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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3183 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3183 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 102, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 436, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 475, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.981
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 31  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0308-0161
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • Ratcheting based seismic performance assessment of a pressurized piping
           system: Experiments and analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): A. Ravi Kiran, G.R. Reddy, M.K. Agrawal, Mohan Raj, S.D. Sajish Shake table tests and numerical simulations are carried out to study ratcheting based seismic performance assessment of a piping system. A carbon steel piping loop is pressurized with water and subjected to shake table excitation of increasing amplitude until failure. The resulting strain accumulation at critical location of the loop is studied with an emphasis of characterizing the ratcheting based performance levels. These test results along with codal guidance are used to propose suitable limits of these strains. Wavelet transforms are applied to study change of free vibration characteristics of the loop. Later, a numerical simulation of the loop is carried out using an experimentally validated numerical tool. The simulated strains are compared with test results.
       
  • Creep damage analysis of thin-walled pressure vessel based on continuum
           damage model under static loading
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Qianying Cen, Derek Kwong Lai Tsang, Yanling Lu UNS N10003 alloy is wildly used as a heat-resistant material for components to be used in high temperature thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR). Because of high temperature operating environment, prediction of its creep behavior is required for safety assessment of reactors. In this study, a series of uniaxial tensile creep tests has been conducted at 650°C in an applied stress range from 220 MPa to 380 MPa. A creep damage model for UNS N10003 alloy based on Lemaitre's work has been derived as well as a creep constitutive equation for modelling creep strain. The experimental data have been used to determine parameters in the constitutive equation and the damage model. The model has been applied to structural integrity assessment of a thin-walled pressure vessel design for TMSR. The numerical results indicate that the pressure vessel design for TMSR is sound and safe in its designated 10-year design life.
       
  • Collapse performance of externally pressurized resin egg-shaped shells
           with corrosion thinning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Jian Zhang, Jiawei Tan, Wenxian Tang, Fang Wang, Xilu Zhao In this article, we discuss the collapse performances of externally pressurized egg-shaped shells with corrosion thinning. Shells consist of photosensitive resin, with major and minor axes of 256 and 180 mm, respectively. Corrosion begins at the critical location with the lowest principal meridional curvature. The circumferential corrosion values were set to 2.5°, 5°, 10°, 20°, 60°, and 360°, and the meridional corrosion values were defined as 20, 30, 40, and 50 mm. The corrosion depth was assumed to be 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the wall thickness, respectively. A total of 96 partially corroded egg-shaped shells were numerically analyzed with regards to nonlinear collapse modes and ultimate strengths, in addition to one noncorroded shell and four fully corroded shells. On this basis, representative egg-shaped samples, including one noncorroded, four partially corroded, and one fully corroded case, were tentatively fabricated, carefully measured, and hydrostatically tested for further experimentation. The numerical and experimental data are provided in figures and tables.
       
  • Comparative study of the tensile properties of a 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel
           characterized by the miniature specimen and the standard specimen
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Bin Yang, Wen-Qi Sun, Wen-Chun Jiang, Ming-Lei Wang, Ming-Chao Li, Jing-Kai Chen Both of the Miniature specimen and the standard round bar specimen were used to measure tensile properties of a 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel. The elastic modulus, the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength measured by the above two kinds of specimens were compared with each other. The potential factors which may have influence on the testing results of miniature specimen were discussed. It is found that the strength measured by the miniature specimen is consistent with that measured by the standard specimen. While the elastic modulus obtained by the miniature specimen is significantly lower than that obtained by the standard specimen. The machine compliance should be precisely considered when the elastic strain of miniature specimens is to be measured from the crosshead displacement. The geometry size plays a critical role during the post-necking elongation.
       
  • Anisotropic elastic constants calculation of stainless steel cladded
           layers of pressure vessel steel plate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Jilin Xue, John Bouchard, Xuedong Chen, Zhichao Fan, Yu Zhou Cladding stainless steel layer on the inner surface of ferrite pressure vessel is a common method to improve the corrosion resistance and save the economic cost. However, the movement of heat source and temperature gradient in the process of cladded welding will lead to the anisotropy of cladded layer material. When measuring the residual stress of pressure vessel steel plate with stainless steel cladded layers (SSCL) by contour method, it is necessary to know the elastic mechanical properties of stainless steel cladded layers accurately. The assumption of transversely isotropy (TI) was employed, and the relationship between the material compliance matrix and the elastic modulus of transversely isotropic material was utilized. Based on the elastic modulus of each cladded layer and the whole steel plate from the longitudinal direction (0°) until the transverse direction (90°) measured by the experiment, the independent constants S11, S13, S33 and S44 in the compliance matrix of each cladded layer and the whole steel plate were obtained by regression analysis method. Furthermore, by using the relationship between the independent constants of the stiffness matrix of the transversely isotropic material and the single crystal material, the independent constant S12 in the compliance matrix of each stainless steel cladded layer and the whole steel plate were obtained. And then the independent constants of the stiffness matrix of each cladded layer and the whole steel plate were acquired. Hence, a method for calculating the anisotropic elastic constants of the stainless steel cladded layer and the whole steel plate was proposed. The results will provide material data support for measuring residual stress of pressure vessel steel plate with stainless steel cladded layers by contour method.
       
