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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3160 journals)

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Showing 1401 - 1600 of 3160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Africa Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.699, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Approximate Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Biochemistry & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Biological Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.917, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.2, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Child-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Clinical and Health Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.345, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.186, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.648, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Developmental Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 464, SJR: 1.441, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Educational Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.617, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.276, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.82, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.402, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.366, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.879, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Gerontology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.458, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.947, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294, SJR: 1.498, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.027, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Human-Computer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.116, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.334, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.124, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Industrial Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.873, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.514, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Law and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.546, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.362, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.597, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.92, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.595, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.247, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.717, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mining Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.323, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.032, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.646, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.717, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.618, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.783, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.11, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.395, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.981, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.401, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.463, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.157, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.485, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.471, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.528, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.259, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.295, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.793, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgery Open     Open Access   (SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Surgery Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.746, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.429, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Women's Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Medical Review on Down Syndrome     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.973, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.841, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Economics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.632, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.497, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Intl. Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.667, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Strategic Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Investigación en Educación Médica     Open Access  
Investigaciones de Historia Económica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 0)
Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa     Open Access  
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.115, CiteScore: 4)
iScience     Open Access  
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 3.169, CiteScore: 8)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription  
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 3.571, CiteScore: 2)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.495, CiteScore: 2)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription  
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription  
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. Européen des Urgences et de Réanimation     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
J. for Nurse Practitioners     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 0)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1064, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 6.875, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.882, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Accounting Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Acute Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.01, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.828, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.053, CiteScore: 4)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.681, CiteScore: 2)
J. of African Trade     Open Access  
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.8, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.981, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.187, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Algorithms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 5.049, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.461, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.02, CiteScore: 4)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Anesthesia History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.24, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.043, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.339, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.636, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.321, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.255, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.303, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.907, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.885, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.659, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.763, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Arrhythmia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.398, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Arthroplasty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.373, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity     Open Access   (SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.509, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.488, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.696, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.046, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Behavior, Health & Social Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.147, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.028, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.712, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Bionic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.584, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.929, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.522, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Bone Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.941, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.753, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.26, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Business Venturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 5.212, CiteScore: 9)
J. of Business Venturing Insights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.162, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.917
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0141-8130
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Isolation and purification of fucoidan fraction in Turbinaria ornata from
           the Maldives; Inflammation inhibitory potential under LPS stimulated
           conditions in in-vitro and in-vivo models
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Thilina U. Jayawardena, I.P. Shanura Fernando, Won Woo Lee, K.K. Asanka Sanjeewa, Hyun-Soo Kim, Dae-Sung Lee, You-Jin Jeon Fucoidan, referred to as fucose containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSP), is a polymer from brown algae cell wall that is reported to exhibit potential anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the fucoidans are extracted from Turbinaria ornata (TO) from the Maldives. The method involves enzyme assisted extraction and is modified in order to improve the effectiveness and purity of final product. Purified fucoidan fraction was identified as F10, and its chemical properties were verified via FTIR, 1H NMR and monosaccharide analysis. Selected inflammatory mediators were studied to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential using RAW 264.7 macrophages. F10 successfully inhibited NO production (IC50 = 30.83 ± 1.02 μg mL−1). F10 dose-dependently down-regulated iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including PGE2 levels. The in vivo experiments were assisted by zebrafish embryo model. This exhibited reduction in ROS, NO expression levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report to illustrate potential anti-inflammatory activity of FCSPs' extracted from the brown algae T. ornata. Concisely, the results suggest that fucoidan purified from T. ornata increases the macrophage cellular and zebrafish embryo resistance against LPS-induced inflammation. Based on the observations, the fucoidans are promising candidates to be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical sectors.
       
  • Capability of starch derivative containing azo and carboxylic groups to
           tune photo-behaviors via LbL-assembly
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Juan Liu, Congming Xiao Starch-based polyelectrolyte that contained azo and carboxyl groups was prepared and applied to performed layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly with amino starch. The structure of the starch-based polyelectrolyte was characterized with UV–visible spectroscopy and 1HNMR. UV–visible spectroscopy was also utilized to confirm the assembly characteristic of the starch-based polyelectrolyte. It was found that the adsorption intensity of the sample increased with increasing the layers. The obtained multilayer exhibited a reversible trans-cis photoisomerization when it was subjected to UV and visible light irradiation. The photoisomerization of starch-based polyelectrolyte was able to tune the fluorescence of rhodamine B, which was carried out through LbL assembly and light irradiation. These results suggested that the starch derivative was a good candidate for preparing tunable light-function materials.
       
  • Improvement of mechanical and heat-sealing properties of edible chitosan
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Sarinya Prateepchanachai, Wasina Thakhiew, Sakamon Devahastin, Somchart Soponronnarit Glycerol, gelatin and CO2 were used to prepare chitosan-based packaging films with improved mechanical properties and seal strength. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis were conducted; the results were used to explain the mechanical and sealing properties data. Film color was also measured. Combined addition of glycerol and use of CO2 to treat the film-forming solution led to decreased film crystallinity and glass transition temperature, resulting in improved film mechanical properties. Addition of glycerol and gelatin resulted in enhanced molecular interactions between chitosan-gelatin and improved sealability of the films. Films with the best mechanical and sealing properties were obtained from a solution with 25% (w/w) glycerol and treated with CO2 and from that with 25% (w/w) glycerol and 10% (w/v) gelatin, respectively. Films with addition of both glycerol and gelatin exhibited lower lightness, but higher yellowness than the commercial stretch film.
       
  • Cross-linked chitosan in nano and bead scales as drug carriers for
           betamethasone and tetracycline
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Mohammad Taghi Taghizadeh, Habib Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Ramin Afkari, Amir Kazempour Chitosan nanoparticles and chitosan beads were synthesized through the ionic gelation procedure in which sodium citrate was used as the cross-linking agent. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The synthesized nanoparticles and beads were examined as drug carriers for controlled release of two important drugs including betamethasone and tetracycline. For this purpose, various properties such as swelling behavior, loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency, and release degree of the particles were obtained. The effect of pH on the aforementioned parameters was also studied. The results indicated that the amount of drug released from chitosan nanoparticles is lower than that released from chitosan beads. It was also found that the release degree for both of the drugs at the pH of 4.8 is much larger than that at the pH of 7.4.
       
  • The effect of alkaline pretreatment on the biochemical characteristics and
           fibril-forming abilities of types I and II collagen extracted from bester
           sturgeon by-products
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Dawei Meng, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Taishi Kobayashi, Hirosuke Hatayama, Xi Zhang, Kazuhiro Ura, Shunji Yunoki, Yasuaki Takagi Non-mammalian collagens have attracted increasing attention for industrial and biomedical use. We have therefore evaluated extraction conditions and the biochemical properties of collagens from aquacultured sturgeon. Pepsin-soluble type I and type II collagen were respectively extracted from the skin and notochord of bester sturgeon by-products, with yields of 63.9 ± 0.19% and 35.5 ± 0.68%. Collagen extraction efficiency was improved by an alkaline pretreatment of the skin and notochord (fewer extraction cycles were required), but the final yields decreased to 56.2 ± 0.84% for type I and 31.8 ± 1.13% for type II. Alkaline pretreatment did not affect the thermal stability or triple-helical structure of both types of collagen. Types I and II collagen formed re-assembled fibril structures in vitro, under different conditions. Alkaline pretreatment slowed down the formation of type I collagen fibrils and specifically inhibited the formation of thick fibril-bundle structures. In contrast, alkaline pretreatment did not change type II collagen fibril formation. In conclusion, alkaline pretreatment of sturgeon skin and notochord is an effective method to accelerate collagen extraction process of types I and II collagen without changing their biochemical properties. However, it decreases the yield of both collagens and specifically changes the fibril-forming ability of type I collagen.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Characterization of physicochemical properties of cellulose from potato
           pulp and their effects on enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Li Cheng, Xiaohui Hu, Zhengbiao Gu, Yan Hong, Zhaofeng Li, Caiming Li In this work, cellulose was extracted from potato pulp, a low-efficiently utilized by-product from potato starch industry, by a combined alkali and sodium sulfite treatment. Its physicochemical properties were characterized and compared with cellulose from corn stalk. The yield and purity of cellulose from potato pulp were determined to be 24.74% and 81.34% respectively. Cellulose from potato pulp had more loosened and porous structure, lower crystallinity index and larger specific surface area (SSA) compared with cellulose from corn stalk. It also provided the highest accessibility to cellulase (5.7 mg protein/g glucan) and had the highest enzymatic digestibility (with glucose yield of 88.46%). Maximum adsorption capacity (Wmax) and equilibrium constant (K) were obtained by fitting the adsorption data with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, suggesting that cellulose from potato pulp had the highest cellulase adsorption efficiency. The data further indicated that the presence of non-cellulosic components, especially for pectin, appeared to have a considerable effect on the hydrolysis by cellulase due to non-productive adsorption. State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.
       
  • Effect of NaCl on physicochemical properties of xanthan gum – Water
           chestnut starch complexes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Zubala Lutfi, Feroz Alam, Anjum Nawab, Abdul Haq, Abid Hasnain Pasting and functional properties of water chestnut starch (WCS) alone and mixture of WCS and xanthan gum (XG) were determined by addition of NaCl (0.5, 1, and 2%) at fixed water chestnut starch (5%) and xanthan gum (0.3%) concentration. Results indicated that presence of NaCl had a significant impact on functional and pasting properties of both WCS alone and WCS – XG mixture. Pasting temperature of WCS and WCS – XG mixture increased linearly with increasing salt content, whereas a reverse trend was observed in peak viscosity and sets back in case of WCS alone. It was found that addition of NaCl decreased the swelling power of WCS alone, while it increased in case of WCS – XG mixture. The water absorption of WCS – XG improved drastically by the addition of NaCl while a rapid decline in syneresis was observed with WCS – XG mixture. The transparency of both WCS and WCS – XG mixture were found to be increased after the addition of NaCl.
       
  • l-methionine+molecules+with+α-chymotrypsin+in+the+aqueous+solution+using+various+methods&rft.title=International+Journal+of+Biological+Macromolecules&rft.issn=0141-8130&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Experimental and theoretical investigations on the interaction of
           l-methionine molecules with α-chymotrypsin in the aqueous solution using
           various methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Sanaz Asgharzadeh, Behzad Shareghi, Sadegh Farhadian l-Methionine (l-Met) is one of the necessary amino acids that play unparalleled roles, influencing both the protein structure and metabolism. Understanding the interactions between proteins and small molecules can be realized by various perspectives, and this is significant for the progression of basic sciences and drug development. In this study, the variations in the stability, function, and structure of α-Chymotrypsin (α-Chy) in the presence of l-Met were investigated using spectroscopic and computational approaches. The results of the UV–vis absorption demonstrated that α-Chy had a maximum peak at 280 nm due to the Trp residue. Hyperchromism shift was seen in the presence of l-Met. Ground state system was formed in the presence of l-Met, as confirmed by the fluorescence studies. Fluorescence variations also revealed static quenching. The CD spectra also represented the alteration of the enzyme with an increase in the α-helix and a decrease in the β-sheet. The activity of α-Chy was incremented in the presence of l-Met. Therefore, l-Met served as an activator. Molecular docking results also indicated a negative amount for the Gibbs free energy of the binding of l-Met to the enzyme. α-Chy became more stable in the presence of l-Met, based on the molecular dynamics simulation.
       
  • Does macromolecular crowding compatible with enzyme stem bromelain
           structure and stability'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Kavya Bhakuni, Pannuru Venkatesu It is essential to explore the impact of macromolecular crowding on protein in order to understand the behavior of the protein in the biological system. In this context, the consequences of macromolecular crowding on stem bromelain (BM) are explored, which is important for its industrial application. Herein, the effect of dextran (D70) and polyethylene glycol (P12 and P20) on native BM structure are investigated. The effect of crowder molecules on BM are deduced by combining the results of absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence and activity studies. Additionally, molecular level interactions are investigated with molecular docking studies. Our results display that BM acts differently in higher and lower concentrations of crowding agents. Furthermore, crowding leads to alteration of protein structure and activity as compared to the dilute solutions. We observed that D70, is a very effective thermal stabilizing agent, while P12 is moderately stabilizing, on the other hand, P20 is destabilizing the BM structure. In the present study, the overall effect of crowders was destabilizing and deactivating on enzyme. Therefore, this study provides yet another example where soft interaction is dominating over the excluded volume effect.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • New chitosan/silica/zinc oxide nanocomposite as adsorbent for dye removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Hazem Hassan, Ahmed Salama, Ahmed K. El-ziaty, Mohamed El-Sakhawy Chitosan/silica hybrid was used for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles immobilization to form chitosan/silica/ZnO nanocomposite. This nanocomposite was utilized to eliminate methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. The effect of ZnO immobilization on the adsorption properties of the nanocomposite was studied in details. The best interpretation for the equilibrium data was given by Langmuir isotherm, and the highest adsorption capacity of MB reached to 293.3 mg/g in slight basic medium. As an effective and low-cost adsorbent, chitosan/silica/ZnO nanocomposite is expected to have a promising future for adsorption of organic dyes from their aqueous solutions.
       
  • Variable collagen-DNA complex formation in vitro as assessed by optical
           anisotropy and infrared microspectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Benedicto de Campos Vidal, Maria Luiza Silveira Mello Optical anisotropy properties and infrared spectra of collagen and DNA as individual entities have been widely described. However, they have not been studied in collagen-DNA complex biofilms. We investigated whether collagen type I and DNA birefringence evaluated using polarization microscopy, and the vibrational patterns of their chemical groups identified in Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra are retained in collagen-DNA complexes. Collagen gel rods extruded into a DNA saline solution and films dried from drops using mixtures of a 10-μL (14 μg) collagen solution and a 50-μL (305 μg) DNA solution and of a 50-μL (70 μg) collagen solution and a 10-μL (61 μg) DNA solution were used. Changes in the collagen fibers' stereoarrangement occurred in the gel rods interacting with the DNA. Even when the DNA concentration (305 μg) was significantly higher than the collagen concentration (14 μg) and the DNA played the main role in establishing the overall oriented geometry in the collagen-DNA films (intertwisted fibrillary structure and negative birefringence), some collagen markers were present in the FT-IR spectra of the complex. When collagen and DNA concentrations were similar, DNA denaturation may occur. Present observations suggest formation of collagen-DNA complexes even if highly organized collagen macromolecules are offered to DNA.
       
