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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1401 - 1600 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Africa Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.699, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Approximate Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Biochemistry & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Biological Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.917, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.2, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Child-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Clinical and Health Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.345, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.186, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.648, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Developmental Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 455, SJR: 1.441, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Educational Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.617, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.276, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.82, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Epilepsy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.402, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.366, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.879, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Gerontology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.458, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.947, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267, SJR: 1.498, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.027, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Human-Computer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.116, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.334, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.124, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Industrial Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.873, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.514, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 306, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Law and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.546, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.362, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.597, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.92, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.595, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.247, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.717, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mining Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.323, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.032, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.646, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.717, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.618, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.783, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.11, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.395, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.981, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.401, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.463, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.157, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.485, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.471, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.528, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.259, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.295, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.793, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgery Open     Open Access   (SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Surgery Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.746, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.429, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Women's Dermatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Medical Review on Down Syndrome     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.973, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.841, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Economics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.632, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.497, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Intl. Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.667, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Strategic Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Investigación en Educación Médica     Open Access  
Investigaciones de Historia Económica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 0)
Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa     Open Access  
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.115, CiteScore: 4)
iScience     Open Access  
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 3.169, CiteScore: 8)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription  
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 3.571, CiteScore: 2)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.495, CiteScore: 2)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription  
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription  
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. Européen des Urgences et de Réanimation     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
J. for Nurse Practitioners     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 0)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1028, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 6.875, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.882, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Accounting Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Acute Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.01, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.828, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.053, CiteScore: 4)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.681, CiteScore: 2)
J. of African Trade     Open Access  
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.8, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.981, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.187, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Algorithms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 5.049, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.461, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.02, CiteScore: 4)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Anesthesia History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.24, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.043, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.339, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.636, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.321, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.255, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.303, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.907, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.885, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.659, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.763, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Arrhythmia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.398, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Arthroplasty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.373, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity     Open Access   (SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.509, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.488, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 0.696, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.046, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Behavior, Health & Social Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.147, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.028, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.712, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Bionic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.584, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.929, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.522, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Bone Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.941, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.753, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.26, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Business Venturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 5.212, CiteScore: 9)

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.917
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0141-8130
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Inhibition of membrane bound lipophilic plant (Borassus flabelifer L.)
           peroxidase by phenolic compounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Theivarasu Chinna Gownder, Shanmugam Venkatachalam Borassus flabelifer peroxidase was ionically interacting with stone parts of its fruit. The apparently homogeneous membrane bound peroxidase was reversibly inhibited by various aromatic alcohols. Dixon plot clearly showed mixed type of inhibition. Ki values of peroxidase-inhibitor complexes were determined. The homogenous peroxidase had non-covalently interacting triglycerides or triglyceride esterified phytosterols. This Peroxidase was interacting with acid hydrolysable low density lipoprotein but not with high density lipoprotein. This may be one of the reasons for its stability and catalysis in organic solvents. Further studies may prove it as lipophilic enzyme. These waste stone parts may be utilized in extracting phytosterols and fatty acids which has medicinal value.
  • Synthesis, characterization and biomedical applications of a novel Schiff
           base on methyl acrylate-functionalized chitosan bearing
           p-nitrobenzaldehyde groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): El-Refaie Kenawy, Sameh S. Ali, Marwa Al-Etewy, Jianzhong Sun, Jian Wu, Nessma El-Zawawy Amino-functionalization has gained significant attention in the chemical modification of carbohydrate polymers due to their potential biomedical applications. Here, the preparation of innovative functionalized chitosan bearing amino-containing groups and equipped with p-nitrobenzaldehyde groups, resulting in an aminated chitosan bearing p-nitrobenzaldehyde (AmCs-pNBA) was described for the first time. The most important advantage of the chitosan functionalization was the success of its preparation at room temperature, avoiding the polymerization of methyl acrylate and instead it reacted entirely with chitosan. The resulting methyl acrylate chitosan was subsequently improved by the synthesized AmCs-pNBA Schiff base via the condensation of aldehyde groups with aminated chitosan. The structural characteristics of AmCs-pNBA were examined by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM, and elemental analysis techniques. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-biofilm activities of AmCs-pNBA were assessed in vitro. The results revealed that this newly synthesized chitosan derivative displayed significant superior antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-biofilm activities over the original chitosan. Besides, cytotoxicity and hemolytic analysis of the AmCs-pNBA were also evaluated. Results indicated that AmCs-pNBA support cell viability and proliferation without obvious hemolysis. These results show the potential of synthesizing the novel biomaterial candidate, AmCs-pNBA, with improved antibacterial, anti-biofilm, and antioxidant properties that may open a new perspective in biomedical applications.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • The mitochondrial genome of Greenidea psidii van der Goot (Hemiptera:
           Aphididae: Greenideinae) and comparisons with other Aphididae aphids
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Jing Chen, Yuan Wang, Man Qin, Li-Yun Jiang, Ge-Xia Qiao The complete mitochondrial genome of Greenidea psidii was sequenced and compared with the genomes of other aphid species. The G. psidii mitogenome is 16,202 bp long with an A + T content of 85.4%, comprising 37 genes arranged in the same order as the inferred insect ancestral arrangement, a control region and a special repeat region between trnE and trnF. G. psidii is the first representative possessing such a repeat region from the subfamily Greenideinae. These repeat motifs found in Aphidinae, Eriosomatinae and Greenideinae are species-specific, differing in nucleotide composition, length and copy number across different species. All reported complete aphid mitogenomes are A- and C-skewed in the whole genomes and show opposite skewness for C and G between the majority and minority strands. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates indicated that the evolution of the aphid mitogenomes has been dominated by purifying selection. Based on whole mitogenome sequences, the phylogenetic relationships among all aphid species with complete mitogenomes were investigated. G. psidii was robustly clustered with Cervaphis quercus, confirming its affiliation with the subfamily Greenideinae.
  • LncRNA SNHG1 promoted HGC-27 cell growth and migration via the
           miR-140/ADAM10 axis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Weiping Guo, Jianglong Huang, Purun Lei, Longbin Guo, Xi Li Documents have reported that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in tumor progression. Previous study revealed that lncRNA SNHG1 was often elevated in cancer and was linked with poor prognosis in cancer patients. However, its modulatory mechanism has not been fully clarified in gastric cancer (GC). Here, we reported that SNHG1 expression was significantly increased in GC cell lines and tissues. Knockdown of SNHG1 impeded cell growth via disturbing cell cycle distribution and protecting cells from apoptosis. Nevertheless, SNHG1 down-regulation decreased cell invasive ability and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Mechanismly, it was found that SNHG1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA to repress miR-140 expression and thereby elevated its down-stream target ADAM10. In summary, SNHG1 promoted GC cell proliferation and invasion via modulating the miR-140/ADAM10 axis. These findings uncovered that lncRNA SNHG1 could be a candidate target for new therapies in GC patients.
  • Biodegradation of di‑n‑butyl phthalate by psychrotolerant Sphingobium
           yanoikuyae strain P4 and protein structural analysis of carboxylesterase
           involved in the pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Rishi Mahajan, Shalini Verma, Madhulika Kushwaha, Dharam Singh, Yusuf Akhter, Subhankar Chatterjee A priority pollutant Phthalate Esters (PAEs) are widely used as plasticizers and are responsible mainly for carcinogenicity and endocrine disruption in human. For the bioremediation of PAEs, a psychrotolerant Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain P4, capable of utilizing many phthalates di‑methyl phthalate (DMP), di‑ethyl phthalate (DEP), di‑n‑butyl phthalate (DBP), di‑isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), and few Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from Palampur, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India. 100% utilization of DBP (1 g L−1) by the strain was observed within 24 h of incubation at 28 °C. Interestingly the strain also degraded DBP completely at 20 °C and 15 °C within 36 h and 60 h, respectively. Esterase involved in DBP degradation was found to be inducible in nature and intracellular. Comparative sequence analysis of carboxylesterase enzyme sequences revealed conserved motifs: G-X-S-X-G and -HGG- which were the characteristic peptide motifs reported in different esterases. Structural analysis showed that the enzyme belongs to serine hydrolase superfamily, which has an α/β hydrolase fold. Interaction and binding of DBP to a catalytic Ser184 residue in the esterase enzyme were also analysed. In conclusion, carboxylesterase possess the required active site which may be involved in the catabolism of DBP.
  • Evaluation of antibacterial and anticancer properties of
           poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) functionalized with different amino compounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Mohamed A. Abdelwahab, Ahmed A. El-Barbary, Karim S. El-Said, Sabry A. El Naggar, Hazem M. ElKholy The chemical modification of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is useful for biomedical applications. In this study, the transesterification reaction of PHB was carried out under reflux conditions in the presence of 1,4-butanediol to form telechelic PHB-diol. Further modification of PHB-diol into PHB-diacrylate was carried out by the reaction of PHB-diol with acryloyl chloride. PHB-diacrylate was grafted with amino compounds such as 1,4-butanediamine, 1,3-propanediamine, 1,2-ethylenediamine, piperazine, cyclohexylamine, 2,2′-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(oxy)) diethanamine (jeffamine EDR 148) and morpholine via Michael-type addition reaction. The functionalized amino-PHB polymers were characterized by using FTIR and 1H NMR techniques. XRD showed that amino-PHB polymers have different crystallinity compared with neat PHB. Some biological activities of amino-PHB polymers were determined such as antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activities. In this regard, the results showed that PHB-ethylenediamine revealed a potent antibacterial activity against Staphlococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All amino-PHB polymers under the study showed reasonable antioxidant activity. Among these polymers, PHB-piperazine showed a potent anticancer effect against in vivo Ehrlich ascetic carcinoma bearing mice.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • In vitro and in vivo anticoagulant activity of heparin-like
           biomacromolecules and the mechanism analysis for heparin-mimicking
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Lang Ma, Jianbo Huang, Xiaoxia Zhu, Bihui Zhu, Liyun Wang, Weifeng Zhao, Li Qiu, Bin Song, Changsheng Zhao, Feng Yan Heparin-like biomacromolecules (HepLBm), exhibiting similar chemical structure and biological properties to heparin, can be obtained by modifying either synthetic biopolymers or natural biomacromolecules with physical or chemical methods. In this work, a low-cost and biocompatible sodium alginate was chosen as a model biomacromolecule to design anticoagulant HepLBm with a similar sulfation degree to heparin. FTIR, 1H NMR, and element analysis data were used to confirm the chemical structure of HepLBm. Hemolysis tests, clotting time, complement activation, and contact activation tests were carried out to determine the in vitro anticoagulant activity of HepLBm. In addition, systematic studies of blood cell count, coagulation function, and histopathology were performed to demonstrate the in vivo anticoagulant activity and toxicity of HepLBm with SD rat experiments. Furthermore, a series of linear molecules containing carboxyl groups, sulfonic groups, and hydroxyl groups were selected and their clotting time was tested to provide a mechanism analysis for the excellent anticoagulant activity of HepLBm. With the excellent in vitro/in vivo anticoagulant activity, good biocompatibility, and low cost, the HepLBm synthesized in this work would have great potential for substitution of heparin in many application fields, such as the surface modification of biomedical devices, extracorporeal anticoagulants, and other clinical fields.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Purification and biochemical characterization of two keratinases from
           Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S13 isolated from marine brown alga Zonaria
           tournefortii with potential keratin-biodegradation and hide-unhairing
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Sonia Hamiche, Sondes Mechri, Lamia Khelouia, Rachid Annane, Mohamed El Hattab, Abdelmalek Badis, Bassem Jaouadi The current paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of two extracellular keratinolytic enzymes, with moderate elastolytic activity, from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain S13 newly isolated from the brown alga Zonaria tournefortii. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4-dialysis, followed by size exclusion HPLC column, and submitted to biochemical characterization assays. The findings revealed that the pure enzymes designated KERZT-A and B were monomers with molecular masses of 28 and 47 kDa, respectively. Their identified NH2-terminal amino acid displayed high homologies with those of Bacillus keratinases. While KERZT-A was optimally active at pH 6.5 and 50 °C, KERZT-B showed optimum activity at pH 8 and 60 °C. Both enzymes were completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), which suggests their belonging to the serine keratinases family. Interestingly, KERZT-A displayed higher levels of hydrolysis, substrate specificity, and catalytic efficiency than KERUS from Brevibacillus brevis strain US575, NUE 12 MG (commercial enzyme), and KERZT-B unhairing keratinases. Above all, the findings indicated that KERZT-A and B enzymes seems to be an effective and an eco-friendly alternative to the conventional chemicals used for the feather keratin-biodegradation and for the unhairing of hides or skins in the leather processing industry.
  • Intelligent and active furcellaran-gelatin films containing green or
           pu-erh tea extracts: Characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Ewelina Jamróz, Piotr Kulawik, Paweł Krzyściak, Katarzyna Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Lesław Juszczak Biodegradable films from furcellaran and gelatin (FUR/GEL) with pu-erh (RTE) and green tea (GTE) water extracts (TEs) were obtained by a casting method. The films were examined in terms of physical properties (thickness, density, water solubility, water content, degree of swelling, color), antioxidant properties (DPPH, ABTS, TPC), antimicrobial properties (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Henseniaspora uvarum) and mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break). The values of tensile strength (TS) increased from 9.62 to 24.14 or 13.59 MPa after GTE or RTE incorporation, respectively. Parameters of elongation at break were not changed. Higher color parameters: a*, b* and ∆E were observed in biocomposite films with RTE. The FUR/GEL films with GTE and RTE can be used for intelligent food packaging, due to their sensibility of pH changes. Possible interaction between the film matrix and TEs was confirmed using FTIR. The antioxidant properties were significantly enhanced with increasing GTE and RTE concentration reaching 43.92 and 48.94% of DPPH and 15.76 and 14.98% of ABTS radical inhibition, respectively. The microbiological analysis confirmed antimicrobial properties of FUR/GEL with GTE against E.coli and S. aureus (inhibition zones of 16 and 22.5 mm, respectively).
  • Catalytic activity, structure and stability of proteinase K in the
           presence of biosynthesized CuO nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Mansoore Hosseini-Koupaei, Behzad Shareghi, Ali Akbar Saboury, Fatemeh Davar, Vladimir A. Sirotkin, Mohammad Hossein Hosseini-Koupaei, Zahra Enteshari Here, CuO nanoparticles were synthesized using Sambucus nigra (elderberry) fruit extract. Further, the binding of proteinase K, as a model enzyme with green synthesized nanoparticles was investigated. The results demonstrated that the structural changes in enzyme were induced by the binding of nanoparticles. These changes were accompanied by the decrease in the Michaelis-Menten constant at 298 K. This means that the enzyme affinity for the substrate was increased. Thermodynamic parameters of protein stability and protein-ligand binding were estimated from the spectroscopic measurements at 298–333 K. Depending on the temperature, CuO nanoparticles showed a dual effect on the thermodynamic stability and binding affinity of enzyme. Nanoparticles increase the stability of the native state of enzyme at room temperature. On the other hand, nanoparticles stabilize the unfolded state of enzyme at 310–333 K. An overall favorable Gibbs energy change was observed for the binding process at 298–333 K. The enzyme-nanoparticle binding is enthalpically driven at room temperature. It was concluded that hydrogen bonding plays a key role in the interaction of enzyme with nanoparticles at 298–310 K. At higher temperatures, the protein-ligand binding is entropically driven. This means that hydrophobic association plays a major role in the proteinase K-CuO binding at 310–333 K.