  • Development of a novel constitutive model for improved structural
           integrity analysis of piping components
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Nazrul Islam, Tasnim Hassan Elbows are critical components of piping systems in the nuclear power industry, however, existing constitutive models are unable to simulate the low-cycle fatigue and ratcheting responses of this component. This study developed a constitutive model, incorporating a novel and various advanced uniaxial and multiaxial modeling features for successful response simulations of stainless steel (SS) 304 short and long radius elbows subjected to internal pressure and opening-closing displacement-controlled cycles. Simulated results demonstrate that if an existing advanced constitutive model is calibrated solely based on the material level responses, it is not able to simulate the elbow responses with acceptable accuracy. This drawback is primarily attributed to the fact that the prior loading and loading histories at different locations in an elbow are different and not represented by the loading histories of the material experiments performed for model parameter determination. Hence, model development and simultaneous experimental verification at the material and component levels trace the drawbacks of the constitutive modeling features effectively. Such evaluation of the simulated responses at two levels provided a novel modeling concept in improving the elbow response simulations quite satisfactorily. The implemented modeling features and response simulations at both levels are presented and critically analyzed for providing insights in developing robust constitutive models for structural integrity analysis.
       
  • Reliability assessment of thick high strength pipelines with corrosion
           defects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): U. Bhardwaj, A.P. Teixeira, C. Guedes Soares, Md Samdani Azad, W. Punurai, P. Asavadorndeja This paper assesses the reliability of thick, high strength corroded pipelines subjected to internal pressure by first order reliability algorithms and Monte Carlo simulation methods. First, the predictions of different burst strength models, including a new prediction model for thick high strength pipelines are compared with experimental results. Model uncertainty factors are derived for intact and corroded pipelines to calibrate and introduce the uncertainties on the models used in the prediction of structural reliability. The uncertainty associated with model uncertainty factors is addressed and the best fitting distribution is identified. Extensive reliability and sensitivity analyses are carried out on intact and corroded pipes with calibrated burst strength models. Through sensitivity analyses performed for increasing levels of corrosion defects, the influence of basic parameters on the burst strength of corroded pipelines is characterized. The results demonstrate that the model uncertainty factors and the depth of corrosion are relatively important variables for corroded pipelines. The results obtained through reliability assessment are compared with that obtained by the strength model proposed in the RAMPIPE guidelines.
       
  • Limit load solutions for elbows with circumferential through-wall crack
           under the pressure-induced bending restraint effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Seok-Jun Kang, Jun Hyeok Choi, Hoomin Lee, Doo Ho Cho, Jae Boong Choi, Moon Ki Kim A typical pipe finite element model is made by assuming there is internal pressure with a single crack located in the middle of the pipe where both ends are constraint-free. In reality, however, both ends are constrained by their connections to components such as the pressure vessel or pump. Furthermore, due to the complexity of the pipe system, it also experiences a self-constraint effect. This is called the pressure-induced bending restraint effect, and is known to affect the fracture mechanics parameters at the crack tip. Some studies exist on the pressure-induced bending restraint effect of straight pipes, but none have focused on elbow pipe and junction between straight pipe and elbow.This study suggests limit load solutions for elbow and their jointing regions with circumferential through-wall cracks under the pressure-induced bending restraint effect. The relevant equations can be used to estimate the maximum withstand load evaluation of a highly ductile pipe, and can also be used to estimate the elasto-plastic fracture mechanics parameters using the reference stress method.
       
  • Dynamic response of buried pipeline subject to impact loads using
           piezoceramic transducers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Jiang-ping Tian, Juan Zhang, Fei-fei Dong, Guo-feng Du Long-distance pipelines play an important role in oil and gas transportation. It is of great significance to study the dynamic responses of pipelines under impact loads. In this paper, based on the theories of unit impulse function and Fourier series, an Eular-Bernoulli foundation beam model is established to obtain the responses of the pipelines under impact loads. Meanwhile, embedded and surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers are used to monitor the impact force and the acceleration of the pipelines under impact loads respectively. Based on the signal received by piezoceramic transducers, the impact force is obtained and the effect of wall thickness, diameter, buried depth, impact energy and other parameters on the acceleration of pipelines are analyzed. Nonlinear finite element simulation of the impact process was carried out and the results are basically consistent with experimental and theoretical. The experimental results show that the maximum acceleration increased with an increase in the impact energy. The acceleration of large diameter and thin wall pipelines are larger at the same impact energy. The deeper the pipelines buried, the smaller the acceleration is. The effectiveness of the piezoceramic transducers are verified by the test results in monitoring dynamic responses of the buried pipelines, which provide reference for seismic design and safety evaluation of pipeline engineering.
       
