT on the actin cytoskeleton and on the microtubule system.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T02:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.001
  • Improving culture media for the isolation of Clostridium difficile from
    • Authors: Muthu Dharmasena; Xiuping Jiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Author(s): Muthu Dharmasena, Xiuping Jiang
      This study was to optimize the detection methods for Clostridium difficile from the animal manure-based composts. Both autoclaved and unautoclaved dairy composts were inoculated with a 12-h old suspension of a non-toxigenic C. difficile strain (ATCC 43593) and then plated on selected agar for vegetative cells and endospores. Six types of enrichment broths supplemented with taurocholate and L-cysteine were assessed for detecting a low level of artificially inoculated C. difficile (ca. 5 spores/g) from dairy composts. The efficacy of selected enrichment broths was further evaluated by isolating C. difficile from 29 commercial compost samples. Our results revealed that using heat-shock was more effective than using ethanol-shock for inducing endospore germination, and the highest endospore count (p < 0.05) was yielded at 60 °C for 25 min. C. difficile agar base, supplemented with 0.1% L-cysteine, 7% defibrinated horse blood, and cycloserine-cefoxitin (CDA-CYS-H-CC agar) was the best medium (p < 0.05) for recovering vegetative cells from compost. C. difficile endospore populations from both types of composts enumerated on both CDA-CYS-H-CC agar supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate (CDA-CYS-H-CC-T agar) and brain heart infusion agar supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract, 0.1% L-cysteine, cycloserine-cefoxitin, and 0.1% sodium taurocholate (BHIA-YE-CYS-CC-T agar) media were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). Overall, enrichment of inoculated compost samples in broths containing moxalactam-norfloxacin (MN) produced significantly higher (p < 0.05) spore counts than in non-selective broths or broths supplemented with CC. Enrichment in BHIB-YE-CYS-MN-T broth followed by culturing on an agar containing 7% horse blood and 0.1% taurocholate provided a more sensitive and selective combination of media for detecting a low population of C. difficile from environmental samples with high background microflora.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T01:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.002
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Bacteroides fragilis using the
           MALDI Biotyper antibiotic susceptibility test rapid assay (MBT-ASTRA)
    • Authors: Ulrik Stenz Justesen; Ziyap Acar; Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham; Åsa Johansson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Author(s): Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Ziyap Acar, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham, Åsa Johansson
      This study evaluated the MBT-ASTRA for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Bacteroides fragilis with different classes of antibiotics. MALDI-TOF MS peak AUCs from suspensions with B. fragilis with and without an antibiotic were used to calculate the relative growth (AUC “with antibiotic” divided by “without antibiotic”). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. fragilis ATCC 25285 (susceptible) and B. fragilis O18 (resistant) was demonstrated with a clear difference of the relative growth between susceptible and resistant. The MBT-ASTRA needs further development and assessment but could be a relatively easy and inexpensive method for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing in specific cases of infection with B. fragilis.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T01:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.007
  • Characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum outer
           membrane proteins
    • Authors: S. Menon; D.K. Pillai; S. Narayanan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Author(s): S. Menon, D.K. Pillai, S. Narayanan
      Liver abscesses are of major economic importance to the cattle industry. These are mainly associated with the presence of Fusobacterium necrophorum, a non-spore forming and Gram-negative anaerobe. There are two main subspecies, F. necrophorum subspecies necrophorum and subsp. fundiliforme, and they differ molecularly, morphologically, biochemically and in virulence. Previous studies have shown that the outer membrane proteins (OMP) of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum are important for its successful binding to immobilized bovine adrenal gland capillary endothelial (EJG) cells. In this study, a 42.4 kDa OMP of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum with the highest binding capacity to EJG cells was characterized. The gene was cloned into pFLAG-CTS vector and the proteins were subsequently expressed on the surface of E. coli BL21 DE3 cells. When E. coli carrying the recombinant plasmid (SM 2013) was induced using IPTG, there was significant enhancement in the binding to immobilized EJG cells compared to both uninduced SM 2013 and the E. coli carrying control vector only. When fixed EJG cells were incubated with purified native OMP, SM 2013 showed lowered levels of binding, compared to the uninduced SM 2013 and the E. coli carrying control vector only. Pre-incubation of induced SM 2013 with polyclonal antibodies made against the OMP reduced the binding to immobilized EJG cells to uninduced SM 2013 levels. This gain of function by recombinant E. coli confirms the ability of this protein to act as an adhesion to help binding of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum to host cells.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T01:46:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.015
  • Acknowledgement to reviewers of Anaerobe in 2017
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T01:46:29Z
  • Historical and contemporary features of infections due to Clostridium
    • Authors: David M. Aronoff; Powel H. Kazanjian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2018
      Author(s): David M. Aronoff, Powel H. Kazanjian
      Clostridium novyi is an anaerobic bacterium that resides in the soil in nature and that may cause severe clinical infections in humans. It is named after Frederick Novy, who incidentally discovered the anaerobic organism responsible for septicemia in rabbits. In this paper, we explore the circumstances surrounding the identification of the organism. In particular, we address who Novy was and what he was trying to do when he first described the organism in the 1890s. We then address what is known about the biological features of the organism today, as well as the clinical syndromes that are now recognized to be associated with the microbe. Finally, we review efforts that have been made to use the organism for potential beneficial purposes for humans.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:10:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.012