  • Effect of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions on human serum albumin interaction with
           plasma unsaturated fatty acids
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Ekaterina L. Nemashkalova, Eugene A. Permyakov, Vladimir N. Uversky, Sergei E. Permyakov, Ekaterina A. Litus Human serum albumin (HSA) serves as a depot and carrier of multiple unrelated ligands including several participants of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as amyloid β peptide (Aβ), Zn2+/Cu2+ ions, docosahexaenoic (DHA), linoleic (LA), and oleic (OA) acids. To explore the interplay between HSA interaction with Zn2+/Cu2+ and the plasma unsaturated fatty acids (DHA, LA, OA, and arachidonic acid (ArA)), we have studied the metal dependence of the fatty acid (FA) binding capacity of HSA (nmax) and structural consequences of the HSA-FA interactions. HSA loading with Zn2+ decreases nmax value by 0.3–1.5, while its saturation with Cu2+ causes the FA-dependent nmax changes by up to 0.9. The Cu2+-induced decline in nmax value for DHA is due to conformational rearrangements in HSA molecule. In other cases, the changes in nmax are attributed to steric hindarance/facilitation of the HSA-FA interaction because of the protein multimerization/monomerization, as confirmed by chemical crosslinking. The surface hydrophobicity of HSA is Cu2+-, Zn2+-, and FA-dependent and decreases upon the FA binding, according to bis-ANS fluorescence data. Overall, Zn2+ or Cu2+ binding selectively affect HSA interaction with the FAs studied, in part due to changes in quaternary structure of the protein.
       
  • l-lactic+acid)+bio-composites+reinforced+by+oligo(d-lactic+acid)+grafted+chitosan+for+simultaneously+improved+ductility,+strength+and+modulus&rft.title=International+Journal+of+Biological+Macromolecules&rft.issn=0141-8130&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Poly(l-lactic acid) bio-composites reinforced by oligo(d-lactic acid)
           grafted chitosan for simultaneously improved ductility, strength and
           modulus
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Wei Li, Qisong Sun, Bingnan Mu, Guiqing Luo, Helan Xu, Yiqi Yang PLA bio-composites reinforced by oligo(d-lactic acid) grafted chitosan has been developed for simultaneously improved ductility, strength and modulus. Brittleness problem greatly limits the applications of PLA, a polymer derived from corn. Various methods have been developed to solve the brittleness problem. Unfortunately, these methods have their limitations, such as sacrifice of strength and modulus of PLA, use of toxic chemicals and high costs. Bio-based elastomers such as chitosan also have poor compatibility with PLA, leading to poor mechanical properties. The hypothesis for this research is that CS-g-oligo(D-LA) particles with good ductility could form strong interfacial interactions with PLLA matrix. Reinforcing effect of CS-g-oligo(D-LA) particles on PLLA matrix was systematically studied. Compatibility and intermolecular interactions between CS-g-oligo(D-LA) particles and PLLA matrix were studied by SEM, DSC and 13C NMR analyses. The reinforcing mechanism was summarized. Due to effective transfer of stress from PLLA matrix to the strong but ductile skeletons of CS-g-oligo(D-LA), ductility, strength and modulus of PLLA bio-composites were substantially improved. This novel reinforcing strategy via formation of strong interactions between enantiomeric lactyl units would enrich the fabrication and exploration of high-performance PLA-based bio-composites.Graphic abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Structural characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of
           alkali-soluble polysaccharides from purple sweet potato
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Hong Chen, Jian Sun, Jun Liu, Yarun Gou, Xin Zhang, Xiaonan Wu, Rui Sun, Sixue Tang, Juan Kan, Chunlu Qian, Nianfeng Zhang, Changhai Jin In this study, the structural characterization and anti-inflammation effect of dilute alkali-soluble polysaccharides from purple sweet potato were investigated. Three fractions (F-1, F-2 and F-3) were obtained by purifying crude polysaccharides on DEAE-52 cellulose column. The main fraction (F-1) was further purified on Sephadex G-200 column to afford purified alkali-soluble sweet potato polysaccharide (ASPP). The chemical structure of ASPP was analyzed by gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, methylation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed ASPP was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose and glucose in the molar ratio of 2.8:1.9:1.0:7.6:53.3. Moreover, the backbone of ASPP was composed of 1,4-linked Glcp with side chains attached to the O-6 position. The anti-inflammation effect of ASPP was further investigated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results showed ASPP could inhibit the levels of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and TNF-α but increase the production of IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition ASPP could reduce the secretion of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in LPS-treated mice. Our results suggest ASPP can be developed as a novel anti-inflammation agent.
       
  • Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction between
           spermidine and pancreatic elastase
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Sakineh Sadeghi-kaji, Behzad Shareghi, Ali Akbar Saboury, Sadegh Farhadian In this study, the impact of spermidine on the stability, conformation and activity of elastase was investigated at the pH of 8.5 (the optimum pH for elastase) and different temperatures (303, 313, and 323 K) using UV–vis spectrophotometry, Spectrofluorimetry, circular dichroism, and enzyme activity measurements. The empirical results were obtained and compared with those achieved by the molecular docking simulation. Spectrofluorometric results proved that with the addition of spermidine to the protein solution, the emission severity of elastase was extremely reduced. Further, the Stern-Volmer equation demonstrated that quenching was principally of the static type. Moreover, ∆H0 and ∆S0 showed a negative value, revealing that hydrogen bonds or van der Waals interactions played a critical role in the interaction between spermidine and elastase. Km and kcat [E] parameters also showed that spermidine acted as an activator for elastase. Far-UV circular dichroism also revealed that spermidine could alter the secondary structure of elastase via a partial increment within the content of the α-helix structure (from 7.8 to 8.6), while it was somewhat diminished in the β-sheet (from 29.4 to 28.8). Molecular docking simulation results also demonstrated that spermidine could bind to porcine elastase, and van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding interactions played the main role in this binding. Spermidine, therefore, served as a partial stabilizer and an activator for the enzyme.
       
  • Banana fiber Cellulose Nano Crystals grafted with butyl acrylate for heavy
           metal lead (II) removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Rani K., Gomathi T., Vijayalakshmi K., Saranya M., Sudha P.N. The present work deals with extraction of Cellulose Nano Crystals (CNCs) from Banana fiber using the steam explosion method. Extracted CNCs was grafted with butyl acrylate (BA) monomer with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an initiator. The prepared graft copolymer was analyzed using FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDAX. FTIR results indicate that the CH2 type of linkages was observed in the grafted copolymer showing effective formation of grafted copolymer. XRD results elucidate the changes in the crystalline behaviour of the prepared CNCs grafted butyl acrylate copolymer. SEM images of a prepared adsorbent was appeared to be heterogeneous and covered with clusters which will be suitable for adsorption. Batch adsorption studies was carried out for the removal of Pb(II) ions from the aqueous solution using the prepared copolymer. The parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dosage was investigated. From the observed results it was concluded that, the optimum pH: 5, contact time: 360 min, adsorbent dosage: 4 g/100 mL and initial metal ion concentration: 125 mg/L. The adsorption isotherm models of Pb(II) ions could be described very well by Freundlich model and the kinetic results revealed that pseudo-second-order kinetics showed a better fit.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Physicochemical and antioxidant potential of polysaccharides sequentially
           extracted from Amana edulis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Yu-Hang Ji, Ai-Mei Liao, Ji-Hong Huang, Kiran Thakur, Xiao-Li Li, Zhao-Jun Wei Amana edulis polysaccharides (AEPs) specifically HBSS, CHSS, DASS, and CASS were sequentially extracted with four different solvents. The present study characterized the AEPs with particular focus on their physicochemical and anti-oxidant based functional properties. Initially, monosaccharide analysis revealed arabinose (31.7%, 32.5%, 36.5%) as the main sugar in HBSS, CHSS, and DASS whereas, galactose (31.4%) in CASS besides their respective molecular weights of 6.29 × 102, 1.5 × 102, 8.1 × 102, and 2.6 × 103 kD. HBSS showed the maximum solubility, while, CASS was observed for higher foam capacity and foam stability. Among all the fractions, DASS was observed with higher thermal stability. HBSS showed the highest ABTS+ scavenging activity. HBSS and CASS had higher DPPH and OH– scavenging activities. DASS depicted the highest chelation and reducing ability. To summarize, these polysaccharides fractions may be further utilized for their enormous prospective in functional foods preparation.
       
  • Cloning, expression and characterization of β- and γ‑carbonic
           anhydrase from Bacillus sp. SS105 for biomimetic sequestration of CO2
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Neha Maheshwari, Madan Kumar, Indu Shekhar Thakur, Shaili Srivastava Bacterium Bacillus sp. SS105, isolated from Free Air CO2 Enriched (FACE) soil was previously screened for carbonic anhydrase activity and CO2 sequestration. In this study, strain was selected to amplify carbonic anhydrase encoding genes. The CA genes from Bacillus sp. SS105 were found to be homologous with beta‑carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) and gamma‑carbonic anhydrase (γ-CA). Both types of CA genes was cloned in pET30b (+) and expressed in E coliBL21 (DE3) with His-tag at the N-terminus. The recombinant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The molecular size of β-CA and γ-CA were approximately 27 kDa and 25 kDa respectively. The optimum pH and temperature were found to be 8.0 and 37 °C respectively. The Zn+ was enhancing the CAs enzyme activity. Anions and modulators showed inhibitory effect on CAs at specific concentration. Functional domain analysis of both CA proteins showed conserved region of respective proteins. Recombinant enzymes were used for bio-mineralization based conversion of atmospheric CO2 into valuable calcite. Calcite formation was evaluated with or without use of enzymes and confirmed by SEM and XRD analysis. SEM result confirmed the conversion of flower-shaped unstable form of vaterite to hexagonal cubic stable form of calcite in presence of enzymes.
       
  • Intensification in biological properties of chitosan after
           γ-irradiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Abhijeet B. Muley, Mayur R. Ladole, Penna Suprasanna, Sunil G. Dalvi Chitosan, a functional biopolymer, was irradiated with 100 kGy gamma irradiation and used to access its physical, antioxidant, plant growth promoting and antimicrobial properties. The molecular weight of chitosan reduced to 82.2 kDa from 337.7 kDa after irradiation. UV–Vis spectroscopy and FTIR results revealed slight changes in chitosan skeleton after irradiation but the degree of acetylation of both chitosan was ~18%. DSC profile indicated a prominent decline in enthalpy and energy for phase transition, TGA indicated shift in decomposition temperature, while XRD analysis showed a reduction in chitosan crystallinity after irradiation. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of chitosan (2–10 mg/mL) enhanced significantly by 1.25–1.45 and 1.80–3.14 folds after irradiation. There was a considerable improvement in morphological parameters (number of leaves, nodes, height, fresh weight and dry weight) and biochemical parameters (chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and soluble proteins content) of in vitro potato plant in chitosan supplemented medium at 75 mg/L concentration than the control. The minimum inhibitory concentration of normal and irradiated chitosan for Alternaria spp. was 2500 and 2000 mg/L and for Fusarium spp. was 1750 and 1500 mg/L, respectively. IC50 value of normal and irradiated chitosan for Fusarium spp. was 1387.9 ± 9.2 and 954.3 ± 6.1 mg/L, and for Alternaria spp. was 1536.1 ± 24.3 and 1416.8 ± 3.5 mg/L, respectively.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Preparation, characterization and anti-aflatoxigenic activity of chitosan
           packaging films incorporated with turmeric essential oil
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Zheyu Li, Shibo Lin, Siyi An, Lu Liu, Yichen Hu, Li Wan Here, we studied the preparation, characterization, anti-aflatoxigenic activity, and molecular mechanism in vitro of chitosan packaging films containing turmeric essential oil (TEO). First, we took the mechanical properties as the evaluation Index, screened for the optimum preparation conditions of packaging films with 1.5 μL/cm2 TEO using single factor and orthogonal experiments, and characterized the film properties. We found that the addition of TEO affected the microcosmic structure of films and advanced water resistance capacity. In addition, we investigated the inhibitory effects of pure chitosan films and packaging films containing 1.5 μL/cm2 or 3.0 μL/cm2 TEO on the growth and conidial formation of Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus, CGMCC 3.4410), as well as the accumulation of aflatoxin over the course of seven days. We found that the packaging films possessed a prominent antifungal activity on A. flavus. Finally, we discuss preliminary results surrounding gene expression of packaging films which inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis. The expressions levels of 16 genes related to aflatoxin biosynthesis were found to be either completely or almost completely inhibited. Therefore, the addition of the natural antifungal agent TEO in chitosan packaging films represent a remarkable method to significantly promote the development and application of antifungal packaging materials.
       
  • Novel low-cost carboxymethyl cellulose microspheres with excellent
           fertilizer absorbency and release behavior for saline-alkali soil
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Houjuan Qi, Rongxiu Ma, Cai Shi, Zhanhua Huang, Shouxin Liu, Long Sun, Tongxin Hu Saline-alkali soil and fertilizer loss severely restrict agriculture on the Songnen Plain in China. To resolve this problem, carboxymethyl cellulose immobilized slow-release fertilizer microspheres (CFM) with homogeneity pore structure, high porosity, biodegradable biological macromolecules and excellent fertilizer absorbency were synthesized by the combination of inverse emulsion polymerization and microfluidic method. By optimizing the synthesis conditions, the water absorption of CFM reached 8725 g g−1 in deionized water. The absorbency behaviors of CFM were highly sensitive to pH, ionic strength, and ionic species. In 5 g L−1 urea solution, the adsorption capacity of CFM was 3342.84 g g−1. The CFM showed excellent urea retention at 80 °C for 5 h and sustained release performance in soil. Besides, degradation rate of CFM was closed to 98.2% in Aspergillus niger at the third day. CFM had the advantages of high pH sensitivity, salt resistance, and good fertilizer absorbency and retention. Therefore, it will be prospecting fertilizer sustained release agent in agriculture.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Sustainable elastomers derived from cellulose, rosin and fatty acid by a
           combination of “graft from” RAFT and isocyanate chemistry
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Zenghui Cheng, Yupeng Liu, Daihui Zhang, Chuanwei Lu, Chunpeng Wang, Feng Xu, Jifu Wang, Fuxiang Chu Utilization of natural sustainable feedstock to fabricate polymers has attracted remarkable attention. In this work, we reported a strategy to prepare a series of grafted copolymers from rosin, fatty acids and ethyl cellulose. The process involved the preparation of EC-based macro-RAFT agent through a simple esterification reaction, followed by a “grafting from” reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) of DAGMA (derived from rosin) and LMA (derived from fatty acid) to achieve a class of EC-g-P(DAGMA-co-LMA) graft copolymers with a tunable Tg tuned by the DAGMA/LMA molar ratio. Then, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) was used to crosslink these graft copolymers. The mechanical and dynamic thermo-mechanical properties of tests showed that elastic recovery values of copolymers were enhanced to 90%, as compared to the un-crosslinked samples. Additionally, all these polymers showed an excellent UV absorption performance. This study provides a facile way to fabricate biobased elastomeric materials with improved mechanical properties.
       
  • Microalgae as source of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) — A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Samantha Serra Costa, Andréa Lobo Miranda, Michele Greque de Morais, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa, Janice Izabel Druzian Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers synthesized by different microorganisms and considered substitute powers for petroleum-based plastics because they have similar mechanical properties as synthetic polymers, can be processed in a similar way and are fully biodegradable. Currently commercial PHAs are produced in fermenters using bacteria and large amounts of organic carbon sources and salts in the culture media, accounting for approximately 50% of the total production costs. A greater commercial application of the PHA is limited to a decrease in the cost of production. Several studies suggest that microalgae are a type of microorganisms that can be used to obtain PHAs at a lower cost because they have minimum nutrient requirements for growth and are photoautotrophic in nature, i.e. they use light and CO2 as their main sources of energy. Thus, this work aims to provide a review on the production of PHAs of different microalgae, focusing on the properties and composition of biopolymers, verifying the potential of using these bioplastics instead of petroleum based plastics. Studies of stimulation PHA synthesis by microalgae are still considered incipient. Still, it is clear that microalgae have the potential to produce biopolymers with lower cost and can play a vital role in the environment.
       