  • Assessment of creep damage models in the prediction of high-temperature
           creep behaviour of alloy 617
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Kevin Kan, Ondrej Muránsky, Philip J. Bendeich, Richard N. Wright, Jamie J. Kruzic, Warwick Payten This study aims to predict the creep response of Alloy 617 and assess the accuracy of three established creep damage models in predicting the creep time-to-failure (tf) and strain-to-failure (εf) in the temperature range of 800–1000 °C. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) creep data were used to calibrate (1) Ductility Exhaustion (DE), (2) Stress-Modified Ductility Exhaustion (SMDE), and (3) Strain-Energy Density (SED) creep damage models using multiple linear regression (LR) and reverse damage (RD) approaches. In order to predict the creep response of Alloy 617 these creep damage models are then coupled with (secondary) creep strain model calibrated using Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) experimental data. Direct comparisons made between the investigated creep damage models revealed that the SED model with parameters calibrated through RD approach captures the creep response of Alloy 617 the most accurately and it thus produces the most accurate prediction of time-to-failure (tf) and strain-to-failure (εf) across different temperature/stress (creep) conditions. However, it is also shown that none of the employed creep damage models are able to fully capture the material creep response at 1000 °C. This is attributed the strong oxidation of Alloy 617 at 1000 °C (tested in air) leading to the formation of a thick oxidation layer, which might affect the failure mechanism of the alloy at this temperature.
       
  • A three-dimensional explicit finite element analysis of rolled joint
           process by varying the roller path
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Ritu J. Singh, K.N. Jonnalagadda, P.J. Guruprasad, H.S. Kushwaha In pressurized heavy water reactors, pressure tube to end fitting rolled joint is crucial for safe operation. The joint requires sufficient contact pressure for leak tightness and lower undesirable residual stress in the transition region of the tube. The objective of this work is to assess various paths of roller for roll expansion of tube such that the residual tensile stress is reduced while maintaining the required leak tightness. Consequently, three dimensional, explicit finite element simulations, of the roll expansion process are carried out. Several roller paths are considered in the simulation to vary the strain path of deformation. Results showed that with increase in number of rotations of the roller, the residual stresses decreased. In addition, the contact pressure is found to be within acceptable range for leak tightness. But, beyond a certain number of rotations, the stresses are found to saturate, hence putting an upper bound to their number.
       
  • Effect of laser shock peening on high cycle fatigue characteristics of
           316LN stainless steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Pardhu Yella, K.V. Rajulapati, G.V. Prasad Reddy, R. Sandhya, P. Prem Kiran, Ramesh K. Buddu, K. Bhanu Sankara Rao The influence of ‘laser shock peening’ (LSP) on fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel has been studied at 298 K by conducting fully reversed stress controlled fatigue tests in the range 200–300 MPa. A triangular wave form with a constant frequency of 5 Hz was employed for all the tests conducted below 107 cycles on the virgin and laser shock peened samples. The run out tests at 107 cycles were performed at a frequency of 60 Hz. The studies have clearly revealed that the fatigue life is dependent on surface condition of the material and stress amplitude employed. A comparison is made of cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loops and fatigue lives between virgin and peened material. The peened material showed better fatigue strength and life at low stress amplitudes pertaining to high cycle fatigue regime, and exhibited lower density of surface microcracks. The improved fatigue resistance of peened material is attributed to the presence of residual compressive stresses to a depth of ∼100 μm from the surface. The beneficial effect of compressive stresses is perceived both in the reduction in number density of Stage-I microcracks and retarded stage-II crack growth in the initial stages (that revealed striations with lesser spacing compared to un-peened samples).
       
  • The arresting performance of integral buckle arrestor for sandwich pipe
           systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Shunfeng Gong, Xipeng Wang, Lin Yuan, Chengbin Liu Integral buckle arrestor, which consists of welded stiff rings, has proved to be very effective to arrest the propagating buckle and can be applied in sandwich pipe systems. This paper examines the propagating buckle experiments on small-scale sandwich pipes with integral arrestors under different interface bonding conditions. In addition, a numerical framework was developed to reproduce the phenomenon of buckling propagation and crossover under external pressure, and good consistency was observed between the measured and predicted results. Then, the crossover pressure was studied parametrically covering the interface bonding conditions, key material properties, as well as geometries. An empirical expression was established based upon extensive numerical analysis to predict the crossover pressure of integral arrestors for sandwich pipes. The analysis further demonstrated that its arresting performance can be reasonably evaluated with the established empirical expression and lower bound envelope line.
       
  • Stability analysis of multi-span aluminum-based functionally graded
           material fluid-conveying pipe reinforced by carbon nanotubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Guo-jun Tong, Yong-shou Liu, Qian Cheng, Jia-yin Dai, Yu-zhen Zhao, Ying-chao Wang In this paper, the dynamic stiffness method is used to research the dynamic stability characteristics of multi-span aluminum-based functionally graded material (FGM) fluid-conveying pipe enhanced by carbon nanotube. The influence of the different volume fraction on natural frequency, critical pressure and critical velocity of the FGM pipe is discussed. The influence of different radiuses on the natural frequency of the pipe and the influence of different span-ratios on the stability characteristics of the pipe are also discussed. It can be concluded that change of material component has significant influence on natural frequencies, critical velocity and critical pressure of the FGM pipe. The instability caused by flow velocity variation is different from that caused by pressure change. If the total length of the pipe remains unchanged, different span-ratios will have a great impact on the stability of the pipe. Increasing outside diameter of the pipe will cause the increase of the natural frequency.
       