  • A 3D intestinal tissue model supports Clostridioides difficile
           germination, colonization, toxin production and epithelial damage
    • Authors: Lamyaa Shaban; Ying Chen; Alyssa C. Fasciano; Yinan Lin; David L. Kaplan; Carol A. Kumamoto; Joan Mecsas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018
      Author(s): Lamyaa Shaban, Ying Chen, Alyssa C. Fasciano, Yinan Lin, David L. Kaplan, Carol A. Kumamoto, Joan Mecsas
      Endospore-forming Clostridioides difficile is a causative agent of antibiotic-induced diarrhea, a major nosocomial infection. Studies of its interactions with mammalian tissues have been hampered by the fact that C. difficile requires anaerobic conditions to survive after spore germination. We recently developed a bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model and found that low O2 conditions are produced in the lumen of these tissues. Here, we compared the ability of C. difficile spores to germinate, produce toxin and cause tissue damage in our bioengineered 3D tissue model versus in a 2D transwell model in which human cells form a polarized monolayer. 3D tissue models or 2D polarized monolayers on transwell filters were challenged with the non-toxin producing C. difficile CCUG 37787 serotype X (ATCC 43603) and the toxin producing UK1 C. difficile spores in the presence of the germinant, taurocholate. Spores germinated in both the 3D tissue model as well as the 2D transwell system, however toxin activity was significantly higher in the 3D tissue models compared to the 2D transwells. Moreover, the epithelium damage in the 3D tissue model was significantly more severe than in 2D transwells and damage correlated significantly with the level of toxin activity detected but not with the amount of germinated spores. Combined, these results show that the bioengineered 3D tissue model provides a powerful system with which to study early events leading to toxin production and tissue damage of C. difficile with mammalian cells under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these systems may be useful for examining the effects of microbiota, novel drugs and other potential therapeutics directed towards C. difficile infections.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:10:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.006
  • Comparative evaluation of lignocellulolytic activities of filamentous
           cultures of monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi
    • Authors: Sumit S. Dagar; Sanjay Kumar; Priti Mudgil; Anil K. Puniya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Author(s): Sumit S. Dagar, Sanjay Kumar, Priti Mudgil, Anil K. Puniya
      Sixteen strains of monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi were evaluated for cellulase, xylanase and esterase activities. Though strain level variations were observed among all genera, Neocallimastix and Orpinomyces strains exhibited the highest lignocellulolytic activities. The esterase activities of a monocentric group of anaerobic fungi were better than the polycentric group.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.004
  • Detection of B. fragilis group and diversity of bft enterotoxin and
           antibiotic resistance markers cepA, cfiA and nim among intestinal
           Bacteroides fragilis strains in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
    • Authors: Marjan Rashidan; Masoumeh Azimirad; Masoud Alebouyeh; Mehdi Ghobakhlou; Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei; Mohammad Reza Zali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Author(s): Marjan Rashidan, Masoumeh Azimirad, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mehdi Ghobakhlou, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
      We compared frequency of the members of B. fragilis group in 100 and 20 colon biopsy specimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients. Agar dilution and PCR were orderly used to detect minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin, imipenem, and metronidazole, and carriage of related resistance genes cepA, cfi, and nim. B. fragilis group was detected in 38% of IBD (UC: 36/89; CD:1/11) and 25% (5/20) of non-IBD patients. While B. vulgatus (UC: 20/36, CD: 1/2, control: 1/6); B. fragilis (UC: 18/36, CD: 1/2, control: 5/6); B. ovatus (UC: 2/36); B. caccae (UC: 1/36); and B. eggerthii (UC: 1/36) were characterized, colonization of B. thetaiotamicron, B. merdae, B. distasonis, B. stercoris and B. dorei species was not detected in these specimens. Co-existence of B. fragilis + B. vulgatus (5 patients) and B. vulgatus + B. caccae (1 patient) was detected just in UC patients. bft was detected among 31.5% (6/19) of B. fragilis strains in the IBD and 40% (2/5) in the non-IBD groups. Nearly, 73.6% of the strains from the patient group and 80% in control group harbored cepA; 31.5% and 20% in the patients and control groups harbored cfiA, and none of them harbored nim determinant. Co-occurrence of the cepA and cfiA was orderly detected in 10.5% (2/19) and 20% (1/5) of the strains in these groups. The resistance rates were detected as 95.8% (23/24 (to ampicillin (MIC range of ≤0.5-≥16 μg/ml), 0% to metronidazole and 29.1% to imipenem (7/24, MIC range ≤4–32 μg/ml). Nearly 25% (6/24) of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and imipenem, simultaneously. No statistically significant difference was detected between the IBD and control groups for drug resistance phenotypes. Statistical analysis showed significant associations between resistance to ampicillin or imipenem and carriage of cepA or cfiA, respectively (p value = 0.0007). PCR results on the extracted plasmids confirmed their roles in carriage of cfiA and cepA. These data provide guide for antibiotic therapy and highlights wide distribution of β-lactam resistant B. fragilis strains in patients with IBD and non-IBD intestinal disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.005
  • Characterization of recombinant Bacteroides fragilis sialidase expressed
           in Escherichia coli
    • Authors: Takaaki Yamamoto; Hideyo Ugai; Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji; Ayano Tada; Miad Elahi; Hitoshi Houchi; Tomomi Kuwahara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Author(s): Takaaki Yamamoto, Hideyo Ugai, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Ayano Tada, Miad Elahi, Hitoshi Houchi, Tomomi Kuwahara