  • Response of intestinal metabolome to polysaccharides from mycelia of
           Ganoderma lucidum
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Mingliang Jin, Hao Zhang, Jiaojiao Wang, Dongyan Shao, Hui Yang, Qingsheng Huang, Junling Shi, Chunlan Xu, Ke Zhao Polysaccharides from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum (GLP) can improve intestinal barrier function, regulate intestinal immunity and modulate intestinal microbiota. In the present study, GLP was given via oral administration to rats (100 mg/kg body weight, 21 days) to investigate the metabolomic profiling of caecal contents induced by GLP. Gas chromatography-time of light/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) was performed to identify the metabolites, followed by biomarker and pathway analysis. The multivariate analysis indicated clear separated clusters between two groups. The significantly different metabolites were characterized, which mainly involved in vitamin B6 metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, fructose and mannose metabolism, and alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism. Indolelactate and 2,2‑dimethylsuccinic acid were selected as key biomarkers responded to GLP administration. Furthermore, significantly different metabolites identified were associated with the improvement of intestinal immunological function and regulation of intestinal microbiota. Our results provided a potential metabolomic mechanism of health-beneficial properties of polysaccharides from the mycelia of G. lucidum, which might be used as functional agents to regulate the intestinal functions.Graphical abstractAdministration of polysaccharides from mycelia of G. lucidum (GLP) to rats obviously changed the intestinal metabolomic profiling. The significantly different metabolites were involved in pyrimidine metabolism, fructose and mannose metabolism, and alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism pathways. Indolelactate and 2,2‑dimethylsuccinic acid were selected as key biomarkers responded to GLP treatment. The change of intestinal metabolomes induced by GLP was associated with the improved immune functions and intestinal microbial homeostasis.Unlabelled Image
  • Development and characterization novel bio-adhesive for wood using kenaf
           core (Hibiscus cannabinus) lignin and glyoxal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): M. Hazwan Hussin, Alia Abdul Aziz, Anwar Iqbal, Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Nur Hanis Abd Latif The recent study focused on lignin-phenol-glyoxal (LPG) as an alternative way to replace toxic formaldehyde used in commercially available wood adhesives. The concern of the uses of carcinogenic formaldehyde in wood adhesive industry has become major problem over human health, environmental and economy issues. In this study, lignin isolated from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) via soda and Kraft pulping were modified into SLPG (soda lignin-phenol-glyoxal) and KLPG (Kraft lignin-phenol-glyoxal) adhesives and were compared to phenol-formaldehyde (PF). Complementary analyses such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermal stability; Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to characterize all isolated lignin samples. The physical properties of the resins were further characterized in term of viscosity, gel time and total solid content. It was found that soda lignin comprised higher phenolic OH content and greater molecular weight compared to Kraft lignin. Various molar ratio of adhesives were applied on plywood and were mechanically tested. The 30% (w/w) SLPG has shown to have higher tensile strength and internal bonding stress at 72.08 MPa and 53.83 N mm−2 respectively to that of PF.
  • Pleurotus citrinopileatus polysaccharide stimulates anti-inflammatory
           properties during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Ken-ichiro Minato, Lisa C. Laan, Irma van Die, Masashi Mizuno Polysaccharides from edible mushrooms possess important immunomodulating effects on immune cells including monocytes and macrophages. Macrophages activated by LPS/IFNγ are polarized toward inflammatory macrophages, whereas the anti-inflammatory properties of alternative activated macrophages play an important regulatory role in the innate immune system. We here show that the Pleurotus citrinopileatus mushroom polysaccharide (PCPS) can modulate the monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation early at the monocyte stage. Using both human THP-1 monocytic cells as well as human peripheral monocytes, we showed that PCPS inhibits the secreted levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6, after stimulation of macrophages derived from PCPS-treated monocytes, with IFNγ + LPS. In addition, the glucan induced a tendency to increase the secreted levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, enhanced the expression levels of CCL2 and CCL8 mRNAs, and inhibited expression of CCR2 mRNA in the IFNγ/LPS activated macrophages. Interestingly, these data suggest that PCPS can induce a long-lasting anti-inflammatory effect in monocytes. Treatment of monocytes with laminarin and antibodies against Dectin-1 and TLR2 during PCPS treatment affected the glucan-modulated macrophage differentiation. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the glucan directs the differentiation of monocytes toward a macrophage cell population with reduced pro-inflammatory capacity via Dectin-1 and TLR2.
  • Protein folding: Molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro studies for
           probing mechanism of urea- and guanidinium chloride-induced unfolding of
           horse cytochrome-c
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Sabab Hasan Khan, Amresh Prakash, Preeti Pandey, Andrew M. Lynn, Asimul Islam, Md. Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad Urea- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denatured states of horse cytochrome-c (cyt-c) are structurally identical. It is then expected that estimates of ∆G0N→U (Gibbs free energy change in the absence of denaturants) from GdmCl- and urea-induced denaturation curves should be identical, if denaturation induced by them follows a two-state mechanism. That denaturation of cyt-c by urea or GdmCl follows a two-state mechanism is reported by some in vitro studies while other in vitro studies reported contradictory observations. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation is a technique that could reveal the mechanism of unfolding/folding of proteins in the absence and presence of chemical denaturants at the amino acid residue level. We therefore performed multiple unconstrained MD simulations of cyt-c (PDB ID: 1HRC) in water and aqueous mixtures of GdmCl and urea for the period of 0-500 ns at 300, 400 and 450 K, which showed that denaturation of cyt-c by urea and GdmCl is a two-state and three-state process, respectively. To corroborate these findings, we measured urea- and GdmCl-induced denaturation curves of different optical properties (circular dichroism at 222, 405 and 416 nm and absorbance at 405 nm) and analyzed them for ∆G0N→U. These studies supported conclusions reached from MD simulation studies.
  • Effect of removing coloring metal ions from the natural brick-red
           palygorskite on properties of alginate/palygorskite nanocomposite film
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Junjie Ding, Dajian Huang, Wenbo Wang, Qin Wang, Aiqin Wang Natural palygorskite (Pal) nanorods have huge application prospect as a reinforcing filler of polymer material, but the presence of variable coloring metal ions (i.e., Fe(III)) in natural Pal may affect the comprehensive properties of polymer materials. In order to reveal the effects of removing coloring metal ions on the structure and mechanical, transparency and anti-aging performance of the polymer, a series of sodium alginate/Pal (SA/Pal) nanocomposite films were prepared using natural brick-red Pal (RPal) and white acid-leached Pal (HPal) as fillers, and their properties were investigated comparatively. Results indicate removal of partial metal ions in Pal greatly improved the mechanical, transmittance, water-resistance and anti-aging properties of SA/HPal film in contrast to the SA/RPal film, due to the intensified interaction between HPal and SA. After exposure in UV condition for 72 h, the SA/RPal film becomes brittle with a great decrease of tensile strength from 11.05 to 6.71 MPa; but the SA/HPal film still keeps good flexibility with only a slight decrease of tensile strength from 14.66 to 12.09 MPa, indicating a passive effect of removing Fe(III) on improving anti-aging performance of SA/Pal film. This research paves a theoretical foundation to extend the application of naturally abundant Pal in polymer materials.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Aequorin as a sensitive and selective reporter for detection of dopamine:
           A photoprotein inhibition assay approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Hossein Rahmani, Reza H. Sajedi Dopamine is a metabolite that plays a key role in the human body and in biomedical and diagnostic applications. Thus, the concentration of this analyte has been considered in various diseases in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). In the present study, for the first time, a photoprotein inhibition assay strategy was developed by utilizing aequorin for the direct detection of dopamine as a receptor and reporter simultaneously. The results showed that bioluminescence emission of aequorin was effectively quenched by increasing concentration of dopamine at the range of 1 nM to 100 μM with a detection limit of 53 nM. The viability of this method for the monitoring of dopamine in spiked biological fluids was also established and it was successfully applied for the direct determination of dopamine in a blood serum and urine without preliminary treatment with satisfactory quantitative recovery 90–95% and 82–93%, respectively. The structural investigation using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and docking simulation indicated that, changes in the microenvironment of aromatic residues were significant, while minor conformational alterations of the protein were observed. It seems dopamine inhibits bioluminescence activity with specific binding to the residues involved in the light production.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Synthesis of Femur extracted hydroxyapatite reinforced nanocomposite and
           its application for Pb(II) ions abatement from aqueous phase
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Ayyub Khawar, Zaheer Aslam, Abdul Zahir, Imran Akbar, Aamir Abbas This research study shows the adsorptive potential of biopolymer based nanocomposite for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous phase. The nanocomposite was synthesized by Femur calcined hydroxyapatite and glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan. Characterizations like Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were performed to investigate the structural modifications, mineral composition and the surface texture of prepared nanocomposite. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions over nanocomposite reveals that the synthesized solid sorbent has promising abatement tendency for heavy metal ions. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the equilibrium data of lead ions adsorption was best fitted to Sips isotherm model. The uptake capacity of synthesized nanocomposite increased from 209 mg/g to 354 mg/g with rise in temperature from 18 °C to 48 °C. The thermodynamic analysis suggested that the Pb(II) ions adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Additionally, enthalpy of adsorption (~22.07 KJ/mol) indicated that the heavy metal ions were chemisorbed over nanocomposite surface. Adsorption of Pb2+ increased about ~1.6 times in the observed pH range and highest uptake was obtained at pH 5.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • A new functional protein‑polysaccharide conjugate based on protein
           concentrate from sesame processing by-products: Functional and
           physico-chemical properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Aida Saatchi, Hossein Kiani, Mohsen Labbafi Ardeh or Tahin residue, a by-product from oil extraction and processing of dehulled, roasted and milled sesame, contains a high amount of proteins. In this research, the protein was extracted as sesame protein concentrate (SPC) and its physicochemical and functional properties were investigated. In order to improve the functional properties of sesame protein concentrate, SPC-maltodextrin conjugates (SMC) were prepared. The conjugated substance was analyzed by means of different instrumental techniques. The covalent attachment of maltodextrin to SPC was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared analysis and SDS gel electrophoresis. The protein exhibited a poor solubility that was affected by pH, while conjugation significantly enhanced the solubility providing a soluble substance in a wide range of pH. The emulsifying capability of SMC was higher than that of SPC and emulsions with smaller droplet sizes were obtained. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the secondary structures were changed significantly by conjugation. Structural flexibility of the molecules was increased, improving the functional characteristics of the protein. The results showed that Ardeh residue could be a potential alternative renewable plant protein source to be used as a food ingredient for the enhancement of food nutritional value and quality especially after conjugation with maltodextrin.
  • Effect of magnetic field on the Eversa® Transform 2.0 enzyme: Enzymatic
           activity and structural conformation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Fernanda Cristina Fraga, Alexsandra Valério, Vanessa Almeida de Oliveira, Marco Di Luccio, Débora de Oliveira Alternatives to improve the stability and activity of enzymes have been rising in the last years due to the potential industrial application of these catalysts. However, the enzymes characteristics in terms of stability and catalytic efficiency can reduce, in some cases, due to the reaction conditions. Due to a lack in the literature concerning structural information related to the new commercial Eversa® Transform 2.0 enzyme (NS-40116) we investigated the conformational structure by spectroscopic and mass spectrometry techniques after exposure in permanent magnetic flux density (0.7 and 1.34 T) in recirculation mode (1, 2, and 4 h) at 0.06 L·min−1. The influence of pH on the enzymatic solution associated with the magnetic flux (pH 5, 7, and 9) was also evaluated. Under the best reaction condition (pH 7 after 4 h in a recirculation mode at 1.34 T), enzyme activity 77% higher than the control sample was obtained. Mass spectrometry techniques showed changes in the NS-40116 tertiary structure. Thus, the application of magnetic fields as an enzymatic pre-treatment showed to be a promising technique and a viable alternative to increase the enzymatic activity since it is a low cost, environmentally friendly, and ease operation process.
  • Facile fabrication of electrospun regenerated cellulose nanofiber scaffold
           for potential bone-tissue engineering application
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Pritam Kishore Chakraborty, Jaideep Adhikari, Prosenjit Saha In this study, cellulose acetate (CA) solutions (9–15% w/v) prepared in acetone-water (80:20 & 90:10 v/v) system were subjected to electrospinning for fabricating non-woven nanofibrous CA scaffolds (CAS) with average fiber diameters from 300 to 600 nm. Further, regenerated cellulose scaffold (RCS) was obtained by deacetylation of electrospun CAS in alkaline media for varying time periods to find the ideal time required for complete deacetylation. Following deacetylation, RCS was subjected to varying temperatures (60 °C, 80 °C) to observe the possible positive effect of heat treatment on the improvement of mechanical strength. The RCS was characterized using ATR FTIR, SEM for studying its surface chemistry and morphology along with other physio-chemical characterizations such as micro-tensile strength, swelling property, porosity, degradation rate in acidic conditions. The results were analyzed and co-related with variation of composition in solvent system, deacetylation time and heat treatment temperatures to determine the optimal fabricating conditions for RCS. In vitro studies using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells were also conducted on the selected RCS samples to evaluate cell adhesion and cell proliferation using SEM and MTT assay analysis. The primary results indicate positive outcome regarding the viability of RCS as potential biomaterial for bone-tissue engineering.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • New insight on 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid interaction with
           TgFNR for hydrophobic exposure analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Kulwant Singh, Islam Hussain, Vibhor Mishra, Md. Sohail Akhtar The exposed hydrophobic patches of protein are widely detected through the binding by the fluorescent probes such as 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), Nile Red (NR) and 1-(N-phenylamino) naphthalene, N-(1-Naphthyl) aniline (1NPN). Interestingly, at pH 4, where the Toxoplasma gondii Ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (TgFNR) is stable, an exclusive binding and fluorescence emission was observed for ANS. To understand the underlying difference in the binding of ANS, NR and 1NPN; their effect on the protein structure was studied in detail. ANS was found to interact with TgFNR via electrostatic as well as hydrophobic interactions at pH 4. NR and 1NPN did not show any such binding to TgFNR in the similar conditions, however showed strong hydrophobic interaction in the presence of NaCl or DSS (2, 2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate). The subsequent structural studies suggest that ANS, NaCl and DSS induced partial unfolding of TgFNR by modulating ionic interactions of the enzyme, leading to the exposure of buried hydrophobic patches amicable for the binding by NR and 1NPN. The induced unfolding of TgFNR by ANS is unique and thus cautions to use the fluorescent dye as simple indicator to probe the exposed hydrophobic patches of the protein or its folding intermediates.
  • Possible use of corn starch as tanning agent in leather industry:
           Controlled (gradual) degradation by H2O2
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Cigdem Kilicarislan Ozkan, Hasan Ozgunay, Hakan Akat High molecular weight/size and poor solubility of native starch seems to be preliminary drawbacks in its possible use in leather processing as a tanning/retanning agent. For this purpose, firstly the native starch which has too large molecular size to penetrate between skin fiber matrix was oxidized with H2O2 in different molar ratios for disintegrating into appropriate molecular size that can be used in tanning process. Then, the product yields, water solubilities and degree of substitutions of oxidized starches were determined. Also, the oxidized starch samples were characterized by Fourier Transforms Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) Spectroscopy. According to the GPC results, the oxidized starch samples which their molecular weights were reduced for penetrating into skin fibers were selected and they were used in tanning process of goat skins. The tanning effects of selected oxidized starches were evaluated according to shrinkage temperatures, filling coefficients and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. From the results, it was revealed that the native corn starch can be oxidized with H2O2 in a controlled manner and oxidized starch can be utilized as a tanning/retanning agent in leather making.
