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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3031 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Anaerobe
  [SJR: 1.066]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • A comparative study of Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes clones from
           acne patients and healthy controls
    • Authors: H.B. Lomholt; C.F.P. Scholz; H. Brüggemann; H. Tettelin; M. Kilian
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 47
      Author(s): H.B. Lomholt, C.F.P. Scholz, H. Brüggemann, H. Tettelin, M. Kilian
      Background Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes is assumed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Objectives To examine if clones with distinct virulence properties are associated with acne. Methods Multiple C. acnes isolates from follicles and surface skin of patients with moderate to severe acne and healthy controls were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. To determine if CC18 isolates from acne patients differ from those of controls in the possession of virulence genes or lack of genes conducive to a harmonious coexistence the full genomes of dominating CC18 follicular clones from six patients and five controls were sequenced. Results Individuals carried one to ten clones simultaneously. The dominating C. acnes clones in follicles from acne patients were exclusively from the phylogenetic clade I-1a and all belonged to clonal complex CC18 with the exception of one patient dominated by the worldwide-disseminated and often antibiotic resistant clone ST3. The clonal composition of healthy follicles showed a more heterogeneous pattern with follicles dominated by clones representing the phylogenetic clades I-1a, I-1b, I-2 and II. Comparison of follicular CC18 gene contents, allelic versions of putative virulence genes and their promoter regions, and 54 variable-length intragenic and inter-genic homopolymeric tracts showed extensive conservation and no difference associated with the clinical origin of isolates. Conclusions The study supports that C. acnes strains from clonal complex CC18 and the often antibiotic resistant clone ST3 are associated with acne and suggests that susceptibility of the host rather than differences within these clones may determine the clinical outcome of colonization.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing results of
           clinically significant anaerobic bacteria in a Slovenian tertiary-care
           hospital in 2015
    • Authors: Samo Jeverica; Urša Kolenc; Manica Mueller-Premru; Lea Papst
      Pages: 64 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 47
      Author(s): Samo Jeverica, Urša Kolenc, Manica Mueller-Premru, Lea Papst
      The aim of our study was to determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 2673 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera, isolated in 2015 in a large tertiary-care hospital in Slovenia. The species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined immediately at the isolation of the strains against: penicillin, co-amoxiclav, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole, using gradient diffusion methodology and EUCAST breakpoints. The most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis group with 31% (n = 817), Gram positive anaerobic cocci (GPACs) with 22% (n = 589), Prevotella with 14% (n = 313) and Propionibacterium with 8% (n = 225). Metronidazole has retained full activity (100%) against all groups of anaerobic bacteria intrinsically susceptible to it. Co-amoxiclav and imipenem were active against most tested anaerobes with zero or low resistance rates. However, observed resistance to co-amoxiclav (8%) and imipenem (1%) is worrying especially among B. fragilis group isolates. High overall resistance (23%) to clindamycin was detected in our study and was highest among the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, GPACs and Clostridium. Routine testing of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria is feasible and provides good surveillance data.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2017)
       
  • Stress hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
           effects on the anaerobic bacteria
    • Authors: Lyudmila Boyanova
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Lyudmila Boyanova
      Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes. The effects are species-specific and perhaps strain-specific. Discrepancies in the results of some studies can be due to the different methods and media used, catecholamine concentrations, measurement techniques and the low number of strains tested. Biological effects of the stress hormones on the anaerobes may range from halitosis and a worsening of periodontal diseases to tissue damages and atherosclerotic plaque ruptures. Optimizations of the research methods and a detailed assessment of the catecholamine effects in conditions mimicking those in affected organs and tissues, as well as the effects on the quorum sensing and virulence of the anaerobes and the full spectrum of biological consequences of the effects are interesting topics for further evaluation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T19:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type A from wild bharals (Pseudois
           nayaur) following sudden death in Tibet, China
    • Authors: Lingwei Zhu; Wei Zhou; Tiecheng Wang; Haiyang Xiang; Xue Ji; Yixiao Han; Yuan Tian; Yang Sun; Jun Liu; Xuejun Guo
      Pages: 20 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Lingwei Zhu, Wei Zhou, Tiecheng Wang, Haiyang Xiang, Xue Ji, Yixiao Han, Yuan Tian, Yang Sun, Jun Liu, Xuejun Guo
      Dozens of wild bharals died suddenly in Tibet. Necropsy showed severe congestion and hemorrhage in multiple organs, with large numbers of Gram-positive bacilli. Strains of Clostridium perfringens type A were isolated from the different organs and the intestinal contents. The other possible pathogens were ruled out by PCR.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T19:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of stable hemiaminals against Porphyromonas
           gingivalis
    • Authors: Teresa Olczak; Michał Śmiga; Anna Kwiecień; Marcin Bielecki; Robert Wróbel; Mariusz Olczak; Zbigniew Ciunik
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Teresa Olczak, Michał Śmiga, Anna Kwiecień, Marcin Bielecki, Robert Wróbel, Mariusz Olczak, Zbigniew Ciunik
      Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major etiologic agent and a key pathogen responsible for the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. Controlling the number of periodontal pathogens is one of the primary actions for maintaining oral health; therefore, active compounds with a capacity to exert antimicrobial activity have received considerable attention as they may represent potential new therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Heterocyclic compounds possessing 1,2,4- or 1,2,3-triazoles are known for several biological activities, including antibacterial properties. Among them are stable hemiaminals which can be obtained in reaction between nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives and 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole or 4-amino-3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazole. In this study, we selected two relatively stable hemiaminals: (2,4-dinitrophenyl)(4H-1,2,4-triazole-4-ylamino)methanol (24DNTAM) and (2,4-dinitrophenyl)(4H-3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazole-4-ylamino)methanol (24DNDMTAM). Both compounds showed promising anti-P. gingivalis activity, higher against ATCC 33277 strain as compared to A7436 strain. The lowest hemiaminal concentration inhibiting visible planktonic bacterial growth under high-iron/heme conditions was ∼0.06 mg/ml, and the lowest hemiaminal concentration showing killing of bacteria was ∼0.25 mg/ml. Antimicrobial activity was also observed against P. gingivalis grown on blood agar plates. Slightly higher antimicrobial activity of both compounds was observed when P. gingivalis was grown in co-cultures with epithelial HeLa cells under low-iron/heme conditions, which mimic those occurring in vivo. 24DNTAM was more effective against P. gingivalis, but exhibited higher cytotoxic activity against epithelial and red blood cells, as compared with 24DNDMTAM. We conclude that both hemiaminals might originate a novel group of biologically important molecules.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • C. difficile PCR-ribotype 023 might go undetected when using ChromId
           C. difficile agar
    • Authors: E. Reigadas; L. Alcalá; M. Marín; A. Martín; E. Bouza
      Pages: 34 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): E. Reigadas, L. Alcalá, M. Marín, A. Martín, E. Bouza
      We compared the performance of the new chromogenic medium ChromID C. difficile with that of CLO agar. ChromID C. difficile agar is a sensitive medium that can accelerate the presumptive identification of C. difficile, however ribotype 023 might go undetected when using this chromogenic medium.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens in captive
           wildlife in India
    • Authors: Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton; Rajesh Kumar Agarwal; Govindarajan Bhuvana Priya; Mani Saminathan; Manivasagam Aravind; Avinash Reddy; C.K. Athira; Thadiyampuram Ramees; Anil Kumar Sharma; Ashok Kumar
      Pages: 55 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Govindarajan Bhuvana Priya, Mani Saminathan, Manivasagam Aravind, Avinash Reddy, C.K. Athira, Thadiyampuram Ramees, Anil Kumar Sharma, Ashok Kumar
      The prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in captive wildlife in India has not been reported. The objective of the study was to determine the fecal prevalence of C. perfringens in captive wildlife in India. The prevalence in captive wild ruminants, non-ruminants, birds and caretakers were 34.1%, 36%, 22.5% and 6.7%, respectively. Toxinotyping of C. perfringens indicated that the predominant type was type A with a prevalence rate of 69.7%, followed by type A with cpb2 gene (28.3%) and type B (2.%).