      The human gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis produces sialidases that remove a terminal sialic acid from host-derived polysaccharides. Sialidase is considered to be involved in B. fragilis infection pathology. Native B. fragilis sialidase has been purified and characterized, and was shown to be post-translationally modified by glycosylation. However, the biochemical properties of recombinant B. fragilis sialidase expressed in a heterologous host remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the enzymatic properties of the 60-kDa sialidase NanH1 of B. fragilis YCH46, which was prepared as a recombinant protein (rNanH1) in Escherichia coli. In E. coli rNanH1 was expressed as inclusion bodies, which were separated from soluble proteins to allow solubilization of insoluble rNanH1 in a buffer containing 8 M urea and renaturation in refolding buffer containing 100 mM CaCl2 and 50 mM L-arginine. The specific activity of renatured rNanH1 measured using 4-methylumberiferyl-α-D-N-acetyl neuraminic acid as a substrate was 6.16 μmol/min/mg. The optimal pH of rNanH1 ranged from 5.0 to 5.5. The specific activity of rNanH1 was enhanced in the presence of calcium ions. rNanH1 preferentially hydrolyzed the sialyl α2,8 linkage and cleaved sialic acids from mucin and serum proteins (e.g., fetuin and transferrin) but not from α1-acid glycoprotein, which is similar to the previously observed biochemical properties for a native sialidase purified from B. fragilis SBT3182. The results and methods described in this study will be useful for preparing and characterizing recombinant proteins for other B. fragilis sialidase isoenzymes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.003
  • Polymicrobial anaerobic bacteremia due to Atopobium rimae and Parvimonas
           micra in a patient with cancer
    • Authors: Fernando Cobo; Jaime Borrego; Mª Dolores Rojo; José María Navarro-Marí
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Author(s): Fernando Cobo, Jaime Borrego, Mª Dolores Rojo, José María Navarro-Marí
      Atopobium rimae and Parvimonas micra are both Gram-positive anaerobes involved infrequently in human infections. We report a polymicrobial anaerobic bacteremia caused by these microorganisms. A 43-year-old woman receiving coadjuvant chemotherapy due to a retroperitoneal leiomiosarcoma presented with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever (38 °C). The two blood cultures resulted in isolation of A. rimae and P. micra, being identified at species level by matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology with high log scores. The microorganisms were susceptible to penicilllin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole, imipenem, and moxifloxacin. Treatment with levofloxacin was started and subsequently it was changed to piperacillin/tazobactam plus metronidazole and completed for 10 days, but the patient died days later due to her underlying disease.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.02.002
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum and adverse pregnancy outcomes: A review of
           epidemiological and mechanistic evidence
    • Authors: Emilie L. Vander Haar; Jeewon So; Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman; Yiping W. Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Author(s): Emilie L. Vander Haar, Jeewon So, Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, Yiping W. Han
      Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobic oral commensal commonly found in periodontal disease. F. nucleatum has been associated with multiple systemic diseases, including oral, gastro-intestinal, rheumatologic, and vascular pathology. As pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of periodontal disease, there has also been significant research into the effects of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article reviews the epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of the association and role of F. nucleatum in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.008
  • Investigating the effect of supplementation on Clostridium difficile spore
           recovery in two solid agars
    • Authors: D.S. Pickering; J.J. Vernon; J. Freeman; M.H. Wilcox; C.H. Chilton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Author(s): D.S. Pickering, J.J. Vernon, J. Freeman, M.H. Wilcox, C.H. Chilton
      Background A variety of supplemented solid media are used within Clostridium difficile research to optimally recover spores. Our study sought to investigate different media and additives, providing a method of optimised C. difficile spore recovery. Additionally, due to the results observed in the initial experiments, the inhibitory effects of three amino acids (glycine, L-histidine & L-phenylalanine) on C. difficile spore outgrowth were investigated. Methods Spores of five C. difficile strains (PCR ribotypes 001,015,020,027,078) were recovered on two commonly used solid media (BHI & CCEY) supplemented with various concentrations of germinants (taurocholate, glycine & lysozyme). Agar-incorporation minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing was carried out for glycine and taurocholate on vegetative cells and spores of all five strains. Additionally a BHI broth microassay method was utilised to test the growth of C. difficile in the presence of increasing concentrations (0,1,2,3,4%) of three amino acids (glycine,L-histidine,L-phenyalanine). Results CCEY agar alone and BHI supplemented with taurocholate (0.1/1%) provided optimal recovery for C. difficile spores. Glycine was inhibitory to spore recovery at higher concentrations, although these varied between the two media used. In agar-incorporated MIC testing, glycine concentrations higher than 2% (20 g/L) were inhibitory to both C. difficile spore and vegetative cell growth versus the control (mean absorbance = 0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.12 ± 0.01) (P < 0.001). This indicates a potential mechanism whereby glycine interferes with vegetative cell growth. Further microbroth testing provided evidence of inhibition by two amino acids other than glycine, L-histidine and L-phenylalanine. Conclusions We provide two media for optimal recovery of C. difficile spores (CCEY alone and BHI supplemented with 0.1/1% taurocholate). CCEY is preferred for isolation from faecal samples. For pure cultures, either CCEY or supplemented BHI agar are appropriate. The inhibitory nature of three amino acids (glycine,L-histidine,L-phenylalanine) to C. difficile vegetative cell proliferation is also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.010
  • Effect of the ionophore monensin and tannin extracts supplemented to grass
           silage on populations of ruminal cellulolytics and methanogens in vitro
    • Authors: M. Witzig; M. Zeder; M. Rodehutscord
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Author(s): M. Witzig, M. Zeder, M. Rodehutscord