  • Failure modes of piping under seismic loads which have both load and
           displacement controlled characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Naoto Kasahara, Md Abdullah Al Bari, Ryota SakemiABSTRACTEvaluation for BDBE requires best estimation based on realistic failure phenomena. However failure modes of piping under seismic loads are not clear, because seismic load is alternate one and has both load- and displacement-controlled characteristics. For design and seismic PRA (probabilistic risk assessment), the failure mode is assumed to be collapse under PGA (peak ground acceleration). However, this conservative assumption is not appropriate for risk assessment with best estimation and uncertainty. The objective of this study is the clarification of realistic failure modes of piping under seismic loads.Previous experimental studies showed ratcheting deformation and fatigue as the most probable piping failure modes. Collapse cases were seldom.
      Authors pay attention to the analogy of failure modes between thermal alternate loads and seismic alternate loads. Ratcheting and collapse under thermal loads can be evaluated by the famous Bree diagram, where main parameters are constant pressure and alternate thermal loads. The Bree diagram was extensively applied to piping ratchet and collapse with such parameters as constant gravity force and alternate seismic loads. The frequency of seismic loads was also introduced as an additional parameter.As the results of experimental and analytical studies, ratcheting and collapse under seismic loads can be evaluated by the Bree-like diagram, where main parameters are constant gravity force, dynamic loads and their frequencies. Furthermore, frequency dependent characteristics of seismic loads were understood. They act like load controlled when frequency is lower than natural frequency. In the case of higher frequency than natural frequency, they become closer to displacement controlled. When higher than twice of natural frequency, they are less damageable than displacement-controlled.
       
  • Ratcheting assessment of pressurized pipelines under cyclic axial loading:
           Experimental and numerical investigations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Armin Rahmatfam, Mohammad Zehsaz, T.N. Chakherlou The present study aimed to study ratcheting strains of pressurized stainless steel (UNS S32750) pipes with cyclic axial loading conditions. To this aim, some experiments were performed for the tubes involving cyclic axial loading under internal pressure. All specimens were analyzed with a finite element code. Ohno-Wang hardening model was employed in numerical analysis to calculate the ratcheting of the tubes. By using this hardening model, all predicted ratcheting results were consistent with those of the experimental ones. In this study, the effect of pre-compressed strain, internal pressure and stress amplitude were evaluated experimentally and the numerical results were compared with the results. Finally, the tubes collapsed at about the same strain level as it did under monotonic loading. The number of cycles to collapse and the ratcheting strain rate of the pressurized pipelines depend on the different parameters such as cyclic loading parameters, pre-strain and internal pressure. The results show that an increase of pre-strain, internal pressure and cyclic loading parameters leads to increase ratcheting strain rate of pipelines in both axial and circumferential directions.
       
  • Influence of tempering treatments on mechanical properties and hydrogen
           embrittlement of 13 wt% Cr martensitic stainless steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Sunil Kumar Bonagani, Vishwanadh B, Tenneti Sharma, M. Naveen, V. Kain The influence of tempering treatments on mechanical properties and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of 13 wt% Cr martensitic stainless steel (MSS) have been investigated by Charpy impact tests and slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests followed by fracture surface examination. The austenitized and quenched specimens were tempered at 300, 550 and 700 °C for 2.5 h. The MSS tempered at 550 °C showed brittle intergranular (IG) fracture after impact tests indicating its susceptibility to temper embrittlement. The experimental results showed that the 13 wt% Cr MSS is sensitive to HE. The as-quenched condition showed cracking during hydrogen pre-charging itself. Hydrogen pre-charging duration increased the susceptibility to HE of tempered MSS. The maximum HE susceptibility was observed for specimen tempered at 550 °C with a drastic reduction in strength and strain to failure. Tempering at 300 and 550 °C showed brittle IG fracture with hydrogen pre-charging in SSRT tests whereas increased IG region with ductile dimples was observed for specimen tempered at 700 °C with increase of pre-charging duration. The reason for maximum susceptibility to HE of specimen tempered at 550 °C is due to synergistic interaction of hydrogen and impurities segregated at prior austenitic grain boundaries.
       
  • Three-dimensional finite element analysis of O-ring metal seals
           considering varying material properties and different seal diameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Linan Qiao, Christian Keller, Uwe Zencker, Holger Völzke Metal seals of O-ring form are often used in lid-systems of transport and storage casks for radioactive waste in Germany. To investigate their mechanical behaviour, three dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models were created using solid elements for all of the seal components. The material behaviour of each component is described with a unified static elastic-plastic material model. The total strain is defined as the sum of linear elastic strain and plastic strain with power-law hardening. The model was carefully validated by comparison of simulation results with experimental results. The influence of material fluctuation of each seal component due to varying properties and the sensitivity of different seal diameters on the seal force are analysed and discussed. The results show that the material properties of helical spring have major influence on seal force and that the influence of seal diameters is negligible small in the studied range. This is very important to use the test results from seals with small diameter for the assessment of seal behaviour with larger diameter as used in transport and storage cask.
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigations of flow-induced vibration of
           tube arrays subjected to cross flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Pengfei Wang, Wensheng Zhao, Jin Jiang, Xiaochuan Wang, Shunyang Li, Xiangyu Luo Flow-induced vibration of tube array structures is a major concern in nuclear engineering. In this paper, the dynamical behaviour of flexible tubes in cross flow is studied. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to investigate the interaction between flow perturbations and tube oscillations. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is validated and adopted in the simulations. The motion of tubes in different tube configurations (i.e., single tube, three in line tubes, normal square tube array, and normal triangle tube array with different pitch to diameter ratios) under different flow conditions are analyzed and compared by time trace, power spectral density (PSD), phase plane plot and Poincaré map. Experiments have been conducted using a flexible tube in a closed-loop piping system to compare with the CFD model predictions. It can be concluded that the single tube undergoes vortex-induced vibration and then fluid elastic instability, limit-cycle oscillation occurs when the inlet flow velocity exceeds a critical point. The central tube in normal square tube array is the most stable among the three configurations. The critical pitch to diameter ratio of tube array under reduced velocity Ur = 6 is about 5.5. The experimental observations are in good agreement with the CFD predictions.
       