  • Molecular chaperones biochemistry and role in neurodegenerative diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Ali Chaari Many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Prion's disease, polyQ and Huntington's disease share abnormal folding of potentially cytotoxic protein species associated with degeneration and death of specific neuronal populations. In order to maintain cellular protein homeostasis, neurons have developed an intrinsic protein quality control system as a strategy to counteract protein aggregation and their toxicity. Heat shock proteins are an essential component for regulating protein quality control and contribute potentially in the process of protein folding, prevent protein aggregation and in disaggregation in several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, molecular chaperones are considered an exciting therapeutic target. In this book chapter, we will focus on the potential importance of different heat shock proteins in neurodegenerative diseases and understand their mechanisms to protect neurons form aggregates and their toxicity.
       
  • The aberrant expression or disruption of desmocollin2 in human diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Chao Sun, Lei Wang, Xiao-Xia Yang, Yu-Hua Jiang, Xiu-Li Guo The desmosome is a member of intercellular junctions that named ‘anchoring junction’, which contributes to the integrity and homeostasis of tissue structure and function of multicellular living organisms. As an important component of the desmosome and the most widely distributed isoform of desmocollins (DSCs), desmocollin2 (DSC2) has been demonstrated to be essential for the unity of epithelial cells, and served as a vital regulator in signaling processes such as epithelial morphogenesis, differentiation, wound healing, cell apoptosis, migration, and proliferation. Recent studies suggested that the aberrant expression or disruption of DSC2 might lead to some disorders, including heart disorders, certain cancers, and some other human diseases. The distinctions in expression and regulation mechanisms of DSC2 in different human diseases provided a potential target for diagnosis and individualized treatment. Further research is required to certify the signaling capacity of DSC2 and to shed light on the down-stream consequences of the signaling for us to understand the new area of DSC2 biology and the development of certain diseases. This review summarizes the molecular structure and dynamics of desmosome and DSC2, the relationship between the disruption or aberrant expression of DSC2 and human diseases and related molecular mechanisms, as well as the possible prospects.
       
  • Optimization of whey protein isolate-quince seed mucilage complex
           coacervation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Reza Ghadermazi, Asghar Khosrowshahi Asl, Fardin Tamjidi In this study, the complex coacervation of whey protein isolate (WPI) and quince seed mucilage (QSM) was studied as a function of pH (7.0–2.0), biopolymers concentration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.5%) and WPI:QSM ratio (10:90 to 90:10), according to protolytic titration, electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity analyses. The solution containing 0.5% biopolymers with WPI:QSM ratio of 70:30 resulted in maximum complex coacervation at the pHopt 4.0. With increasing WPI:QSM ratio, the peaks of pH-turbidity curves shifted to higher pH values, and with increasing biopolymers concentration, the optimum WPI:QSM ratio and pH shifted to higher values. The EC of biopolymers solutions (concentration 0.5%) increased by decreasing pH and WPI:QSM ratio. The aforementioned optimum condition resulted coacervates with maximum particles size (16.22 μm) and minimum ζ-potential (−5.1 mV), which were observed as densely agglomerated macro-complexes with highest coacervation yield (80.67%). The X-ray analysis showed that coacervates retain the amorphous structure of individual biopolymers. These coacervates may be useful for encapsulation and delivery of (bio-) active compounds.
       
  • Self-crosslinked fibrous collagen/chitosan blends: Processing, properties
           evaluation and monitoring of degradation by bi-fluorescence imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): P.N. Oliveira, A. Montembault, G. Sudre, P. Alcouffe, L. Marcon, H. Gehan, F. Lux, K. Albespy, V. Centis, D. Campos, S. Roques, M. Meulle, M. Renard, M. Durand, Q. Denost, L. Bordenave, M. Vandamme, E. Chereul, M. Vandesteene, N. Boucard Porous collagen/chitosan scaffolds with different Collagen:Chitosan (Coll:Ch) ratios were prepared by freeze-drying followed by self-crosslinking via dehydrothermal treatment (DHT) and characterized as biomaterials for tissue engineering. Cy7 and Cy5.5 fluorochromes were covalently grafted to collagen and chitosan, respectively. Thus, it was possible, using optical fluorescence imaging of the two fluorochromes, to simultaneously track their in vivo biodegradation, in a blend scaffold form. The fluorescence signal evolution, due to the bioresorption, corroborated with histological analysis. In vitro cytocompatibility of Coll:Ch blend scaffolds were evaluated with standardized tests. In addition, the scaffolds showed a highly interconnected porous structure. Extent of crosslinking was analyzed by convergent analysis using thermogravimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and PBS uptake. The variations observed with these techniques indicate strong interactions between collagen and chitosan (covalent and hydrogen bonds) promoted by the DHT. The mechanical properties were characterized to elucidate the impact of the different processing steps in the sample preparation (DHT, neutralization and sterilization by β-irradiation) and showed a robust processing scheme with low impact of Coll:Ch composition ratio.
       
  • Structural characterization and antioxidant potential of a novel anionic
           exopolysaccharide produced by marine Microbacterium aurantiacum FSW-25
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Kulwinder Singh Sran, Bhawana Bisht, Shanmugam Mayilraj, Anirban Roy Choudhury An exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain FSW-25 was isolated from the Rasthakaadu beach Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu India. Based on polyphasic taxonomy, the strain FSW-25 was assigned to the genus Microbacterium and found to be the closest relative of the species aurantiacum. Large quantity of EPS (7.81 g/l) was secreted by the strain upon fermentation using Reasoner's 2A medium enriched with 2.5% glucose and was designated as Mi-25. FT-IR spectrum revealed presence of hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, methyl and sulfate functional groups in purified EPS. The EPS Mi-25 has a molecular weight of 7.0 × 106 Da and mainly comprises of glucuronic acid followed by glucose, mannose and fucose. Rheological study revealed that Mi-25 possesses significant viscosity with pseudoplastic nature. Interestingly, it was observed that the EPS Mi-25 has higher antioxidant activity as compared to xanthan. The characteristics of EPS Mi-25 suggested that, it can be used as a potential antioxidant with viscosifier properties in diverse industrial sectors.
       
  • The preparation of α-chitin nanowhiskers-poly (vinyl alcohol)
           hydrogels for drug release
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Chao Peng, Junfei Xu, Guangxue Chen, Junfei Tian, Minghui He A series of highly porous and biocompatible poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels containing partially deacetylated α-chitin nanowhiskers (ChWs) were fabricated by the double-cross-link (DC) with glutaraldehyde (GA) and repeating freeze-thawing cycle. Then these hydrogels were used as carrier for bovine serum albumin (BSA), which served as the model drug. The nanowhiskers worked effectively to raise the mechanical property of the PVA/ChWs hydrogels. This property increased significantly from 1.55 to 26.59 MPa with the increase of the ratio of ChWs to PVA from 0% to 40%. Additionally, the morphological properties of the gel matrix were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that the novel ChWs/PVA hydrogels were facilely constructed from sequential chemical cross-linking and physical cross-linking with GA. The hydrogel with the ChWs to PVA weight ratios of 40% achieved the highest equilibrium swelling ratio, and could release more than 80% of the BSA from its gel matrix within 75 h.
       
  • Extraction and characterization of pectin from Premna microphylla
           Turcz leaves
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Jike Lu, Jingjing Li, Ruichong Jin, Shufang Li, Juanjuan Yi, Jinyong Huang n this work, response surface methodology (RSM) and microwave pretreatment were used to extract pectin from Premna microphylla Turcz leaves (PMTL). The process variables were optimized by the isovariant central composite design to improve the pectin extraction yield. The optimum conditions obtained were as follows, extraction time 2 h, temperature 90 °C, pH 2 and liquid-solid (LS) ratio 50 mL/g. The extraction yield was 18.25% under these conditions, which was close to the predicted value (17.60%). Then the pectin was characterized by gas chromatographic (GC), spectrophotometric (UV–visible Spectroscopy) and spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared) methods. The galacturonic acid content was 82.75%, and on this basis, the other monosaccharide composition analysis illustrated that pectin from PMTL was also composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a ratio of 2.96:1.17:1.04:8.07:2.05. The pectin of PMTL had an esterification degree of 62.50% and it showed good antioxidant activity. Taken together, the pectin of PMTL could be used as potential additive in food industry.
       
  • Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of residue polysaccharides by
           Pleurotus citrinipileatus
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Xinchao Liu, Hui Pang, Zheng Gao, Huajie Zhao, Jianjun Zhang, Le Jia The enzymatic-extraction residue polysaccharide (ERPS) from Pleurotus citrinipileatus was obtained, and its antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects were also investigated. Animal experiments indicated that the ERPS could reduce the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, TBIL, MDA and LPO, improve the activities of GSH-Px, SOD and CAT, decrease the inflammatory factor of CYP2E1, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance the IL-10 levels, showing the potential protections against CCl4-induced injures. ERPS can improve liver fibrosis by reducing the level of pivotal cytokine TGF-β1. Western blotting results revealed that ERPS relieved the inflammatory response by increasing the I-κBα expressions in the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, the structural characteristics demonstrated that the ERPS was a typical β-type glycosidic pyranose with the weight-average molecular weight of 1.30 × 105 Da and the monosaccharide composition of Man, Rha, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Ara, GlcUA and GalUA. These results demonstrated that the ERPS might be suitable for functional foods and natural drugs for preventing the acute liver damage.
       
  • Purification, characterization and tyrosinase inhibition activity of
           polysaccharides from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Bl.) kernel
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Minyue Tang, Fan Hou, Yanwen Wu, Yongguo Liu, Jie Ouyang The present paper aimed to obtain the polysaccharides with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity from chestnut kernel. The ultrasound extracted polysaccharide fractions 1-1 (UEP1-1) and UEP2-1 were obtained by successive ultrasound-assisted-extraction, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum revealed that both UEP1-1 and UEP2-1 had the characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides. The degree of esterification of UEP1-1 (52.4%) and UEP2-1 (49.0%) was higher than that of the crude UEP (33.0%), indicating that the gel properties of the polysaccharides changed after purification. The x-ray diffraction patterns of UEP1-1 and UEP2-1 suggested that they were semi-crystalline polymers with a degree of crystallinity of 23.9 and 35.8%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of UEP1-1 and UEP2-1 was 75.4 and 59.9 kDA, respectively. The monosaccharide composition of UEP1-1 and UEP2-1 was glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, xylose, rhamnose and fructose with different proportions. UEP1-1 displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity, and the inhibition mode was found to be competitive.
       
  • Alternative synthesis for ZnFe2O4/chitosan magnetic particles to remove
           diclofenac from water by adsorption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Juliana M.N. dos Santos, Carolina R. Pereira, Edson L. Foletto, Guilherme L. Dotto An easy preparation of magnetic particles with a chitosan external layer and zinc ferrite as core material was proposed. ZnFe2O4/chitosan particles were produced without any calcination step, characterized in detail, and, for the first time, applied for diclofenac (DCF) uptake from aqueous solution. The magnetic properties were checked, and revealed that the adsorbent particles have ability to be separated from the solution by an external magnetic field. Adsorption of DCF onto ZnFe2O4/chitosan particles was a fast process, well represented by pseudo–second order kinetic model, favored at initial pH of 4, with 0.2 g L−1 of adsorbent dosage and, reached the equilibrium within 20 min. The S–shaped equilibrium isotherms were well predicted by BET liquid–phase multilayer model. The adsorption was an exothermic, spontaneous and favorable process. The feasibility to produce chitosan magnetic particles, coupled with fast adsorption kinetics, high capacity (188 mg g−1), reusability (4 times) and the possibility to employ ZnFe2O4/chitosan particles for DCF adsorption, even in more concentrated solutions, were positive outcomes of this study.
       
  • Interfacial and enhanced emulsifying behavior of phosphorylated ovalbumin
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Shitao Tang, Jialin Yu, Lizhi Lu, Xing Fu, Zhaoxia Cai Improvement of emulsifying properties by phosphorylation could have a wide potential application in food industry. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA) was phosphorylated under wet-heating in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate. Phosphorylated OVA (P-OVA) with low, middle, high phosphorus content were obtained with reaction time increased. Their enhanced emulsification capacity and the mechanism were investigated. Compared with native OVA (N-OVA), the emulsifying activity and stability of P-OVA were increased by 26% and 109% (P 
       
  • d-glucan+on+high+linear-energy-transfer+carbon+ion+irradiated+mice&rft.title=International+Journal+of+Biological+Macromolecules&rft.issn=0141-8130&rft.date=&rft.volume=">The mechanisms for the radioprotective effect of beta-d-glucan on high
           linear-energy-transfer carbon ion irradiated mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Fang Liu, Zhuanzi Wang, Wenjian Li, Libin Zhou, Yan Du, Miaomiao Zhang, Yanting Wei S. cerevisiae-derived-beta-d-glucan (S. cerevisiae-BG) is a natural polysaccharide with various biological effects. The present study was to investigate the protective effect of S. cerevisiae-BG on the injury induced by high linear-energy-transfer (LET) carbon ion irradiation and to reveal the protective mechanisms. Female mice were orally administrated with S. cerevisiae-BG before irradiation. 30-day survival of 6 Gy irradiated-mice was monitored. The damage and recovery of hematopoietic system were evaluated after 2 Gy irradiation, cytokines in plasma were detected, transcriptomics of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) were detected and analyzed. The mortality results showed that S. cerevisiae-BG could prolong the survival of mice exposed to 6 Gy. The results of BMMNCs injury analysis showed that S. cerevisiae-BG could reduce the ROS level, mitigate DNA damage and apoptosis. S. cerevisiae-BG increased the plasma radioprotective cytokines level in irradiated mice. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that S. cerevisiae-BG modulated the gene expression in BMMNCs of irradiated mice, 256 genes were significantly up-regulated and 97 genes were significantly down-regulated. Gene function and Gene Ontology analysis indicated the key genes related to hematopoiesis and immunity. Pathway analysis revealed that these up-regulated genes mainly focus on PI3K-Akt pathway and down-regulated genes mainly focus on MAPK pathway. These data contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of the radioprotective effect of S. cerevisiae-BG.
       
  • Effect of ultrasound on the properties and antioxidant activity of
           hawthorn pectin
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Xiaowen Chen, Yijun Qi, Chuanhe Zhu, Qun Wang In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic on the degradation kinetics, structure properties, and antioxidant activity of hawthorn pectin were studied. According to our study, as ultrasonic time extended, the intrinsic viscosity for different hawthorn pectin concentrations decreased. The ultrasonic degradation of hawthorn pectin reaction conformed to the first-order kinetic equation. As the reaction rate constant (k) decreased, hawthorn pectin concentration increased. When ultrasonic time was 10 min, the Gal A increased by 10.62% and the DE decreased by 45.57% compared with control, additionally, the particle size, turbidity and gel properties of hawthorn pectin decreased. Hawthorn pectin molecular weight and its distribution all decreased after ultrasonic treatment. FTIR analysis indicated that ultrasonic treatment did not change pectin's primary structures, and SEM analysis showed that the surface characteristic of ultrasonic treatment pectin was different from native pectin. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant activity assays indicated that ultrasonic treatment significantly improved the antioxidant activity of pectin. It was concluded that ultrasonic treatment not only affected the properties of pectin, but also affected its antioxidant activity.
       