  • Development and characterization of kefiran - Al2O3 nanocomposite films:
           Morphological, physical and mechanical properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Zahra Moradi, Mohsen Esmaiili, Hadi Almasi Biodegradable kefiran films, containing different concentrations of Al2O3 (alumina) (1, 3 and 5% w/w), were prepared by casting method and their physical, mechanical, and thermal properties were studied. Based on the results, the increase of the nano-Al2O3 content led to a decrease in the water vapor permeability, moisture content, moisture absorption, and water solubility. The addition of nanoparticles did not affect the lightness of the films significantly (P > 0.05). The mechanical tests revealed that the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles to the kefiran films significantly increased both tensile strength and elastic modulus, while had no effect on the elongation at break (P > 0.05). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated the improvement of the films' thermal stability by adding alumina. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the effect of Al2O3 on the semi-crystalline structure of kefiran. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images approved a uniform distribution of nanocomposites containing 1 and 3% w/w of Al2O3. The obtained results suggested that Al2O3 was able to improve the characteristics of the kefiran-based films for using as food packaging material.
  • Immobilization of β-galactosidase by complexation: Effect of interaction
           on the properties of the enzyme
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Clitor J.F. Souza, Edwin E. Garcia-Rojas, Clyselen S.F. Souza, Lúcia C. Vriesmann, Juarez Vicente, Mario G. de Carvalho, Carmen L.O. Petkowicz, Carmen S. Favaro-Trindade In the present work, we aimed to explore the molecular binding between alginate and β-galactosidase, as well as the effect of this interaction on the activity retention, thermal stability, and kinetic properties of the enzyme. The impact of pH and enzyme/alginate ratio on physicochemical properties (turbidity, morphology, particle size distribution, ζ-potential, FTIR, and isothermal titration calorimetry) was also evaluated. The ratio of biopolymers and pH of the system directly affected the critical pH of complex formation; however, a low alginate concentration (0.1 wt%) could achieve an electrical charge equivalence at pH 3.4 with 93.72% of yield. The binding between β-galactosidase and alginate was an equilibrium between enthalpic and entropic contributions, which promoted changes in the structure of the enzyme. Nevertheless, this conformational modification was reversible after the dissociation of the complex, which allowed the enzyme to regain its activity. These findings will likely broaden functional applications of enzyme immobilization.
  • Zebrafish acid ceramidase: Expression in Pichia pastoris GS115and
           biochemical characterization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Vijay B. Rajput, Muthukumarasamy Karthikeyan, Sureshkumar Ramasamy Acid ceramidase (N-acylsphingosine deacylase EC; AC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of ceramide into sphingosine (SPH) and free fatty acid. Zebrafish acid ceramidase (AC) has 60% homology with the human AC). Mutations in the human AC gene asah1 are known to cause Farber disease and spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Zebrafish AC was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris by inserting asah1b gene into the genome. The majority of the overexpressed enzyme was secreted into the culture medium and purified to apparent homogeneity by stepwise chromatography. The recombinant protein was glycosylated precursor, that further undergoes limited autoproteolytic processing into two subunits (α and β) which are visible in SDS-PAGE. The zebrafish AC is heterodimer associated with an inter-subunit disulfide bond. SDS-PAGE estimated the mass of native enzyme to be approximately 50 kDa & size exclusion chromatography estimated the mass of the active enzyme as approximately 100 kDa, suggesting the formation of a dimer of heterodimers. The protein was secreted as a mixture of processed and unprocessed forms in the culture media. A preliminary characterization of purified zebrafish AC was done by an enzyme assay. The zebrafish AC expressed in Pichia pastoris would be used for further structural and functional analysis.
  • c-Myc, RMRP, and miR-34a-5p form a positive-feedback loop to regulate cell
           proliferation and apoptosis in multiple myeloma
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Xichun Xiao, Yueli Gu, Genjie Wang, Shuxia Chen Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease (RMRP) has been demonstrated to be implicated in human cancer processes. However, the role of lncRNA RMRP in multiple myeloma (MM) remains unknown. In this paper, we proved that RMRP and c-Myc were upregulated, while miR-34a-5p was downregulated in MM cell lines and bone marrows of MM patients. High RMRP expression significantly correlated with worse disease-free survival and overall survival in MM patients. c-Myc promoted RMRP transcription by directly binding to its promoter region. Knockdown of RMRP inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of OPM2 and RPMI-8226 cells. Negative correlation between RMRP, and miR-34a-5p was discovered in bone marrows of MM patients. c-Myc expression was inversely correlated with miR-34a-5p in bone marrows of MM patients. Additionally, silencing of RMRP led to a marked reduction in c-Myc expression in OPM2 and RPMI-8226 cells, and this action was obviously blocked by miR-34a-5p knockdown. Moreover, upregulation of miR-34a-5p repressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis of OPM2 and RPMI-8226 cells. However, RMRP overexpression blocked these changes triggered by miR-34a-5p mimic. Besides, RMRP knockdown repressed MM tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions, RMRP functions as a miR-34a-5p sponge to promote cell proliferation and repress cell apoptosis through upregulation of c-Myc in MM.
  • Preparation of a Momordica charantia L. polysaccharide‑chromium (III)
           complex and its anti-hyperglycemic activity in mice with
           streptozotocin-induced diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Cong Zhang, Mao Huang, Ri Hong, Hongman Chen Polysaccharides comprise the major bioactive components in Momordica charantia L. We here synthesized and characterized a novel M. charantia polysaccharide‑chromium (III) complex (MCPIIaC) and assessed its anti-diabetic effects in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) and its mechanism underlying hypoglycemia. MCPIIaC is a novel polysaccharide‑chromium (III) complex containing 14.68% elemental chromium. A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrogram experiment showed that the chromium ions are linked to the polysaccharide's hydroxyl groups. Combined circular dichroism (CD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses indicated that after linking with chromium ions, the flexibility of the three-dimensional structure of the polysaccharide increased. After the treatment of MCPIIaC for four weeks, the mice with STZ-induced DM exhibited significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels and body weight, whereas higher insulin levels and antioxidant enzyme activity than in the diabetic group. Optimal effects were obtained with a dosage of 30 mg MCPIIaC/kg body weight. Histological analysis indicated that MCPIIaC alleviated the oxidative tissue damage in STZ-lesioned mice. An acute toxicity experiment indicated that MCPIIaC was safe at a dose of 1500 mg/kg. These results suggest that MCPIIaC might be an excellent candidate hypoglycemic agent for the prevention of diabetes.
  • Production of core-shell nanofibers from zein and tragacanth for
           encapsulation of saffron extract
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Maryam Amiri Dehcheshmeh, Milad Fathi In this study, encapsulation of aqueous saffron extract (ASE) was studied using a core-shell nanofiber structure (zein-tragacanth) via coaxial electrospinning technique. Morphological features of nanofibers were investigated under different processing conditions (polymer concentration and applied voltage). The nanofibers produced under optimum criteria had diameter in a range of 95 to 271 nm. Concentration of zein and percentage of ASE were found to be critical factors affecting loading capacity (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE). The range of LC and EE were 3.57–9.52% and 60.89–91.55%, respectively. FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterizations demonstrated that ASE was appropriately encapsulated in the nanofibers matrix with high thermal stability. TEM images showed a core-shell structure. Release values of 21.66, 27.75, 43.88 and 16.12% of saffron extract were observed in saliva, hot water, gastric and intestinal media, respectively. Mechanism of safranal release from fibers for saliva, water, gastric and intestinal were well demonstrated by Kopcha, Peppas-Sahlin, Peppas-Sahlin and Ritger-Peppas models, respectively. Finally, the results of this research indicated that produced thermostable core-shell nanofibers can be used in various food industries such as chewing gum and tea bag development.
  • Utilisation of dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharide and resistant
           starch) molecules for diarrhoea therapy: A mini-review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Xin Qi, Richard F. Tester Within the last ten years the utilisation of dietary fibre formats (non-starch polysaccharide and resistant starch) for diarrhoea therapy, have been evaluated. These polysaccharides ferment within the colon and generate short chain fatty acids which facilitate sodium absorption. Comparisons between polysaccharide structure/physico-chemical properties and fermentation capacity in the large intestine are presented. The potential dichotomy associated with recommending dietary fibre ingestion to avoid and treat diarrhoea is also considered. Overall, this mini-review presents an overview of the current knowledge with respect to role of dietary fibre in the management (prevention and treatment) of diarrhoea (osmotic and secretory). It aims to inform the medical and non-medical communities with respect to this relatively poorly researched and understood health related area. Different forms of dietary fibre are considered in this context along with their mechanisms of action.
  • Structural characterization and immunological activity of polysaccharides
           from the tuber of Bletilla striata
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Yirui Wang, Shaowei Han, Ruofei Li, Baosong Cui, Xianjie Ma, Xinzhu Qi, Qi Hou, Mingbao Lin, Jinye Bai, Shuai Li Two water-soluble polysaccharides, BSP-1 and BSP-2, were extracted and purified from the tuber of Bletilla striata. The molecular weights of BSP-1 and BSP-2 were 83.54 kDa and 12.60 kDa, respectively. The composition and proportion of BSP-1 and BSP-2 were mannose and glucose in molar ratios of 4.0:1.0 and 3.0:1.0 respectively. The two polysaccharides had a linear backbone, consisting mainly of repeating β‑1,4‑linked d‑mannosyl residues and β‑1,4‑linked d‑glucosyl residues. BSP-1 exhibited immunomodulatory effects by increasing the thymus and spleen indices of immunocompromised model mice.
  • Investigation of potential genomic biomarkers for obesity and personalized
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Mahmut Cerkez Ergören, Gizem Söyler, Hüseyin Sah, Eda Becer Obesity, as a global health issue, is a complex metabolic syndrome and its association with many chronic diseases. The pathology of obesity results from an interaction of psychological, environmental and variety of genetic factors. Etiologic determinants and molecular pathophysiology of obesity have not yet understood clearly. Previously shown that genetic markers have a significant role in the development of obesity, although results are divergent with populations. Turkish Cypriots have a unique mixture of allele distributions as being a small-islander population. Therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate the association between obesity and three putative obesity-related ADIPOQ, FTO and ACE gene markers, respectively. We investigated a possible association of ADIPOQ rs2241766 G>T, FTO rs9939609 A>T and ACE rs4340288 DIP variants among obese and non-obese Turkish Cypriot origin. Additionally, the correlation between these variants and biochemical and physical measurements were also evaluated to determine the possible biomarker for obesity in the population. Only FTO rs9939609 A>T polymorphism was associated with obesity and no association was observed with ADIPOQ rs2441666 G>T and ACE rs4340288 DIP. To conclude, FTO rs9939609 A allele found to have strong association with obesity in the population of Turkish Cypriots.
  • Chitosan nanoparticle hydrogel based sebacoyl moiety with remarkable
           capability for metal ion removal from aqueous systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Nadia G. Kandile, Hemat M. Mohamed In this present study, a new modified chitosan hydrogel, Cts-SC NPs, was prepared from a one pot reaction of sebacoyl chloride (SC) with chitosan in the presence of 1% v/v glacial acetic acid and 1% w/v sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) using an ionotropic gelation technique. The modified chitosan hydrogel, Cts-SC NPs, was characterized by FTIR, TEM, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM. The adsorption efficiency of Cts-SC NPs for metal ions Hg2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ from aqueous solution was evaluated. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH and initial metal ions concentration were investigated. Adsorption isotherm data were fitted using different two-parameter models. Modified chitosan hydrogel Cts-SC NPs had remarkable adsorption of Hg2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ ions than chitosan hydrogel Cts-NPs. The antimicrobial activity of Cts-NPs towards the bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungus Aspergillus flavus was improved by modification with sebacoyl chloride to give Cts-SC NPs.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Highly porous of hydroxyethyl cellulose biocomposite scaffolds for tissue
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Farah Hanani Zulkifli, Fathima Shahitha Jahir Hussain, W.S.W. Harun, Mashitah M. Yusoff This study is focusing to develop a porous biocompatible scaffold using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with improved cellular adhesion profiles and stability. The combination of HEC and PVA were synthesized using freeze-drying technique and characterized using SEM, ATR-FTIR, TGA, DSC, and UTM. Pore size of HEC/PVA (2–40 μm) scaffolds showed diameter in a range of both pure HEC (2–20 μm) and PVA (14–70 μm). All scaffolds revealed high porosity above 85%. The water uptake of HEC was controlled by PVA cooperation in the polymer matrix. After 7 days, all blended scaffolds showed low degradation rate with the increased of PVA composition. The FTIR and TGA results explicit possible chemical interactions and mass loss of blended scaffolds, respectively. The Tg values of DSC curved in range of HEC and PVA represented the miscibility of HEC/PVA blend polymers. Higher Young's modulus was obtained with the increasing of HEC value. Cell-scaffolds interaction demonstrated that human fibroblast (hFB) cells adhered to polymer matrices with better cell proliferation observed after 7 days of cultivation. These results suggested that biocompatible of HEC/PVA scaffolds fabricated by freeze-drying method might be suitable for skin tissue engineering applications.
  • Structure and gene cluster of the O-polysaccharide of Yersinia
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): O.V. Sizova, A.S. Shashkov, A.S. Dmitrenok, Ph.V. Toukach, Y.A. Knirel, R.Z. Shaikhutdinova, S.A. Ivanov, A.A. Kislichkina, A.G. Bogun, S.V. Dentovskaya A branched O-polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharide of Yersinia rohdei H274-36/78 and found to contain d-rhamnose, d-mannose, and 3,6-dideoxy-4-C-[(S)-1-hydroxyethyl]-d-xylo-hexose called yersiniose A (Yer). Partial acid hydrolysis of the O-polysaccharide eliminated Yer residues to give a modified linear polysaccharide. Studies by sugar analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, including computational NMR analysis, enabled structure elucidation of a hexasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide having two Yer residues attached as monosaccharide side chains. The O-antigen gene cluster of Y. rohdei H274-36/78 located between JUMPStart and galF genes contained putative genes for synthesis of precursors of two O-antigen constituents, GDP-d-Man and GDP-d-Rha, whereas genes responsible for synthesis of CDP-Yer were within the chromosome outside the O-antigen gene cluster. Glycosyltransferase genes and ABC 2 transporter genes were present in the O-antigen gene cluster, and hence the structure established is consistent with the polysaccharide synthesis gene content of the genome.
  • Lignin for white natural sunscreens
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Sang Cheon Lee, Thi Minh Thu Tran, Joon Weon Choi, Keehoon Won Long-time exposure to the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation is harmful and causes various skin problems. Natural sun blockers have been drawing considerable attention recently. Even though lignin, an abundant aromatic polymer from plants, is a natural UV screening agent, its unfavorable dark color hinders its high value-added applications in sunscreens and cosmetics. In this study, we separate lignin under mild conditions (at room temperature with neutral solvents) in order to prevent darkening occurring during delignification and apply the resultant lignin as a natural sunscreen ingredient for the first time. Lignins isolated from Miscanthus sacchariflorus (MWL-M) and from Pinus densiflora (MWL-P) are compared with organosolv lignin (OL), which showed the best sunscreen performance, in color and UV protection. MWLs separated under mild conditions were light in color unlike conventional lignins extracted under harsh conditions. UV absorption of light-colored MWL-M was revealed to be as high as dark-colored OL. MWLs also showed synergistic effects with a commercial sunscreen; exposure of the MWL-added sunscreen to UVA radiation greatly enhanced the sun protection factor (SPF) value of the sunscreen.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Natural and synthetic materials based CMCh/PVA hydrogels for oxaliplatin
           delivery: Fabrication, characterization, In-Vitro and In-Vivo safety
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Kaleem Ullah, Muhammad Sohail, Ghulam Murtaza, Shujaat Ali Khan In this study, the chemically crosslinked hydrogels of carboxymethyl chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol were fabricated by the free radical polymerization. Successful polymerization was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetric measurements helped in investigating crystallinity and thermal behavior of the products. Morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy. The increased incorporation of carboxymethyl chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol enhanced the swelling, drug loading, and in-vitro drug release while crosslinking agent acted inversely. The blanked hydrogels were cytocompatible while oxaliplatin loaded hydrogels showed dose-dependent controlled cytotoxicity against HCT-116 and MCF-7. Oral biocompatibility in albino rabbits showed that the hydrogel suspension was tolerable up to 3600 mg/kg as no toxic or histopathological changes were observed upon comparison with the control group. Results of the studies confirmed that the developed hydrogels can be a potential candidate for controlled oxaliplatin delivery and targeting in cancer therapy.