  • The elastic serrated gasket of the flange bolted joints
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Przemysław Jaszak The paper presents the experimental as well as numerical research of a bolted flange joint with an elastic serrated gasket. Two constructions of a metal core were proposed. Their cross-section shapes were different in relation to the standard solution. Results of the experimental research showed that the elastic core provides a considerable increase of the joint tightness compared to the tightness of the joint sealed with a standard gasket. Next, numerical analysis was conducted whose aim was to determine contact pressure on the interfacing surface between the gasket and flange. It appeared that proper forming of the core cross-section provides quite regular distribution of contact pressure along the gasket width. The final part verified the numerical computation and explains the effect of the increased tightness of the joint with an elastic core.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • B2 stress index for structurally distorted pipe bends under in-plane
           opening bending moment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): S. Balakrishnan, A.R. Veerappan, S. Shanmugam The present study determines the effect of shape imperfections on the B2 index of pipe bends subjected to in-plane opening moment using 3D nonlinear finite element (FE) methodology. The analysis considers the large strain formulation option and the material behavior is elastic-perfectly plastic. The reaction moment versus angular rotation curves are plotted for all the simulated pipe bends and the plastic collapsing moments are determined using Twice-elastic slope technique as recommended in ASME B& PV, section III (clause NB-3213.25). The B2 stress index was computed for each model from their respective collapse moment. The variable wall thickening in the pipe bend's cross section yields negligible effect and the presence of ovality has a momentous effect on B2 stress indices. A mathematical equation is suggested to compute B2 stress index for pipe bends with ovality subjected to in-plane opening bending moment.
       
  • Strength and stability of spherical pressure hulls with different viewport
           structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Yongmei Zhu, Wanwan Liang, Xilu Zhao, Xiaorong Wang, Jing Xia This paper focuses on three viewport structures of a deep-sea spherical pressure hull. By employing the rule design method, the plane disk, conical frustum, and spherical sector viewport structures were designed, and its basic dimensions were determined. The strength and stability of pressure hulls with three different viewports were examined by employing theoretical and numerical methods under the condition that Di and t were consistent. To satisfy the strength requirement, the effects of the structural parameters of the conical frustum viewport on the stress and deformation of the contact surface were studied, and the reasons for failure, in addition to the design criterion, of acrylic plastic viewports were investigated. Additionally, equally proportioned models of pressure hulls with three different viewports were manufactured and tested. The geometrical and buckling properties of these spherical hull specimens were demonstrated via a series of tests. The results of theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigations were compared by constructing tables and figures.
       
  • Effect of heat input and role of nitrogen on the phase evolution of 2205
           duplex stainless steel weldment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Balázs Varbai, Timothy Pickle, Kornél Májlinger Duplex stainless steels have excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance due to their austenitic/ferritic microstructure in equal phase fractions. This optimal phase ratio changes as a result of welding in the different zones of the weldment.The evolution of the austenite fraction in the heat affected zone is governed by the nitrogen diffusion during solid-state ferrite-to-austenite transformation, but no loss of nitrogen could be measured in the investigated heat input range.In the weld metal, significant nitrogen loss can be measured from the molten pool, if no filler material or nitrogen containing shielding gas is being used.In our paper, these two different mechanisms and their effect on the austenite fractions are investigated. A Johnson–Mehl–Avrami–Kolmogorov equations parameters predicting the austenite phase evolution has been determined. With the equations help, the austenite volume fraction of the heat affected zone can easily and accurately be predicted after welding in the industrially applicable arc energy range.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Calculation of accident probability of gas pipeline based on evolutionary
           tree and moment multiplication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Yongmei Hao, Wenbin Yang, Zhixiang Xing, Ke Yang, lin Sheng, Jian Yang Aiming at the problem that the various events during the period from the destruction of the pipeline to the accident caused by the accident probability are often ignored, a gas pipeline accident probability calculation model based on evolutionary tree and moment multiplication is proposed. First, according to the evolution tree, the intermediate links of the accident and various evolution paths are used as the basis for the analysis. Then, on the one hand, the fault forms are divided, the influence of different causes on the fault form is analyzed, and the basic fault probability is corrected by using the influence coefficient; on the other hand, the frequent accident types are determined according to the historical data. The probability of each type of accident caused by different forms of fault is calculated respectively. Finally, the moment multiplication operation is introduced to simplify the calculation process, improve the efficiency of data utilization, and achieve a more accurate calculation of accident probability. Through the application of the constructed model to the actual case of urban gas pipeline, the effectiveness of the model is proved, and the calculation of the accident probability of gas pipeline is more accurate.
       