  • Structural characterisation and cholesterol efflux improving capacity of
           the novel polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Shumei Hu, Jin Wang, Fahui Li, Pengbo Hou, Jiayu Yin, Zixun Yang, Xiaoqian Yang, Ting Li, Bin Xia, Guanghai Zhou, Min Liu, Weiguo Song, Shoudong Guo Water extracts of the edible mushroom Cordyceps militaris possess a lipid-lowering effect. However, the types of components and how they exert this effect are not clear. In this study, two novel polysaccharides, CM1 and CMS, were isolated, and their cholesterol efflux improving capacity was investigated in vitro. The molecular weight of CM1 was approximately 700 kDa, and its main chain was consisted of (1 → 4)-β-D-Glcp and (1 → 2)-α-D-manp branched at the O-6 positions of (1 → 2,6)-α-D-manp with (1 → 2) linked-β-D-galf, (1 → 2)-α-D-manp or methyl and terminated with β-D-Galf and α-D-Manp. The molecular weight of CMS was approximately 18.2 kDa, and it was a novel (1 → 6)-β-D-Glcp linked glucan. Both CM1 and CMS significantly increased [3H]-cholesterol efflux by activating the protein expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) G1. However, they showed no significant influence on the proteins expression of ABCA1 and scavenger receptor B type 1. Therefore, CM1 and CMS are effective water-soluble components with potential lipid-lowering activity. They may be exploited as potential candidates for dyslipidaemia-related diseases such as atherosclerosis.
       
  • Fabrication and characterization of hybrid sodium montmorillonite/TiO2
           reinforced cross-linked wheat starch-based nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): A.R. Yousefi, B. Savadkoohi, Y. Zahedi, M. Hatami, K. Ako In this work, a novel cross-linked wheat starch (CLWS)-based ternary nanocomposite films with incorporation of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) (3%–7% wt.) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) (1%–4% wt.) nanoparticles were fabricated using casting method. CLWS film exhibited better physical, mechanical and thermal properties compared with the native wheat starch (NWS) film. Incorporation of the nanoparticles into the film solution resulted in a decrease in water vapor permeability (WVP), water solubility (WS), moisture content (MC) of the films, whereas density increased. Nano-TiO2 blocked the UV light effectively and>99% of UV was removed by the film containing 4% TiO2. Affecting by the addition of nanomaterials, the amounts of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and Young's modulus (YM) values enhanced, while elongation at break (EB) ones diminished. By the Furrier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the creation of new hydrogen bonds between the starch's hydroxyl groups and nanomaterials was confirmed. Formation of a completely exfoliated structure for CLWS/Na-MMT/TiO2 nanocomposites was proved by XRD. SEM micrographs exhibited appropriate dispersion of nanomaterials through the films surface particularly at lower concentrations. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed that the addition of nanomaterials especially TiO2 improved the thermal stability of the nanocomposite films.
       
  • Biomimetic mineralization behavior of COS-grafted silk fibroin following
           hexokinase-mediated phosphorylation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Qian Zhou, Jingjing Yuan, Yalin Wang, Ping Wang, Jiugang Yuan, Chao Deng, Qiang Wang Silk fibroin (SF) has potential applications in the biomedical field because of its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In the current study, chitooligosaccharide (COS) was enzymatically grafted onto SF using laccase. Subsequently, COS-grafted SF (SF-g-COS) was treated enzymatically in the presence of hexokinase and Mg-chelated adenosine triphosphate (ATP), so as to introduce phosphate groups onto the fibroin chains and promote the deposition of hydroxyapatite (HAp) during in situ biomimetic mineralization. The efficacy of phosphorylation and biomimetic mineralization of the SF-g-COS was evaluated by means of HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS, FTIR, XRD and EDS-Mapping. The results indicate that hexokinase has the capability to catalyze the phosphorylation of COS, resulting in an increase in the quantity of phosphorus in the SF-g-COS. Following mineralization of the phosphorylated SF-g-COS, a greater number of mineral phases were detected on its surface, accompanied by a higher content of calcium and phosphorus compared with other specimens. Cell viability tests using NIH/3T3 cells and cellular adhesion potential with MG-63 cells indicated that the fibroin-based biocomposite exhibited acceptable biocompatibility and superior cellular adhesion properties. The present study describes a novel method for preparation of fibroin/HAp biocomposites for bone tissue engineering.
       
  • Investigation on the production of formic and acetic acids from lignin by
           ethanol organosolv treatment at mild conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Chao Li, Qingwei Ping, Haiqiang Shi, Na Li, Jian Zhang Cellulose and hemicellulose are usually considered the sources of formic and acetic acids that are obtained during ethanol pulping process, while our research reveals that lignin is another critical source of acids in the process. In this research, the sample lignin was purified and treated under ethanol pulping conditions and the factors that influence the yields of acids including: ethanol ratio (0–100%), residence time (30–210 min), reaction temperature (150–200 °C) and the effect of residual oxygen in the vessel, were tested separately. The yields of acids were identified using UPLC, the volatile products were characterized by GC–MS and the residual lignin was characterized by 13C NMR. The results indicated that the residual oxygen in the reaction vessel acted as an oxidant and the maximum yields of formic and acetic acid are 5.5% and 4.8% (g/g-lignin) from reed and aspen lignin, respectively. For understanding mechanism of the reaction, six lignin model compounds (LMCs) were treated and analyzed in the same reaction conditions; the subsequent results showed that both formic and acetic acid could be detected for all the LMCs tested. On the bases of the experimental results, the reaction pathways have been proposed and discussed.
       
  • Biotechnological wound dressings based on bacterial cellulose and
           degradable copolymer P(3HB/4HB)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): T.G. Volova, A.A. Shumilova, E.D. Nikolaeva, A.K. Kirichenko, E.I. Shishatskaya Hybrid wound dressings have been constructed using two biomaterials: bacterial cellulose (BC) and copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyric and 4-hydroxybutyric acids [P(3HB/4HB)] – a biodegradable polymer of microbial origin. Some of the experimental membranes were loaded with drugs promoting wound healing and epidermal cells differentiated from multipotent adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A study has been carried out to investigate the structure and physical/mechanical properties of the membranes. The in vitro study showed that the most effective scaffolds for growing fibroblasts were composite BC/P(3HB/4HB) films loaded with actovegin. Two types of the experimental biotechnological wound dressings – BC/P(3HB/4HB)/actovegin and BC/P(3HB/4HB)/fibroblasts – were tested in vivo, on laboratory animals with model third-degree skin burns. Wound planimetry, histological examination, and biochemical and molecular methods of detecting factors of angiogenesis, inflammation, type I collagen, and keratin 10 and 14 were used to monitor wound healing. Experimental wound dressings promoted healing more effectively than VoskoPran – a commercial wound dressing.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Preparation and characterization of poly aniline modified chitosan
           embedded with ZnO-Fe3O4 for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Khodadad Kavosi Rakati, Masoomeh Mirzaei, Sarah Maghsoodi, Amirhossein Shahbazi Poly aniline modified chitosan embedded with ZnO/Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized using a precipitation method and applied to the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, FESEM, TEM, EDS, TGA, BET and zeta-potential analyses. The adsorption batch experiments were conducted as a function of five effective parameters including pH, contact time, initial concentration of copper, temperature, and adsorbent dosage using a central composite design (CCD) in response surface methodology (RSM). Contour and surface plots were used to determine the interaction effects of main factors and optimum conditions of process. The regression equation coefficients were calculated and the data confirmed the validity of second-order polynomial equation for the removal of Cu(II) with novel absorbent. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value (R2) for copper removal being 0.99. The optimum level of the pH, temperature, initial concentration of copper, adsorbent dosage and contact time for maximum Cu(II) removal (94.51%) were found to be 6.5, 31 °C, 82 mg L−1, 0.81 g L−1, and 51 min, respectively. It was confirmed from XPS and EDS analyses that heavy metal ions were present on the surface of nanocomposite after adsorption. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic model. The saturated adsorption capacity is found to be 328.4 mg/g. Thermodynamics analysis suggests that the adsorption process is endothermic, with increasing entropy and spontaneous in nature. Further recycling experiments show that nanocomposite still retains 95% of the original adsorption following the 5th adsorption-desorption cycle. The effects of coexist cation ions on the adsorption of Cu(II) was also investigated under optimal condition. All the results demonstrate that nanocomposite is a potential recyclable adsorbent for hazardous metal ions in wastewater.
       
  • Characterization of structural conformers of κ-casein utilizing
           fluorescence spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Lipika Mirdha, Hirak Chakraborty The intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) belong to an important class of proteins due to their higher structural flexibility and diverse functions. IDPs lack stable three-dimensional structure and exist as structural ensemble in solution. Furthermore, IDPs have been found to be associated with various neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, diabetes and spinocerebellar ataxia. Several spectroscopic techniques are being employed to predict the structure of IDPs as the X-ray crystallography is immensely challenging due to their structural dynamism. κ-Casein, an important milk protein containing net negative charge, belongs to the class of IDPs. κ-Casein has been found to assume different structural conformations at various pH and surfactant concentrations. In this work, we have utilized quenching efficiency of ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) and energy transfer efficiency between tryptophan and 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) to evaluate the conformation of κ-casein at various pH and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) concentrations. Our results validated the applicability of above-mentioned methods to determine the polarity of tryptophan environment in κ-casein at different conditions, where κ-casein assumes diverse structural conformations. The present work opens up the possibility to employ quenching properties of ionic liquid in conjunction with energy transfer efficiency between tryptophan and DPH for the elucidation of protein conformation.
       
  • Effect of chitosan molecular weight on anti-inflammatory activity in the
           RAW 264.7 macrophage model
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Shun-Hsien Chang, Yi-Yung Lin, Guan-James Wu, Chung-Hsiung Huang, Guo Jane Tsai Chitosan (300 kDa) was degraded by cellulase to chitosans with molecular weights (MWs) of 156, 72, 7.1, and 3.3 kDa and a chitooligosaccharide mixture (COS). Effects of these on NO secretion, cytokine production, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were investigated. Larger chitosans (300, 156, 72 kDa) significantly inhibited NO production, whereas smaller chitosans (7.1 & 3.3 kDa, COS) increased NO production. The 156 and 72 kDa chitosans significantly inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 production, whereas the 7.1 kDa chitosan and COS significantly induced their production. The 156 and 72 kDa chitosans inhibited NF-κB activation and iNOS expression by binding to the CR3 (for 156 kDa chitosan), or CR3 and TLR4 receptor (for 72 kDa chitosan). The smaller chitosans (e.g. 7.1 kDa chitosan and COS) activated NF-κB and enhanced iNOS expression by binding to CD14, TLR4, and CR3 receptors to activate JNK signaling proteins.
       
  • Fabrication of chitosan-coated konjac glucomannan/sodium alginate/graphene
           oxide microspheres with enhanced colon-targeted delivery
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Yi Yuan, Xiaowei Xu, Jingni Gong, Ruojun Mu, Yuanzhao Li, Chunhua Wu, Jie Pang Microspheres play an increasingly important role in the food and medicine industries. In this study, konjac glucomannan (KGM)/sodium alginate (SA)/graphene oxide (GO) solution was injected into CaCl2 solution under high-voltage static electricity assistance to fabricate microspheres. Then, chitosan (CS) was coated on the surface of the microspheres to enhance their stability. SEM images confirmed that increasing voltage decreased the particle size of microspheres obviously. Furthermore, GO was beneficial in maintaining the full structure of freeze-dried microspheres, and the CS membrane improved the surface of the microspheres with no relatively obvious gully. Results indicated that KGM interacted with SA by hydrogen bond, and GO improved this interaction in microspheres. Furthermore, swelling tests showed that the microspheres exhibited different swelling properties in different media, and the CS membrane could improve the stability of microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid and simulated colon fluids. Moreover, GO could greatly improve the ciprofloxacin (CPFX) loading efficiency of microspheres, and achieving a sustained release effect of CPFX. Thus, CS-coated KGM/SA/GO microspheres showed great potential application in drug and/or nutrition factor colon-targeted delivery.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Flavonoids as human carboxylesterase 2 inhibitors: Inhibition potentials
           and molecular docking simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Sha-Sha Song, Cheng-Peng Sun, Jun-Jun Zhou, Liang Chu In our search for natural human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE 2) inhibitors from natural products, we investigated inhibitory effects and mechanisms of flavonoids (1–16) against hCE 2. The results demonstrated that kurarinone (1), baicalein (2), 2-[(2′-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-7′-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2′,3′-dihydrobenzofuran)-5-yl]-7-hydroxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)chroman-4-one (5), luteolin (6), kushenol X (9), and kushenol C (11) displayed significantly inhibitory effects against hCE 2 with IC50 values of 1.46 ± 0.43, 5.22 ± 0.89, 1.13 ± 0.19, 9.78 ± 0.98, 3.05 ± 0.46, and 2.61 ± 0.52 μM, respectively. Compounds 1, 5, 6, 9, and 11 were all uncompetitive inhibitors with Ki values of 1.73, 1.59, 16.89, 1.72, and 0.79 μM, respectively, and their Km values ranged from 2.08 μM to 5.41 μM. Furthermore, molecular docking was conducted for investigating mechanisms of compounds 1, 5, 6, 9, and 11 with hCE 2. These results suggested that compounds 1, 5, 6, 9, and 11 could be served as lead compounds for the development of novel hCE 2 inhibitors.
       
  • Sodium alginate/feather keratin-g-allyloxy polyethylene glycol composite
           phase change fiber
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Xueyong Gong, Guangyao Dang, Jing Guo, Yuanfa Liu, Yumei Gong In this study, the novel sodium alginate/feather keratin-g-allyloxy polyethylene glycol (SA/FK-g-APEG) composite phase change fiber was designed and fabricated via centrifugal spinning for the first time. The chemical structure of the composite fiber was characterized by FT-IF and NMR, the thermal property was characterized by DSC, and the morphology features was analyzed by SEM and EDS. The NMR result demonstrates there are chemical shifts at δ = 155.6 ppm indicating CC has been successfully introduced via acylation,and at δ = 70.06 ppm indicating that allyloxy polyethylene glycol (APEG) has been grafted onto feather keratin (FK). The DSC results show an decline in the endothermic peak related to melting of the APEG from 54.87 °C to 40.1 °C (phase change fiber), indicating the strong interaction between sodium alginate (SA) and feather keratin-g-allyloxy polyethylene glycol (FK-g-APEG). The mechanical properties test shows that the optimal spinning temperature is 40 °C, and the optimal Centrifugal speed is 500 r/min.
       