      This study examined whether the methane-decreasing effect of monensin (∼21%) and different hydrolysable tannins (24%–65%) during in vitro fermentation of grass silage was accompanied by changes in abundances of cellulolytics and methanogens. Samples of liquid (LAM) and solid (SAM) associated microbes were obtained from two rumen simulation technique experiments in which grass silage was either tested in combination with monensin (0, 2 or 4 mg d−1) or with different tannin extracts from chestnut, valonea, sumac and grape seed (0 or 1.5 g d−1). Total prokaryotes were quantified by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol (DAPI) staining of paraformaldehyde-ethanol-fixed cells and relative abundances of ruminal cellulolytic and methanogenic species were assessed by real time quantitative PCR. Results revealed no change in absolute numbers of prokaryotic cells with monensin treatment, neither in LAM nor in SAM. By contrast, supplementation of chestnut and grape seed tannins decreased total prokaryotic counts compared to control. However, relative abundances of total methanogens did not differ between tannin treatments. Thus, the decreased methane production by 65% and 24% observed for chestnut and grape seed tannins, respectively, may have been caused by a lower total number of methanogens, but methane production seemed to be also dependent on changes in the microbial community composition. While the relative abundance of F. succinogenes decreased with monensin addition, chestnut and valonea tannins inhibited R. albus. Moreover, a decline in relative abundances of Methanobrevibacter sp., especially M. ruminantium, and Methanosphaera stadtmanae was shown with supplementation of monensin or chestnut tannins. Proportions of Methanomicrobium mobile were decreased by monensin in LAM while chestnut and valonea had an increasing effect on this methanogenic species. Our results demonstrate a different impact of monensin and tannins on ruminal cellulolytics and gave indication that methane decrease by monensin and chestnut tannins was associated with decreased abundances of M. ruminantium and M. stadtmanae.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.012
  • Temporal changes of the bacterial community colonizing wheat straw in the
           cow rumen
    • Authors: Wei Jin; Ying Wang; Yuanfei Li; Yanfen Cheng; Weiyun Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Author(s): Wei Jin, Ying Wang, Yuanfei Li, Yanfen Cheng, Weiyun Zhu
      This study used Miseq pyrosequencing and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the temporal changes in the bacterial community tightly attached to wheat straw in the cow rumen. The wheat straw was incubated in the rumens and samples were recovered at various times. The wheat straw degradation exhibited three phases: the first degradation phase occurred within 0.5 h, and the second degradation phase occurred after 6 h, with a stalling phase occurring between 0.5 and 6 h. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the colonization of the microorganisms on the wheat straw over time. The bacterial communities at 0.5, 6, 24, and 72 h were determined, corresponding to the degradation phases. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the two most dominant phyla in the bacterial communities at the four time points. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed that the bacterial communities at the four time points were distinct from each other. The wheat straw-associated bacteria stabilized at the phylum level after 0.5 h of rumen incubation, and only modest phylum-level and family-level changes were observed for most taxa between 0.5 h and 72 h. The relative abundance of the dominant genera, Butyrivibrio, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, Succiniclasticum, Clostridium, Prevotella, YRC22, CF231, and Treponema, changed significantly over time (P < .05). However, at the genus level, unclassified taxa accounted for 70.3% ± 6.1% of the relative abundance, indicating their probable importance in the degradation of wheat straw as well as in the temporal changes of the bacterial community. Thus, understanding the function of these unclassified taxa is of great importance for targeted improvement of forage use efficiency in ruminants. Collectively, our results revealed distinct degradation phases of wheat straw and corresponding changes in the colonized bacterial community.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.01.004
  • Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteremia: A case report and literature
    • Authors: Hideharu Hagiya; Keigo Kimura; Isao Nishi; Norihisa Yamamoto; Hisao Yoshida; Yukihiro Akeda; Kazunori Tomono
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Author(s): Hideharu Hagiya, Keigo Kimura, Isao Nishi, Norihisa Yamamoto, Hisao Yoshida, Yukihiro Akeda, Kazunori Tomono
      Desulfovibrio spp. are sulfate-reducing, anaerobic bacteria that are ubiquitously found in the environment. These organisms infrequently cause human infections, and the clinical characteristics of infection with Desulfovibrio spp. remain unclear. Here, we describe a case of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteremia in an 88-year-old Japanese man with a past medical history of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). His chief complaint was hemoptysis for 2 weeks. A chest contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated an enlarged thoracic aortic aneurysm surrounded by a ring-enhanced lesion, recognized as mediastinal abscess. Gram-negative spiral bacilli were detected in anaerobic blood culture. These bacteria could not be identified using conventional methods, but by analyzing a full base sequence of 16S rDNA, they were identified as D. desulfuricans subsp. desulfuricans. The patient underwent an emergent re-TEVAR, and the infection subsided after being treated with tazobactam/piperacillin and clindamycin, followed by metronidazole. A literature review of previous cases of D. desulfuricans bacteremia suggested that the pathogen was derived from bacterial translocation from the intestine in most cases. Desulfovibrio infection is presumably underestimated due to its infrequency, indolent growth, and difficulty in identification. Desulfovibrio spp. should be suspected when spiral rods are observed in anaerobic culture, and molecular analysis is required for accurate species-level differentiation of the pathogens. To better understand the pathogenicity of these fastidious organisms, further cases based on the exact bacterial identification should be investigated.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T10:47:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.013
  • An in vitro study to assess the impact of tetracycline on the human
           intestinal microbiome
    • Authors: Ji Young Jung; Youngbeom Ahn; Sangeeta Khare; Kuppan Gokulan; Silvia A. Piñeiro; Carl E. Cerniglia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017