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T21:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Olegusella massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7T, a new bacterial
           genus isolated from the female genital tract of a patient with bacterial
           vaginosis
    • Authors: Khoudia Diop; Awa Diop; Florence Bretelle; Frédéric Cadoret; Caroline Michelle; Magali Richez; Jean-François Cocallemen; Didier Raoult; Pierre-Edouard Fournier; Florence Fenollar
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Khoudia Diop, Awa Diop, Florence Bretelle, Frédéric Cadoret, Caroline Michelle, Magali Richez, Jean-François Cocallemen, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Florence Fenollar
      Strain KHD7T, a Gram-stain-positive rod-shaped, non-sporulating, strictly anaerobic bacterium, was isolated from the vaginal swab of a woman with bacterial vaginosis. We studied its phenotypic characteristics and sequenced its complete genome. The major fatty acids were C16:0 (44%), C18:2n6 (22%), and C18:1n9 (14%). The 1,806,744 bp long genome exhibited 49.24% G+C content; 1549 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes. Strain KHD7T exhibited a 93.5% 16S rRNA similarity with Olsenella uli, the phylogenetically closest species in the family Coriobacteriaceae. Therefore, strain KHD7T is sufficiently distinct to represent a new genus, for which we propose the name Olegusella massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is KHD7T.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T16:39:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • First report on sepsis caused by Porphyromonas pogonae
    • Authors: Percy Schröttner; Katharina Heidrich; Wolfram W. Rudolph; Friedrich Stölzel; Enno Jacobs; Florian Gunzer
      Pages: 96 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Percy Schröttner, Katharina Heidrich, Wolfram W. Rudolph, Friedrich Stölzel, Enno Jacobs, Florian Gunzer
      We report on a 62 year old patient who developed sepsis due to an infection caused by Porphyromonas pogonae, a recently described species of the bacterial genus Porphyromonas. This is the first case of an invasive infection with this pathogen.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T17:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Quantitative proteomic analysis of extracellular matrix extracted from
           mono- and dual-species biofilms of Fusobacterium nucleatum and
           Porphyromonas gingivalis
    • Authors: Marwan Mansoor Ali Mohammed; Veronika Kuchařová Pettersen; Audun H. Nerland; Harald G. Wiker; Vidar Bakken
      Pages: 133 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Marwan Mansoor Ali Mohammed, Veronika Kuchařová Pettersen, Audun H. Nerland, Harald G. Wiker, Vidar Bakken
      The Gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis are members of a complex dental biofilm associated with periodontal disease. In this study, we cultured F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis as mono- and dual-species biofilms, and analyzed the protein composition of the biofilms extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) by high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis was used for identification of proteins and sequence-based functional characterization for their classification and prediction of possible roles in EPM. We identified 542, 93 and 280 proteins in the matrix of F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis, and the dual-species biofilm, respectively. Nearly 70% of all EPM proteins in the dual-species biofilm originated from F. nucleatum, and a majority of these were cytoplasmic proteins, suggesting an enhanced lysis of F. nucleatum cells. The proteomic analysis also indicated an interaction between the two species: 22 F. nucleatum proteins showed differential levels between the mono and dual-species EPMs, and 11 proteins (8 and 3 from F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis, respectively) were exclusively detected in the dual-species EPM. Oxidoreductases and chaperones were among the most abundant proteins identified in all three EPMs. The biofilm matrices in addition contained several known and hypothetical virulence proteins, which can mediate adhesion to the host cells and disintegration of the periodontal tissues. This study demonstrated that the biofilm matrix of two important periodontal pathogens consists of a multitude of proteins whose amounts and functionalities vary largely. Relatively high levels of several of the detected proteins might facilitate their potential use as targets for the inhibition of biofilm development.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T17:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Tropism and virulence of Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes
           involved in implant-associated infection
    • Authors: Guillaume Ghislain Aubin; Jean-Philippe Lavigne; Yohan Foucher; Sarah Dellière; Didier Lepelletier; François Gouin; Stéphane Corvec
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Guillaume Ghislain Aubin, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Yohan Foucher, Sarah Dellière, Didier Lepelletier, François Gouin, Stéphane Corvec
      The recognition of the pathogenicity of Cutibacterium acnes in implant-associated infection is not always obvious. In this paper, we aimed to distinguish pathogenic and non-pathogenic C. acnes isolates. To reach this goal, we investigated the clonal complex (CC) of a large collection of C. acnes clinical isolates through Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to assess C. acnes virulence and we investigated the presence of virulence factors in our collection. Ours results showed that CC36 and CC53 C. acnes isolates were more frequently observed in prosthetic joint infections (PJI) than CC18 and CC28 C. acnes isolates (p = 0.021). The C. elegans model developed here showed two distinct virulence groups of C. acnes (p < 0.05). These groups were not correlated to CC or clinical origin. Whole genome sequencing allowed us to identify a putative gene linked to low virulent strains. In conclusion, MLST remains a good method to screen pathogenic C. acnes isolates according to their clinical context but mechanisms of C. acnes virulence need to be assess thought transcriptomic analysis to investigate regulatory process.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.009
       
  • Are anaerobes a major, underappreciated cause of necrotizing
           infections?
    • Authors: Hannah Zhao-Fleming; Sharmila Dissanaike; Kendra Rumbaugh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Hannah Zhao-Fleming, Sharmila Dissanaike, Kendra Rumbaugh
      Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are the most severe and rapidly progressing class of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). They are a surgical emergency and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. While NSTIs remain relatively rare, their incidence is steadily rising. Earlier diagnosis and more focused antibiotic treatments can potentially improve patient outcome, but both of these solutions require a more accurate understanding of the microbial component of these infections. While molecular detection methods, namely 16S sequencing, have not been traditionally used to identify the causative microorganisms in NSTIs, they are becoming more commonplace for other types of SSTIs, especially for chronic wound infections. In chronic wound infections, 16S sequencing has revealed a higher than previously detected prevalence of obligate anaerobes. Therefore, it is possible that 16S sequencing may also detect a higher than expected proportion of obligate anaerobes in NSTIs. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge concerning the diagnosis and treatment of NSTIs and present reasons why the role of anaerobes may be significantly underestimated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.012
       
  • Distinct roles for dietary lipids and Porphyromonas gingivalis infection
           on atherosclerosis progression and the gut microbiota
    • Authors: Carolyn D. Kramer; Alexandra M. Simas; Xianbao He; Robin R. Ingalls; Ellen O. Weinberg; Caroline Attardo Genco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Carolyn D. Kramer, Alexandra M. Simas, Xianbao He, Robin R. Ingalls, Ellen O. Weinberg, Caroline Attardo Genco
      Mounting evidence in humans supports an etiological role for the microbiota in inflammatory atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells and lipids in vascular tissue. While retention of lipoprotein into the sub-endothelial vascular layer is believed to be the initiating stimulus leading to the development of atherosclerosis, activation of multiple pathways related to vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction sustain the process by stimulating recruitment of leukocytes and immune cells into the sub-endothelial layer. The Gram-negative oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has been associated with the development and acceleration of atherosclerosis in humans and these observations have been validated in animal models. It has been proposed that common mechanisms of immune signaling link stimulation by lipids and pathogens to vascular inflammation. Despite the common outcome of P. gingivalis and lipid feeding on atherosclerosis progression, we established that these pro-atherogenic stimuli induced distinct gene signatures in the ApoE−/- mouse model of atherosclerosis. In this study, we further defined the distinct roles of dietary lipids and P. gingivalis infection on atherosclerosis progression and the gut microbiota. We demonstrate that diet-induced lipid lowering resulted in less atherosclerotic plaque in ApoE−/- mice compared to ApoE−/- mice continuously fed a Western diet. However, the effect of diet-induced lipid lowering on plaque accumulation was blunted by P. gingivalis infection. Using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering, we demonstrate that dietary intervention as well as P. gingivalis infection result in distinct bacterial communities in fecal and cecal samples of ApoE−/- mice as compared to ApoE−/- mice continuously fed either a Western diet or a normal chow diet. Collectively, we identified distinct microbiota changes accompanying atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting a future avenue for investigation on the impact of the gut microbiota, diet, and P. gingivalis infection on atherosclerosis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.011
       
  • Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal
           samples from patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics
    • Authors: Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen; Simon A.F. Schwensen; Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen; Ulrik Stenz Justesen; Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen, Simon A.F. Schwensen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
      Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B. fragilis in this patient group, and 3) to determine the association between previous antibiotic treatment and reduced susceptibility to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Consecutive faecal samples (n = 197) were collected from patients at the departments of haematology, oncology, and infectious diseases at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Three colonies from each sample were identified by Matrix Assisted Lazer Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and isolates were screened for resistance to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam. B. fragilis isolates were tested for the cfiA metallo-beta-lactamase gene. Fisher's Exact test was used to test for correlation between antimicrobial exposure and reduced susceptibility. A total of 359 isolates were tested for reduced susceptibility. Of these 28%, 5%, <1%, and 11% were intermediate susceptible or resistant to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam respectively. Three metronidazole resistant Bacteroides spp. were isolated. The proportion of B. fragilis belonging to division II (cfiA+) was 5.3%. Previous exposure to meropenem was associated with reduced susceptibility to meropenem (p= 0.001). In conclusion, antimicrobial resistance is prevalent and the distribution of species appears to be affected in the B. fragilis group from patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, with meropenem exposure being associated with meropenem resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.013
       
  • Eggerthella lenta bacteremia in solid tumor cancer patients: Pathogen or
           witness of frailty?
    • Authors: Paul-Louis Woerther; Sami Antoun; Elisabeth Chachaty; Mansouria Merad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Paul-Louis Woerther, Sami Antoun, Elisabeth Chachaty, Mansouria Merad
      Eggerthella lenta is increasingly found in patients with severe comorbidities. Because oncologic patients are exposed to emerging pathogens, we aimed to describe the factors associated with E. lenta bacteremia in this immunosuppressed population. Oncology patients with blood cultures positive for E. lenta were retrospectively recorded from 2009 to 2015. Socio-demographic and medical/biological data as well as potential risk factors and mortality were recorded and analyzed. Twenty-three patients were included. Gastro intestinal (GI) and gynecological cancers were reported in 12/23 (52%) and 7/23 cases (30%), respectively. Eleven/23 patients (48%) had metastatics lesions and 5/23 (22%) had peritoneal carcinomatosis. No associated tissue infection was found in 14/23 cases (61%). Blood cultures yielded at least one other species in addition to E. lenta in 10/23 cases (43%). Mortality associated with E. lenta bacteremia was 22% (5/23). E. lenta bacteremia often occurred in patients with advanced cancer disease without documented infection. In most of the cases, intestinal obstruction and/or isolated fever were the only recorded symptoms. In these cases, the damages of intestinal barrier induced by the cancer and/or its specific treatments may be the cause of bacterial translocation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.010
       
  • Ribotypes associated with Clostridium difficile outbreaks in Brazil
           display distinct surface protein profiles
    • Authors: Thais Gonçalves Ferreira; Hercules Moura; John R. Barr; Regina M.C. Pilotto Domingues; Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Thais Gonçalves Ferreira, Hercules Moura, John R. Barr, Regina M.C. Pilotto Domingues, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira
      Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic intestinal pathogen that causes Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). C. difficile is the leading cause of toxin-mediated nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The pathogenesis of CDI is attributed to two major virulence factors, TcdA and TcdB toxins, that cause the symptomatic infection. C. difficile also expresses a number of key proteins, including cell wall proteins (CWPs). S-layer proteins (SLPs) are CWPs that form a paracrystalline surface array that coats the surface of the bacterium. SLPs have a role in C. difficile binding to the gastrointestinal tract, but their importance in virulence need to be better elucidated. Here, we describe bottom-up proteomics analysis of surface-enriched proteins fractions obtained through glycine extraction of five C. difficile clinical isolates from Brazil using gel-based and gel-free approaches. We were able to identify approximately 250 proteins for each strain, among them SlpA, Cwp2, Cwp6, CwpV and Cwp84. Identified CWPs presented different amino acid coverage, which might suggest differences in post-translational modifications. Proteomic analysis of SLPs from ribotype 133, agent of C. difficile outbreaks in Brazil, revealed unique proteins and provided additional information towards in depth characterization of the strains causing CDI in Brazil.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.001
       
  • Performance of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of oral Prevotella species
    • Authors: Mervi Gürsoy; Inka Harju; Jaakko Matomäki; Anne Bryk; Eija Könönen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Mervi Gürsoy, Inka Harju, Jaakko Matomäki, Anne Bryk, Eija Könönen
      During the past decade, the clinically relevant genus Prevotella has expanded considerably. Prevotella species can be isolated from nearly all types of oral infections but also from various non-oral infections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been introduced in clinical microbiology laboratories as a convenient method for identifying bacterial isolates from clinical specimens. Here we tested the diagnostic accuracy of a total of 123 oral Prevotella isolates, selected based on their biochemical profile, by Bruker MALDI-TOF MS. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing was used as a reference method. The performance of MALDI-TOF MS to identify the isolates to the genus level was excellent with 100.0% accuracy, while a good identification rate of 88.6% was achieved to the species level with a log score of ≥2.0. The isolates representing P. aurantiaca and P. jejuni, which are currently missing from the MALDI BioTyper database, were identified correctly to the genus level. Of the 123 isolates, one P. pallens isolate (0.8%) was identified with a score variation of 1.7–1.999. Overall, biochemical testing produced a high proportion (70.7%) of incorrect identifications within different species. MALDI-TOF MS offers a reliable and rapid method for the identification of Prevotella species included in the database.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.008
       
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms in
           Hong Kong by the tentative EUCAST disc diffusion method
    • Authors: Pak-Leung Ho; Chong-Yee Yau; Lok-Yan Ho; Eileen Ling-Yi Lai; Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu; Cindy Wing-Sze Tse; Kin-Hung Chow
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Pak-Leung Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Lok-Yan Ho, Eileen Ling-Yi Lai, Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu, Cindy Wing-Sze Tse, Kin-Hung Chow
      This study used a recently developed EUCAST disc diffusion method to measure the susceptibility of 741 B. fragilis group isolates to six antibiotics. Isolates nonsusceptible to imipenem and metronidazole by the disc method were further investigated by E-test. Species identification was obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR assays and 16S rRNA sequencing. The most common species were B. fragilis (n = 424, including 81 division II and 343 division I isolates), B. thetaiotaomicron (n = 111), B. ovatus (n = 53) and B. vulgatus (n = 46). Overall, metronidazole following by imipenem and amoxicillin-clavulanate are the most active agents with over 90% of all the isolates being susceptible at the tentative disc breakpoints. Susceptibility rates for moxifloxacin (69.5%), piperacillin-tazobactam (58.2%) and clindamycin (37.2%) were much lower. Metronidazole is the only agent active against >90% of B. fragilis, non-fragilis Bacteroides and Parabacteroides isolates. With the exception of B. fragilis division II, imipenem was active against 88.0%–98.3% of isolates of the other species. Susceptibility rates for clindamycin (14.4%–54.3%) and moxifloxacin (33.3%–80.6%) were low across all species and many isolates had no inhibition zone around the discs. E-test testing confirmed 8.2% (61/741) and 1.6% (12/741) isolates as nonsusceptible to imipenem and metronidazole, respectively with B. fragilis and B. thetaoiotaomicron accounting for a large share of the observed resistance to both agents. Two imipenem-resistant and one metronidazole-resistant B. dorei were misidentified as B. vulgatus by MALDI-TOF MS. These data highlights the importance anaerobic susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories to guide therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.005
       
  • Bifidobacterium longum vertebrodiscitis in a patient with cirrhosis and
           prostate cancer
    • Authors: Heather L. Wilson; Chong Wei Ong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Heather L. Wilson, Chong Wei Ong
      Bifidobacterium species are anaerobic, Gram-positive bacilli that colonize the human intestinal tract and oral cavity. They are an infrequent cause of invasive human infection. We report a case of Bifidobacterium longum lumbar vertebrodiscitis in a 71 year old man who was subsequently diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and prostate cancer. The clinical outcome was good following antibiotic treatment with penicillin and clindamycin. The laboratory identification of Bifidobacterium species and risk factors for invasive infection are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.004
       
  • Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently
           by acarbose addition during two nutritional types of simulated severe
           subacute ruminal acidosis in vitro
    • Authors: Yue Wang; Junhua Liu; Yuyang Yin; Weiyun Zhu; Shengyong Mao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Yue Wang, Junhua Liu, Yuyang Yin, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
      Little information is available on whether or not the effect of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on the prevention of ruminal acidosis is influenced by the type of diet during ruminant feeding. This study was conducted to explore the effect of acarbose addition on the prevention of severe subacute ruminal acidosis induced by either cracked wheat or beet pulp in vitro. Cracked wheat and beet pulp were fermented in vitro by rumen microorganisms obtained from three dairy cows. When cracked wheat was used as the substrate and fermented for 24 h, compared with the control, acarbose addition decreased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, and lactate (P < 0.05), while linearly increasing the ratio of acetate to propionate, pH value and, the ammonia-nitrogen level (P < 0.05). Applying Illumina MiSeq sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the ACE (abundance-based coverage estimator) value, Chao 1 value, and Shannon index increased significantly (P < 0.05), while there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the relative abundance of Tenericutes as well as Proteobacteria after adding acarbose compared to the control. On the other hand, when beet pulp was used as the substrate, acarbose addition had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on the fermentation parameters and the Chao 1 value, the Shannon index, and the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. In general, these findings indicate that acarbose had more effects on ruminal fermentation when wheat was used as the substrate, whereas it exhibited little effect on ruminal fermentation when beet pulp was used as the substrate.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.003
       
  • Endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria
    • Authors: M. Kestler; P. Muñoz; M. Marín; M.A. Goenaga; P. Idígoras Viedma; A. de Alarcón; J.A. Lepe; D. Sousa Regueiro; J.M. Bravo-Ferrer; M. Pajarón; C. Costas; M.V. García-López; C. Hidalgo-Tenorio; M. Moreno; E. Bouza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): M. Kestler, P. Muñoz, M. Marín, M.A. Goenaga, P. Idígoras Viedma, A. de Alarcón, J.A. Lepe, D. Sousa Regueiro, J.M. Bravo-Ferrer, M. Pajarón, C. Costas, M.V. García-López, C. Hidalgo-Tenorio, M. Moreno, E. Bouza
      Background Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by anaerobic bacteria is a rare and poorly characterized disease. Most data reported in the literature are from case reports [1–3]. Therefore, we assessed the situation of anaerobic IE (AIE) in Spain using the database of the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis (GAMES). Methods We performed a prospective study from 2008 to 2016 in 26 Spanish centers. We included 2491 consecutive cases of definite IE (Duke criteria). Results Anaerobic bacteria caused 22 cases (0.9%) of definite IE. Median age was 66 years (IQR, 56–73), and 19 (86.4%) patients were men. Most patients (14 [63.6%]) had prosthetic valve IE and all episodes were left-sided: aortic valves, 12 (54.5%); and mitral valves, 8 (36.4%). The most common pathogens were Propionibacterium acnes (14 [63.6%]), Lactobacillus spp (3 [13.63%]), and Clostridium spp. (2 [9.0%]), and the infection was mainly odontogenic. Fifteen of the 22 patients (68.2%) underwent cardiac surgery. Mortality was 18.2% during admission and 5.5% after 1 year of follow-up. When patients with AIE were compared with the rest of the cohort, we found that although those with AIE had a similar age and Charlson comorbidity index, they were more likely to have community-acquired IE (86.4% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.01), have undergone cardiac surgery (68.2% vs 48.7% p = 0.06), and have had lower mortality rates during admission (18.2% vs. 27.3%). Conclusion IE due to anaerobic bacteria is an uncommon disease that affects mainly prosthetic valves and frequently requires surgery. Otherwise, there are no major differences between AIE and IE caused by other microorganisms.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.002
       
  • Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to
           
    • Authors: Caroline Ivanne Le Roy; Jade Louise Passey; Martin John Woodward; Roberto Marcello La Ragione; Sandrine Paule Claus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Caroline Ivanne Le Roy, Jade Louise Passey, Martin John Woodward, Roberto Marcello La Ragione, Sandrine Paule Claus
      Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the impact of tiamulin at varying concentrations on the metabolism of B. pilosicoli using a 1H-NMR-based metabonomics approach allowing the capture of the overall bacterial metabolic response to antibiotic treatment. Based on growth curve studies, tiamulin impacted bacterial growth even at very low concentration (0.008 μg/mL) although its metabolic activity was barely affected 72 h post exposure to antibiotic treatment. Only the highest dose of tiamulin tested (0.250 μg/mL) caused a major metabolic shift. Results showed that below this concentration, bacteria could maintain a normal metabolic trajectory despite significant growth inhibition by the antibiotic, which may contribute to disease reemergence post antibiotic treatment. Indeed, we confirmed that B. pilosicoli remained viable even after exposition to the highest antibiotic dose. This paper stresses the need to ensure new evaluation of bacterial viability post bacteriostatic exposure such as tiamulin to guarantee treatment efficacy and decrease antibiotic resistance development.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T21:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.018
       
  • Pretreatment of poultry manure for efficient biogas production as
           monosubstrate or co-fermentation with maize silage and corn stover
    • Authors: Tamás Böjti; Kornél L. Kovács; Balázs Kakuk; Roland Wirth; Gábor Rákhely; Zoltán Bagi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Tamás Böjti, Kornél L. Kovács, Balázs Kakuk, Roland Wirth, Gábor Rákhely, Zoltán Bagi
      Water extraction of raw chicken manure elevated the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio 2.7-fold, i.e. from 7.48 to 19.81. The treated chicken manure (T-CM) thus became suitable for biogas fermentation as monosubstrate. Improved methane production was achieved in co-fermentations with either maize silage (24% more methane) or corn stover (19% more methane) relative to T-CM monosubstrate. The standardized biogas potential assay indicated that the methane yields varied with the organic loading rate between 160 and 250 mL CH4/g organic total solid (oTS). Co-fermentation with maize silage was sustainable in continuous anaerobic digestion for at least 4 months.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T21:20:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.017
       
  • Biomethane: The energy storage, platform chemical and greenhouse gas
           mitigation target
    • Authors: Zoltán Bagi; Norbert Ács; Tamás Böjti; Balázs Kakuk; Gábor Rákhely; Orsolya Strang; Márk Szuhaj; Roland Wirth; Kornél L. Kovács
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Zoltán Bagi, Norbert Ács, Tamás Böjti, Balázs Kakuk, Gábor Rákhely, Orsolya Strang, Márk Szuhaj, Roland Wirth, Kornél L. Kovács
      Results in three areas of anaerobic microbiology in which methane formation and utilization plays central part are reviewed. a.) Bio-methane formation by reduction of carbon dioxide in the power-to-gas process and the various possibilities of improvement of the process is a very intensively studied topic recently. From the numerous potential methods of exploiting methane of biological origin two aspects are discussed in detail. b.) Methane can serve as a platform chemical in various chemical and biochemical synthetic processes. Particular emphasis is put on the biochemical conversion pathways involving methanotrophs and their methane monooxygenase-catalyzed reactions leading to various small molecules and polymeric materials such as extracellular polysaccharides, polyhydroxyalkanoates and proteins. c.) The third area covered concerns methane-consuming reactions and methane emission mitigation. These investigations comprise the anaerobic microbiology of ruminants and approaches to diminishing methane emissions from ruminant animals.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T21:20:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.001
       
  • Three variants of the leukotoxin gene in human isolates of Fusobacterium
           necrophorum subspecies funduliforme
    • Authors: Karin Holm; Mattias Collin; Lena Hagelskjær-Kristensen; Anders Jensen; Magnus Rasmussen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Karin Holm, Mattias Collin, Lena Hagelskjær-Kristensen, Anders Jensen, Magnus Rasmussen
      Leukotoxin is a well-known virulence factor of animal isolates of Fusobacterium necrophorum subspecies necrophorum, and is also expressed by animal isolates of subspecies funduliforme, whereas its presence in isolates from humans has not been fully established. In this study we found that the leukotoxin gene was present in all tested F. necrophorum isolates from humans. Three sequence variants were found, two of which have not been described previously. The sequence types correlated to source of infection. Further studies are needed to examine the role of the leukotoxin in human infections.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.016
       