  • Novel binary grafted chitosan nanocarrier for sustained release of
           curcumin
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Deepak Kumar, Vinit Raj, Abhishek Verma, Pramendra Kumar, Jyoti Pandey The study deals with the synthesis and characterization of chitosan-g-Poly (Acrylic acid-co-Acrylamide) [chit-g-Poly (AA-co-Am)] for sustained release of curcumin. The formation of chit-g-Poly (AA-co-Am) was ascertained through various spectral, thermal, microscopic methods and zeta potential. The potential of chit-g-Poly (AA-co-Am) for drug delivery applications were investigated through pH regulated kinetic models, in vitro antibacterial assay and molecular docking studies. The study reveals antibacterial activity of chit-g-Poly (AA-co-Am) against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa along with enhanced binding with bacterial receptors. In this study, nanoparticle of curcumin drug with grafted chitosan (NpCGC) was developed as effective nano therapeutic drug delivery system. Kinetic data of NpCGC reveals that the enhanced release of curcumin from NpCGC has been occurred at pH 5.4. The present study provides an economical and eco-friendly approach towards the preparation of chit-g-Poly (AA-co-Am) for sustained drug delivery applications.
       
  • Comparative mitochondrial genomes provide new insights into the true wild
           progenitor and origin of domestic silkworm Bombyx mori
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Dong-Bin Chen, Ru-Song Zhang, Hai-Xu Bian, Qun Li, Run-Xi Xia, Yu-Ping Li, Yan-Qun Liu, Cheng Lu The domestication of domestic silkworm Bombyx mori, the only truly domesticated insect, is a distinctive event in agricultural history. The domestication and origin of domestic silkworm remains unclear, although it has connected with human for ~5500 years. In the present study, we would like to highlight our evidence from whole mitochondrial genome for the presence of two genetically distinctive subtypes in Chinese B. mandarina populations, corresponding to northern Chinese B. mandarina and southern Chinese B. mandarina, respectively. The mitochondrial genomes and mitochondrial phylogenetic tree provide a solid molecular evidence that the true wild ancestor of domestic silkworm is northern Chinese B. mandarina, rather than southern Chinese B. mandarina, thus implying that the early domestication event may have occurred in northern China. Our finding provides new insights into the origin and evolution of domestic silkworm.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Properties of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified starches and their
           application in low fat mayonnaise
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Ritika Bajaj, Narpinder Singh, Amritpal Kaur Wheat starch (WS), corn starch (CS), waxy corn starch (WCS), potato starch (PS), sweet potato (SP), rice starch (RS) and kidney bean (KB) were modified using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) and evaluated for various properties. Degree of substitution (DS) showed significant increase with increase in amylose (AM) content. OSA modified starches showed higher paste viscosities compared to their native counterparts. OSA groups acted majorly on the surface and caused some superficial pores, but crystalline pattern was not significantly altered for all starches. OSA modified starches were used in preparing low fat mayonnaise by substituting 75% fat. OSA modified starches enhanced the emulsifying properties of mayonnaise. Mayonnaises prepared using OSA modified starches were evaluated for phase separation, brightness (L*), color index (dE), and rheological parameters (G′ and G″). Mayonnaises prepared using OSA modified starches showed higher G' and exhibited gel like structure. Fat substituted (FS) mayonnaise was preferred over full fat (FF) mayonnaise by the consumers. No significant effect of fat substitution was observed on particle size and phase separation for all mayonnaise samples.
       
  • Could the porous chitosan-based composite materials have a chance to a
           “NEW LIFE” after Cu(II) ion binding'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Maria Marinela Lazar, Ionel Adrian Dinu, Mihaela Silion, Ecaterina Stela Dragan, Maria Valentina Dinu Currently, biosorption is considered a leading-edge environmentally-friendly method for the low-cost remediation of wastewaters contaminated with metal ions. However, the safe disposal of metal-loaded biosorbents is still a challenging issue. In this context, our major objective was to explore the possibility of “waste minimization” by reusing the metal-loaded biosorbents in further environmental applications, particularly into the oxidative catalysis of dyes. Thus, the decolourisation efficiency (DE) of Methyl Orange (MO) in aqueous solutions under ambient light using copper-imprinted chitosan-based composites in comparison to non-imprinted ones was investigated in this work. The MO degradation was established first in the absence of any co-catalyst, when a DE value of 95.3% was achieved by the ion-imprinted catalysts within 360 min of reaction, compared to only 67.4% attained by the non-imprinted ones. Under Fenton-like conditions, the apparent degradation rate constant was seventy times higher, the DE increasing within 40 min to about 98.6%, and 70.5% respectively, whereas the content of co-catalyst (H2O2) was significantly lowered compared to other reported studies. The straightforward preparation of copper-loaded composites, along with their excellent stability and high efficiency even after four consecutive reaction runs support our ion-imprinted systems as potential catalysts for dye removal by oxidative decolourisation treatments.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Secondary hemostasis studies of crude venom and isolated proteins from the
           snake Crotalus durissus terrificus
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Ivancia D.L. Sousa, Ayrton R. Barbosa, Guilherme H.M. Salvador, Breno E.F. Frihling, Paula H. Santa-Rita, Andreimar M. Soares, Hilzeth L.F. Pessôa, Daniela P. Marchi-Salvador Among the activities triggered by Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, coagulation is intriguing and contradictory since the venom contains both coagulant and anticoagulant precursor proteins. This work describes the in vitro effects of crude venom and purified proteins from snake Crotalus durissus terrificus as they affect coagulation factors of clotting pathways. Coagulant and/or anticoagulant activities of crude venom, and purified proteins were all analyzed directly in human plasma. Clots formed by crude venom and Gyroxin presented as flexible hyaline masses in punctiform distribution. Clot formation time evaluation of isolated proteins with PT and APTT assays made it possible to infer that these proteins interfere in all coagulation pathways. However, regarding ophidism by C. d. terrificus, Gyroxin acts directly, breaking down fibrinogen to fibrin and increasing the amount plasminogen activator, which results in the formation of thrombi. Crotoxin complex, Crotoxin A and Crotoxin B proteins can act in prothrombinase complex formation; Crotoxin B can inhibit prothrombinase complex formation by direct interaction with Factor Xa. Crotamine interacts with negatively charged regions of differing coagulation factors in all coagulation pathways, and possesses a whole set of activities causing dysfunction, activation and/or inhibition of natural anticoagulants and disturbing hemostasis.
       
  • Enhanced catalytic activity of new acryloyl crosslinked cellulose
           dialdehyde-nitrilase Schiff base and its reduced form for nitrile
           hydrolysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Shivani Jamwal, Umesh K. Dautoo, Sunita Ranote, Rohini Dharela, Ghanshyam S. Chauhan Immobilization of enzymes to improve their catalytic properties is an attractive protocol which makes them suitable candidates to meet various industrial demands. Present study describes the synthesis of new acryloyl crosslinked cellulose dialdehyde (ACCD) for nitrilase immobilization. Nitrilase was immobilized onto ACCD via Schiff base formation i.e. imine linkages (-CH=N-). Effect of different operational parameters viz. temperature, pH and substrate concentration on the free and the immobilized nitrilases were evaluated by hydrolysis of mandelonitrile. Immobilization resulted into enhanced catalytic activity of nitrilase under different operating conditions of temperature and pH. The optimum temperature and pH for immobilized forms of nitrilase was obtained to be 55 °C and 8.0 which was higher than its free form (40 °C, 6.0). Immobilized nitrilase also exhibited good thermal and storage stability over the free form and is reusable up to sixteen repeat cycles with an appreciable retention activity.
       
  • Facile and rapid in-situ synthesis of chitosan-ZnO nano-hybrids applicable
           in medical purposes; a novel combination of biomineralization, ultrasound,
           and bio-safe morphology-conducting agent
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Erfan Zabihi, Amir Babaei, Dina Shahrampour, Zahra Arab-Bafrani, Kiana S. Mirshahidi, Hoomaan Joz Majidi In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NPs) and also chitosan‑zinc oxide (CS-ZnO-NPs) nano-hybrid were synthesized by a rapid ultrasound assisted co-precipitation method. The morphology, chemical bonding, crystal structure, UV absorption, toxicity and antibacterial properties of the CS-ZnO-NPs and ZnO-NPs were characterized. The FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) micrographs and XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis revealed that the used technique led to the preparation of homogeneous, ultra-thin (thickness of 20–30 nm) and highly pure ZnO sheets for the both kinds of nanoparticles. The obtained results also demonstrated a superior performance of CS-ZnO-NPs hybrid rather than ZnO-NPs in terms of antibacterial activity, cell viability and UV absorption. It was deduced that the designed biomineralization technique was a very fast and successful strategy to provide a ZnO hybrid with elevated bacterial growth inhibition and bio-safety. Furthermore, the experimental data of antibacterial analyses were compared with the curves obtained from modified Gompertz model and good accordance was observed.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Sequential extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of
           polysaccharides from Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Parhat Rozi, Aytursun Abuduwaili, Paiheerding Mutailifu, Yanhua Gao, Rano Rakhmanberdieva, Haji Akber Aisa, Abulimiti Yili In this paper, Fritillaria pallidiflora schrenk polysaccharides were extracted with different methods and isolated by anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. Physicochemical properties, structural characteristics and antioxidant activities were investigated for the first time. The polysaccharides composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, mannose and rhamnose with different molar ratio and molecular weight. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis exhibited the presence of key functional groups of polysaccharides whereas scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the characteristic morphology of different fractions. The thermogravimetric analysis manifested the thermal stability of polysaccharides. The reducing power and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides were evaluated in vitro. Among them, the acidic fraction FPSP-H2-1 has a strong antioxidant effect against DPPH, hydroxyl and ABTS free radicals. The results revealed the polysaccharide's important role as potential natural antioxidant agents during the investigation and application of bioactive polysaccharide.
       
  • Effects of salts and sucrose on the rheological behavior, thermal
           stability, and molecular structure of the Pereskia aculeata Miller
           mucilage
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Tatiana Nunes Amaral, Luciana Affonso Junqueira, Lucas Silveira Tavares, Natália Leite Oliveira, Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado, Jaime Vilela de Resende The rheological behavior, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the Pereskia aculeata Miller (OPN) mucilage treated with sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and sucrose were evaluated. The experimental design was divided in a fractional factorial 25–1 for the screening of factors (OPN, sucrose, NaCl, CaCl2, and pH) and then in a 5 × 3 × 3 full factorial (OPN, sucrose, and NaCl). The model solutions used for the screening of factors presented shear-thinning behavior and the OPN mucilage concentrations were the factors that had significant effect on the apparent viscosity. Sucrose addition increased the thermal stability of the OPN mucilage solutions. OPN mucilage, sucrose, and NaCl were the variables with significant effect on thermogravimetric responses. The samples presented Newtonian behavior in 0–1.25% OPN mucilage concentrations and non-Newtonian behavior adjusted by power-law in 2.50–5.00% OPN mucilage concentrations with predominance of elastic behavior, contributing to the formation of stronger gels. The presence of sucrose in the systems containing OPN mucilage changed their rheological properties and salt additions caused reduction in viscosity. The AFM results provided a better understanding of the mechanism of OPN mucilage interactions in different solutions that justify the changes in viscosities.
       
  • Preparation of a novel Grifola frondosa polysaccharide-chromium (III)
           complex and its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities in high fat diet
           and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Wei-Ling Guo, Fei-Fei Shi, Lu Li, Jia-Xin Xu, Min Chen, Li Wu, Jia-Li Hong, Min Qian, Wei-Dong Bai, Bin Liu, Yan-Yan Zhang, Li Ni, Ping-Fan Rao, Xu-Cong Lv Polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa is one of the best metal-ion chelating agents because of its structural characteristics and excellent functional activities. In this study, we synthesized and characterized a novel Grifola frondosa polysaccharide-chromium (III) [GFP-Cr(III)] complex. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions for the maximum chelation rate of GFP-Cr(III) complex. The optimal reaction conditions obtained from RSM were as follows: concentration of CrCl3 6.97 mg/mL, pH 7.75 and temperature 71.73 °C, respectively. The pH was the most significant factor, followed by reaction temperature and concentration of CrCl3. Under the deduced optimal conditions (CrCl3 7.0 mg/mL, pH 7.7 and temperature 70.0 °C), the experimental chelation rate was 28.01% ± 0.18% for GFP-Cr(III) complex, which agreed closely with the predicted value (27.61%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that the primary sites of chromium (III)-binding in polysaccharides were OH and CN groups, leading to the structure of GFP-Cr(III) complex was loose than the original polysaccharide. Nevertheless, Cr(III) did not make a fundamental change in the structure of GFP when comparing the FTIR spectra of GFP and GFP-Cr(III) complex. Additionally, the effects of GFP-Cr(III) complex on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were also investigated. Results showed that the serum total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in diabetic mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GFP-Cr(III) complex (900 mg/kg day) were significantly lower than the diabetic group (P 
       
  • Effect of blue light on growth and exopolysaccharides production in
           phototrophic Rhodobacter sp. BT18 isolated from brackish water
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): M. Govarthanan, S. Kamala-Kannan, T. Selvankumar, R. Mythili, P. Srinivasan, H. Kim Rhodobacter sp. BT18, a phototrophic salt-resistant bacterium, was isolated from brackish water and screened for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The effect of different light sources on the growth of Rhodobacter sp. BT18 was investigated. The effect on the growth order was found to be blue> white> green> red> yellow> dark. Based on Box-Behnken design, the studied variables (pH 7.0, 35 °C, and 30% of sucrose concentration under 60 h of incubation with blue light illumination) were found to be ideal for the maximum production of EPS (582.5 mg/L). Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the porous nature of EPS. Fourier transform spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were applied to study the functional groups and the crystalline nature of the EPS, respectively. The emulsification index of the EPS was>75% and the maximum flocculating activity was about 75.4% at 30 mg/L concentration of EPS. In addition, EPS showed effective arsenic (64%) and lead (51%) chelating activities in liquid solutions. The multiple environmental applications of the EPS produced by Rhodobacter sp. BT18 make it be a promising alternative for emulsification, flocculation and metal removal in various industries.
       
  • KaiC from a cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp. PCC 7428 retains functional and
           structural properties required as the core of circadian clock system
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Atsushi Mukaiyama, Dongyan Ouyang, Yoshihiko Furuike, Shuji Akiyama KaiC, the core protein of the cyanobacterial clock, assembles into a hexamer upon ATP-binding. The hexameric KaiC from a cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (Se-KaiC) is a multifunctional enzyme with autokinase, autophosphatase and ATPase and these activities show a circadian rhythm in the presence of two other clock proteins, KaiA and KaiB both in vivo and in vitro. While an interplay among three enzymatic activities has been pointed out through studies on Se-KaiC as the basis of circadian rhythmicity in cyanobacteria, little is known about the structure and functions of KaiC from other cyanobacterial species. In this study, we established a protocol to prepare KaiC from Gloeocapsa sp. PCC 7428 (Gl-KaiC) belonging to a distinct genus from Synechococcus and characterized its oligomeric structure and function. The results demonstrate that Gl-KaiC shares the basic properties with Se-KaiC. The present protocol offers practical means for further analysis of structure and function of Gl-KaiC, which would provide insights into diversity and evolution of the clock systems in cyanobacteria.
       