      Author(s): Ji Young Jung, Youngbeom Ahn, Sangeeta Khare, Kuppan Gokulan, Silvia A. Piñeiro, Carl E. Cerniglia
      The human intestinal microbiome, a generally stable ecosystem, could be potentially altered by the ingestion of antimicrobial drug residues in foods derived from animals. Data and the scientific published literature on the effects of antimicrobial residues on the human intestinal microbiome are reviewed by national regulatory authorities as part of the human food safety evaluation of veterinary antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals. In this study, we determined if tetracycline, at low residue concentrations, could impact the human intestinal microbiome structure and the resistance-gene profile, following acute and subchronic exposure. The effects of 0.15, 1.5, 15, and 150 μg/ml of tetracycline, after 24 h and 40 days of exposure, in 3% human fecal suspensions, collected from three individuals (A, B, and C) were investigated using in vitro batch cultures. Results were variable, with either no change or minor changes in total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies after exposure of fecal samples to tetracycline, because of the inter-individual variation of human gastrointestinal tract microbiota. Bacterial community analysis using rRNA-based pyrosequencing revealed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in the three fecal samples; the ratio of phylotypes varied among individuals. The evaluation of bacterial community changes at the genus level, from control to tetracycline-treated fecal samples, suggested that tetracycline under the conditions of this study could lead to slight differences in the composition of intestinal microbiota. The genus Bacteroides (of the Bacteroidetes) was consistently altered from 1.68 to 5.70% and 4.82–8.22% at tetracycline concentrations of 0.15 μg/ml or above at both time points for individual A, respectively, and increased 5.13–13.50% and 10.92–22.18% for individual B, respectively. Clostridium family XI increased 3.50–25.34% in the presence of tetracycline at 40 days for individual C. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) confirmed the pyrosequencing findings of inter-individual variability of the ratio of phylotypes and the effect of tetracycline. Among the 23 tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) screened, four tet genes (tetO, Q, W, and X) were major TRGs in control and tetracycline-dosed fecal samples. A variable to slight increase of copy number of TRGs appeared to be related to tetracycline treatment, interindividual variability and duration of exposure. Despite, the inherent variability of the intestinal microbiota observed among or within individuals, this pilot study contributes to the knowledge base of the impact of low residue concentrations of tetracycline on the human intestinal microbiome on the potential for antimicrobial resistance.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T10:47:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.011
  • In-vitro evaluation of marine derived fungi against Cutibacterium acnes
    • Authors: Shivankar Agrawal; Alok Adholeya; Colin J. Barrow; Sunil Kumar Deshmukh
      Pages: 5 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49
      Author(s): Shivankar Agrawal, Alok Adholeya, Colin J. Barrow, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh
      Cutibacterium acnes (or Propionibacterium acnes) is the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-C. acnes and anti-S. epidermidis properties of some marine fungi isolated from different Indian marine environments. Seventy fungal isolates were obtained from samples collected from the west coasts and Andaman Island, India. Methanol extracts of 35 isolates were screened for their antibacterial properties and 5 out of the 35 isolates displayed significant inhibition as compared with tetracycline. DNA was successfully extracted from these five fungal isolates and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The methanol extracts possessed antibacterial activity against C. acnes and S. epidermidis with MIC values ranged from 0.8 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL. SEM analysis revealed that the extract induces deleterious morphological changes in the bacterial cell membrane. This study has identified some fungi extracts with significant antibacterial activity. The extracts may have potential for development as an antibacterial agent in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T09:44:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
  • Co-occurrence of early gut colonization in neonatal piglets with
           microbiota in the maternal and surrounding delivery environments
    • Authors: Xue Chen; Jumei Xu; Erdou Ren; Yong Su; Weiyun Zhu
      Pages: 30 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49
      Author(s): Xue Chen, Jumei Xu, Erdou Ren, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
      The early development of gut microbiota plays a fundamental role in host health; so far, the main origins of the first colonization in newborn piglets are largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the early development of gut microbiota in newborn piglets during lactation and their co-occurrence with microbes in the maternal and surrounding environments by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the microbial richness and diversity in piglets' feces (PF) significantly increased from birth to weaning (21 d). The composition and function of microbiota in the feces of piglets after birth tended to be similar to those from the slatted floor (FL), sow's milk (SM) and nipple surface (SN), and lacter, the fecal microbial communities of piglets later during lactation were more similar to their mother's. SourceTracker analysis showed that the microbiota from the FL, SM and SN were most likely the earliest passengers to the neonatal gastrointestinal tract, but did not have a long stay during lactation. The sow's fecal microbiota were easier to colonize in newborn piglet's guts via the co-occurrence effect with former settlers. This study suggests that microbes from the maternal and surrounding environments may play an important role in the microbial succession of newborn piglets after birth.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
  • Immunization with a nontoxic naturally occurring Clostridium perfringens
           alpha toxin induces neutralizing antibodies in rabbits
    • Authors: Flávia de Faria Siqueira; Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva; Anderson Oliveira do Carmo; Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro de Oliveira-Mendes; Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato; Evanguedes Kalapothakis