  • Amyloid fibers deriving from the aromatic core of C-terminal domain of
           nucleophosmin 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Sara La Manna, Valentina Roviello, Pasqualina Liana Scognamiglio, Carlo Diaferia, Cinzia Giannini, Teresa Sibillano, Giancarlo Morelli, Ettore Novellino, Daniela Marasco Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is the most frequently mutated gene in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) patients and mutations lead to its aberrant cytoplasmatic accumulation in leukemic cells. Its C-terminal domain (CTD) is endowed with a globular structure consisting of a three-helix bundle in the wild type form that is disrupted by AML mutations. Our recent results demonstrate, unexpectedly and unequivocally, that regions of the CTD of NPM1 are prone to aggregate to amyloid states. Here we present novel studies, at solution as well as fibrillar states of a nonapeptide covering the 264–272 region of NPM1: this small fragment is the most amyloidogenic stretch of the entire protein and its conformational and aggregation properties were investigated through Circular Dichroism, Fluorescence spectroscopies, amyloid seeding assay (ASA), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass analyses. Structural features of fibrils were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS).This study deepens the amyloid fibrillization process of a short stretch of the CTD likely involved in the propagative mechanism for NPMc+ cytoplasmatic accumulation in leukemogenesis.
  • Effect of amidated alginate on faecal lipids, serum and hepatic
           cholesterol in rats fed diets supplemented with fat and cholesterol
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Milan Marounek, Zdeněk Volek, Tomáš Taubner, Dagmar Dušková, Ladislav Čermák The effect of octadecylamide of alginic acid on serum and hepatic cholesterol, and the faecal output of fat and sterols was examined in female rats fed diets containing cholesterol and palm fat at 10 and 50 g kg−1, respectively. Cholesterol supplementation significantly increased serum and hepatic cholesterol concentrations, and faecal output of cholesterol and coprostanol. Cholesterol and amidated alginate supplementations changed the profile of fatty acids in the faeces. Cholesterol increased molar percentages of saturated fatty acids and amidated alginate reversed this effect. Amidated alginate, supplied at 10, 20 and 40 g kg−1, significantly decreased serum cholesterol from 2.82 to 2.00, 1.95, and 1.63 μmol mL−1, respectively, and significantly decreased hepatic cholesterol from 13.8 to 9.33, 7.81 and 6.3 μmol g−1, respectively. Amidated alginate increased the faecal output of fat and neutral sterols in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the output of bile acids was significantly decreased. The faecal outputs of fat and serum cholesterol were negatively correlated. At the highest concentration tested, amidated alginate significantly reduced the serum concentration of triacylglycerols. It can be concluded that amidated alginate is an effective cholesterol-lowering agent and sorbent of dietary fat.
  • Preparation of chitosan-sodium alginate films through layer-by-layer
           assembly and ferulic acid crosslinking: Film properties, characterization,
           and formation mechanism
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Kangjing Li, Junxiang Zhu, Guilin Guan, Hao Wu Chitosan-alginate films were prepared through layer-by-layer assembly combined with ferulic acid crosslinking. Their mechanical properties, opacity, and hydrophobicity were compared to films prepared by direct mixing, crosslinking alone, and LBL assembly alone. Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the films and analyze their formation mechanism. The results indicated that the layer-by-layer assembly and ferulic acid crosslinking combination increased the tensile strength and light-blocking ability of the films. In addition, the films had a lower water vapor transmission rate, swelling degree, and water solubility, as well as higher hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy showed a good compatibility between the film components of the film prepared by the combination technique. The structural characterization results revealed some strong interactions among the amino, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups of the ferulic acid, chitosan, and sodium alginate in the film. The driving force for film formation was the generation of non-covalent bonds among the film components rather than covalent bonds.
  • Nordihydroguaiaretic acid prevents glycation induced structural
           alterations and aggregation of albumin
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Saurabh Awasthi, R. Preethy, N.T. Saraswathi This study demonstrates the antiglycation activity of Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lignin from the creosote bush (Larrea tridentate), which has also been proven to assist in the treatment of cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular complications. We determined the antiglycation activity of NDG based on spectroscopic analysis, molecular interactions and circular dichroism studies with albumin. It was also seen that NDG inhibits the aggregation of albumin, after glycation, using Thioflavin T binding and confocal imaging. Results suggest that NDG is a potent inhibitor of advanced glycation end products formation. NDG was found to impart protective effects on albumin by preventing glycation modification of lysine residues (Lys20, Phe36, Lys41, Lys131, and Lys132) due to glycation.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Preparation of a novel water-soluble gel from Erwinia amylovora
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Jiaying Peng, Wei Xu, Dawei Ni, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Cuie Guang, Wanmeng Mu Less attention has been focused on the industrial applications of levan-type fructan than that of inulin. Levan-type fructan is a unique homopolysaccharide consisting of fructose residues with a β-(2, 6) linkage that possesses unique physiochemical properties such as low intrinsic viscosity. In this study, the recombinant levansucrase from Erwinia amylovora was used to efficiently produce levan from sucrose, and under optimised conditions, 195 g/L levan was produced from 500 g/L sucrose, with the highest conversion rate of 59%. The physicochemical properties of E. amylovora levan, such as surface morphology, thermal behaviour, rheology behaviour and texture analysis, were evaluated and compared with those of commercial gels, including xanthan, guar, carrageenan and Arabic gums. The produced E. amylovora levan showed a series of acceptable physicochemical properties, indicating a potential application for levan as a novel water-soluble micro gel. The conclusions of this study support the exploration of the use of more hydrogels in the food, medicinal and cosmetic industries.
  • In vitro tracking of phospholipase A2 from snake venom conjugated with
           magic-sized quantum dots
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Edigar H.V. Dias, Déborah F.C. Pereira, Bruna B. de Sousa, Mariana S. Matias, Mayara R. de Queiroz, Fernanda M. Santiago, Anielle C.A. Silva, Noelio O. Dantas, Norival Alves Santos-Filho, Fábio de Oliveira Phospholipases A2 represent a family of enzymes with important application in medicine. However, direct tracking is difficult due to the absence of a stable, effective and specific marker for these enzymes. Magic-sized quantum dots (MSQDs) are inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals with unique physical properties. They have the ability to conjugate to proteins, making them excellent markers for biological systems. In this work, we labelled phospholipase A2 from Bothrops alternatus snake venom with Cadmium selenide (CdSe)/cadmium sulphate (CdS) MSQDs—a biocompatible and luminescent probe—. Bioconjugation was confirmed using infrared spectra and fluorescence microscopy, which demonstrated that the CdSe/CdS MSQDs interact with phospholipase A2 without interfering with its activity. This probe may be an important tool for the elucidation of many biological mechanisms, because it allows the pathway of phospholipase A2 to be tracked from its entry through the plasma membrane until its incorporation into the nucleus of myoblasts.
  • Thymol enriched bacterial cellulose hydrogel as effective material for
           third degree burn wound repair
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Swaminathan Jiji, Sivalingam Udhayakumar, Chellan Rose, Chellappa Muralidharan, Krishna Kadirvelu Bacterial cellulose is well known for its excellent contributions in biomedical applications due to its superior properties. However the lack of antimicrobial property restricts its use in wound healing. To address the complications in third degree burns, thymol enriched bacterial cellulose hydrogel (BCT) was developed in this study. The incorporation of thymol into bacterial cellulose along with its chemical and thermal changes were investigated by FTIR, TGA and DSC respectively. Antimicrobial studies revealed that BCT possess excellent biocidal activity against burn specific pathogens. The in vitro biocompatibility studies were carried out in mouse 3T3 fibroblast cells. The BCT hydrogel facilitated the growth of fibroblast cells, exhibiting low toxicity, and increased cell viability. The burn wound healing efficiency of the BCT hydrogel was examined in vivo using female albino Wistar rats. Histopathological studies reveal that the wound treated with BCT hydrogel showed faster wound closure than BC and control groups. All these findings, suggest that BCT hydrogel can be used as resourceful and natural burn wound dressing material.
  • Human Toll-Like Receptor 4 (hTLR4): Structural and functional dynamics in
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Vinita Mishra, Chandramani Pathak Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) recognize a wide variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are centrally involved in the initiation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Extensive analysis of TLRs has shown specificity in terms of ligand recognition, expression and cellular localization in different cell types and tissues, and most importantly, its role in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic inflammatory diseases. In recent past extensive investigations showed that many TLRs are profoundly expressed in various types of cancers. This review is emphasized on human TLR4 structural and functional dynamics in cancer. The review was intended to explore the present understanding of the involvement of hTLR4 in different types of cancer and different danger signals that can affect the expression and function of TLR4 in both normal and cancer cells. Dual role of TLR4 in cancer has also been discussed along with therapeutic targeting, cellular response via signaling and the possible conformational changes that occur in response to agonist and antagonist. This review provides a comprehensive resource for designing and discovery of novel TLR4 ligands for therapeutic intervention.
  • Studies on effect of co-processing on palmyrah and maize starch mixtures
           using DOE approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Devanshu Deshkar, R.N. Gupta, K. Jayaram Kumar Starch mixture is an important approach in designing drug delivery system with modulated properties. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of pregelatinization on starch mixture by varying the concentration of palmyrah and maize starch. All the starch mixtures were statistically designed using 32 full factorial design. Further, the mixtures were characterized for physicochemical and drug release properties. The amylose content, water holding capacity (WHC), swelling and solubility power tend to increase with increase in pregelatinization time. The X-ray diffractogram (XRD) confirmed the reduction in crystallinity of starch mixture with increase in pregelatinization time. The FT-IR study confirmed the gelatinization characteristics of the mixture. All the pregelatinized starch mixture exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Micromeritic property of various starch mixture showed the good flow properties. Formulation with this novel excipient system, using paracetamol as model drug indicated its utility for immediate release dosage form.
  • Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from pineapple
           crown waste and their potential uses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Karen S. Prado, Márcia A.S. Spinacé Pineapple crown is an important source of cellulose that is still going to waste because of the lack of knowledge about their economic uses. The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from pineapple crown leaf (PCL) wastes arises as an important alternative to use PCL wastes in high value-added applications, and has not been reported yet. In this study, CNC were successfully extracted from PCL wastes using chemical treatments followed by acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid. FTIR results confirmed the removal of the non-cellulosic compounds of PCL through the mercerization and bleaching treatments. SEM and AFM showed that the diameter of PCL fibers was reduced from 18 μm to 39 nm after the hydrolysis reaction, resulting in CNC with rod-like shape. The obtained CNC showed cellulose I crystalline structure with high crystallinity index (73%). The thermal degradation of CNC started at 124 °C, what was attributed to the presence of surface sulfate groups identified by elemental analysis. The high hydrophilicity of CNC was verified by its high moisture content and absorption. The results showed that the CNC isolated from PCL have interesting properties to be used in many liquid media applications, besides their use as reinforcement in nanocomposites.
  • Effect of xylanase-assisted pretreatment on the properties of cellulose
           and regenerated cellulose films from sugarcane bagasse
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Gawisara Vanitjinda, Thidarat Nimchua, Prakit Sukyai A two-stage pretreatment process using alkaline and xylanase-assisted pretreatments was studied and compared to one-step alkaline pretreatment to investigate the effect of xylanase-assisted pretreatments on the properties of fibers and regenerated cellulose films. The alkaline-xylanase bleached fibers (AXB-fibers) could reduce bleaching time from 6 to 4 times to obtain an 83.3% whiteness index. A substantial proportion of the cellulose content (83%) was successfully extracted from sugarcane bagasse using the two-step process. Moreover, the fiber had an increased crystallinity index and thermal stability. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that hemicellulose and lignin were removed from the sugarcane bagasse (SCB) structure during the cellulose extraction process. The alkaline bleached fibers (AB-fibers) and AXB-fibers were dissolved in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and regenerated cellulose films, AB-films and AXB-films, respectively, were prepared from the solutions. SEM images showed that both cellulose films were homogeneous and had a smooth surface. FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses corroborated that the transition from cellulose I to cellulose II occurred during the dissolution and regeneration process. Furthermore, the AXB-films displayed higher thermal stability and mechanical properties (258 °C and 90.43 MPa for the onset temperature and tensile strength, respectively) than those of the AB-films.
  • Changes in chemical structures of wheat straw auto-hydrolysis lignin by
           3-hydroxyanthranilic acid as a laccase mediator
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Nianjie Feng, Lifang Guo, Hao Ren, Yimin Xie, Zhihua Jiang, Monica Ek, Huamin Zhai 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), as a potential natural laccase mediator, was shown to mediate the oxidation of non-phenolic lignin subunits. The problem of cost and toxicity of artificial mediators could be solved to some extent by a further study about the detailed changes of lignin chemistry structures in laccase 3-HAA system (LHS). In this work, wheat straw auto-hydrolysis lignin (AL) was prepared. Oxidations of AL by LHS and laccase 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) system were then investigated, respectively. Various structural changes of AL during the oxidation were characterized by different methods including phenolic hydroxyl group determination, nitrobenzene oxidation, ozonation, gel permeation chromatography, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy. The changes in AL chemical structures were found in LHS, including unit removal, bond cleavage and biopolymerization. Compared to laccase ABTS system, a selective removal of guaiacyl-type lignin in LHS was observed, based on the results of nitrobenzene oxidation and 2D NMR analysis. The selective removal of guaiacyl-type lignin was due to improved aromatic ring cleavage and weaken lignin biopolymerization. The selectivity of guaiacyl-type lignin removal in LHS plays an important role, especially for improving bioconversion efficiency of laccase for guaiacyl-rich lignocellulosic biomass.
  • A multiscale kinetics model for the analysis of starch amylolysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): L.A. Bello-Perez, E. Agama-Acevedo, D.E. Garcia-Valle, J. Alvarez-Ramirez Simple exponential decaying functions are commonly used for fitting the kinetics of starch digested by amylolytic enzymes. A common assumption is that a sole exponential function can account for the kinetics of the whole digestible starch. Recent studies using logarithm-of-slope (LOS) plots showed that digestion kinetics can exhibit multi-scale behavior, an effect reflecting starch fractions with different digestion characteristics. This work proposed an extension of the widely used Goñi et al.'s model to account for two starch fractions; one fraction linked with fast digestion rate and other with slow digestion rates. The fitting of experimental data was carried out by solving numerically a nonlinear least-squares problem. The estimated parameters have a straightforward interpretation in terms of reaction rates and digestible/resistant starch fractions. Two experimental examples were used for illustrating the performance of the multi-exponential function.