  • Development of vanillin/β-cyclodexterin inclusion microcapsules using
           flax seed gum-rice bran protein complex coacervates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Elham Hasanvand, Ali Rafe Encapsulation of vanillin through β-cyclodexterin inclusion complex coacervates (β-CD-IC) was developed to achieve higher thermal stability and controlled release of vanillin. The effect of protein to polysaccharide (Pr:Ps) ratio and core (Vanillin/β-CD-IC) to wall (coacervate) ratio on the vanillin encapsulation as well as thermal, microstructural and physical characteristics of microcapsules were investigated. Microcapsules had particle size ranging from 0.75 to 4.5 μm with negative surface charge and narrow size distribution. Although particle size and encapsulation efficiency were increased by increasing the Pr:Ps ratio and core to wall ratio, the zeta-potential decreased. Vanillin/β-cyclodexterin loaded microcapsules had the maximum encapsulation efficiency about 85% at core to wall ratio of 1:3 and Pr:Ps ratio of 9:1. Structural studies by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the entrapment of encapsulant and X-Ray diffraction data and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that microcapsules have amorphous structure with soft surface. Furthermore, FTIR results indicated the formation of vanillin/β-cyclodextrin inclusion is the result of chemical interactions, but physical interaction between core and shell leads to encapsulate vanillin/β-cyclodextrin inclusion in rice bran protein-flaxseed gum (RBP-FG) coacervates. Microencapsulation increased the vanillin thermostability and its shelf life. Therefore, it is possible to increase thermal stability of vanillin against environmental conditions.
       
  • Superabsorbent hydrogel from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose and
           sodium carboxymethylcellulose
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Kushairi Mohd Salleh, Sarani Zakaria, Mohd Shaiful Sajab, Sinyee Gan, Hatika Kaco A green regenerated superabsorbent hydrogel was fabricated with mixtures of dissolved oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) in NaOH/urea system. The formation of hydrogel was aided with epichlorohydrin (ECH) as a crosslinker. The resultant regenerated hydrogel was able to swell>80,000% depending on the NaCMC concentrations. The hydrogel absorbed water rapidly upon exposure to water up to 48 h and gradually declined after 72 h. The crosslinked of covalent bond of COC between dissolved EFB cellulose (EFBC) with NaCMC was confirmed with Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy. Crystallinity and thermal stability of the hydrogel samples were depended on the concentrations of NaCMC, crosslinking, and swelling process. The strength and stability of crosslinked network was studied by examining the gel fraction of hydrogel. This study explored the swelling ability and probable influenced factors towards physical and chemical properties of hydrogel.
       
  • Thermal and spectroscopic analyses of guar gum degradation submitted to
           turbulent flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Marcus Vinícius Lisboa Motta, Eustáquio Vinícius Ribeiro de Castro, Emanuel José Bassani Muri, Bruno Venturini Loureiro, Michell Luiz Costalonga, Paulo Roberto Filgueiras In this paper, a 400 ppm aqueous solution of guar gum polysaccharide was submitted to a turbulent flow regime in order to monitor molecular degradation and drag reduction. Guar gum samples were isolated and analyzed by spectroscopic, thermoanalytical and viscosimetric techniques. The drag reduction promoted by guar gum is compromised as the polysaccharide undergoes degradation. Viscosimetric analysis of guar gum showed a reduction in viscous molecular mass. Mid-infrared spectra and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance suggest that mechanical degradation promotes hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond α (1 → 6) releasing (d)-galactose owing to the appearance of the carbonyl functional group. Thermal analysis revealed the reduction of the polysaccharide's thermal stability by reduction of the polymer chain. A comprehensive analysis of these combined parameters affords a foundation for the development of more efficient biopolymers in the context of improved drag reduction.
       
  • Fabrication of novel Konjac glucomannan/shellac film with advanced
           functions for food packaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Yu Du, Lin Wang, Ruojun Mu, Yuyan Wang, Yuanzhao Li, Dan Wu, Chunhua Wu, Jie Pang In this study, a novel composite film was fabricated from Konjac glucomannan (KGM) combined with shellac (SHL) via a casting and solvent evaporation method. Rotary rheometry, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied to characterize the structure of the film. Physical properties were also investigated to evaluate the effect of SHL on KGM-based films. The results indicated that KGM-SHL gels exhibit a shear-thinning behaviour when the shear rate is increased. Meanwhile, FE-SEM images confirmed that all blended films had a continuous and homogeneous appearance without phase separation. The newly formed chemical bonds after blending were observed by FTIR. Moreover, thermal tolerance and mechanical properties of the films, such as tensile strength and elongation at break, were improved by adding SHL. In addition, the presence of SHL in the films led to an increase in water resistance. Therefore, the improved KGM-SHL films can be considered as a potential material for food packaging.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Oral administration with chitosan hydrolytic products modulates
           mitogen-induced and antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Shun-Hsien Chang, Guan-James Wu, Chien-Hui Wu, Chung-Hsiung Huang, Guo-Jane Tsai The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral administration in BALB/c mice with chitosan hydrolytic products including chitosan hydrolysate, LMWC and a chitooligosaccharide mixture (oligomixture), modulates mitogen-induced and antigen-specific immune responses. A water-soluble chitosan hydrolysate was obtained via cellulase degradation of chitosan, and a LMWC and the oligomixture were separated from this hydrolysate. In non-immunized mice, both the chitosan hydrolysate and oligomixture significantly increased the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. Three chitosan hydrolytic products significantly increased the mitogen-induced proliferation of splenocytes and Peyer's patch (PP) lymphocytes. LMWC and oligomixture up-regulated IFN-γ secretion, and induced predominantly Th1 cytokine secretion in splenocytes. In antigen-specific immunity, similar effects of the chitosan hydrolytic products were observed on augmenting ovalbumin (OVA)-, as well as mitogen-, induced proliferation of splenocytes harvested from OVA-immunized mice. Interestingly, oligomixture was the most potent chitosan hydrolytic product to elicit OVA-specific IgM, IgG, and IgA production, while LMWC was the most potent one to elevate splenic IFN-γ production and IFN-γ/IL-4 (Th1/Th2) ratio. These results provide the distinct immunomodulatory properties of chitosan hydrolytic products in response to mitogens and specific antigen, paving the way for further development and application of dietary chitosan hydrolytic products against immune disorders and infection.
       
  • Zr4+ ions embedded chitosan-soya bean husk activated bio-char composite
           beads for the recovery of nitrate and phosphate ions from aqueous solution
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): H. Thagira Banu, P. Karthikeyan, Sankaran Meenakshi Removal of nitrate and phosphate ions using Zr4+ ions embedded chitosan-soya bean husk activated bio-char composite beads (Zr-CS-SAC) was carried out by batch mode to overcome the environmental problems due to eutrophication. The adsorbent was well characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface analyzer (BET), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) etc. The adsorption equilibrium models of Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R isotherms were evaluated and the results described that the Freundlich model was the best for both the adsorbates of nitrate and phosphates ions with respective capacities of 90.09 and 131.29 mg g−1 at 30 °C. Studies on thermodynamic parameters revealed the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption. Different kinetic models were studied and found that pseudo-second-order kinetic data were well fitted for adsorption process. These results suggested that Zr-CS-SAC composite beads as a promising adsorbent for the removal of nitrate and phosphate ions from water with good removal efficiency, adsorbability, recyclability and non- toxicity.
       
  • Effects of caffeine on the structure and conformation of DNA: A force
           spectroscopy study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): T.A. Moura, L. Oliveira, M.S. Rocha Here, we use single molecule force spectroscopy performed with optical tweezers in order to investigate the interaction between Caffeine and the DNA molecule for various different concentrations of the alkaloid and under two distinct ionic strengths of the surrounding buffer. We were able to determine the mechanical changes induced on the double-helix structure due to Caffeine binding, the binding mode and the binding parameters of the interaction. The results obtained show that Caffeine binds to DNA by outside the double-helix with a higher affinity at lower ionic strengths. On the other hand, a considerable cooperativity was found only for sufficient high ionic strengths, suggesting that Caffeine may binding forming dimers and/or trimers along the double-helix under this condition. Finally, it was also shown that Caffeine stabilizes the DNA double-helix upon binding, preventing force-induced DNA melting.
       
  • Enhanced production of poly‑3‑hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by expression of
           response regulator DR1558 in recombinant Escherichia coli
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Sung-ho Park, Gi Bae Kim, Hyun Uk Kim, Si Jae Park, Jong-il Choi During microbial production of target product, accumulation of by-products and target product itself may be toxic to host strain. Thus, development of abiotic stress tolerant strains are essential to achieve high productivity of target product with sustained metabolism. Expression of DR1558 from Deinococcus radiodurans, a response regulator in two-component signal transduction system, was reported to increase the tolerance against oxidative stress in Escherichia coli. In this study, the effect of overexpression of DR1558 was examined on poly‑3‑hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in recombinant E. coli expressing Ralstonia eutropha PHB biosynthesis genes. It was found that dr1558 overexpressing E. coli produced 5.31 g PHB/L and 9.24 g dry cell weight/L, while control strain produced 1.52 g PHB/L and 4.47 g dry cell weight/L in 48 h shake-flask cultivation. Transcriptional analysis of E. coli suggested that DR1558 could improve the expression efficiency of the genes related to central carbon metabolism and threonine bypass pathway in PHB producing E. coli. When thrABC genes were overexpressed, PHB content was increased in recombinant E. coli, which suggests that stress-tolerant genes from extremophiles should be useful in the development of engineered strains for the production of bio-based products.
       
  • A bioactive exopolysaccharide from marine bacteria Alteromonas sp. PRIM-28
           and its role in cell proliferation and wound healing in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): T.G. Sahana, P.D. Rekha Marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharides (EPS) with unique structural and functional properties and serve as a source of newer bioactive biopolymers. This study reports an EPS produced by a marine bacterium identified as Alteromonas sp. PRIM-28 for its bioactivities. The EPS was characterised using standard methods and tested for its bioactivities using in vitro models. EPS-A28 is an anionic heteropolysaccharide with a molecular weight of 780 kDa and exists as triple helical structure in aqueous solution. Monosaccharide composition is mannuronic acid, glucose and N-acetyl glucosamine repeating units in the ratio 1:3.67:0.93. The FT-IR spectra showed the presence of sulphate, phosphate and uronic acid residues. The thermal analysis showed partial degradation of the EPS-A28 at 190 °C and 40% of residues were stable up to 800 °C. It showed biocompatibility and induced proliferation and migration of dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and keratinocytes. EPS-A28 could increase the S-phase of cell cycle. The proliferative property of the EPS-A28 was established by the increased expression of fibroblast proliferation marker (Ki-67) also its capability of binding to cell surface. It also induced nitric oxide and arginase synthesis in macrophages. These findings suggest that EPS-A28 can be potentially used as a multifunctional bioactive polymer in wound care.
       
  • The hepatoprotective effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus on
           carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Bo Zhu, Yongzhe Li, Tao Hu, Yan Zhang This study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus (POP) on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in rats. The hepatoprotective effect of POP against ALI was reflected by the decreased alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels in blood, increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels, and decreased malondialdehyde levels in blood and liver. TUNEL and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that TUNEL apoptosis cell rate and Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and apoptosis-inducing factor expression levels were obviously decreased, whereas Bcl-2 expression levels obviously increased after POP treatment. A total of 11 metabolites belonging to energy, amino acid, fatty acid, and gut bacteria metabolism were identified as biomarkers by using metabolite analysis of liver homogenate based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. POP exhibited hepatoprotective effects on CCl4-induced ALI, and the underlying mechanism is correlated with antioxidants that regulate metabolic pathway disorders and alleviate liver mitochondria apoptosis.
       
  • Furcellaran/gelatin hydrolysate/rosemary extract composite films as active
           and intelligent packaging materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 131Author(s): Simona Jancikova, Ewelina Jamróz, Piotr Kulawik, Joanna Tkaczewska, Dani Dordevic The study investigated the active and intelligent properties of films based on furcellaran (FUR), gelatin hydrolysate (GELH) and rosemary extract (from fresh leaves (FRE) and dry leaves (DRE)). Rosemary extracts were blended with FUR/GELH film forming solution at different three concentrations (5, 10, 20%). Analyzing the ζ-potential dependences of complexation polysaccharide-protein hydrolysate, we selected optimal ratio for the film formation. The introduction of rosemary extracts into FUR/GELH films increased thickness, water content and tensile strength. The UV barrier properties of tested films improved with the addition of rosemary extracts into FUR/GELH matrix. The antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) did not improved with the addition of FRE but significantly increased with the addition of DRE, reaching 88% of DPPH inhibition and 207 of μmol Trolox/g of dried film of FRAP value. The color changes in different pH were observed, however, the fish spoilage test showed that those films are not suitable as intelligent films for monitoring freshness of this type of food product. Among all films tested, FUR/GELH film with 20% DRE exhibited the best performance. The obtained results suggested that FUR/GELH films with 20% DRE could be used as a promising active food packing material.
       
  • Stimuli-responsive injectable cellulose thixogel for cell encapsulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Naresh D. Sanandiya, Jyothsna Vasudevan, Rupambika Das, Chwee Teck Lim, Javier G. Fernandez Herein, we present the synthesis of surface-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (CNF) hydrogel and characterization with various physicochemical analyses and spectroscopic tools as well as its suitability for cellular encapsulation and delivery. The structure-property relationship as shear thinning, thixotropy, creep-recovery and stimuli responsiveness are explored. The CNF hydrogel is capable to inject possessing shear thinning behavior at shear rate (~10 s−1) range in the normal injecting process. In time-dependent thixotropy, the hydrogel showed rapid transform from flowable fluid back to structured hydrogel fully recovering in less than 60 s. The presence of cell-culture media did not alter shear thinning behavior of CNF hydrogel and showed increased thixotropicity with respect to the control gel. The CNF hydrogel forms 3D structures, without any crosslinker, with a wide range of tunable moduli (~36–1000 Pa) based on concentration and external stimuli. The biological characteristics of the thixotropic gels are studied for human breast cancer cells and mouse embryonic stem cells and indicated high cell viability, long-term survival, and spherical morphology.
       
  • Phloretin loaded chitosan nanoparticles augments the pH-dependent
           mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptosis in human oral cancer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Arokia Vijaya Anand Mariadoss, Ramachandran Vinayagam, Vijayalakshmi Senthilkumar, Manickam Paulpandi, Kadarkarai Murugan, Baojun Xu, Gothandam K.M., Venkata Subbaiah Kotakadi, Ernest David The aim of the present investigation is to explore the innovative platform for the synthesis of plant-based nanoparticles, which contain biocompatible and biodegradable carrier of chitosan loaded with phloretin hydrophobic phytochemical applied as a stable anticancer agent. Treatment of cancer uses chemotherapeutic drugs as the cells are resistant to other drugs. However, the usage of therapeutic drug is limited by its poor solubility and low bioavailability. To overcome this problem, we fabricated the phloretin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PhCsNPs) and physicochemical properties of PhCsNPs were characterized by FTIR, XRD, DLS, SEM and TEM. The findings indicated that the synthesized PhCsNPs were spherical and homogeneous in shape with the size distribution of 80-100 nm and exhibited stability in ultimate drug releasing profile. Further, we substantiated the anticancer efficiency of PhCsNPs through bio-assessment, such as cytotoxicity measurement, intracellular ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation measurement, antioxidants status, apoptotic associated gene expression profile and cell cycle analysis in human oral cancer cell lines. The findings suggested that PhCsNPs augmented the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic mechanism through the stimulation of oxidative stress, depletion of cellular antioxidants and cell cycle arrest. Our data suggested that PhCsNPs could be used as an efficient therapeutic agent for the treatment of oral cancer.
       