  • Effect of bioaugmentation by cellulolytic bacteria enriched from sheep
           rumen on methane production from wheat straw
    • Authors: E. Gozde Ozbayram; Sabine Kleinsteuber; Marcell Nikolausz; Bahar Ince; Orhan Ince
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): E. Gozde Ozbayram, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Marcell Nikolausz, Bahar Ince, Orhan Ince
      The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry. The methane production in the bioaugmented reactors was higher than in the control reactors. After 30 days of batch incubation, the average methane yield was 154 mLN CH4 gVS −1 in the control reactors. Addition of 2% enrichment culture did not enhance methane production, whereas in Set-2 the methane yield was increased by 27%. The bacterial communities were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, while terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of mcrA genes was applied to analyze the methanogenic communities. The results highlighted that relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased during the enrichment. However, Cloacamonaceae, which were abundant in the standard inoculum, dominated the bacterial communities of all batch reactors. T-RFLP profiles revealed that Methanobacteriales were predominant in the rumen fluid, whereas the enrichment culture was dominated by Methanosarcinales. In the batch rectors, the most abundant methanogens were affiliated to Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales. Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with sheep rumen enrichment cultures can enhance the performance of digesters treating lignocellulosic feedstock.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.013
       
  • The effect of penicillin administration in early life on murine gut
           microbiota and blood lymphocyte subsets
    • Authors: Jaroslaw Daniluk; Urszula Daniluk; Malgorzata Rusak; Milena Dabrowska; Joanna Reszec; Magdalena Garbowicz; Kinga Humińska; Andrzej Dabrowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Jaroslaw Daniluk, Urszula Daniluk, Malgorzata Rusak, Milena Dabrowska, Joanna Reszec, Magdalena Garbowicz, Kinga Humińska, Andrzej Dabrowski
      Background and aim Antibiotics have many beneficial effects but their uncontrolled use may lead to increased risk of serious diseases in the future. Our hypothesis is that an early antibiotic exposition may affect immune system by altering gut microbiota. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of penicillin treatment on gut microorganisms and immune system of mice. Methods: 21-days old C57BL6/J/cmdb male mice were treated with low-dose of penicillin (study group) or water only (control group) for 4 weeks. Tissue and stool samples for histology or microbiome assessment and peripheral blood for CBC and flow cytometry evaluation were collected. Results: We found high variability in microbiota composition at different taxonomic levels between littermate mice kept in the same conditions, independently of treatment regimen. Interestingly, low-dose of penicillin caused significant increase of Parabacteroides goldsteinii in stool and in colon tissue in comparison to control group (9.5% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.008 and 10.7% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, mice treated with penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated percentage of B cells (median 10.5% vs 8.0%, p = 0.01) and decrease in the percentage of total CD4+ cell (median 75.4% vs 82.5%, p = 0.0039) with subsequent changes among subsets - increased percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg), T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Conclusion: Our study showed significant effect of penicillin on B and T cells in peripheral blood of young mice. This effect may be mediated through changes in gut microbiota represented by the expansion of Parabacteroides goldsteinii.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.015
       
  • Effect of operating temperature on anaerobic digestion of the Brazilian
           waterweed Egeria densa and its microbial community
    • Authors: Keiko Watanabe; Mitsuhiko Koyama; Junko Ueda; Syuhei Ban; Norio Kurosawa; Tatsuki Toda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Keiko Watanabe, Mitsuhiko Koyama, Junko Ueda, Syuhei Ban, Norio Kurosawa, Tatsuki Toda
      To develop an effective treatment for the globally invasive Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa, anaerobic digestion was observed at 37 °C, 55 °C, and 65 °C. The average methane production rate at 55 °C was 220 mL L−1 day−1, which was two-fold that at 37 °C and 65 °C. Volatile fatty acid accumulation was detected under thermophilic conditions; however, although there was methane production, the system did not shutdown. The microbial communities differed between mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C and 65 °C) conditions. A bacterial community consisting of the phyla Bacteroidetes (43%), Firmicutes (37%), Proteobacteria (9%), Synergistetes (5%), Spirochaetes (1%), and unclassified bacteria (5%) were detected under mesophilic condition. In contrast, the phylum Firmicutes was dominant under thermophilic conditions. In the archaeal community, Methanosaeta concilii (40%), Methanolinea sp. (17%), and unclassified euryarchaeota (43%) were detected under mesophilic condition. Methanosarcina thermophila (87% at 55 °C, 54% at 65 °C) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (13% at 55 °C, 46% at 65 °C) were detected under thermophilic conditions. At both 37 °C and 55 °C, acetoclastic methanogenesis likely occurred because of the lower abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. At 65 °C, the growth of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila was limited by the high temperature, therefore, acetate oxidation and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis may have occurred.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.014
       
  • Characterization of vaginal Lactobacillus species by rplK -based multiplex
           qPCR in Russian women
    • Authors: Vladimir V. Demkin; Stanislav I. Koshechkin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Vladimir V. Demkin, Stanislav I. Koshechkin
      We describe a multiplex qPCR assay for identification and quantitative assessment of a set of vaginal Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. helveticus, L. iners, and L. jensenii. The assay extends the previously developed qPCR method for Lactobacillus detection and total quantification based on targeting the rplK gene. Both assays use only single pair of primers and a set of probes combined in three reactions, comprising a vaginal Lactobacillus diagnostic assay panel. The utility of the diagnostic panel was evaluated by analyzing of vaginal swab specimens from 145 patients with different status of vaginal health. Most frequently, only one Lactobacillus species was dominant (68,9%), mostly L. crispatus (18,6%) or L. iners (33,1%), but two or three Lactobacillus species were also being simultaneously detected (24,9%). The diagnostic panel will facilitate investigations of the role of Lactobacillus species in the health of the female reproductive system and promote studies of variability of the vaginal microbiota.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.011
       
  • Distribution and phylogeny of Brachyspira spp. in human intestinal
           spirochetosis revealed by FISH and 16S rRNA-gene analysis
    • Authors: Pablo Rojas; Annett Petrich; Julia Schulze; Alexandra Wiessner; Christoph Loddenkemper; Hans-Jörg Epple; William Sterlacci; Michael Vieth; Judith Kikhney; Annette Moter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Pablo Rojas, Annett Petrich, Julia Schulze, Alexandra Wiessner, Christoph Loddenkemper, Hans-Jörg Epple, William Sterlacci, Michael Vieth, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter
      During six years as National Reference Laboratory for Spirochetes we investigated 149 intestinal biopsies from 91 patients, which were histopathologically diagnosed with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS), using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing. Aim of this study was to complement histopathological findings with FISH and PCR for definite diagnosis and species identification of the causative pathogens. HIS is characterized by colonization of the colonic mucosa of the human distal intestinal tract by Brachyspira spp. Microbiological diagnosis of HIS is not performed, because of the fastidious nature and slow growth of Brachyspira spp. in culture. In clinical practice, diagnosis of HIS relies solely on histopathology without differentiation of the spirochetes. We used a previously described FISH probe to detect and identify Brachyspira spp. in histological gut biopsies. FISH allowed rapid visualization and identification of Brachyspira spp. in 77 patients. In most cases, the bright FISH signal already allowed rapid localization of Brachyspira spp. at 400× magnification. By sequencing, 53 cases could be assigned to the B. aalborgi lineage including “B. ibaraki” and “B. hominis”, and 23 cases to B. pilosicoli. One case showed mixed colonization. The cases reported here reaffirm all major HIS Brachyspira spp. clusters already described. However, the phylogenetic diversity seems to be even greater than previously reported. In 14 cases, we could not confirm HIS by either FISH or PCR, but found colonization of the epithelium by rods and cocci, indicating misdiagnosis by histopathology. FISH in combination with molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing has proved to be a valuable addition to histopathology. It provides definite diagnosis of HIS and allows insights into phylogeny and distribution of Brachyspira spp. HIS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in diarrhea of unknown origin, particularly in patients from risk groups (e.g. patients with colonic adenomas, inflammatory polyps, inflammatory bowel disease or HIV infection and in men who have sex with men).