  • Generating cellulose-agar composite hydrogels for uptake-release kinetic
           studies of selenate and selenomethionine
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Dhiman Santra, Kamalika Sen Cellulose-agar (CAB) composite hydrogel beads were generated for the uptake-release kinetics studies of Se(VI) and selenomethionine (SeMt) from water medium. The objective of this work is to analyze the surface structure, gel properties, thermal stability and chemical functionalities responsible for the adsorption of Se(VI) and SeMt. We propose here a possible mechanism for the adsorptions. Adsorption isotherms are in good agreement with the Freundlich model, yielding a high adsorption capacity for the CAB composite. Maximum adsorption capacity of Se(VI) and SeMt were found to be 7.083 mg g−1 and 34.639 mg g−1 respectively. The mean free energy of adsorption (E*) value was found to be 0.0423 kJ mol−1 and 0.329 kJ mol−1 of Se(VI) and SeMt respectively. 1 M HCl and 0.1 M HCl were able to desorb Se(VI) and SeMt respectively from CAB. The adsorption of Se(VI) was significantly reduced if As(III), Cr(III) and Hg(II) were present as complementary ions in the medium. Similar studies with pristine cellulose beads (CB) yielded insignificant uptake properties.
  • Evaluations of physicochemical and biological properties of pullulan-based
           films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil and Tween 80
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Yifu Chu, Tian Xu, ChengCheng Gao, Xiaoya Liu, Ni Zhang, Xiao Feng, Xingxun Liu, Xinchun Shen, Xiaozhi Tang The effects of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and Tween 80 addition on the structural, physical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the pullulan-based edible films were investigated in this study. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of CEO in pullulan-based composite films decreased their tensile strength, transparency, water content and water vapor permeability, but considerably increased the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The films with 12% CEO exhibited the strongest antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities. With regard to the influences of Tween 80 on the films, SEM micrographs indicated that the submicroscopic micelle formed in the films by the addition of Tween 80. Tween 80 improved the stability of the composite films and reduced the loss of CEO, but weakened the physical properties including transparency and water barrier properties.
  • Development of bacterial cellulose/chitosan based semi-interpenetrating
           hydrogels with improved mechanical and antibacterial properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Fazli Wahid, Xiao-Hui Hu, Li-Qiang Chu, Shi-Ru Jia, Yan-Yan Xie, Cheng Zhong In the present work, novel bacterial cellulose (BC) and chitosan (CS) semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogels were prepared via blending the slurry of BC with CS solution followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The structure and properties of BC-CS hydrogels were characterized by different techniques including; FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, TGA and rotational rheometry. The results indicated cross-linking of chitosan chains by glutaraldehyde while BC was physically connected to network forming semi-IPN hydrogels. Microscopic study of cross-sectional freeze-dried hydrogels showed microporous openings. BC-CS hydrogels exhibited higher thermal stability than pure BC film or CS hydrogel alone. The rheological results presented significant mechanical properties of semi-IPN hydrogels. Moreover, the hydrogels showed antibacterial properties against tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial properties were dependent on the ratio of BC to CS. Hydrogels with 20% BC to CS reduced the viable colonies by ~88%. The development of this new class of BC-CS antibacterial, mechanically strong and stable soft-material could be a promising candidate for antibacterial applications.
  • Acylated chitosan anchored paclitaxel loaded liposomes: Pharmacokinetic
           and biodistribution study in Ehrlich ascites tumor bearing mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Biswarup Nanda, A.S. Manjappa, Krishna Chuttani, N.H. Balasinor, Anil K. Mishra, Rayasa S. Ramachandra Murthy Acylated chitosan (Myristoyl and Octanoyl) coated paclitaxel-loaded liposomal formulation was developed with an aim to overcome the cremophor EL related toxicities. They were evaluated for drug entrapment, in vitro drug release, and cytotoxicity and cell uptake behavior using A549 cells. The 99mTc radio-labeled formulations were also evaluated in vivo in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) bearing mice for biodistribution and tumor uptake. The mean particle size of both coated and uncoated liposomal formulations was found to be in the range of 180–200 nm with high drug entrapment efficiency (>90% in case of uncoated liposomes and 80 ± 5% in case of coated liposomes). The uncoated liposomes displayed negative zeta potential (−10.5 ± 4.9 mV) whereas coated liposomes displayed positive zeta potential in the range of +21 to +27 mV. Slower drug release was observed in case of liposomes coated with acylated chitosans as compared to uncoated and native chitosan coated liposomes. All liposomal formulations were found less cytotoxic than paclitaxel injection (Celtax™, Celon Labs, India). In vitro cell uptake and intracellular distribution studies confirmed the cytosolic delivery of uncoated and coated liposomes. The myristoyl chitosan coated liposomal system (LMC) exhibited improved pharmacokinetic, biodistribution and tumor uptake characteristics over other formulations. These obtained results confirmed the potential application of acylated chitosn coated liposomal delivery systems (LMC) in tumor targeting of paclitaxel and other drugs.
  • Catalytic phenol removal using entrapped cross-linked laccase aggregates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Zahra Fathali, Shahla Rezaei, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Mehran Habibi-Rezaei Laccase was immobilized using a combinatorial strategy of cross-linking and entrapping in mesoporous silica to prepare entrapped enzyme species including simply adsorbed, entrapped cross-linked enzyme (E-CLE) and entrapped cross-linked enzyme aggregate (E-CLEA) to explore their potential in phenol removal. Parameters including pH, temperature, time and cross-linker concentration were optimized to achieve an immobilized product with highest laccase specific activity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the immobilization products. The storage and operational stability analysis were also carried out. Accordingly, E-CLEAs showed improved thermal and pH stabilities and activity retention in hydrophobic and hydrophilic solvents. Moreover, based on the resulted half-lives (t1/2) for free and insoluble laccases, the improved storage stability is reported for E-CLEAs at 1.71 and 20.88 days for them, respectively. In addition, the immobilized biocatalyst exhibited good operational stability and reusability through maintaining up to 79% of its initial activity after 20 cycles of successive operations. In conclusion, E-CLEAs have catalytic potential in efficient phenol removal and advantages of the insolubilized form of laccase as E-CLEAs make it an appealing system in applications such as possible treatment of phenol-contaminated wastewater.
  • Effects of recombinant swollenin on the enzymatic hydrolysis, rumen
           fermentation, and rumen microbiota during in vitro incubation of
           agricultural straws
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Lizhi Li, Mingren Qu, Chanjuan Liu, Lanjiao Xu, Ke Pan, Kehui OuYang, Xiaozhen Song, Yanjiao Li, Huan Liang, Zuodong Chen, Xianghui Zhao An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of swollenin on the enzymatic hydrolysis and in vitro rumen microbial fermentation of agricultural straws. The swollenin from Trichoderma reesei was produced in Pichia pastoris in current study. The recombinant protein caused an obvious disruption on filter paper and slight increase in reducing sugars release when treating xylan, Avicel, rice straw, wheat straw, and corn straw. Simultaneous incubation of swollenin with fibrolytic enzyme resulted in a significant synergistic activity on disruption of filter paper and hydrolysis of above-mentioned substrates. During in vitro rumen fermentation of three straw diets, the dry matter digestibility, acetate production, microbial protein synthesis, and fibrolytic bacterial population were increased by swollenin. This study demonstrates that swollenin could enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and in vitro ruminal fermentation of agricultural straws, showing the potential of swollenin for improving the utilization of agricultural straws in ruminants.
  • Cyclodextrin modified erlotinib loaded PLGA nanoparticles for improved
           therapeutic efficacy against non-small cell lung cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, Vineela Parvathaneni, Nishant S. Kulkarni, Snehal K. Shukla, Jenna K. Damon, Apoorva Sarode, Dipti Kanabar, Jerome V. Garcia, Samir Mitragotri, Aaron Muth, Vivek Gupta This study was aimed at developing a nanoparticle strategy to overcome acquired resistance against erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To load erlotinib on biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles, erlotinib-cyclodextrin (Erlo-CD) complex was prepared using β-cyclodextrin sulfobutyl ether, which was in turn loaded in the core of PLGA nanoparticles using multiple emulsion solvent evaporation. Nanoparticles were characterized for size distribution, entrapment and loading efficiency, in-vitro release, and therapeutic efficacy against different lung cancer cells. Effect of formulation on cell cycle, apoptosis, and other markers was evaluated using flow cytometry and western blotting studies. The efficacy of optimized nanoformulation was evaluated using a clinically relevant in-vitro 3D-spheroid model. Results showed that Erlo-CD loaded nanoparticles (210 ± 8 nm in size) demonstrated 3-fold higher entrapment (61.5 ± 3.2% vs 21.9 ± 3.7% of plain erlotinib loaded nanoparticles) with ~5% loading efficiency and sustained release characteristics. Developed nanoparticles demonstrated significantly improved therapeutic efficacy against NSCLC cells in terms of low IC50 values and suppressed colony forming ability of cancer cells, increased apoptosis, and autophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 3D spheroid study demonstrated better anticancer activity of Erlo-CD nanoparticles compared to plain erlotinib. Present study has shown a premise to improve therapeutic efficacy against erlotinib-resistant lung cancer using modified nanoErlo formulations.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Development and application of a CRISPR/Cas9 system for Bacillus
           licheniformis genome editing
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Cuixia Zhou, Huan Liu, Feiyan Yuan, Haonan Chai, Haikuan Wang, Fufeng Liu, Yu Li, Huitu Zhang, Fuping Lu A highly efficient genome editing system for Bacillus licheniformis was developed based on single-plasmid CRISPR/Cas9. For highly efficient genome editing the shuttle vector pWH1520 was selected to construct the knockout plasmids. A construct harboring a pS promoter driving cas9 endonuclease expression, a strong pLY-2 promoter driving the transcription of a single guide RNA was demonstrated as being the most effective. To verify the feasibility of the method the uprT gene coding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase was selected as the reporter gene. The efficiency of introducing nucleotide point mutations and single gene deletion reached an editing efficiency of up to 99.2% and 97.3%, respectively. After a upp-deficient strain was engineered, the system and strain were applied to introduce genomic deletions of another two genes, amyL and chiA (encoding amylase and chitinase, respectively) with about 90% deletion efficiency. As two native extracellular proteins with relatively high secretion in the host, amylase and chitinase can hamper the secretion and expression of alkaline protease. It was demonstrated that the mutant with deletions of the two genes effectively improved the alkaline protease yield by 24.8%. The results illustrated that the establishment of a CRISPR/Cas9 system for Bacillus licheniformis is of significance, and confirmed the system's high efficiency. The system provides support for effective molecular modification and metabolic regulation of Bacillus licheniformis, and offers promise for applications in genetic modification of other industrially relevant Bacillus species.
  • Injectable angiogenic and osteogenic carrageenan nanocomposite hydrogel
           for bone tissue engineering
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Ramanathan Yegappan, Vignesh Selvaprithiviraj, Sivashanmugam Amirthalingam, Annapoorna Mohandas, Nathaniel S. Hwang, R. Jayakumar Functional biomaterials that couple angiogenesis and osteogenesis processes are vital for bone tissue engineering and bone remodeling. Herein we developed an injectable carrageenan nanocomposite hydrogel incorporated with whitlockite nanoparticles and an angiogenic drug, dimethyloxallylglycine. Synthesized whitlockite nanoparticles and nanocomposite hydrogels were characterized using SEM, TEM, EDS and FTIR. Developed hydrogels were injectable, mechanically stable, cytocompatible and has better protein adsorption. Incorporation of dimethyloxallylglycine resulted in initial burst release followed by sustained release for 7 days. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to dimethyloxallylglycine incorporated nanocomposite hydrogel showed enhanced cell migration and capillary tube-like structure formation. Osteogenic differentiation in rat adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells after 7 and 14 days revealed increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity in vitro. Furthermore, cells exposed to nanocomposite hydrogel revealed enhanced protein expressions of RUNX2, COL and OPN. Overall, these results suggest that incorporation of whitlockite and dimethyloxallylglycine in carrageenan hydrogel promoted osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro.
  • Influence of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on physicochemical and
           functional properties of starches from different Indian oat (Avena sativa
           L.) cultivars
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Maninder Kaur, Sukriti Singh The present work was aimed to study the effect of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at 30% moisture content and temperature of 100 °C/12 h on physicochemical and functional properties of starches from eight Indian oat cultivars. As compared to native starches, HMT starches had significantly (p 
  • Aspirin in retrieving the inactivated catalase to active form:
           Displacement of one inhibitor with a protective agent
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Yunes Panahi, Reza Yekta, Gholamreza Dehghan, Samaneh Rashtbari, Behzad Baradaran, Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari, Ali A. Moosavi-Movahedi Aspirin as a potential drug is able to bind to different targets and also could affect on the binding process of other ligands. In the present work, aspirin was considered as a protective agent to retrieve the inactivated catalase by farnesiferol C (FC) through displacement manner. The catalytic assessment revealed that aspirin is able to remarkably retrieve the activity of FC-catalase from 4.2 ± 0.2% to 98 ± 0.1% compare to the control sample. Furthermore, displacement study and CD spectroscopy indicated that aspirin could reduce the stability of FC-catalase complex. Based on the obtained data, it is shown that the binding of aspirin to catalase led to decrease the affinity of catalase to the inhibitor. The releasing analysis of FC from the complex showed that the dissociation constant (Kd) of FC-catalase was increased, considerably from 8.9 ± 0.2 μM to 256 ± 01 μM in the presence of aspirin at 298 K. Also, molecular simulation proved the instability of FC-catalase following the binding of aspirin to the complex.
  • α-Glucosidase immobilization on chitosan-modified cellulose filter paper:
           Preparation, property and application
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Dong-Mei Liu, Juan Chen, Yan-Ping Shi In the present study, α-glucosidase (α-Glu) was immobilized on the chitosan-modified cellulose filter paper (CFP/CS). For α-Glu immobilization, glutaraldehyde (GA) was used as a coupling agent. CFP, environmentally friendly and commercially available with low cost, will avoid the tedious procedure for synthesizing immobilization carrier. In addition, the CFP/CS-immobilized α-Glu can be directly taken out from the reaction mixture after an enzymatic reaction. This makes the instantaneous separation of immobilized enzyme comes true and is convenient to the subsequent study. Combined with capillary electrophoresis (CE), the CFP/CS-immobilized α-Glu was then used for enzyme kinetic and inhibition study. The CFP/CS-immobilized α-Glu exhibited enhanced pH and temperature tolerance. In addition, the performance of the CFP/CS-immobilized α-Glu was studied. Immobilized α-Glu exhibited excellent batch-to-batch reproducibility (RSD = 6.7%, n = 5) and improved reusability (71.0% of its initial activity after 10 repeated cycles). Finally, immobilized α-Glu was used to screen enzyme inhibitors from 11 traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The results showed that CFP/CS has potential development prospects as a novel enzyme immobilization carrier.