  • Overproduction of a β-fructofuranosidase1 with a high FOS synthesis
           activity for efficient biosynthesis of fructooligosaccharides
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Thu Aung, Hong Jiang, Guang-Lei Liu, Zhe Chi, Zhong Hu, Zhen-Ming Chi Aureobasidium melanogenum 11–1 was found to be able to produce over 281.7 ± 7.1 U/mL of β-fructofuranosidase activity. The protein deduced from the cloned β-fructofuranosidase1 gene had the conserved motif A (IGDP), motif D (RDP) and motif E (ET) and 11 N-glycosylation sites, indicating it was a β-fructofuranosidase with the high-level fructooligosaccharide (FOS) biosynthesis. Overexpression of the β-fructofuranosidase1 gene in the yeast strain 11–1 made a tranformant 33 produce 557.7 U/mL of β-fructofuranosidase activity. The molecular weight of the β-fructofuranosidase1 in which all the carbohydrates were removed by the Endo-H was 82.4 kDa. Within 7 h of the transfructosylation reaction, the yield of FOS was 0.66 g of FOS/g of sucrose and percentages of GF2, GF3 and GF4 were 79.5%, 18.9% and 1.6%. This demonstrated that the β-fructofuranosidase1 and the transformant 33 had highly potential applications in biotechnology for FOS production.
       
  • Development of nanofibrous collagen-grafted poly (vinyl
           alcohol)/gelatin/alginate scaffolds as potential skin substitute
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Parisa Sobhanian, Mohammad Khorram, Seyedeh-Sara Hashemi, Aliakbar Mohammadi The main objective of this work is to fabricate a nanofibrous scaffold to regenerate skin tissue. A scaffold composed of poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin/alginate was prepared using electrospinning method. To improve scaffold biocompatibility and wound healing properties, collagen, extracted from rat tail, was grafted on as-prepared nanofibers. The prepared scaffolds were characterized by SEM, FTIR, swelling ratio test, and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) measurement. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds against human fibroblasts and L929 (NCBI C161) cells were tested using direct and indirect methods, respectively. Fibroblast cell adhesion and proliferation on the scaffold were also investigated. Results of morphological studies showed that beadless nanofibers with 229 nm diameter were prepared. ATR-FTIR spectra of collagen grafted nanofiber mats confirmed presence of the collagen on their surface. Collagen grafted nanofibers showed higher swelling ratio than nanofibers without collagen graft. Collagen grafting decreased VWTR. Collagen grafting decreased both tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanofibrous scaffolds while increased their elongation at break. MTT results showed that both scaffolds are biocompatible with higher cell viability for nanofibers with collagen grafting. Fibroblast cell culture on the scaffolds demonstrated that both of scaffolds have good cell viability and proliferation while collagen grafted scaffold showed better results.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Truncation of κ‑carrageenase for higher κ‑carrageenan
           oligosaccharides yield with improved enzymatic characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Yajiao Zhang, Bin Lang, Deyang Zeng, Zhihua Li, Jie Yang, Renxiang Yan, Xinqi Xu, Juan Lin Carrageenase is useful for preparation of carrageenan oligosaccharides, which have significant bioactivity. We expressed a κ‑carrageenase gene from Zobellia sp. ZL-4 in full-length (κ-ZL-4) or after truncation of the carbohydrate binding module and the Type-IX secretion module (κ-ZL-4-GH16). κ-ZL-4-GH16 showed a specific activity (134.22 U/mg) 1.93 times higher than that of κ-ZL-4, and its thermal and pH stability also increased. The best activity of κ-ZL-4-GH16 was presented at pH 3.0–6.0, which was lower than the optimal pH of reported κ-carrageenases. The enzyme-substrate affinity of κ-ZL-4-GH16 was higher than that of κ-ZL-4, demonstrated by its lower Michaelis-Menten constant (0.704 mg/mL at pH 6.0). Importantly, κ-ZL-4-GH16 released 10-fold more κ-carrageenan disaccharides than κ-ZL-4. The κ-carrageenan tetrose and hexose produced by the two enzymes were purified and structurally identified. Molecular docking with κ-carrageenan hexose suggested that the efficiency improvement after truncation might be attributed to the conformation differences of the two enzymes.
       
  • Chitosan nanopolymers: An overview of drug delivery against cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Rajasree Shanmuganathan, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel Edison, Felix LewisOscar, Ponnuchamy Kumar, Sabarathinam Shanmugam, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi Cancer is becoming a major reason for death troll worldwide due to the difficulty in finding an efficient, cost effective and target specific method of treatment or diagnosis. The variety of cancer therapy used in the present scenario have painful side effects, low effectiveness and high cost, which are some major drawbacks of the available therapies. Apart from the conventional cancer therapy, nanotechnology has grown extremely towards treating cancer. Nanotechnology is a promising area of science focusing on developing target specific drug delivery system for carrying small or large active molecules to diagnose and treat cancer cells. In the field of nanoscience, Chitosan nanopolymers (ChNPs) are been emerging as a potential carrier due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility. The easy modification and versatility in administration route of ChNPs has attracted attention of researchers towards loading chemicals, proteins and gene drugs for target specific therapy of cancer cells. Therefore, the present review deals with the growing concern towards cancer therapy, introduction of ChNPs, mode of action and other strategies employed by researchers till date towards cancer treatment and diagnosis ChNPs.
       
  • Preparation of different polymorphs of cellulose from different acid
           hydrolysis medium
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Md Musavvir Mahmud, Asma Perveen, Rumana A. Jahan, Md Abdul Matin, Siew Yee Wong, Xu Li, M. Tarik Arafat In this study, medical cotton was subjected to acid hydrolysis in sulfuric, hydrochloric and phosphoric acid medium to prepare cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) with different morphologies and polymorphism. Morphology of the prepared CNC samples revealed fiber shaped morphology for sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed samples, whereas, spherical shaped for phosphoric acid hydrolyzed samples. The size of the spherical shaped CNC decreased with the increase of hydrolysis time, from 853 nm for 12 h to 187 nm for 48 h. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed CNC is cellulose I (CI), phosphoric acid hydrolyzed CNC is cellulose II (CII) and sulfuric acid hydrolyzed CNC contain both CI and CII. The crystallinity of sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis samples was 91%, whereas, the crystallinity of phosphoric acid hydrolysis samples was between 43 and 60% depending on hydrolysis time. Thermal properties were also affected by the hydrolysis medium. Thus cellulose nanocrystals were prepared with different morphologies and physical characteristics through a facile method.
       
  • The structural characterization and antioxidant properties of oil palm
           fronds lignin incorporated with p-hydroxyacetophenone
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Nur Hanis Abd Latif, Afidah Abdul Rahim, Nicolas Brosse, M. Hazwan Hussin This study reports on the effects of unmodified autohydrolyzed ethanol organosolv lignin (AH EOL) and modified autohydrolyzed ethanol organosolv lignin on the structural characteristics and antioxidant properties upon incorporation of p-hydroxyacetophenone (AHP EOL). The lignin samples isolated from black liquor of oil palm fronds (OPF) were evaluated and compared using various complementary analyses; FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, 2D-NMR spectroscopy (HMBC and HSQC), CHN, GPC, HPLC and thermal analyses (TGA and DSC). Chemically modified organosolv lignin (AHP EOL) provided lignin with lower molecular weight (Mw), which has smaller fragments that leads to higher solubility rate in water in comparison to unmodified organosolv lignin, AH EOL (DAHP EOL: 19.8% > DAH EOL: 14.0%). It was evident that the antioxidant properties of modified organosolv lignin has better reducing power in comparison to the unmodified organosolv lignin. Therefore, the functionalization of lignin polymers enhanced their antioxidant properties and structural features towards a various alternative approach in lignin-based applications.
       
  • Effects of different drying conditions on the starch content, thermal
           properties and some of the physicochemical parameters of whole green
           banana flour
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Amir Amini Khoozani, Alaa El-Din Ahmed Bekhit, John Birch The physicochemical and thermal properties of whole green banana flour obtained from oven air-drying (ODF) at three temperatures (50, 80 and 110 °C) and freeze-drying (FDF) were compared to wheat flour (WF). Lightness and yellowness were negatively affected by the temperature increment. The FDF samples exhibited higher a* and L* values and had the closest browning index to WF (P-value 
       
  • Synthesis, characterization and application of copper oxide chitosan
           nanocomposite for green regioselective synthesis of [1,2,3]triazoles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Khaled D. Khalil, Sayed M. Riyadh, Sobhi M. Gomha, Imran Ali Chitosan copper (II) oxide nanocomposite was synthesized, characterized and used to synthesize [1,2,3]triazoles. Nanocomposite was characterized by using FTIR, XRD, FESEM, and EDS techniques, which reflected rough morphology. The powerful catalytic activity of hybrid nanocomposite was utilized to synthesize chalcones (3a-p) in relatively high yields (82%–98%) and multicomponent regio-selective cycloaddition of chalones, aryl halides (4), and sodium azide to afford the expected N-2-aryl[1,2,3]triazoles (5a-h) (80%–95% yield) rather than N-1-aryl[1,2,3]-triazoles (6a-h). The performance of nanomaterial was optimized by several variables. The capability of the nanocomposite was compared with previous work and the nanocomposite was found more efficient, economic and reproducible. The hybrid nanocomposite could be easily isolated form the reaction mixture and recycled four times without any significant loss of its catalytic activity. The reported catalyst is an inexpensive for good yields of the triazoles and may be used at industrial production for the reported compounds.
       
  • Dissolution, regeneration and characterization of curdlan in the ionic
           liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Wenqiang Bai, Faisal Shah, Qiang Wang, Hongzhi Liu In this work, a novel green solvent based on the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) with a superior dissolving ability to biomacromolecules was utilized to boost solubility of water-insoluble curdlan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), circular dichroism (CD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to characterize the structural changes of curdlan before and after regeneration. Thermal decomposition property of curdlan was also investigated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated after EmimAc treatment, the water-solubility of regenerated curdlan (RC) achieved 74.41 ± 0.63%. In addition, the hydrogen bonds in curdlan and its native triple helix structure were partially broken. In the meantime, new hydrogen bonds between EmimAc and curdlan formed. Moreover, the disruption of curdlan's original structure made it decreased thermostability and easier to dissolve in water. Therefore, this research can provide a feasible and effective approach for improving solubility of water-insoluble curdlan to enlarge its food and biomedical applications.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Driving forces of disaggregation and reaggregation of peanut protein
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Kuijie Gong, Lirong Chen, Haiyong Xia, Hongcui Dai, Xiaoyue Li, Linlin Sun, Weilin Kong, Kaichang Liu Our previous report described that high-pressure microfluidization (HPM) treatment can disaggregate peanut protein isolates (PPIs) to prepare antihypertensive peptide fractions. In the present study, we investigated the driving forces of disaggregation and reaggregation of PPIs in aqueous dispersion induced by HPM treatment and discussed the mechanism. The driving forces of hydrogen bonds, surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl/disulfide bonds (SH/SS) and ζ-potential, which are responsible for disaggregation and reaggregation, were studied. HPM treatment changed the polar environment and promoted surface hydrophobicity and the formation of disulfide bonds (SS), while the free sulfhydryl (SH) group content was decreased. The magnitude of the ζ-potential and β-sheet content increased when the pressure was ≤120 MPa. However, the magnitude of those values decreased when the pressure was>120 MPa. Hydrophobic interactions, SH/SS interchange reactions, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions cannot individually induce changes in PPIs. Combination of the applied forces drove the disaggregation and reaggregation of PPIs in aqueous dispersion.
       
  • Comparison of different extraction methods for polysaccharides from bamboo
           shoots (Chimonobambusa quadrangularis) processing by-products
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Guangjing Chen, Chuchu Fang, ChunXia Ran, Yue Tan, Qingqing Yu, Jianquan Kan The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from bamboo shoots (Chimonobambusa quadrangularis) processing by-products (CPS). CPSs were extracted by using five methods including hot water extraction (HWE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE). The experimental results showed that the uronic acid contents, monosaccharide contents, molecular weights and antioxidant activities of the five CPSs were significantly different. CPS extracted using ASE method (ASE-CPS) possessed the highest extraction yield (9.94%), the highest medium-high-molecular-weight value (136.07 kDa) and notable antioxidant ability. UAE-CPS had the highest uronic acid (9.42%) and the lowest medium-high-molecular weight value (117.49 kDa), and its antioxidant activity was the best. Based on the correlation analysis, the higher uronic acid content, smaller molecular weight, and lower content of monosaccharide composition of glucose for the CPS-UAE might contribute to its higher antioxidant activity. From an industrial viewpoint, ASE technique could be a promising and alternative way to extract CPS due to its high yield, notable antioxidant activity, and convenient industrialization.
       
  • Apios americana Medikus tuber polysaccharide exerts anti-inflammatory
           effects by activating autophagy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Qiang Chu, Shuang Zhang, Lushuang Yu, Yonglu Li, Yangyang Liu, Xiang Ye, Xiaodong Zheng The tubers of Apios americana Medikus possess high nutritional value and have been used as food in many countries for a long time. However, few researches have focused on the tuber polysaccharides. In the present study, a purified polysaccharide (ATP-1) was isolated with the average molecular weights of 12.16 kDa. ATP-1 significantly suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines from LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, as well as oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Meanwhile, ATP-1 reduced oxidative damage via the NF-κB, MAPKs and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, autophagy was activated by HMGB1-Beclin1, Sirt1-FoxO1 and Akt-mTOR signaling pathways, leading to a relief of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and an expression enhancement of autophagy-related proteins, such as LC3, Beclin1, Atg4, Atg5, and Atg7. In summary, our results suggested that ATP-1 might help to activate the anti-inflammation system,resulting in prevention of LPS-induced damage in RAW264.7 cells.
       
  • RNA sequencing reveals a key role for the long non-coding RNA MIAT in
           regulating neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell fate
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Aikaterini Bountali, Daniel P. Tonge, Mirna Mourtada-Maarabouni Myocardial Infarction Associated Transcript (MIAT) is a subnuclear lncRNA that interferes with alternative splicing and is associated with increased risk of various heart conditions and nervous system tumours. The current study aims to elucidate the role of MIAT in cell survival, apoptosis and migration in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme. To this end, MIAT was silenced by MIAT-specific siRNAs in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines, and RNA sequencing together with a series of functional assays were performed. The RNA sequencing has revealed that the expression of an outstanding number of genes is altered, including genes involved in cancer-related processes, such as cell growth and survival, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and migration. Furthermore, the functional studies have confirmed the RNA sequencing leads, with our key findings suggesting that MIAT knockdown eliminates long-term survival and migration and increases basal apoptosis in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. Taken together with the recent demonstration of the involvement of MIAT in glioblastoma, our observations suggest that MIAT could possess tumour-promoting properties, thereby acting as an oncogene, and has the potential to be used as a reliable biomarker for neuroblastoma and glioblastoma and be employed for prognostic, predictive and, potentially, therapeutic purposes for these cancers.
       