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T17:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.012
       
  • Demand-driven biogas production by flexible feeding in full-scale –
           Process stability and flexibility potentials
    • Authors: E. Mauky; S. Weinrich; H.F. Jacobi; H.J. Nägele; J. Liebetrau; M. Nelles
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): E. Mauky, S. Weinrich, H.F. Jacobi, H.J. Nägele, J. Liebetrau, M. Nelles
      For future energy supply systems with high proportions from renewable energy sources, biogas plants are a promising option to supply demand-driven electricity to compensate the divergence between energy demand and energy supply by uncontrolled sources like wind and solar. Apart expanding gas storage capacity a demand-oriented feeding with the aim of flexible gas production can be an effective alternative. The presented study demonstrated a high degree of intraday flexibility (up to 50% compared to the average) and a potential for an electricity shutdown of up to 3 days (decreasing gas production by more than 60%) by flexible feeding in full-scale. Furthermore, the long-term process stability was not affected negatively due to the flexible feeding. The flexible feeding resulted in a variable rate of gas production and a dynamic progression of individual acids and the respective pH-value. In consequence, a demand-driven biogas production may enable significant savings in terms of the required gas storage volume (up to 65%) and permit far greater plant flexibility compared to constant gas production.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T17:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.010
       
  • Periprosthetic joint infection by Propionibacterium acnes: Clinical
           differences between monomicrobial versus polymicrobial infection
    • Authors: Raúl Figa; David Muñetón; Lucía Gómez; A. Matamala; Mayli Lung; Eva Cuchi; Pablo S. Corona
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Raúl Figa, David Muñetón, Lucía Gómez, A. Matamala, Mayli Lung, Eva Cuchi, Pablo S. Corona
      Objective To compare a series of monomicrobial Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) knee and hip periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) cases with cases of polymicrobial PJI which included P. acnes. We hypothesized that the presence of a polymicrobial P. acnes infection would lead to worse outcomes than those in cases of monomicrobial P. acnes PJI. Methods Retrospective multicentre study. All patients with hip or knee PJIs including P. acnes diagnosed from August-2002 to July-2013 in two university hospitals were included. We collected demographic data, McPherson classification, local signs of infection (swelling or wound drainage), laboratory and histological data, surgical management, antibiotic treatment and outcomes. Data were compared between two groups: cases of monomicrobial P. acnes PJI, and cases of polymicrobial PJI involving P. acnes. Results Thirty-eight patients who presented with 38 PJIs were included; median age was 71 (IQR:62.5–79); 21 were men (55%); median follow-up was 42 months (IQR:17.5–58). Local signs of infection were present in 14 patients (36.8%); ESR>30 mm/h in 14 patients (36.8%); CRP>1 mg/dl in 15 patients (39.5%); 11 out of 25 patients (44%) had positive preoperative cultures from joint aspiration. Positive histologic studies (Feldman's criteria) were found in 5 out of 28 patients (17.8%). Twenty-four patients (63%) had monomicrobial PJIs; 14 patients (37%) had polymicrobial PJIs. There were no significant outcome differences between monomicrobial and polymicrobial PJIs cases; overall, the success rates were 79.2% and 85.7% respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusions We did not find any significant differences between monomicrobial and polymicrobial P. acnes PJI outcomes. ESR, CRP and histologic study are established parameters for diagnosing PJI which did not prove useful in P. acnes PJI.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T17:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.008
       
  • Characterization of isolates of Eisenbergiella tayi, a strictly anaerobic
           Gram-stain variable bacillus recovered from human clinical materials in
           Canada
    • Authors: Kathryn Bernard; Tamara Burdz; Deborah Wiebe; Brittany M. Balcewich; Tina Zimmerman; Philippe Lagacé-Wiens; Linda M.N. Hoang; Anne-Marie Bernier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Kathryn Bernard, Tamara Burdz, Deborah Wiebe, Brittany M. Balcewich, Tina Zimmerman, Philippe Lagacé-Wiens, Linda M.N. Hoang, Anne-Marie Bernier
      Eisenbergiella gen. nov. was proposed in 2014 to describe an obligate anaerobic, structurally Gram-positive but Gram-stain-negative-appearing bacillus recovered from the blood culture of an elderly Israeli man. Here, we describe features for eight blood culture isolates as well one appendix-derived isolate, recovered from seven patients located in two Canadian provinces, which by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were identifiable as Eisenbergiella tayi, the sole validly- named species in this genus. After whole genome sequencing, isolates were found to be essentially identical (96.8–98.7% identity) to each other and to E. tayi DSM 26961T, after comparison using the ANIb tool and in silico DNA-DNA hydridization. All isolates were observed to have remarkably large genomes (7.1–8.3 Mb) with a G + C content of 46.5%–46.9%.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T17:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.005
       
  • First report of human infection by Christensenella minuta, a
           gram-negative, strickly anaerobic rod that inhabits the human intestine
    • Authors: Beatriz Lopez Alonso; Alvaro Irigoyen von Sierakowski; Juan Antonio Sáez Nieto; Antonio Beltran Rosel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Beatriz Lopez Alonso, Alvaro Irigoyen von Sierakowski, Juan Antonio Sáez Nieto, Antonio Beltran Rosel
      Christensenella minuta is a Gram-negative strictly anaerobic short rod that inhabits the human gut. This bacterium was isolated in a mixed infection with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans from the blood of a patient with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The strain was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. As far as we know, this is the first time C.minuta has been isolated from a human clinical specimen.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T17:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.007
       
  • Peritoneal infection due to Peptoniphilus harei in a patient with
           intestinal occlusion
    • Authors: Fernando Cobo; Javier Rodríguez-Granger; Antonio Sampedro; José María Navarro-Marí
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Fernando Cobo, Javier Rodríguez-Granger, Antonio Sampedro, José María Navarro-Marí
      Peptoniphilus harei is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus mainly involved in polymicrobial infections. We report a case of peritoneal infection in a patient with intestinal occlusion. A 48-year-old woman presented with ascitis after an occlusive syndrome. Culture of peritoneal fluid resulted on P. harei isolation. Treatment was performed and resolution of this infection was documented.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T17:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.009
       
  • Factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection: A nested
           case-control study in a three year prospective cohort
    • Authors: Nagham Khanafer; Philippe Vanhems; Frédéric Barbut; Christine Luxemburger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Nagham Khanafer, Philippe Vanhems, Frédéric Barbut, Christine Luxemburger
      Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious medical condition that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Identification of risk factors associated with CDI and prompt recognition of patients at risk is key to successfully preventing CDI. Methods A 3-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted in a French university hospital and a nested case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for CDI. Inpatients aged 18 years or older, suffering from diarrhea suspected to be related to CDI, were asked to participate. Results A total of 945 patients were included, of which 233 cases had a confirmed CDI. CDI infection was more common in men (58.4%) (P = 0.04) compared with patients with diarrhea not related to C. difficile. Previous hospitalization (P < 0.001), prior treatment with antibiotics (P = 0.001) or antiperistaltics (P = 0.002), liver disease (P = 0.003), malnutrition (P < 0.001), and previous CDI (P < 0.001) were significantly more common in patients with CDI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that exposure to antibiotics in the last 60 days (especially third generation cephalosporins and penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitor), chronic renal or liver disease, malnutrition or previous CDI, were associated with an independent high risk of CDI. Age was not related with CDI. Conclusions This study showed that antibiotics and some comorbid conditions were predictors of CDI. Patients at high risk of acquiring CDI at the time of admission may benefit from careful monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions and early attention to infection control issues. In future, these "high-risk" patients may benefit from novel agents being developed to prevent CDI.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T17:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.003
       
  • Functional gene profiling through metaRNAseq approach reveals
           
    • Authors: Ankit T. Hinsu; Nidhi R. Parmar; Neelam M. Nathani; Ramesh J. Pandit; Anand B. Patel; Amrutlal K. Patel; Chaitanya G. Joshi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Ankit T. Hinsu, Nidhi R. Parmar, Neelam M. Nathani, Ramesh J. Pandit, Anand B. Patel, Amrutlal K. Patel, Chaitanya G. Joshi
      Recent advances in next generation sequencing technology have enabled analysis of complex microbial community from genome to transcriptome level. In the present study, metatranscriptomic approach was applied to elucidate functionally active bacteria and their biological processes in rumen of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adapted to different dietary treatments. Buffaloes were adapted to a diet containing 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 forage to concentrate ratio, each for 6 weeks, before ruminal content sample collection. Metatranscriptomes from rumen fiber adherent and fiber-free active bacteria were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM platform followed by annotation using MG-RAST server and CAZYmes (Carbohydrate active enzymes) analysis toolkit. In all the samples Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum followed by Firmicutes. Functional analysis using KEGG Orthology database revealed Metabolism as the most abundant category at level 1 within which Carbohydrate metabolism was dominating. Diet treatments also exerted significant differences in proportion of enzymes involved in metabolic pathways for VFA production. Carbohydrate Active Enzyme(CAZy) analysis revealed the abundance of genes encoding glycoside hydrolases with the highest representation of GH13 CAZy family in all the samples. The findings provide an overview of the activities occurring in the rumen as well as active bacterial population and the changes occurring through different dietary treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T17:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.021
       