  • Spiro-acridine inhibiting tyrosinase enzyme: Kinetic, protein-ligand
           interaction and molecular docking studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Thaís Meira Menezes, Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida, Ricardo Olímpio de Moura, Gustavo Seabra, Maria do Carmo Alves de Lima, Jorge Luiz Neves Here, we evaluate spiroacridines as inhibitors of tyrosinase, a key enzyme to melanogenesis. For this purpose, the spiroacridines 3-(acridin-9-yl)-N-benzylidene-2-cyanoacrylohydrazide (AMTAC-01) and 3-(acridin-9-yl)-2-cyano-N-(4-metoxybenzylidene)-acrylohydrazide (AMTAC-02) were synthesized and their enzymatic inhibition types and mechanisms were investigated. In addition, the interaction of these compounds with the enzyme were studied by UV–Vis spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, 1H NMR titration as well as molecular docking. Spectroscopic results reveals that the acridine derivatives interact strongly (Ka ≅ 104 − 105 M−1) with the mushroom tyrosinase and the enzyme undergoes small structural modifications due to the interaction with AMTAC-01 compound. The interaction studies support the enzymatic inhibition results, which suggests that AMTAC-01 compounds inhibit the enzyme reversibly and follows a noncompetitive type (AMTAC-01) and mixed type (AMTAC-02) of inhibition. Nevertheless, AMTAC-02 (IC50 = 96.29 μM) inhibits the enzyme more effectively than AMTAC-01 (IC50 = 189.40 μM), which suggests a highly relevant role of AMTAC-02's methoxy group to the inhibition activity, which is confirmed by docking studies to mushroom tyrosinase. Docking also indicates this interaction to be absent in human tyrosinase.SignificanceBased on previous results which evidenced the relevant activity of two spiroacridinic compounds for cell growth inhibition against melanoma cells, here we improve our understanding about the spiroacridines in the biological media by exploring the molecular mechanism that govern the activities of these two compounds using mushroom tyrosinase (mTYR) enzyme as molecular target. The paper not only will have a major impact upon molecular mechanism that regulates melanin inhibition by spiroacridinic compounds, but also by guiding the search for enzyme inhibitors and the development of new anti-melanoma prophylaxis.
  • Preparation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from bacterial
           cellulose produced in sugar beet molasses and cheese whey media
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Mahdieh Salari, Mahmood Sowti Khiabani, Reza Rezaei Mokarram, Babak Ghanbarzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil Bacterial cellulose (BC) is gaining considerable attention due to its unique physicochemical and mechanical properties. In this study, BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus PTCC 1734 in sugar beet molasses, cheese whey and standard Hestrin–Schramm (HS) media was evaluated. The synthesized BC was hydrolyzed by sulfuric acid to prepare bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNC). The results showed that treated sugar beet molasses led to the highest BC concentration and productivity, followed by treated cheese whey. Structural analysis of BC and BCNC was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The crystallinity index of the BCNC determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was higher than BC. The morphological analysis carried out by FE-SEM showed that microfibrils diameter decreases with acid treatment. TEM images confirmed the formation of rod like cellulose nanocrystals having an average diameter and length of 25 ± 5 and 306 ± 112 nm, respectively. In conclusion, food industrial byproducts can be used as cost-effective culture media to produce BC for large-scale industrial production and isolated cellulose nanocrystals are useful in the fabrication of bio-nanocomposite films for food packaging applications.
  • An illustration of optimal selected glycosidase for N-glycoproteins
           deglycosylation and crystallization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Jiao Tang, Yadong Sun, Zhifu Han, Wei Shi Glycoproteins are protein molecules that contain the carbohydrate portion (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains, which are assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi by a controlled sequence of glycosyltransferase and glycosidase processing reactions. The presence of N-glycans controls proper folding of both secretory and membrane-bound proteins. In vitro recombinant glycoproteins are normally badly-glycosylated in the insect or mammalian cell lines, especially the secretory proteins. These N-glycans are usually complex, chemically and conformationally heterogeneous and frequently detrimental to the formation of well-ordered crystal lattices, obstructing the development of protein crystallography. Here we present pattern recognition receptor (PRR) of Arabidopsis FLS2 ectodomain after glycosidases treatment can still heterodimerize with its co-receptor BAK1 induced by flg22 through gel-filtration analysis. Appropriate deglycosylation strategies will not impact the characteristic and native conformation of FLS2 recombinant glycoprotein in vitro assay. The data reveals that Endoglycosidase F (Endo F) but not N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) can reduce the N-glycans of the residues of FLS2 ectodomain in native state, providing the probability of enhancing crystallization or raising diffraction resolution by means of different glycosidase combination and optimization.
  • Comparative study on neuroprotective activities of fucoidans from Fucus
           vesiculosus and Undaria pinnatifida
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Mousa Alghazwi, Scott Smid, Samuel Karpiniec, Wei Zhang This study investigated the neuroprotective activities of five different fucoidan samples with different chemical compositions prepared from Fucus vesiculosus (FE, FF, and S) and Undaria pinnatifida (UE and UF) to determine if they reduced aggregation or cytotoxicity of Aβ1–42 in neuronal PC-12 cells. Only fucoidans S, UE, and UF showed anti-aggregation effects against Aβ1–42, as determined using Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorometric fibrillisation kinetics and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of fibril morphology. However, all five fucoidan samples reduced the cytotoxicity of both Aβ1–42 and hydrogen peroxide in neuronal PC-12 cells and demonstrated inhibition of apoptosis induced by Aβ1–42. Three fucoidan samples (FF, UE and UF) showed significant activity in enhancing neurite outgrowth. Fucoidan from different seaweed sources and with varying chemical compositions demonstrate a range of neuroprotective activities that may have potential to alter Aβ1–42 neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease.
  • Wound dressing based on electrospun PVA/chitosan/starch nanofibrous mats:
           Fabrication, antibacterial and cytocompatibility evaluation and in vitro
           healing assay
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Hassan Adeli, Mohammad Taghi Khorasani, Mahmoud Parvazinia Electrospun nanofibrous mats based on biopolymers have been widely investigated for tissue engineering in recent years, primarily due to remarkable morphological similarity to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). In this research, electrospun PVA/Chitosan/Starch nanofibrous mats were fabricated using electrospinning method for wound dressing application. The prepared nanofibrous mats were then cross-linked to enhanced the water resistance and also optimize the biodegradation rate followed by characterization and evaluation of their properties as wound dressings. The morphological studies performed by SEM and AFM showed that uniform bead-free electrospun nanofibrous mats were formed. The structural properties of the fabricated mats were characterized by FTIR. The proper porosity and balanced water absorption and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of obtained dressings, demonstrate their ability in providing suitable moist environment for wound, result in the appropriate wound breathing and simultaneously efficient handling of wound exudates. Suitable mechanical properties of nanofibrous dressing in both dry and wet states confirm the capability of fabricated wound dressing to protect wound area against the external forces during the healing process. Antibacterial test revealed excellent antibacterial activity of nanofibrous mats against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluated by MTT assay, proved appropriate cytocompatibility and cell viability of the developed nanofibrous mats which were also verified with in vitro wound healing analysis performed by scratch assay, confirming the remarkable potential of the investigated nanofibrous mats for wound dressing application.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Composite of ionic liquid decorated cyclodextrin nanosponge, graphene
           oxide and chitosan: A novel catalyst support
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Samahe Sadjadi, Majid M. Heravi, Maryam Raja A biocompatible hybrid system composed of graphene oxide (GO), chitosan (CS) and ionic liquid decorated cyclodextrin nanosponge (CDNS-IL) is synthesized and applied for the immobilization of Pd and Fe3O4 nanoparticles to furnish a magnetic catalyst, Fe3O4/Pd@Hybrid. The justification for designing this hybrid system was benefiting from the capability of CDNS for formation of inclusion complex with substrates and acting as phase transfer agent. Moreover, IL itself could exert catalytic activity and improve anchoring Pd, while magnetic nanoparticles could render the catalyst easily separable. Moreover, the functional groups on CS could contribute to Pd anchoring. The catalytic activity of Fe3O4/Pd@Hybrid for promoting hydrogenation of nitro arenes and two coupling reactions in aqueous media was investigated. The results established that the catalyst could efficiently promote all the reactions under mild reaction condition. The investigation of the catalyst recyclability confirmed that the catalyst could be recycled for three reaction runs.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Protein aggregation suppressor arginine as an effective mouth cleaning
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Keiko Ikeda, Daisuke Ejima, Tsutomu Arakawa, A. Hajime Koyama We have tested here whether or not arginine, a well-known aggregation suppressor, is effective in removing bacterial cells, which may present a potential risk of accidental pneumonia infection in aged individuals, from the oral mucosal membranes. This is based on the ability of arginine to suppress protein-protein interaction and surface adsorption and increase the solubility of organic compounds. Twelve student volunteers were subjected to mouthwashes with saline, citrate buffer (pH 3.5), arginine (pH 3.5) and a commercial Listerine. Insignificant effects were observed with saline and citrate buffer, whereas arginine and Listerine mouthwashes led to significant reduction of bacterial cells from the dorsal side of the volunteer's tongue. Arginine also appeared to disrupt biofilms present in the mouth.
  • Environment-friendly green composites based on soluble soybean
           polysaccharide: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Davoud Salarbashi, Javad Bazeli, Mohsen Tafaghodi The objective of the present review was to acquaint the readers with recent advances in soluble soy bean polysaccharide (SSPS)-based films. An efficient extraction method containing refining, pasteurizing and spray-drying is commonly used to extract SSPS. SSPS is a high molecular weight polysaccharide with a pectin-like structure. The predominant monosaccharide components are arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid. Additionally, a trace amount of other monosaccharides such as glucose, fucose, rhamnose, and xylose are also present. SSPS allows us to make water-soluble, colorless, transparent, and edible films due to its high adhesive strength. The evaluation of recently published data on the development of SSPS films has demonstrated that nanoparticles can be used to improve the physicochemical characteristics of SSPS films. These nanoparticles not only reinforce the mechanical, thermal and physical properties of SSPS films, but also improve their antibacterial, anti-mold and anti-yeast activities. Hence, reinforcement of SSPS with nanoparticles is expected to open new approaches for revealing their applications in food packaging.
  • Production of starch based biopolymer by green photochemical reaction at
           different UV region as a food packaging material: Physicochemical
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Iman Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi, Vahid Goudarzi, Amin Babaei-Ghazvini In current study, the functional properties of modified starch solutions by photochemical reactions as a biodegradable food packaging material were investigated. Starch film-forming solutions were exposed to ultraviolet A (UV-A) and C (UV-C) over different time periods (1, 6, 12, and 24 h). A green method was used to prepare the modified starch films. Hydrophobicity, moisture sensitivity, and water vapor permeability of the starch films, decreased after exposure to UV irradiation up to 12 h. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the specimens decreased by increasing UV exposure time. Elongation at break, and tensile energy to break of the film specimens were increased, simultaneously. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated that most of the films' physical properties were affected by their microstructures. UV–Vis spectrum of the specimens confirmed that UV-protective properties of the irradiated specimens in UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C region have changed in comparison with the control sample. According to the results, UV-irradiation could be considered as a green, easy, and accessible process for modification of starch-based films.
  • The non-enzymatic glycation of LDL proteins results in biochemical
           alterations - A correlation study of Apo B100-AGE with obesity and
           rheumatoid arthritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Yi Li, Mohd. Shahnawaz Khan, Firoz Akhter, Fohad Mabood Husain, Saheem Ahmad, Lihui Chen Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) can aggregate amid incessant inflammation, as may be available in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. d-Ribose reacts more promptly than glucose monosaccharide to the proteins and forms heterogeneous group of products known as AGEs. Obesity includes persons with provocative joint inflammation with increased lipid profile. Immunogenic evidences recommend a cross-sectional relationship between glycated LDL-Apo B100 and inflammation.The point of this examination was to look at the connection between d-ribose glycated ApoB100 (ApoB100-AGE) with obesity and rheumatoid arthritis. The binding specificity of auto-antibodies against ApoB100-AGE antigen present in obesity and rheumatoid arthritis patient's serum were inspected by direct binding and was further established by competitive inhibition ELISA. In the present study, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, ketoamine moieties, hydroxyl-methyl furfural (HMF) and carbonyl substances were evaluated in the patients' serum via respective specific methods. The prevalence of auto-antibodies against ApoB100-AGE antigen was recorded to be 58% and 52.86% from obese and rheumatoid arthritis patient respectively in contrast to its native analogue (P 
  • Chitosan‑g‑maleic acid for effective removal of copper and nickel ions
           from their solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 121Author(s): Ahmed G. Ibrahim, Alaaeldine Sh. Saleh, Emad M. Elsharma, Essam Metwally, Tharwat Siyam Pollution of the environment associated with discharging the toxic heavy metals in water makes us focus the light to solve this problem. In continuation of our efforts, we aim in this work to utilize the graft copolymer (chitosan‑g‑maleic acid) to purify water from copper and nickel ions. The graft copolymer has been synthesized using gamma radiation and the grafting conditions have been optimized by studying the influence of acetic acid concentration (0.5–10% V/V), monomer concentration (5–17.5% w/v), chitosan concentration (0.25–2.5% w/v) and absorbed dose (0.5–5 kGy). FT-IR and TGA have been employed to characterize the graft copolymer. The metal ions uptake by the prepared graft copolymer was investigated and the influence of contact time, solution pH, polymer concentration, and metal ion concentration was studied. Adsorption kinetic models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intra-particle diffusion equations) and adsorption isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equations) were also studied. It was found that the adsorption kinetics and isotherm agreed well with pseudo-second-order and Langmuir equations, respectively, indicating that the adsorption was chemisorption. The adsorption capacities of CTS‑g‑MA were 312.4 mg g−1 and 70.1 mg g−1 for Cu2+ and Ni2+, respectively. Effect of co-existence of other cationic ions on the adsorption capacity was also investigated.
  • Recent advancements in biopolymer and metal nanoparticle-based materials
           in diabetic wound healing management
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Veena Vijayakumar, Sushanta K. Samal, Smita Mohanty, Sanjay K. Nayak Currently, diabetes mellitus (DM) accelerated diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) remains vivacious health problem related with delayed healing and high amputation rates which leads to enormous clinical obligation. Keeping in view of the foregoing, researchers have been made in their efforts to develop novel materials which accelerate delayed wound healing in the diabetic patient and reduce the adversative influences of DFUs. The most prominent materials used for the wound healing application have biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, excellent biodegradable properties, and antimicrobial activity properties. Utilization of nanoparticles has emerged as a protruding scientific and technological revolution in controlling DFUs. Biopolymers in combination with bioactive nanoparticles having antimicrobial, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties have great potential in wound care to enhance the healing process of diabetic wound infectious. Combination of antibacterial nanoparticles like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) etc. with polymeric matrix could efficiently inhibit bacterial growth and at the same time fastens the healing process of a wound. This review briefed the recent development of different natural polymers and antibacterial nanoparticles to mitigate the diabetes mellitus based DFU.