      Pages: 48 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49
      Author(s): Flávia de Faria Siqueira, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Anderson Oliveira do Carmo, Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro de Oliveira-Mendes, Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Evanguedes Kalapothakis
      Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin, encoded by plc gene, has been implicated in gas gangrene, a life threatening infection. Vaccination is considered one of the best solutions against Clostridium infections. Although studies have identified many low quality clostridial vaccines, the use of recombinant proteins has been considered a promising alternative. Previously, a naturally occurring alpha toxin isoform (αAV1b) was identified with a mutation at residue 11 (His/Tyr), which can affect its enzymatic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the mutation in the αAV1b isoform could result in an inactive toxin and was able to induce protection against the native alpha toxin. We used recombinant protein techniques to determine whether this mutation in αAV1b could result in an inactive toxin compared to the active isoform, αZ23. Rabbits were immunized with the recombinant toxins (αAV1b and αZ23) and with native alpha toxin. αAV1b showed no enzymatic and hemolytic activities. ELISA titration assays showed a high titer of both anti-recombinant toxin (anti-rec-αAV1b and anti-rec-αZ23) antibodies against the native alpha toxin. The alpha antitoxin titer detected in the rabbits' serum pool was 24.0 IU/mL for both recombinant toxins. These results demonstrate that the inactive naturally mutated αAV1b is able to induce an immune response, and suggest it can be considered as a target for the development of a commercial vaccine against C. perfringens alpha toxin.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
  • Investigation of Clostridium botulinum group III's mobilome content
    • Authors: Cédric Woudstra; Caroline Le Maréchal; Rozenn Souillard; Fabrizio Anniballi; Bruna Auricchio; Luca Bano; Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer; Miriam Koene; Isabelle Mermoud; Roseane B. Brito; Francisco C.F. Lobato; Rodrigo O.S. Silva; Martin B. Dorner; Patrick Fach
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Author(s): Cédric Woudstra, Caroline Le Maréchal, Rozenn Souillard, Fabrizio Anniballi, Bruna Auricchio, Luca Bano, Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer, Miriam Koene, Isabelle Mermoud, Roseane B. Brito, Francisco C.F. Lobato, Rodrigo O.S. Silva, Martin B. Dorner, Patrick Fach
      Clostridium botulinum group III is mainly responsible for botulism in animals. It could lead to high animal mortality rates and, therefore, represents a major environmental and economic concern. Strains of this group harbor the botulinum toxin locus on an unstable bacteriophage. Since the release of the first complete C. botulinum group III genome sequence (strain BKT015925), strains have been found to contain others mobile elements encoding for toxin components. In this study, seven assays targeting toxin genes present on the genetic mobile elements of C. botulinum group III were developed with the objective to better characterize C. botulinum group III strains. The investigation of 110 C. botulinum group III strains and 519 naturally contaminated samples collected during botulism outbreaks in Europe showed alpha-toxin and C2-I/C2-II markers to be systematically associated with type C/D bont-positive samples, which may indicate an important role of these elements in the pathogenicity mechanisms. On the contrary, bont type D/C strains and the related positive samples appeared to contain almost none of the markers tested. Interestingly, 31 bont-negative samples collected on farms after a botulism outbreak revealed to be positive for some of the genetic mobile elements tested. This suggests loss of the bont phage, either in farm environment after the outbreak or during laboratory handling.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T10:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.009
  • Differences in fecal microbial metabolites and microbiota of children with
           autism spectrum disorders
    • Authors: Dae-Wook Kang; Zehra Esra Ilhan; Nancy G. Isern; David W. Hoyt; Daniel P. Howsmon; Michael Shaffer; Catherine A. Lozupone; Juergen Hahn; James B. Adams; Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017
      Author(s): Dae-Wook Kang, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Nancy G. Isern, David W. Hoyt, Daniel P. Howsmon, Michael Shaffer, Catherine A. Lozupone, Juergen Hahn, James B. Adams, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
      Evidence supporting that gut problems are linked to ASD symptoms has been accumulating both in humans and animal models of ASD. Gut microbes and their metabolites may be linked not only to GI problems but also to ASD behavior symptoms. Despite this high interest, most previous studies have looked mainly at microbial structure, and studies on fecal metabolites are rare in the context of ASD. Thus, we aimed to detect fecal metabolites that may be present at significantly different concentrations between 21 children with ASD and 23 neurotypical children and to investigate its possible link to human gut microbiome. Using NMR spectroscopy and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we examined metabolite profiles and microbial compositions in fecal samples, respectively. Of the 59 metabolites detected, isopropanol concentrations were significantly higher in feces of children with ASD after multiple testing corrections. We also observed similar trends of fecal metabolites to previous studies; children with ASD have higher fecal p-cresol and possibly lower GABA concentrations. In addition, Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) with leave-out-validation suggested that a group of metabolites-caprate, nicotinate, glutamine, thymine, and aspartate-may potentially function as a modest biomarker to separate ASD participants from the neurotypical group (78% sensitivity and 81% specificity). Consistent with our previous Arizona cohort study, we also confirmed lower gut microbial diversity and reduced relative abundances of Prevotella copri in children with ASD. After multiple testing corrections, we also learned that relative abundances of Feacalibacterium prausnitzii and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were lower in feces of children with ASD. Despite a relatively short list of fecal metabolites, the data in this study support that children with ASD have altered metabolite profiles in feces when compared with neurotypical children and warrant further investigation of metabolites in larger cohorts.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.007