  • Multilocus sequence typing analyses of Clostridium perfringens type a
           strains harboring tpeL and netB genes
    • Authors: V. Nakano; A. Ignacio; L. Llanco; V. Bueris; M.P. Sircili; M.J. Avila-Campos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): V. Nakano, A. Ignacio, L. Llanco, V. Bueris, M.P. Sircili, M.J. Avila-Campos
      Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium ubiquitous in various environments, especially in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. In this study, multilocus sequence typing protocol was used to investigate genotypic relationships among 40 C. perfringens strains isolated from humans and broiler chicken with necrotic enteritis [NE]. The results indicated a few clonal populations, mainly observed in human strains, with 32.5% of all strains associated with one of three clonal complexes and 30 sequences types. The CC-1 cluster showed an interesting and unexpected result because it contained seven strains [six from animals and one of human origin]. Detection assays for toxin genes tpeL and netB were also performed. The netB gene was only observed in 7.5% of the strains from healthy human. The toxin gene tpeL was detected in 22.5% of the C. perfringens strains isolated from three individuals and in six broilers with NE. Our study describes the role of some C. perfringens strains of human origin acting as reservoirs of virulence genes and sources of infection. In addition, the strains of human and animal origin were found to be genetically distinct but phylogenetically close, and the human strains showed more diversity than the animal strains.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T17:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.017
       
  • Association of periodontopathic anaerobic bacterial co-occurrence to
           atherosclerosis-a cross - Sectional study
    • Authors: Krishnan Mahalakshmi; Dr Padma Krishnan; Mylapore Ganesan Krishna Baba; Vaithiyanathan Dhivyapriya; Sarasa Bharathi Arumugam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Krishnan Mahalakshmi, Dr Padma Krishnan, Mylapore Ganesan Krishna Baba, Vaithiyanathan Dhivyapriya, Sarasa Bharathi Arumugam
      Background Epidemiological studies have shown a link between periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Hence the present study was chosen to assess the presence of eight anaerobic periodontal pathogens and their virulence genes in subgingival plaque (SGP) and atherosclerotic plaque (AP) of patients who underwent Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Methods SGP and AP collected from 65 CABG patients were screened for the presence of periodontal bacterial pathogens by Polymerase chain reaction. The samples positive for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were screened for virulence genes. Chronic periodontitis patients (ChP) without any systemic disease (n = 59) and healthy subjects free of both periodontitis and systemic disease were included as control groups (n = 100). Results and Discussion Statistical significance was observed for the prevalence of 16S rRNA of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and P. nigrescens both in SGP and AP. Nine different periodontal bacterial co-occurrences were observed in SGP and AP of CABG patients. Besides, the prevalence of these nine different bacterial co-occurrence was high in SGP OF CABG patients compared to ChP without systemic disease. Among the nine different bacterial co-occurrence, only four were observed in SGP of ChP without systemic disease in spite of high prevalence of these anaerobic bacterial species. While, bacterial co-occurrences was completely absent among healthy subjects. Significant odds and risk ratio to atherosclerosis were observed for P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and P. nigrescens. Among the virulence genes, significance to atherosclerosis was observed for P. gingivalis type II fimA and T. forsythia bspA. Conclusion The results of this study strongly correlate periodontal bacterial co-occurrence and periodontal bacterial adhesion factor to atherosclerosis.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T15:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.003
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of active dried yeast on fecal
           methanogenic archaea diversity in dairy cows
    • Authors: Dingxing Jin; Kun Kang; Hongze Wang; Zhisheng Wang; Bai Xue; Lizhi Wang; Feng Xu; Quanhui Peng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Dingxing Jin, Kun Kang, Hongze Wang, Zhisheng Wang, Bai Xue, Lizhi Wang, Feng Xu, Quanhui Peng
      This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of different dosages of active dried yeast (ADY) on the fecal methanogenic archaea community of dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous, healthy, mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (body weight: 584 ± 23.2 kg, milk produced: 26.3 ± 1.22 kg/d) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (control, ADY2, and ADY4) according to body weight with four replicates per treatment. Cows in the control group were fed conventional rations without ADY supplementation, while cows in the ADY2 and ADY4 group were fed rations supplemented with ADY at 2 or 4 g/d/head. Real-time PCR analysis showed the populations of total methanogens in the feces were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the ADY4 group compared with control. High-throughput sequencing technology was applied to examine the differences in methanogenic archaea diversity in the feces of the three treatment groups. A total of 155,609 sequences were recovered (a mean of 12,967 sequences per sample) from the twelve fecal samples, which consisted of a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranging from 1451 to 1,733, were assigned to two phyla, four classes, five orders, five families and six genera. Bioinformatic analyses illustrated that the natural fecal archaeal community of the control group was predominated by Methanobrevibacter (86.9% of the total sequence reads) and Methanocorpusculum (10.4%), while the relative abundance of the remaining four genera were below 1% with Methanosphaera comprising 0.8%, Thermoplasma composing 0.4%, and the relative abundance of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and Halalkalicoccus being close to zero. At the genus level, the relative abundances of Methanocorpusculum and Thermoplasma were increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dosage of ADY. Conversely, the predominant methanogen genus Methanobrevibacter was decreased with ADY dosage (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation of ADY had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the abundances of genera unclassified, Candidatus Nitrososphaera, and Halalkalicoccus. In conclusion, supplementation of ADY to the rations of dairy cattle could alter the population sizes and composition of fecal methanogenic archaea in the feces of dairy cattle. The decrease in Methanobrevibacter happened with a commensurate increase in the genera Methanocorpusculum and Thermoplasma.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T15:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.007
       
  • Comparison of Clostridium difficile minimum inhibitory concentrations
           obtained using agar dilution vs broth microdilution methods
    • Authors: Christine J. Hastey; Suzanne E. Dale; Julia Nary; Diane Citron; Jennifer H. Law; Darcie E. Roe-Carpenter; Laurent Chesnel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Christine J. Hastey, Suzanne E. Dale, Julia Nary, Diane Citron, Jennifer H. Law, Darcie E. Roe-Carpenter, Laurent Chesnel
      Due to increasing antibiotic resistance among anaerobic bacteria, routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). This study compared the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from 920 Clostridium difficile isolates tested against seven antimicrobial agents using the two current CLSI reference methodologies, agar dilution method, vs broth microdilution method. A subset of isolate testing was performed independently by two laboratories to evaluate reproducibility. A negative bias was noted for MICs generated from broth microdilution compared to agar dilution and the reproducibility was variable and drug dependent. Therefore, broth microdilution is not recommended as an alternative to agar dilution for C. difficile antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T15:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.006
       
  • Dairy propionibacteria prevent the proliferative effect of plant lectins
           on SW480 cells and protect the metabolic activity of the intestinal
           microbiota in vitro
    • Authors: Gabriela Zárate; Gabriel D. Saez; Adriana Pérez chaia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Gabriela Zárate, Gabriel D. Saez, Adriana Pérez chaia
      Plant lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins that are widespread in legumes such as beans and pulses, seeds, cereals, and many plants used as farm feeds. They are highly resistant to cooking and digestion, reaching the intestinal lumen and/or blood circulation with biological activity. Since many legume lectins trigger harmful local and systemic reactions after their binding to the mucosal surface, these molecules are generally considered anti-nutritive and/or toxic substances. In the gut, specific cell receptors and bacteria may interact with these dietary components, leading to changes in intestinal physiology. It has been proposed that probiotic microorganisms with suitable surface glycosidic moieties could bind to dietary lectins, favoring their elimination from the intestinal lumen or inhibiting their interaction with epithelial cells. In this work, we assessed in vitro the effects of two representative plant lectins, concanavalin A (Con A) and jacalin (AIL) on the proliferation of SW480 colonic adenocarcinoma cells and metabolic activity of colonic microbiota in the absence or presence of Propionibacterium acidipropionici CRL 1198. Both lectins induced proliferation of colonic cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas ConA inhibited fermentative activities of colonic microbiota. Pre-incubation of propionibacteria with lectins prevented these effects, which could be ascribed to the binding of lectins by bacterial cells since P. acidipropionici CRL 1198 was unable to metabolize these proteins, and its adhesion to colonic cells was reduced after reaction with Con A or AIL. The results suggest that consumption of propionibacteria at the same time as lectins could reduce the incidence of lectin-induced alterations in the gut and may be a tool to protect intestinal physiology.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T21:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.012
       