  • 3‑Mercapto‑propanoic acid modified cellulose filter paper for quick
           removal of arsenate from drinking water
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Krishnendu Pramanik, Priyabrata Sarkar, Dipankar Bhattacharyay This paper reports a simple, facile and rapid preparation of 3‑mercapto‑propanoic acid (MPA) modified cellulose filter paper (MPA-Cell paper) for arsenate removal from drinking water. The MPA was covalently grafted to the cellulose filter paper (Cell) by esterification process through the formation of O‑acylisourea intermediate and characterized by the FTIR, SEM, EDS and XPS analyses. The arsenate adsorption efficiency was studied for batch and semi-continuous systems while exploring the adsorption kinetics, isotherm and the effect of pH for the former. The experimental data fitted well with Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) and pseudo second order kinetic models. The mechanism of adsorption was studied by FTIR spectroscopy utilizing the adsorption isotherm, kinetic model and XPS results. The modified filter paper performed well at nearly neutral pH in arsenate removal through adsorption and demonstrated a significant arsenate uptake capacity of 92.59 mg/g. The DR and FTIR results indicated that the adsorption of arsenate ion occurred through ion exchange process. The MPA-Cell paper could have a potential use as low-cost but efficient commercial adsorbent for arsenate abatement from contaminated drinking water by both batch as well as semi-continuous operating systems. The MPA-Cell paper could purify ground water containing high level of arsenate.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Sericin-chitosan doped maleate gellan gum nanocomposites for effective
           cell damage in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Sivaraj Mehnath, Mohamed Ali Ayisha Sithika, Mukherjee Arjama, Mariappan Rajan, Rajendran Amarnath Praphakar, Murugaraj Jeyaraj Polysaccharides are increasingly used as biodegradable nanocarrier to selectively deliver therapeutic agents to specific cells. In this study, maleate gellan gum (MA-GG) formed by addition of free radical polymerizable groups, which can be polymerized presence of acetone to design biodegradable three-dimensional networks, were synthesized by esterification. Natural silk sericin was grafted over the maleate gellan gum surface. Maleate Gellan Gum- Silk Sericin-Chitosan (MA-GG-SS-CS) nanocomposites loaded with rifampicin (RF) and pyrazinamide (PZA) to overcome the problems associated with Tuberculosis (TB) therapy. The pH responsive behavior of gellan gum nanocomposites was reposed by silk sericin and exhibited sustained release of 79% RF and 82% PZA for 120 h at pH 4.0. The designed formulations shows higher antimycobacterial activity and rapid delivery of drugs at TB infected macrophage. Nanomaterial effectively aggregated and internalized into the bacterial cells and MH-S cells. Dual drug release inside the cells makes damage in the cell membrane. Green nanocomposites studies pave the way for important use of macromolecules in pulmonary delivery TB drugs.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Formaldehyde interacts with RNA rather than DNA: Accumulation of
           formaldehyde by the RNA-inorganic hybrid material
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Masanori Yamada, Shoko Funaki, Saaya Miki Formaldehyde (HCHO) has been known to react with a nucleobase which possesses an amino group and denatures the nucleic acid, such as RNA and DNA. Therefore, we demonstrated the accumulation of HCHO from an aqueous solution by the water-insoluble nucleic acid-inorganic hybrid materials which were prepared by mixing the nucleic acid with a silane coupling reagent (SiNSi). As a result, the water-insoluble nucleic acid-SiNSi hybrid materials effectively accumulated the HCHO from an aqueous solution. In particular, at the maximum accumulated amount of HCHO, the molar ratios of RNA (ribonucleotide):HCHO and DNA (deoxyribonucleotide):HCHO were 1:0.055 and 1:0.015, respectively. Additionally, the accumulative mechanism of HCHO was related to the reaction between HCHO and the nucleobase with the amino group. Furthermore, the RNA material showed a conformational change at a low HCHO concentration and these conformational changes of RNA were greater than that of DNA. These results suggested that HCHO molecule interacts with RNA rather than DNA.
  • Fabrication and characterization of pH-sensitive bio-nanocomposite beads
           havening folic acid intercalated LDH and chitosan: Drug release and
           mechanism evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Shadpour Mallakpour, Masoud Hatami In this paper, folic acid (FA) as drug model was intercalated in the structure of layered double hydroxide (LDH) as drug carrier with two coprecipitation and anion exchange methods. The existence of FA drug between the LDH layers was confirmed with FT-IR and XRD analyses. Also, the results of UV–Vis confirmed that the FA loading in the structure of LDH was about 33.35% and 15.57% for coprecipitation and anion exchange methods, respectively. Then, FA intercalated LDH (LDH-FA) was composited with different weights of chitosan (Cs) as bio-polymer and the obtained nanocomposite beads was characterized. Subsequence, the release of FA drug from obtained hybrids was examined at simulated condition similar to the gastrointestinal tract with different pHs. The achieved bio-composite beads showed the pH-sensitive swelling property and also the release test showed the higher shield of acidic pH and the release rate of FA drug was decreased with addition of Cs concentration. Also, several well-known kinetic models were examined in order to study the FA release mechanism which suggested some release processes such as diffusion controlled of flat surface by heterogeneous sites, ion exchange process, LDH intra-particle diffusion and also concurrent leaching of the FA anions from LDH structure.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Adsorption of Hg (II) ions from aqueous solution by
           diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-modified cellulose
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Bo Li, Ming Li, Jinyao Zhang, Yuanfeng Pan, Zhihong Huang, Huining Xiao The diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-modified cellulose adsorbent was prepared using N‑[3‑(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine as a crosslinking reagent and used for the removal of Hg (II) ions from aqueous solution. The resulting adsorbents were comprehensively characterized with FTIR, XRD and SEM. The results showed that DTPA successfully functionalized cellulose, and coordinating DTPA ligand improved the binding properties towards heavy metal ions significantly. Various influencing factors on adsorption performance were investigated, including temperature, initial concentration of Hg (II), solution pH, contact time. Moreover, the reusability of the adsorbent was also assessed. The experimental and modeling results indicated that the adsorption process was better described by Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity reached as high as 476.2 mg·g−1, The kinetic date of the adsorption matched well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the cellulose-based adsorbent is reusable, maintaining the adsorption capacity after seven adsorption-desorption cycles. The findings from this work demonstrated that the DTPA-modified cellulose adsorbent can be recognized as an effective adsorbent for Hg (II) removal from aqueous solution.
  • Pectin, beta-cyclodextrin, chitosan and albumin based gastroprotective
           systems for piroxicam maleate: Synthesis, characterization and biological
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Monika Mishra, Viney Chawla, Pooja Chawla In order to optimize drug action, new drug formulations have been developed based upon the prodrug approach. This study was inspired by the increasing interest in the field of macromolecular prodrugs and Piroxicam maleate was used as a model drug. A total of five prodrugs were synthesized using beta cyclodextrin, chitosan, pectin, egg albumin, bovine serum albumin. The synthesized conjugates were characterized on the basis of UV, IR and NMR techniques. In-vitro hydrolysis studies were carried out at pH 1.2, pH 7.4, pH 9.0 and in 80% human plasma followed by in-vivo evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic potential. The extent of hydrolysis was found to be proportional to increase in pH. Beta cyclodextrin conjugate was found to possess significant analgesic activity whereas chitosan conjugate was found to be the best anti-inflammatory. Pectin conjugate provided maximum protection against ulcers.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Multiple antidiabetic effects of three α-glucosidase inhibitory peptides,
           PFP, YPL and YPG: Dipeptidyl peptidase–IV inhibition, suppression of
           lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and scavenging
           activity on methylglyoxal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, June C. Serem, Megan J. Bester, Albert W. Neitz, Anabella R.M. Gaspar Antidiabetic agents with multiple targets have the greatest pharmaceutical potential. In this study, three α-glucosidase inhibitory peptides, PFP, YPL and YPG, were investigated for additional antidiabetic targets viz.; dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibition (DPP-IV), lipid accumulation and the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and scavenging of methylglyoxal (MGO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). The peptides were subjected to molecular docking on human DPP-IV where the binding free energies were PFP 
  • l+lactic+acid)+aligned+microfibrous+bundle+to+mimic+tendon+extracellular+matrix&rft.title=International+Journal+of+Biological+Macromolecules&rft.issn=0141-8130&">Chitosan hydrogel scaffold reinforced with twisted poly(l lactic acid)
           aligned microfibrous bundle to mimic tendon extracellular matrix
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): M. Nivedhitha Sundaram, S. Deepthi, Ullas Mony, K.T. Shalumon, Jyh-Ping Chen, R. Jayakumar Regeneration of tendon requires construct that provides necessary structural support closely mimicking the native architecture. To recreate this complex architecture a construct made of heat-treated, twisted poly(L lactic acid) (PLLA) microfibers coated with chitosan gel and surrounded by PLLA micro-fibrous layer was developed. The developed construct characterized using SEM showed the macroporous nature of gel coating around four distinct PLLA twisted fibrous bundle and a thin fiber layer surrounding the construct. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of PLLA and chitosan construct. Mechanical strength increased with increasing number of strips. Protein adsorption was significantly low on the construct with outer covering that could retard cell adhesion to the outer layer. The developed construct showed good cell attachment and proliferation of tenocytes. These results indicate that the construct would find application for tendon tissue engineering.
  • Anti-tumor activity and the mechanism of a green tea (Camellia sinensis)
           polysaccharide on prostate cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Ke Yang, Zhi-Yong Gao, Tie-Qiu Li, Wei Song, Wei Xiao, Jue Zheng, Hao Chen, Gui-Heng Chen, Hao-Yu Zou In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide (GTP), with a molecular weight of 7.0 × 104 Da, was isolated from Green tea, which was only composed of glucose. The antitumor effects of GTP on prostate cancer (PC) cell line along with the possible mechanism was examined. First, we investigate the potential role of microRNA-93 (miR-93) in PC progression. Our results showed that miR-93 was significantly upregulated in human PC tissues and several PC cell lines, and its overexpression was correlated with poor survival in PC patients. Furthermore, functional analysis showed that miR-93 overexpression promoted the migration, invasion and proliferation of PC-3 cells transfected with miR-93 mimics, while its knockdown displayed an opposite result in DU145 cells following miR-93 inhibitor transfection. Additionally, in vivo tumorigenic studies on nude mice confirmed that miR-93 mimic treatment accelerated the growth of PC-3 xenograft tumors. As expected, GTP (25, 50 and 100 μg/ml) inhibited growth of PC-3 cells via inducing apoptosis, which was achieved by elevation of bax/bcl-2 ratio and caspae-3 protein expression, as well as a decrease of miR-93. Thus, miR-93 may be a potential therapeutic target by GTP for PC therapy.
  • Kraft lignin/cubic boron nitride hybrid materials as functional components
           for abrasive tools
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Łukasz Klapiszewski, Artur Jamrozik, Beata Strzemiecka, Paulina Jakubowska, Tadeusz J. Szalaty, Małgorzata Szewczyńska, Adam Voelkel, Teofil Jesionowski In this study, the kraft lignin/cubic boron nitride hybrid materials have been obtained and characterized for the first time. The effectiveness of the combination of lignin and boron nitride was evaluated on the basis of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the addition of cubic boron nitride (cBN) improved the thermal stability of the inorganic-organic material. Upswing in thermal properties allowed to apply the prepared materials in preparation of model abrasive composites. Beneficial influence of the lignin/cBN filler was also proven by a noticeable decrease in the amount of harmful phenol released from the compositions during headspace gas chromatography analysis. Mechanical properties of the lignin/boron nitride hybrids and resin systems were investigated by the three-point flexural test. The obtained results show that the used additives can be promising materials for abrasive tools combining the good properties of lignin as a plasticizer and of cubic boron nitride as a filler which improves the thermal and mechanical properties of finished products and, at the same time, limits the negative impact on human health and environment.
  • Construction of chitosan/ZnO nanocomposite film by in situ precipitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Bo Qiu, Xiong-feng Xu, Rong-hui Deng, Gan-qing Xia, Xi-fu Shang, Pang-hu Zhou In the present work, flexible chitosan/ZnO nanocomposite films were prepared by a green and facile method through in situ precipitation of nano-ZnO (nZnO) in the chitosan film. Zn(Ac)2 was added in chitosan solution to provide Zn2+, thus Zn2+ was fixed in the chitosan matrix and converted into nZnO through interaction with NaOH with heating. The structure and properties of the hybrid films were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tensile testing. The results indicated that there was strong coordination interaction existed between Zn2+ and chitosan matrix for the good dispersion of nZnO in the chitosan film. Furthermore, nZnO distributed evenly in the chitosan and aggregated to form micro-nano-binary hierarchical structure, mimicking lotus leaf structure. Therefore, this work provides an effective way to prepare biocompatible and antibacterial chitosan/ZnO nanocomposite films, showing potential applications in the fields of antibacterial packaging and dressings.
  • Role of (single/double chain surfactant) micelles on the protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Rachana Srivastava, Md. Sayem Alam To investigate the interaction between the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cationic surfactants (monomeric, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and dimeric/gemini, 1, 6 bis (N, N-hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide, 16-6-16) and to find out the role of micelles in the aggregation of the protein using spectroscopic (UV–visible, fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime measurements, circular dichroism (CD), etc.) and microscopic (atomic force microscope (AFM)) techniques. The different surfactant has an effect on the polarity of the microenvironment of the protein shows in all the spectroscopic technique at below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The far-UV CD spectra show that BSA is more disrupted by the dimeric surfactant compared to the monomeric CTAB above the CMC. The binding of the surfactant induce changes in the microenvironment around the aromatic amino acids residues and disulfide bond of the BSA at different pHs. The binding constant values were found to be 20.278 × 103 M and 8.443 M for the BSA-CTAB complex and BSA-16-6-16 complex, respectively. Atomic force microscope indicates the aggregation is more in case of dimeric (16-6-16) surfactant compared to the monomeric (CTAB) surfactant at the higher concentration (above their CMCs). Below and above the CMC, all changes are noticeable.Graphical abstractThe AFM images show the structural changes in bovine serum albumin-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)complex and bovine serum albumin-1, 6 bis (N, N-hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium) bromide (16-6-16). The fluorescence lifetime images indicate the rate of the aggregation is more in 16-6-16 compare to CTAB.Unlabelled Image
  • Purification and characterization a polysaccharide from Hedyotis diffusa
           and its apoptosis inducing activity toward human lung cancer cell line
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Liyao Lin, Keluo Cheng, Zhanqiang Xie, Chunyuan Chen, Lin Chen, Yidong Huang, Zhu Liang In this study, we first isolated and purified a homogeneous polysaccharide (HDP) from Hedyotis diffusa. Its molecular weight was estimated to be about 89 kDa and GC analysis identified that it was composed of glucose, galactose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 2.0:1.0:1.0. Treatment with HDP (25, 100, and 200 μg/ml) resulted in growth inhibitory effect on A549 cells by inducing apoptosis. Moreover, induction of apoptosis by HDP was accompanied with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol prior to the activation of caspase-9 and -3 in A549 cells. Also, a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 proteins was observed in A549 cells followed by HDP treatment. Additionally, in vivo study showed that HDP (50 and 100 mg/kg) could suppress the growth of A549 subcutaneous xenograft tumors. Taken together, these results indicated that the HDP exerted an anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo and may be useful as a potent antitumor agent for the prevention of lung cancer.
  • A polysaccharide from Enterobacter cloacae induces apoptosis of human
           osteosarcoma cells through the activation of p53 and mitochondrial
           intrinsic pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Haicong Chen, Chaojun Wang, Xin Wang, Zhen Guo, Zhujin Xu, Yi Zhao, Jiashang Cai, Jun Liu In the present study, a polysaccharide (ECP) from Enterobacter cloacae dose and time-dependently inhibited cell growth of human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells via induction of apoptosis. ECP treatment was selectively toxic to U-2 OS cells whereas had no cytotoxic effect on normal human osteoblast cell line NHOst. ECP-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with collapse of mitochondrial membrane, cytochrome c release into the cytosol, activation of caspase-9 and-3, degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), elevated the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein and overexpression of p53, suggesting the involvement of the activation of p53 and mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in ECP-induced apoptosis. Likewise, ECP oral administration significantly inhibited the U-2 OS cancer growth in xenograft tumor model. All these first evidence indicated that ECP was a potential antitumor supplement for the treatment of human osteosarcoma.