  • A novel method to estimate the fracture toughness of pressure vessel
           ferritic steels in the ductile to brittle transition region using finite
           element analysis and Master Curve method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Jianhua Pan, Zeng Chen, Zhanyong Hong Fracture toughness is a key parameter in the structure integrity assessment for pressure vessels. Several experiments must be performed to obtain the accurate fracture toughness of pressure vessel steels. However, these experiments are both time-consuming and money-consuming. It is difficult to conduct these experiments in practical engineering projects due to this reason. In this paper, an effective method is proposed to estimate the fracture toughness of pressure vessel ferritic steels in the ductile to brittle transition region. This method is based on the finite element analysis and the Master Curve method. A load P vs. load–line displacement VLL curve, critical J-integral values and reference temperature T0 are obtained using this method. To validate this method, the tensile test and the fracture toughness test of Chinese low temperature pressure vessel ferritic steel, 16MnDR steel, are conducted. The applicability of involved methods, Compliance Changing Rate method and Chaouadi's equation, are evaluated with experimental data. It is found that the predicted results agree well with the experimental results and have a certain conservatism. The method provides a good solution to obtain accurate fracture toughness of pressure vessel ferritic steels by using minimal number of experiments for practical engineering projects.
       
  • The effect of two-parameter of Pasternak foundations on the oscillations
           of composite pipelines conveying gas-containing fluids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): B.A. Khudayarov, Kh.M. Komilova, F.Zh. Turaev The effect of two-parameter of Pasternak foundations on the oscillations of composite pipelines conveying a two-phase slug flow is studied in the paper. To analyze the oscillations of the pipelines conveying gas-containing fluid, a viscoelastic model of the theory of beams and a model of Pasternak foundation are used. The Boltzmann-Volterra hereditary theory of the viscoelasticity is used to describe the viscoelastic properties of the pipeline material and earth foundation. A computational algorithm has been developed for solving problems of calculating the oscillatory processes in the pipelines conveying a two-phase gas-containing flow. On the basis of the computational algorithm developed, a set of applied computer programs has been created, which makes it possible to carry out numerical studies of pipeline oscillations. The effect of the flow rate of gas and liquid phases, the effect of tensile forces in the longitudinal direction of the pipeline, Pasternak foundations parameters, the parameters of singularity in the heredity kernels on the oscillations of the pipeline made of composite materials are numerically investigated. It is found that an increase in the length of the gas bubble zone leads to a decrease in the critical velocity of a two-phase slug flow.
       
  • Parametric structural integrity assessment of a nuclear reactor reinforced
           containment and interior components under postulated aircraft collision
           conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Jae Min Sim, Yoon-Suk ChangABSTRACTThe security of containment structures has been highlighted as a vital component of isolating and protecting internal devices in nuclear power plants from various hypothetical hazards. Despite several recent impressive studies focused on external events such as earthquake and aircraft crash, further elaborate numerical approaches are required to ensure confinement of radwaste materials against severe loads. In this paper, dynamic analyses were carried out to examine the influence of aircraft crashes on a typical reinforced concrete containment and interior components. Firstly, a specific referential force-time history was generated based on Riera function and compared with the impact force exerted by an artificial airplane through a finite element analysis combined with a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics of fuel for validation. Subsequently, systematic numerical analyses were carried out for the containment under diverse postulated aircraft collision conditions. Stresses and strains of each part were calculated, and displacements as well as damages of the concrete due to crushing and cracking were also evaluated through comparison of the corresponding allowable criteria. Moreover, effects of key parameters such as crash angles, locations, and velocities were investigated. As results, central part of the concrete wall was determined to be the most vulnerable and failure based on the conservative strain criteria was estimated at this region under 200 m/s of speed regardless of impact angles.
       
  • Creep constitutive equations for as-received 9Cr1Mo steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Amir Hossein Daei-Sorkhabi, Farid Vakili-Tahami, Milad Erami 9Cr1Mo has a wide application in petrochemical and power generation plants, prediction of its creep behavior is a major concern in these industries. In this paper, the creep behavior and creep lifetime of test samples machined from 15 years of service exposed boiler tubes in an oil refinery plant, are studied using uni-axial creep tests. Tests are carried out according to ASTM E139 at different stress and temperature levels (from 80 MPa to 190 MPa and at 550 °C, 600 °C and 650 °C). Based on the experimental data, the creep constitutive coefficients for three types of creep laws: Norton, Plrandtl and Garofalo are obtained together with Monkman-Grant and Larson Miller parameters. It has been shown that the constitutive equations in the form of Garofalo law predict the creep behavior of the material more accurately. The results show that the creep life relationships obtained based on both Garofalo and Norton power law give acceptable estimation. Also, the results are implemented in reference stress method to produce a set of loci for the optimal geometry of the tubes under combined loadings with maximum creep lifetime.
       