  • Development of Clostridium difficile R20291ΔPaLoc model strains and in
           vitro methodologies reveals CdtR is required for the production of CDT to
           cytotoxic levels
    • Authors: T.W. Bilverstone; N.L. Kinsmore; N.P. Minton; S.A. Kuehne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): T.W. Bilverstone, N.L. Kinsmore, N.P. Minton, S.A. Kuehne
      Assessing the regulation of Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT), is complicated by the presence of a Pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) which encodes Toxins A and B. Here we developed R20291ΔPaLoc model strains and cell-based assays to quantify CDT-mediated virulence. Their application demonstrated that the transcriptional regulator, CdtR, was required for CDT-mediated cytotoxicity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.009
       
  • Diversity of the subspecies Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis
    • Authors: Vera Bunesova; Jiri Killer; Barbora Javurkova; Eva Vlkova; Vaclav Tejnecky; Sarka Musilova; Vojtech Rada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Vera Bunesova, Jiri Killer, Barbora Javurkova, Eva Vlkova, Vaclav Tejnecky, Sarka Musilova, Vojtech Rada
      Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are well-known health-promoting probiotics used commercially. B. animalis subsp. lactis has been isolated from different sources, and little is known about animal isolates of this taxon. The aim of this study was to examine the genotypic and phenotypic diversity between B. animalis subsp. lactis strains different animal hosts including Cameroon sheep, Barbary sheep, okapi, mouflon, German shepard) and to compare to BB12, food isolates and the collection strain DSM 10140. Ten strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis from different sources were characterised by phenotyping, fingerprinting, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Regardless of origin, MLST and phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis with commercial and animal origin with the exception of isolates from ovine cheese, mouflon and German Shepard dog. Moreover, isolates from dog and mouflon showed significant differences in fermentation profiles and peptide mass fingerprints (MALDI-TOF). Results indicated phenotypic and genotypic diversity among strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.006
       
  • Fatal sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis, harboring
           a cfiA gene and an upstream insertion sequence element, in Japan
    • Authors: Itaru Nakamura; Kotaro Aoki; Yuri Miura; Tetsuo Yamaguchi; Tetsuya Matsumoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Itaru Nakamura, Kotaro Aoki, Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Matsumoto
      Here, we report a case of fatal sepsis resulting from an intra-abdominal infection caused by a Bacteroides fragilis strain containing a CfiA4 metallo-β-lactamase and an upstream insertion sequence (IS) element. Meropenem was used as empiric therapy for septic shock as a result of the intra-abdominal infection, although two rounds of carbapenem treatment had been administered previously. B. fragilis was isolated from two anaerobic blood culture bottles 4 days after the onset of septic shock. Susceptibility testing revealed that the isolate was non-susceptible to all tested agents except metronidazole and tigecycline. The isolate gave a positive result in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and carbapenem inactivation tests, but a negative result in a double-disk synergy test using sodium mercaptoacetate. Next-generation whole-genome sequencing indicated the presence of the cfiA4, emrG and emrF genes. PCR indicated the presence of an IS element upstream of the cifA4 gene. Although carbapenem-resistant B. fragilis isolates have previously been reported, clinical sepsis by this organism is considered rare. In Japan, as in most countries worldwide, routine susceptibility testing and the detection of metallo-β-lactamases is not carried out in anaerobic organisms, including B. fragilis. The emergence of carbapenem resistance during therapy should be monitored, as B. fragilis strains containing the cfiA gene show decreased sensitivity during carbapenem therapy. Therefore, susceptibility testing and appropriate antibiotic stewardship are required in cases of anaerobic bacterial infections.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.010
       
  • A case of pyometrocolpos with Bifidobacterium species
    • Authors: Maanasa M. Bhaskar; Sujatha Sistla; S. Kumaravel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Maanasa M. Bhaskar, Sujatha Sistla, S. Kumaravel
      Bifidobacterium species, a normal commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract, female genitourinary tract and vagina is usually considered non-pathogenic and is being used therapeutically as probiotic due to its beneficial effects. However, there are several case reports implicating Bifidobacteria as the causative agent in various infectious conditions. Infections with Bifidobacteria are often ignored or underreported as they are part of the normal gut microbiome. Here we discuss a case of pyometrocolpos with Bifidobacterium species. Clinical outcome of the patient was good after emergency drainage and antibiotic treatment with Cefoperazone sulbactam and Metronidazole.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.007
       
  • The role of gut microbiota in health and disease: In vitro modeling of
           host-microbe interactions at the aerobe-anaerobe interphase of the human
           gut
    • Authors: Julius Z.H. von Martels; Mehdi Sadaghian Sadabad; Arno R. Bourgonje; Tjasso Blokzijl; Gerard Dijkstra; Klaas Nico Faber; Hermie J.M. Harmsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Julius Z.H. von Martels, Mehdi Sadaghian Sadabad, Arno R. Bourgonje, Tjasso Blokzijl, Gerard Dijkstra, Klaas Nico Faber, Hermie J.M. Harmsen
      The microbiota of the gut has many crucial functions in human health. Dysbiosis of the microbiota has been correlated to a large and still increasing number of diseases. Recent studies have mostly focused on analyzing the associations between disease and an aberrant microbiota composition. Functional studies using (in vitro) gut models are required to investigate the precise interactions that occur between specific bacteria (or bacterial mixtures) and gut epithelial cells. As most gut bacteria are obligate or facultative anaerobes, studying their effect on oxygen-requiring human gut epithelial cells is technically challenging. Still, several (anaerobic) bacterial-epithelial co-culture systems have recently been developed that mimic host-microbe interactions occurring in the human gut, including 1) the Transwell “apical anaerobic model of the intestinal epithelial barrier”, 2) the Host-Microbiota Interaction (HMI) module, 3) the “Human oxygen-Bacteria anaerobic” (HoxBan) system, 4) the human gut-on-a-chip and 5) the HuMiX model. This review discusses the role of gut microbiota in health and disease and gives an overview of the characteristics and applications of these novel host-microbe co-culture systems.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T16:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.001
       
  • Fatal community-acquired ribotype 002 Clostridium difficile bacteremia
    • Authors: Nicolas Dauby; Agnès Libois; Johan van Broeck; Michel Delmée; Olivier Vandenberg; Delphine Martiny
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Nicolas Dauby, Agnès Libois, Johan van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Olivier Vandenberg, Delphine Martiny
      Extra-colonic infections, and especially bacteremia, are infrequent manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection. C. difficile bacteremia is generally health-care associated and polymicrobial. We report the case of a patient on hunger strike that presented a C. difficile colitis and mono-microbial bacteremia on its admission to the hospital. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of stool and blood isolates indicated clonality. The strain was characterized as a ribotype 002, an emerging ribotype previously associated with high fatality rate. The patient received treatment by intra-venous amoxicillin-clavulanate and oral vancomycin but eventually died on the seventh day of admission with concomitant pneumonia and pulmonary embolism.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T16:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.013
       
  • First Robinsoniella peoriensis aortic cross homograft mycotic
           pseudoaneurysm: A case report and review of the literature
    • Authors: H. Mertes; L. Defourny; M. Tré-Hardy; R. Lhommel; G. El Khoury; H. Rodriguez-Villalobos; L. Belkhir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): H. Mertes, L. Defourny, M. Tré-Hardy, R. Lhommel, G. El Khoury, H. Rodriguez-Villalobos, L. Belkhir
      Mycotic aortic aneurysm is a rare and challenging complication of aortic homografts caused by an infection and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report the first case of an aortic cross homograft mycotic pseudoaneurysm caused by Robinsoniella peoriensis in a 70-year-old man. Our patient underwent surgery for a recurrence of aortic cross mycotic pseudoaneurysm at the level of the aortic homograft he had had 7 years before. A clot-removal of the pseudoaneurysm was surgically carried out and the homograft was completely removed. Anaerobic culture from tissue samples yielded pure growth of a spore-forming Gram-positive rod, identified later as Robinsoniella peoriensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was then discharged with oral clindamycin according to the in vitro susceptibility testing. Identification of R. peoriensis might be challenging in clinical laboratories with no access to molecular methods.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T16:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.12.014
       
 
 
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