  • Functional annotation of putative fadE9 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as
           isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in valine catabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Nidhi Rani, Samannaya Hazra, Amrita Singh, Avadhesha Surolia Members of the Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADs) family of enzymes play a crucial role in cholesterol and steroid catabolism and are widely studied in the oldest known human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, there is a paucity of information on ACADs involved in branched chain amino acid catabolism. Here we characterized one of the putative ACAD enzyme, fadE9, as “Isobutyryl CoA Dehydrogenase (IBDH)” using a combined computational and experimental approach, guided by homology modeled structural information, affirming its role in valine catabolism. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis place it in a separate cluster from a recently identified family of α2β2-heterotetramer ACADs in Mtb, based on the position of the conserved Arg247 and catalytic Glu368 residues. The conserved Arg247 was predicted to play an essential role at the center of H-bonding network of reaction center and was confirmed by the reduced activity of R247K mutant. Thus, in addition to the finding of an architecturally distinct α2β2-heterotetramer among ACADs, these studies also highlight the differences between MtIBDH, fadE9 from the other ACADs that are involved in cholesterol and steroid catabolism of Mtb.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Isolation, molecular characterization and antioxidant activity of a
           water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from the fruiting body of
           Termitornyces albuminosus (Berk.) Heim
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Yawen Hong, Tiejin Ying A water-soluble polysaccharide WSP1 was extracted from the fruiting body of Termitornyces albuminosus. Its molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and molecular structure were determined by GPC, GC–MS, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, methylation analysis, NMR (1D and 2D) and AFM. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of WSP1 was evaluated in vitro by the tests of reducing power, scavenging ability on DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical, and chelating ability on ferrous ion. The results indicated that the molecular weight of WSP1 was 9 kDa, and it was mainly composed of fucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1:3.09. Based on monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis and NMR, the possible repeating unit of WSP1 was presented as follows:→2-α-l-Fucp-1→ (6-α-d-Galp-1)3→.The antioxidant assay revealed that, in the concentration range tested in this experiment, WSP1 had strong scavenging ability on DPPH radical, suggesting that WSP1 could be potentially used as a powerful radical scavenger.
  • Effect of sulfation and partial hydrolysis of polysaccharides from
           Polygonatum sibiricum on immune-enhancement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Khamphone Yelithao, Utoomporn Surayot, WooJung Park, SangMin Lee, Dae-Hee Lee, SangGuan You The aqueous polysaccharide from Polygonatum sibiricum was extracted and fractionated using anion-exchange chromatography to obtain F1 fraction. The F1 was chemically sulfated and partially acid-hydrolyzed for the production of its over-sulfated (OS1,2,3) and hydrolyzed (HP1,2,3) derivatives, in which the sulfate content of OS1,2,3 was 7.5–17.1%, and the Mw of HP1,2,3 ranged from 18.2 × 103 to 57.3 × 103 g/mol. Considerable RAW264.7 cell activation was observed by HP1,2,3 with NO production of 34.9, 44.3 and 42.7 μM, respectively, as well as the mRNA expression of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12). NK cell cytotoxicity against HT-29 cell was facilitated by OS1,2,3 treatment with the increased gene expressions of INF-γ, Granzyme-B, perforin, NKG2D, and FasL. RAW264.7 cells appeared to be activated via MR and TLR4 mediated signaling pathway, but CR3 and TRL2 might play a main role in stimulating NK cells. Overall, the present study suggests the potential application of polysaccharides from P. sibiricum in functional foods and pharmacological industries.
  • Structural studies of biologically active pectin-containing
           polysaccharides of pomegranate Punica granatum
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Evgeny G. Shakhmatov, Elena N. Makarova, Vladimir A. Belyy The polysaccharide PGW was isolated from peels and membranes of fruits of pomegranate P. granatum by hot water extraction. The methods of ion exchange chromatography, partial acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis and NMR spectroscopy were employed to establish the major elements of its structure. It was shown that this polysaccharide contained polymers with different structures, the main components among which were pectic polysaccharides, represented mainly by highly methyl-esterified and lowly acetylated 1,4-α-d-galactopyranosyluronan and a minor amount of partially 2-O- and/or 3-O-acetylated RG-I. The side carbohydrate chains of the branched region of RG-I were mainly represented by terminal, 5-O-, 3-O-, 2,5-di-O-, 3,5-di-O- and 2,3,5-tri-O-substituted α-l-Araf residues indicating the presence of branched 1,5-α-l-arabinan and minor regions of 1,4-β-d-galactan or arabinogalactan type I. The degree of methylation of the isolated pectins varied depending on the method of treatment. As a result, peels and membranes of pomegranate fruits can be recommended as a source of highly and lowly methyl-esterified pectic polysaccharides.
  • Optimization of sulfation of okra fruit gum for improved rheological and
           pharmacological properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Meenu Nagpal, Manjot Kaur, Deepika Sharma, Ashish Baldi, Ramesh Chandra, Jitender Madan In the present investigation, sulfated derivatives of Okra fruit gum (OFG) with the degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 0.39 to 1.13 were synthesized using chlorosulfonic acid/pyridine (CSA/Py) reagents under the umbrella of Box-Behnken Design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to optimize the reaction conditions. The extracted gum was characterized for particle size, zeta-potential, surface morphology, architectural arrangement, mechanical and rheological chattels, pharmacological properties etc. The optimal reaction conditions of sOFG (sulfated okra fruit gum) were included ratio of CSA/Py, 0.28; reaction time, 3.05 h and reaction temperature, 58.74 °C. A high DS of 1.004 was procured at optimized conditions that was analogous to the predicted value. The sOFG was investigated to be advanced over the immensely used polysaccharide sodium alginate in mechanical and rheological attributes. Also, pharmacological properties including anticoagulant and antimicrobial property of sOFG were superior as compared to OFG. In conclusion, sulfation of OFG under the shed of BBD offered a superior DS that could be further explored for wide usage as pharmaceutical excipient for designing health care products.
  • Glucose-sensitive delivery of metronidazole by using a photo-crosslinked
           chitosan hydrogel film to inhibit Porphyromonas gingivalis proliferation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 122Author(s): Junyu Liu, Yu Xiao, Xiangyu Wang, Lixun Huang, Yu Chen, Chongyun Bao A novel glucose-sensitive drug delivery system with controlled release of metronidazole was synthesized by using biocompatible photo-crosslinked chitosan hydrogel film. Specifically, methacrylic anhydride, as photosensitive substance, was firstly grafted on chitosan molecular chains and then UV irradiation was applied as the crosslinking method. Glucose sensitivity was endowed by immobilizing glucose oxidase on the surface of chitosan film. The physicochemical characteristics including chemical composition, crosslinking degree, mechanical strength and related enzyme properties were investigated successively. Cytotoxicity test, drug release and anti-bacterial test were carried out, respectively. The results show that this photo-crosslinked hydrogel film has good mechanical properties; meanwhile, the immobilized enzyme's bonding capacity and activity can maintain a relatively high level after surface activation. In addition, this material possesses better biocompatibility than chemical crosslinked samples. What's more, it can sense the ambient glucose stimulus, rapidly and correspondingly adjust its inner pore structure to control the loaded metronidazole release, lead to an improved antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis under high glucose concentration. This glucose sensitive hydrogel film may provide a promising method for diabetic's periodontitis therapy in clinic.
  • Characterization, release, and antioxidant activity of curcumin-loaded
           sodium alginate/ZnO hydrogel beads
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 121Author(s): Heping Wang, Xuechen Gong, Xia Guo, Chun Liu, Yan-Ying Fan, Jin Zhang, Baolong Niu, Wenfeng Li In this study, we fabricated a series of novel sodium alginate/ZnO hydrogel beads to optimize the release profile of curcumin (Cur) and to avoid the burst release associated with pure hydrogels, which were used to mitigate the weaknesses of Cur, such as rapid physiological clearance and sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light and alkaline solutions. The results show that the composite hydrogel beads exhibit good pH sensitivity and controlled-release capacity, which could prolong the residence time of Cur in the gastrointestinal tract. After exposure to UV irradiation for 6 h, the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity of Cur-loaded hydrogel beads was decreased by only 13.70%, whereas that of pure Cur decreased by 62.04% under the same conditions; therefore, the encapsulated Cur showed a higher antioxidant activity. The composite hydrogel beads protected the Cur from light degradation and can therefore prolong the antioxidant activity of Cur. These results are beneficial for the design of delivery systems to entrap and control the release of unstable drugs.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Proteome analysis reveals a strong correlation between olfaction and
           pollen foraging preference in honeybees
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 121Author(s): Yuan Guo, Baochun Fu, Guojie Qin, Huailei Song, Wenqing Wu, Youquan Shao, Solomon Zewdu Altaye, Linsheng Yu To gain a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of pollen foraging preference, we characterized the proteomes of antennae and brains of bees foraging on pear and rapeseed flowers, and the volatile compounds from nectar, anther, and inflorescence of both plants. Bees foraging on the pollen of the two plants have shaped the distinct proteome arsenals in the antenna and brain to drive olfactory and brain function. In antennae, bees foraging on pear (PA) pollen pathways associated with protein metabolism were induced to synthesize new proteins for modulation of synaptic structures via stabilizing and consolidating specific memory traces. Whereas, bees foraging on rapeseed (BA) pollen pathways implicated in energy metabolism were activated to provide metabolic fuels critical for neural activity. These findings suggest that the distinct biochemical route is functionally enhanced to consolidate the divergent olfaction in PA and BA. In brain, although the uniquely induced pathways in bees forging on both plants are likely to cement selective roles in learning and memory, pollen foraging preference in bees is mainly drived by olfaction. Furthermore, both plants have shaped different repertoires of signal odors and food rewards to attract pollinators. The suggested markers are potentially useful for selection of bees to improve their olfaction for better pollination of the plants.
  • Primary structure and anticoagulant activity of fucoidan from the sea
           cucumber Holothuria polii
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 121Author(s): Mohamed Ben Mansour, Rafik Balti, Lamia Yacoubi, Véronique Ollivier, Frédéric Chaubet, Raoui Mounir Maaroufi Sea cucumber fucoidan is recently endowed with a variety of biological activities. In the present study, we studied the structure and anticoagulant effect of fucoidan from the sea cucumber Holothuria polii (Fuc-Hp). The Fuc-Hp was purified by anion exchange chromatography and its structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Molecular weight measurements were performed by HPSEC-MALLS-dRI. Fuc-Hp anticoagulant activity was measured by activated partial thromboplastin and thrombin times, and by in vitro thrombin inhibition in the presence of antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. The assessment of thrombin generation was investigated using calibrated automated thrombography. Fuc-Hp with a high sulfate content (34.6%) and an average molecular mass of 1376.3 kDa was isolated from H. polii in amount of ~2.7 mg/g dry body wall. Primary structural analysis indicated that Fuc-Hp was mainly composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit branched by glucuronic acid. Fuc-Hp exhibited a high anticoagulant effect mediated essentially by heparin cofactor II and to lesser extent by antithrombin with IC50 values of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. Overall results showed a high anticoagulant activity of Fuc-Hp, which was attributed to the high sulfate content and abundance of disulfated fucose residues of H. polii fucoidan.
  • A novel GelMA-pHEMA hydrogel nerve guide for the treatment of peripheral
           nerve damages
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 121Author(s): Tugba Dursun Usal, Deniz Yucel, Vasif Hasirci Damage to the nervous system due to age, diseases or trauma may inhibit signal transfer along the nervous system. Nerve guides are used to treat these injuries by bridging the proximal and the distal end together. The design of the guide is very important for the reconnection of the severed axons. Methacrylated gelatin-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (GelMA-pHEMA) hydrogel was produced as the outer part of the nerve guide. pHEMA was added in various amounts into GelMA and increased the mechanical strength which is needed for the suturability of the guide. Porosity (15–70%), pore size (10–35 μm), water content (42–92%), and mechanical strength (65–710 kPa) of GelMA-pHEMA hydrogels were found to be suitable for nerve tissue engineering applications. Schwann cells attached and proliferated on GelMA, GelMA-pHEMA (5:5), and pHEMA hydrogels. Providing guidance is very important in the development of a nerve guide due to the anisotropic nature of the nerve tissue. Therefore, gelatin-poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) aligned fiber mats were used inside of the nerve guide. High degree of alignment with low deviation (7°) of this mats provided PC12 cell alignment throughout the fibers. Combination of GelMA-pHEMA (5:5) hydrogel and gelatin-PHBV aligned mat would provide an ideal nerve guide for the treatment of peripheral nerve damages.
  • A green physical approach to compatibilize a bio-based poly (lactic
           acid)/lignin blend for better mechanical, thermal and degradation
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 121Author(s): Ashish Kumar, Venkatappa Rao Tumu, Subhendu Ray Chowdhury, Ramana Reddy S.V.S. The poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and lignin (LG) are promising candidates to develop green plastic. However, the blending of lignin with PLA leads to incompatible blend with poor mechanical and thermal properties. Hence, in the present work, a green and simple approach was employed to make PLA/LG compatible blend with high lignin percentage (5 and 20%). The E-beam irradiated lignins having different absorbed dosages were blended with two different percentages 5 and 20 with PLA in the presence of 3 phr triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC). FTIR and DSC studies have confirmed the formation of PLA-TAIC-Lignin crosslinked structures which act as an interface between the dispersed lignin phase and PLA matrix and hence improved their compatibility in the resulting blend. The compatibility of resulting blends was further validated by the morphology study, Glass transition temperature (Tg) behavior of PLA/LG blends and by observing the significant improvement in the mechanical, thermal and hydrolytic degradation properties.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Thermoelectric properties of electrospun carbon nanofibres derived from
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 121Author(s): Niall Dalton, Robert P. Lynch, Maurice N. Collins, Mario Culebras Developing sustainable and efficient thermoelectric materials is a challenge because the most common thermoelectric materials are based on rare elements such as bismuth and telluride. In this context, we have produced bio-based carbon nanofibres (CNFs) derived from mixtures of polyacrylonitrile and lignin using electrospinning. The addition of lignin (up to 70%) reduces the diameter of CNFs from 450 nm to 250 nm, increases sample flexibility, and promotes inter-fibre fusion. The crystalline structure of the CNFs was analysed by Raman spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient were evaluated as function of the lignin content in the precursor and carbonised equivalents. Finally, a conversion of p-type to n-type semiconducting behaviour was achieved with a hydrazine vapour treatment. We observe a maximum p-type power factor of 9.27 μW cm−1 K−2 for CNFs carbonised at 900 °C with 70% lignin which is a 34.5-fold increase to the CNFs with 0% lignin. For the hydrazine treated samples, we observe a maximum n-type power factor of 10.2 μW cm−1 K−2 for the CNFs produced in the same way which is an 11.0-fold increase to the hydrazine-treated CNFs with 0% lignin.
  • A collagen film with micro-rough surface can promote the corneal
           epithelization process for corneal repair
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 121Author(s): Yang Liu, Xia Liu, Minghui Wu, Peihong Ji, Huilin Lv, Linhong Deng Corneal disease is a major cause of blindness and keratoplasty is an effective treatment method. A freeze-dried collagen film (FD-Col) with micro-rough surface structure for corneal epithelial repair was reported in our previous studies. In this research, we conducted a more comprehensive study on the FD-Col film. Besides with excellent mechanical property and optical transparency, the FD-Col film also has good penetrating ability in nutrient solutions. The permeability coefficient of the FD-Col in NaCl and tryptophan solution is (2.58 ± 0.47) × 10−6 cm2/s and (2.67 ± 0.13) × 10−7 cm2/s, respectively. In addition, the morphology change of the FD-Col film before and after water absorption is relatively stable suggesting that this film can be fabricated with various dimensions easily. Moreover, corneal lamellar keratoplasty shows that the FD-Col film can be sutured in rabbit's ocular surface and the re-epithelization process in vivo is complete in about 12 days, and the transparency is restored quickly in the first month. Corneal rejection reaction, neovascularization and keratoconus are not observed within 2 months. This FD-Col film, which can be prepared in large quantities and at low cost, should have potential application in corneal repair in the future.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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