  • Large thermal gradients on structural integrity of a reactor pressure
           vessel subjected to pressurized thermal shocks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Pin-Chiun Huang, Hsoung-Wei Chou, Yuh-Ming Ferng, Chin-Hsiang KangABSTRACTPressurized-thermal-shocks (PTSs) are the most severe accidents that impact the structural integrity of a pressurized water reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In general, the one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis results for PTS transients were often used as the loading conditions for structural integrity evaluation of RPV, but may cause over-conservative results. This paper investigates the effects of the cold plume, which is the non-uniform temperature distribution caused by colder water injected separately into the RPV, on the fracture probability of a three loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel subjected to PTS events. The three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique associated with probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis were employed to comprehensively evaluate the structural integrity of RPV under hypothetical PTS accidents. Firstly the model of a PWR pressure vessel in Taiwan was constructed to simulate the thermal-hydraulic phenomena by CFD methodology. Based on the Best Practice Guidelines (BPGs) and ASME V&V guidance, the estimation of mesh uncertainty has been conducted. Then the detailed thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions corresponding to various RPV shell regions were regarded as the loading conditions for PFM analysis. Present results are compared with those which consider the simplified thermal hydraulic analysis system code’s results as boundary conditions.
       
  • Evaluation of Mechanical Properties Distribution for Irradiated Stainless
           Steels Simulated by Utilizing the Gradient of the Cold Working Ratio
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Takuya OGAWA, Yohei ONO, Masao ITATANI, Takahiro HAYASHI, Toshiyuki SAITO It is known that irradiation damage can cause a reduction in fracture toughness and an increase in the strength of austenitic stainless steels used for the internal structures of nuclear power plant reactors. A change in the mechanical properties of material, such as fracture toughness and strength, affects the fracture behavior of the components. Actual reactor internal structures, such as the top guides and core shrouds in BWR plants, are irradiated from the core in a single direction. This causes the attenuation of neutron flux, which results in the distribution of neutron fluence in the components, meaning that the distribution of mechanical properties is in the through-wall direction of the components. It is therefore possible for the fracture mode of the components to change in the through-wall direction. It would be valuable for more accurate assessment of the structural integrity of the nuclear components to make the effect of the mechanical properties distribution on the fracture mode clear. However, it is difficult to prepare large-scale test specimens with the mechanical properties distribution induced by uni-directional neutron irradiation. In this study, the mechanical properties distribution was simulated by applying the gradient of the cold working ratio using Type 316L stainless steel plate with an uneven thickness. The targeted range of the cold working ratio was designed by assuming BWR reactor internal structures, such as the top guides. The mechanical properties distribution was evaluated based on the results of hardness, tensile and fracture toughness tests. It was found that the macroscopic mechanical properties of irradiated stainless steels can be simulated by using the cold working and the macroscopic distribution of the mechanical properties of irradiated stainless steels can also be simulated by using the cold working ratio with a gradient. Furthermore, fracture tests were performed using test plates with the mechanical properties distribution assuming irradiated components with a crack. In some cases, the maximum loads obtained by the tests were almost the same value in spite of the different cold working ratio in the ligament. Based on the results of the fracture tests, it was considered that the dominant mechanical properties for the fracture load were those at the tip of the slit, not those in the ligament.
       
  • A New Probabilistic Evaluation Model for Weld Residual Stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Akihiro Mano, Jinya Katsuyama, Yuhei Miyamoto, Yoshihito Yamaguchi, Yinsheng Li Weld residual stress (WRS) is one of the most important factors in the structural integrity assessment of piping welds, and it is considered a driving force for crack growth. It is characterized by large uncertainty. For more rational assessment, it is important to consider the uncertainty of WRS for evaluating crack growth behavior in probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis. In existing PFM analysis codes, WRS uncertainty is set by statistically processing the multiple WRS data obtained from finite element analyses. This process depends on the individual performing PFM analysis, which may lead to uncertainties derived from the PFM analyst. In this study, we developed a new WRS evaluation model based on Fourier transformation, and the model was incorporated into the PFM analysis code PASCAL-SP, which has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Through improvements to the code, WRS uncertainty can be considered automatically and appropriately by inputting multiple WRS data directly as input for PFM analysis.
       
  • Instability Moment Predictions for Complex Through-wall Cracked Pipes of
           Low Alloy Steel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Yeji Kim, Young-Jin Oh, Yun-Jae Kim, Jin-Weon Kim, Heung-Bae ParkABSTRACTThe complex through-wall cracks (TWC) that have been discovered in the dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plants have different fracture behavior compared with the simple TWC that is typically assumed in a flaw evaluation. In this regards, a number of prior research has aimed at developing an appropriate J-estimation scheme and constructing of the J-R curve that can be utilized for complex crack analysis. In the present paper, instability moments of complex TWC pipes of low alloy steel were calculated through the crack driving force diagram approach, employing J-estimation formula for complex crack recently developed. As a fracture property, the test data of complex crack tension (CCT) specimen was used. Comparing with the prediction results of FE analysis using a damage model, it was observed that this procedure could provide an accurate prediction of the instability moment with the reasonable conservatism.
       