  • The incidence of Clostridioides difficile and Clostridium perfringens
           netF-positive strains in diarrheic dogs
    • Authors: Amanda Nadia Diniz; Fernanda Morcatti Coura; Maja Rupnik; Vicki Adams; Thomas L. Stent; Julian I. Rood; Carlos Augusto de Oliveira; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato; Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Author(s): Amanda Nadia Diniz, Fernanda Morcatti Coura, Maja Rupnik, Vicki Adams, Thomas L. Stent, Julian I. Rood, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva
      The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile and Clostridium perfringens in the feces of diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs. Also, the presence of other common canine enteropathogens was examined. Toxigenic C. difficile and C. perfringens positive for the NetF-encoding gene (netF) were detected in 11 (11.9%) and seven (7.6%) diarrheic dogs, respectively. Three dogs were diagnosed simultaneously with toxigenic C. difficile and netF-positive C. perfringens. Among other enteropathogens, Giardia sp. was the most common agent detected in dogs positive for toxigenic C. difficile or netF-positive C. perfringens. The results suggest that C. difficile and C. perfringens occur more frequently as a primary cause of diarrhea.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.003
  • Molecular mechanistic pathway of colo-rectal carcinogenesis associated
           with intestinal microbiota
    • Authors: Paramita Mandal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Author(s): Paramita Mandal
      The colon rectal portion of gastrointestinal tract (GI) is full of microorganisms with different complex community that plays important role in maintaining homeostasis. But now-a-days different literature indicated that microbiota cause development of colorectal cancer (CRC) with a disease and ultimately aggravates to death. The mechanism inside the colo-rectal portion of GI tract is not fully well-known and bacterial contribution inside it is also fully unclear. Therefore, there is certain evidence trying a target about the unclear mechanism between intestinal microbiota and CRC. Different reports revealed that colo-rectal microorganisms is playing a great role in inducing the onset and progression of CRC with different dynamic mechanisms viz. acceleration of chronic inflammatory state, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation, the production of toxic metabolites, or heterocyclic amine activation of pro-diet carcinogenic compounds. There is growing evidence that individuals with colonic adenomas and carcinomas harbor a distinct microbiota. Alterations to the gut microbiota may allow the outgrowth of bacterial populations that induce genomic mutations or exacerbate tumor-promoting inflammation. While cancer is largely considered to be a disease of genetic and environmental factors, increasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting tumor growth and spread. Despite all these advances, different studies depicted the relationship between microbiota and CRC in humans and animal models and aid in developing alternate therapeutic approach based on gut microbiota manipulations. Alteration of the microbiota may be a useful to preventing and altering the trajectory of colorectal cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.008
  • Three-centre evaluation of laboratory Clostridium difficile detection
           algorithms and the EntericBio® realtime C. difficile assay
    • Authors: Lucey Blake; Watson McIlhagga Quinn G.D. Corcoran Ratnaraja Swindells
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Author(s): B. Lucey, L. Blake, M. Watson, A. McIlhagga, N. Quinn, G.D. Corcoran, N. Ratnaraja, J. Swindells
      The comparatively high cost of laboratory detection methods for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) coupled to a low prevalence rate has resulted in testing algorithms that use cheaper and relatively sensitive screening methods, followed by more specific confirmatory methods. The aim of this prospectively-conducted study from two centres in the UK, and one in the Republic of Ireland was to determine the efficacy of the EntericBio® realtime C. difficile Assay (EBCD) for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile in stool samples. The EBCD was compared to the in-use testing methods for Clostridium difficile (CD) detection in each centre. In the two UK centres, the EBCD was compared to the C.diff Quik Chek Complete® kit (Techlab), and discrepancies were tested further using The Xpert® C. difficile PCR assay (Cepheid) and PCR ribotyping after cultivation using the spore culture method, respectively. In the Irish centre, EBCD comparison was to an algorithm of C. DIFF CHEK™-60 test (Techlab) for screening followed by C. difficile Premier ™ Toxins A&B assay (Meridian Bioscience®) in the case of positive results; discrepancies were tested using the Xpert® C. difficile PCR assay. In a retrospective analysis of data, a total of 947 stool samples were tested, of which eight (0.8%) proved inhibitory to the EBCD assay. Of the 939 valid tests conducted, reported sensitivities of the EBCD were 94.7%, 100% and 97.9%, respectively; specificities were 99.6%, 100% and 100%, respectively; positive predictive values were 94.7%, 100% and 100%, respectively, and negative predictive values were 99.6%, 100% and 99.8%, respectively. The CD positivity rates in the current study ranged between 6.6% and 8.2%.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
  • A helicase-containing module defines a family of pCD630-like plasmids in
           Clostridium difficile
    • Authors: Wiep Klaas; Smits Scott Weese Adam Roberts Harmanus Bastian Hornung
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Author(s): Wiep Klaas Smits, J. Scott Weese, Adam P. Roberts, Céline Harmanus, Bastian Hornung
      Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive and sporulating enteropathogen that is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. Even though a large number of genomes of this species have been sequenced, only a few plasmids have been described in the literature. Here, we use a combination of in silico analyses and laboratory experiments to show that plasmids are common in C. difficile. We focus on a group of plasmids that share similarity with the plasmid pCD630, from the reference strain 630. The family of pCD630-like plasmids is defined by the presence of a conserved putative helicase that is likely part of the plasmid replicon. This replicon is compatible with at least some other C. difficile replicons, as strains can carry pCD630-like plasmids in addition to other plasmids. We find two distinct sub-groups of pCD630-like plasmids that differ in size and accessory modules. This study is the first to describe a family of plasmids in C. difficile.