  • Development of Pressure-Temperature Operation Limits for a PWR Vessel
           Considering Beltline Shell and Extended Beltline Nozzles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Hsoung-Wei Chou, Yu-Yu Shen, Chin-Cheng Huang The pressure-temperature limits (P-T limits) of embrittled reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) should be determined for normal heat-up and cool-down operations based on fracture mechanics to ensure the structural integrity. In general, the P-T limits are mainly determined by the fracture toughness of beltline region material which suffers the highest level of neutron embrittlement. However, some other components such as nozzles which suffer insignificant neutron embrittlement may restrict the P-T limits as a result of higher stress concentration from their structural discontinuities. Therefore, beltline region material with the highest reference temperature as well as nozzles that have structural discontinuities need to be considered when developing the P-T limits of RPV. In this paper, the P-T limit calculations for a Taiwan domestic pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel were performed considering both beltline shell and extended beltline nozzles according to the nonmandatory Appendix G to ASME Code Section XI. The three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted to obtain the pressure and thermal stress distributions of extended beltline nozzles for P-T limits calculation. It is found that the beltline region still dominates the cool-down P-T limit, but the extended beltline region will partially control the heat-up limit. Further, the reference temperature ranges of extended beltline nozzles that may influence the P-T limits of RPV were also investigated. Present study is helpful for safe operation and also provides a reference for regulation of PWR plants in Taiwan.
       
  • Effects of Dendrite Axis and Fusion Boundary on Stress Corrosion Cracking
           of ER 308L/SS 304L Welds in a High-temperature Water Environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Wen-Feng Lu, Jiunn-Yuan Huang, Tung-Yuan Yung, Tai-Cheng Chen, Kun-Chao Tsai This study investigated the effects of dendrite axis and fusion boundary (FB) on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 308L/304L welds by using an alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique to measure the SCC growth rates in a simulated boiling water reactor environment. The results show that the ferrite/austenite interfaces are more susceptible to SCC in the SS 308L welds. Furthermore, the angle between the applied load and the dendrite axis affects the SCC growth rate, and as this angle approached 90°, the SCC crack growth rate increases. The SCC cracks in the heat affected zone (HAZ) are mainly intergranular and some cracks propagate transgranularly. Furthermore, the primary crack in the HAZ propagates along the FB; when reaching FB, some secondary cracks are arrested at the FB. The residual strain caused by weld shrinkage is the crucial factor for the increase in SCC susceptibility in HAZ.
       
  • Thermal and stress analyses of a novel coated steam dual pipe system for
           use in advanced ultra-supercritical power plant
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Xiaofeng Guo, Wei Sun, Adib Becker, Andy Morris, Martyn Pavier, Peter Flewitt, Michael Tierney, Christopher Wales Improving the energy efficiency of advanced ultra-supercritical power plants, by increasing steam operating temperature up to 700 °C, can be achieved, at reduced cost, by using novel engineering design concepts, such as coated steam pipe systems manufactured from high temperature materials commonly used in current operational power plants. This paper describes a preliminary feasibility analysis of the design concept of a novel coated dual pipe system under steady-state operation, using analytical and finite element models to evaluate the possible thermal gradients and stresses generated. The results show that the protective coating layer contributes to the effective reduction in the surface temperature of the primary steel pipe. Thermal stresses generated due to the significant difference in the thermal and mechanical properties of the coating and substrate pipe are larger than the mechanical stresses generated by the combined effects of the internal steam pressure in the primary steam pipe and external pressure from the counter-flow cooling steam during steady-state operation. Compared with the stress relaxation of the coating and substrate pipe, creep has a significant impact on the stress distribution within the coating layer. Several key factors have been identified, such as the coating thickness, conductivity, thermal expansion, heat transfer coefficient of cooling steam, cooling steam temperature and cooling steam pressure, which are found to govern thermal and stress distributions during steady-state operation.
       
  • Tracking supervision of service performance and life assessment of
           defective 15Cr1Mo1V steel pipeline
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2019Source: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and PipingAuthor(s): Xianxi Xia, Baoyin Zhu, Guodong Zhang, Jinhua Shi A large number of inclusion defects were found during the metal supervision process of the Russian-made 15Cr1Mo1V steel main steam pipeline of the thermal power unit. In this paper, the tracking supervision research of 15Cr1Mo1V steel pipeline (three elbows with the most serious inclusions at different service time) is carried out in order to find out the change law of the material's strength, toughness, metallographic structure and creep rupture strength. And on this basis, creep fatigue life assessment is performed. The results show that the tensile strength, impact toughness and creep rupture property of the material decreased with the increase of the service time. The ductile-brittle transition temperature increased as time prolonging, all above room temperature which means the material was brittle. The main inclusions were MnS and SiO2 which usually plastic, and the serious inclusion grade was level 3. Longitudinal inclusions were mostly of long-chain features, but no crack was found at the inclusion tips; the transverse inclusions were granular. The creep fatigue crack evaluation for the defects of plastic inclusions such as MnS and SiO2 show that the crack propagation length at the inclusion tip after over 105 h of service was tiny which was consistent with the microscopic result, which means the influence of plastic inclusion on the structural integrity could be neglected. However, the degradation of material properties caused by inclusions, especially the decrease of durable strength, greatly reduced the service life, meanwhile, brittle inclusion defects tend to generate stress concentration and induce the formation of cracks, so it is also necessary to strengthen the supervision and inspection of inclusions and judge the inclusion category in the subsequent operation.
       
 
 
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