      PubDate: 2017-12-23T09:51:34Z
  • The International Anaerobe Quality Assurance Scheme (IAQAS)
    • Authors: T. Morris; S. Copsey-Mawer; H. Hughes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Author(s): T. Morris, S. Copsey-Mawer, H. Hughes

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.009
  • Hierarchical recognition of amino acid co-germinants during Clostridioides
           difficile spore germination
    • Authors: Ritu Shrestha; Joseph A. Sorg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Author(s): Ritu Shrestha, Joseph A. Sorg
      Bile acids are an important signal for germination of Clostridioides difficile spores; however, the bile acid signal alone is not sufficient. Amino acids, such as glycine, are another signal necessary for germination by C. difficile spores. Prior studies on the amino acid signal required for germination have shown that there is a preference for the amino acid used as a signal for germination. Previously we found that d-alanine can function as a co-germinant for C. difficile spores at 37 °C but not at 25 °C. Here, we tested the ability of other amino acids to act as co-germinants with taurocholate (TA) at 37 °C and found that many amino acids previously categorized as non-co-germinants are co-germinants at 37 °C. Based on the EC50 values calculated for two different strains, we found that C. difficile spores recognize different amino acids with varying efficiencies. Using this data, we ranked the amino acids based on their effect on germination and found that in addition to d-alanine, other D-forms of amino acids are also used by C. difficile spores as co-germinants. Among the different types of amino acids, ones with branched chains such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine are the poorest co-germinants. However, glycine is still the most effective amino acid signal for both strains. Our results suggest that the yet-to-be-identified amino acid germinant receptor is highly promiscuous.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.001
  • Developing an in vitro artificial sebum model to study Propionibacterium
           acnes biofilms
    • Authors: Karl-Jan Spittaels; Tom Coenye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Author(s): Karl-Jan Spittaels, Tom Coenye
      Aim The aim of the present study was to develop a new model system to study Propionibacterium acnes biofilms. This model should be representative for the conditions encountered in the pilosebaceous unit. Methods and results The new model, consists of an artificial sebum pellet supported by a silicone disc. Sebum pellets were inoculated with various P. acnes strains isolated from both normal and acneic skin. Growth and biofilm formation was verified by conventional plating at different time points, as well as by resazurin assays and fluorescence microscopy after LIVE/DEAD staining. The artificial sebum pellets were also used in assays to measure the production of certain virulence factors implicated in the pathogenesis of acne, including lipase, protease and the presence of CAMP factors. Conclusion The artificial sebum model can sustain biofilm growth of P. acnes, as was determined by increasing CFU counts for up to 1 week after inoculation. Metabolic activity and biofilm formation were confirmed using resazurin staining and fluorescence microscopy respectively. The production of virulence factors in this model was demonstrated as well.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T16:42:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.11.002
  • Chorioamnionitis due to Leptotrichia trevisanii
    • Authors: Dionisia Fontanals; Carlos García-Miralles; Rosa Ballester; Belen Cochs; Ruth Orellana; Sílvia Capilla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Author(s): Dionisia Fontanals, Carlos García-Miralles, Rosa Ballester, Belen Cochs, Ruth Orellana, Sílvia Capilla
      Very long fusiform gram-negative bacilli were observed after Gram staining of amniotic fluid from a 36-year-old multigravida woman. At 24 hours, pure, abundant growth of smooth, gray, only slightly convex catalase-positive and oxidase-negative colonies measuring about 2 mm were observed. Growth was greater in anaerobic than in aerobic conditions. The bacterium was identified as Leptotrichia trevisanii by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Ampicillin and gentamicin were prescribed for chorioamnionitis, and vaginal prostaglandins were administered to terminate the pregnancy. The patient remained afebrile throughout 48 hours and was discharged. Microscopic examination of the placenta revealed severe acute chorioamnionitis with a maternal inflammatory response and abundant bacillary-shaped microorganisms. To our knowledge, this isolate constitutes the first reported case of chorioamnionitis caused by L. trevisanii.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.11.001
  • A molecular technique to explore the relationship between Porphyromonas
           gingivalis and severity of chronic periodontitis: A clinical approach
    • Authors: J. Bagavad Gita; A.B. Aishwarya; N. Pavithra; S.C. Chandrasekaran; Ann V. George; A. Gnanamani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Author(s): J. Bagavad Gita, A.B. Aishwarya, N. Pavithra, S.C. Chandrasekaran, Ann V. George, A. Gnanamani
      Relationship between clinical severities of periodontal disease and the expression of the associated pathogens serve as good indicators of real time disease activity and progression. A double blind study using Image J software carried out to assess the density of the amplified band for Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontally healthy and disease subjects. Results on image densities of P. gingivalis showed a statistical significance (p < 0.005) between healthy and diseased subjects and also within the various groups of periodontal disease severity. Thus, assessment of relative gel image density can be a simple yet valuable tool to monitor real time periodontal disease activity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.011
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