  • Stabilizing osmolytes' effects on the structure, stability and function of
           tc-tenecteplase: A one peptide bond digested form of tenecteplase
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Mahdieh Bayat, Leila Karami, Hamid Gourabi, Faizan Ahmad, Kianoush Dormiani, Mohammad H. Nasr Esfahani, Ali A. Saboury Organic osmolytes, as major cellular compounds, cause protein stabilization in the native form. In the present study, the possible chaperone effects of the three naturally occurring osmolytes on the two-chain form of tenecteplase (tc-TNK), a recombinant, genetically engineered mutant tissue plasminogen activator, have been explored by using circular dichroism, steady-state fluorescence, UV–Visible spectroscopy, and in silico experiments. The tc-TNK is derived from the one-chain protein upon disruption of one peptide bond. Thermal denaturation experiments showed a slightly more stabilizing effect of the three co-solvents on the single-chain TNK (sc-TNK) in comparison to that on tc-TNK. Unlike single-chain tenecteplase, the two-chain form undergoes reversible denaturation which is somehow perturbed in some cases as the result of the presence of osmolytes. Very minor changes in the secondary structure and the tertiary structure were observed. The molecular dynamics simulations and comparative structural analysis of catalytic domain of the protein in the single-chain and two-chain forms in pure water, mannitol/water, trehalose/water, and sucrose/water showed that while the stabilizing effect of the three osmolytes on tc-TNK might be induced by preferential accumulation of these molecules around the nonpolar and aromatic residues, that is to say, fewer water-hydrophobic residues' interactions in tc-TNK, sc-TNK is stabilized by preferential exclusion effect.Graphical abstract(a) Schematic representation of protein-osmolyte and protein-water interactions following increase in osmolyte concentration for single-chain tenecteplase in the presence of various concentrations of mannitol and trehalose (left) and sucrose (right), as well as the two-chain tenecteplase in the presence of the three osmolytes (right), (b) the two-chain protein formation from the single-chain one, (c) thermal denaturation reversibility in the absence of osmolytes acquired following the single- to two-chain tenecteplase conversion.Unlabelled Image
       
  • Polyamine-co-2, 6-diaminopyridine covalently bonded on chitosan for the
           adsorptive removal of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Wen Liang, Manlin Li, Shuncheng Jiang, Amjad Ali, Zengqiang Zhang, Ronghua Li In the present study, 2, 6-diaminopyridine (PD) and polyamine compounds (ethylenediamine (EDA), triethylenetetramine (TETA), and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA)) were used to modify chitosan (CS). The obtained derivatives (PD-CS, PD-EDA-CS, PD-TETA-CS, and PD-TEPA-CS) were identified and employed as adsorbents in batch experiments for the removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. The results confirmed that successful modification improves the Hg(II) adsorption significantly compared to pristine CS. The adsorbed amounts of Hg(II) increased gradually and reached maxima at pH values above 4.0 for all derivatives. The Hg(II) adsorption equilibrium state was achieved within 12 h, with the process driven by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir model effectively interpreted the Hg(II) adsorption isotherms; the maximum adsorption capacities for Hg(II) ions at 295 K were 172.7, 303.6, 276.0, and 230.6 mg/g for PD-CS, PD-EDA-CS, PD-TETA-CS, and PD-TEPA-CS, respectively. High temperature and low ionic strength favored Hg(II) adsorption. The Hg(II)-loaded CS derivative was easily regenerated and showed acceptable reusability. The further FT-IR and XPS analyses indicate that the Hg(II) adsorption is governed by a process combining electrostatic attraction and a coordination reaction. The CS derivatives produced from polyamine-co-2, 6-diaminopyridine covalently bonded onto CS are promising adsorbents for the adsorptive removal of Hg(II) from an aqueous solution.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Enzyme and pH dual-responsive hyaluronic acid nanoparticles mediated
           combination of photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Qian Ren, Zhenguo Liang, Xin Jiang, Ping Gong, Lihua Zhou, Zhihong Sun, Jingjing Xiang, Zhen Xu, Xinghua Peng, Sanpeng Li, Wenjun Li, Lintao Cai, Jiaoning Tang Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural biopolymer that can target to tumor cells due to CD44 receptors overexpressed in tumor cells. Here, a theranostic nanoparticle HA-Ce6 (DOX) with enzyme and pH dual-responsive is presented, which combined HA and a highly promised photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) using adipic dihydrazide (ADH) as a linker. The hydrazide group on its surface can efficiently conjugate doxorubicin to form HA-Ce6 (DOX) nanoparticles through the pH-sensitive hydrazone bond. In this study, the dual-response of HA-Ce6 (DOX) nanoparticles in the tumor cell are discussed. The HA-Ce6 (DOX) nanoparticles showed an average size of 90 nm with a uniform spherical morphology. In vitro drug release studies showed that HA-Ce6 (DOX) accomplished rapid drug release under acid conditions and enzyme stimulating. Confocal images revealed that the nanoparticles enhance the cellular accumulation of DOX and Ce6 in A549 cells. The therapeutic efficacy of HA-Ce6 (DOX) nanoparticles in A549 cells in vitro was evaluated through the MTT assay. The results showed that the therapeutic efficacy of HA-Ce6 (DOX) nanoparticles against A549 cells was remarkably enhanced compared with free DOX and free Ce6. These results indicate that the HA-Ce6 (DOX) nanoparticles could be a promising delivery system for photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.
       
  • Design of biostable scaffold based on collagen crosslinked by dialdehyde
           chitosan with presence of gallic acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Pemo Bam, Anindita Bhatta, Ganesan Krishnamoorthy In this study, we have prepared the biostable collagen scaffold which is crosslinked by dialdehyde chitosan (DAC) with presence of Gallic acid (GA) and characterized its physico-chemical, biostable and biocompatible properties. The digital photographic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of the prepared collagen scaffold is exposed well with properly oriented interconnected porous natured structure. The appearance of diffraction peaks showed slightly crystalline characteristic when compared to others. The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements indicates well significantly increased denaturation temperature (TD) and decreased decomposition rate. FT-IR result suggests the structural integrity of collagen which favours the molecular stability. The dialdehyde groups from DAC crosslinked with collagen functional groups that increase the molecular crosslinking owing to the large number of amino groups in its molecular chain. This scaffold exhibited 87% resistance against collagenolytic degradation by collagenase. The results showed that the improved biostability which prevents the free access of the collagenase to binds with the collagen triple helical chains. This scaffold confirm high biocompatibilities; enhanced cell proliferation and adhesions properties. This results gains new insight into the collagen scaffold to improves the biostability. This could be suitable method to preparation of collagenous biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Preparation and evaluation of Bletilla striata polysaccharide/graphene
           oxide composite hemostatic sponge
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Junke Chen, Luyang Lv, Ying Li, Xiaodong Ren, Hao Luo, Yuanping Gao, Hengxiu Yan, Yanfang Li, Yan Qu, Lixin Yang, XiuJun Li, Rui Zeng Uncontrolled bleeding is an important cause of military and civilian casualties. GO has received more attention in the field of hemostasis. However, pure GO has various limitation in application due to its potential thrombosis, hemolytic and cytotoxicity. Herein, we present a simple, rapid and low-cost method to combine GO and natural polysaccharides by hydrogen bonding to prepare a new material Bletilla striata polysaccharide/graphene oxide composite sponge (BGCS). The BGCS was successfully synthesized and characterized by SEM, IR, RAMAN, XRD and Zeta potential analyzer analysis. The BGCS exhibited favorable biocompatibility. Besides, the porosity of BGCS was higher than 90% and showed good water absorption capacity. The results of whole blood coagulation evaluation showed that the BGCS can promote blood coagulation within 30 s without anticoagulant, showing excellent hemostatic effect. Further coagulation mechanism studies indicated that the surface of the BGCS possessed a high charge (−27.3 ± 0.9 mV) and showed strong platelet stimulation, the BGCS can also induce red blood cell aggregation, accelerate fibrin formation and accelerate blood coagulation. Therefore, the BGCS can stop bleeding within 50 s in rat-tail amputation models. The BGCS provides a new perspective for the safe application of GO in the field of trauma hemostasis.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Chitin and chitosan production from shrimp shells using ammonium-based
           ionic liquids
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Leta Deressa Tolesa, Bhupender S. Gupta, Ming-Jer Lee Ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs): diisopropylethylammonium acetate ([DIPEA][Ac]), diisopropylethylammonium propanoate ([DIPEA][P]) and dimethylbutylammonium acetate ([DMBA][Ac]) are used for the extraction of chitin from shrimp shells. The extracted chitins were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and 1H NMR. The yield of chitin, with moderate molecular weights, can be as high as 13.4% (mass of extracted chitin/mass of shrimp shells) when the extraction was operated at 110 °C for 24 h. The extracted chitin can be further converted into chitosan and the product has 93% degree of deacetylation. The experimental results reveal that the ILs play a remarkable role in the extraction of chitin from shrimp shells with high selectivity. These ammonium-based ILs can be a promising green solvent to extract chitin from wasted shrimp shells and then converted into chitosan.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and whey protein films applied on
           fresh cut turkey pieces
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Ieva Brink, Aušra Šipailienė, Daiva Leskauskaitė The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of edible films made from a mixture of whey proteins and chitosan, supplemented with cranberry or quince juice, and then applied on fresh cut turkey pieces. Films were used to wrap fresh cut turkey pieces inoculated with S. typhimurium, E. coli, and C. jejuni. The order of the antimicrobial activities of whey protein-chitosan film supplemented with quince juice against bacteria was as follows: L. plantarum 
       
  • Chitosan activated with divinyl sulfone: a new heterofunctional support
           for enzyme immobilization. Application in the immobilization of lipase B
           from Candida antarctica
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Bruna B. Pinheiro, Nathalia S. Rios, Elena Rodríguez Aguado, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente, Tiago M. Freire, Pierre B.A. Fechine, José C.S. dos Santos, Luciana R.B. Gonçalves A novel heterofunctional support for enzyme immobilization, chitosan-divinyl sulfone, was assessed in this study. The activation of chitosan with DVS was carried out at three different pHs (10.0, 12.5 and 14.0) and a Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB) was selected as the model enzyme. After immobilization, the biocatalysts were incubated under alkaline conditions in a buffer to facilitate the multipoint covalent attachment, followed by incubation in ethylenediamine (EDA) aiming at blocking the remaining reactive groups. The highest thermal stability was obtained when pH 10.0 was used during support activation. These results were shown to be better than those obtained when using glutaraldehyde as the support-activating reagent. Subsequently, the immobilization pH was investigated (5.0, 7.0 and 10.0) prior to alkaline incubation, with the highest enzyme stability levels found at pH 10.0. Finally, the selected biocatalyst was used in the hydrolysis of ethyl hexanoate and presented an activity of 14,520.37 U/g of immobilized lipase at pH 5.0. These results show that chitosan activated with divinyl sulfone is a very promising support for enzyme immobilization and the proposed protocol is able to successfully improve enzyme stability.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Biochemical and thermodynamic characterization of de novo synthesized
           β-amylase from fenugreek
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Dinesh Chand Agrawal, Alka Dwevedi, Arvind M. Kayastha β-Amylase has been de novo synthesized from germinating fenugreek seeds. Enzyme has been isolated and purified from 36 h germinated seeds with 226-fold purification and specific activity of 763 U/mg. Homogeneity of the purified β-amylase has been confirmed with size-exclusion chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI MS/MS analysis. The isoelectric point, optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme were found to be pH 5.2, 5.7 and 57 °C, respectively. The enzyme was specific for soluble starch with Km and Vmax of 2.4 mg/mL and 833.3 U/mg, respectively. Maltose was found to be competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with inhibition constant (Ki) of 14 mM. However, metallic ions like Ag+ and Hg2+ were found to be non-competitive inhibitors of the enzyme. Thermodynamic parameters like Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) changes have further revealed that thermal denaturation of the enzyme has followed first-order with the enzyme unfolding rather an aggregation with the process being irreversible. The activation energy of β-amylase during thermal activation and denaturation were 27.5 kJ/mol and 145.23 kJ/mol, respectively at R2 > 0.92. Thus, the enzyme was stable even at higher temperature with ability of undergoing catalysis making it commercially exploitable, particularly in food and pharmaceutical industries.
       
  • C+bond+forming+reactions&rft.title=International+Journal+of+Biological+Macromolecules&rft.issn=0141-8130&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Design and synthesis of amine-functionalized cellulose with multiple
           binding sites and their application in CC bond forming reactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Yahao Dong, Ying Lai, Xiaoxia Wang, Min Gao, Fengjun Xue, Xiaofeng Chen, Yansong Ma, Yuping Wei Straw is a green and promising material in nature. However, as is the case for all other biopolymers, straw have to face the challenge of underutilization thereby resulting in environmental and economic issues. To overcome these drawbacks, the urgent exploitation of straw is needed for its comprehensive utilization. In this paper, we chose cellulose as the straw model to prepare two amine ligands functionalized environmentally-friendly cellulose supported catalyst. The ethylenediamine functionalized cellulose catalyst (ADC) was effective in the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with nitromethane to synthesize nitroalkenes and 1,3‑dinitroalkanes. Based on ADC, the diethylenetriamine functionalized cellulose (CL-DETA-Cl) could capture Pd firmly by virtue of the covalent bonding between diethylenetriamine functionalized cellulose and palladium nanoparticles. The synthesized catalyst (CL-DETA-Pd) was then illuminated by using FT-IR, TGA, XRD, TEM, ICP-OES and XPS. The multifunctional complex could catalyze the Suzuki-Miyaura reactions efficiently and prevented the metal leaching through the multiple capturing sites (hydroxyl and amine groups) with palladium. Also, the catalyst could be completely regenerated in a few cycles with simple centrifugation. This study will provide reliable foundation and extensive application way to further utilization of straw.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Observation of in vitro cellulose synthesis by bacterial cellulose
           synthase with time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Hirotaka Tajima, Paavo A. Penttilä, Tomoya Imai, Kyoko Yamamoto, Yoshiaki Yuguchi Cellulose synthase is the enzyme that produces cellulose in the living organisms like plant, and has two functions: polymerizing glucose residues (polymerization) and assembling these polymerized molecules into a crystalline microfibril with a “cellulose I” crystallographic structure (crystallization). Many studies, however, have shown that an in vitro reaction of cellulose synthase produces aggregates of a non-native crystallographic structure “cellulose II”, despite the remaining polymerizing activity. This is partial denaturation or loss of crystallization function in cellulose synthase, which needs to be resolved to reconstitute its native activity. To this end, we aimed to clarify the process of cellulose II formation by bacterial cellulose synthase in vitro, using in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). An increase in scattering specific to synthesis was observed around two distinct regions of q (0.2–0.4 nm−1 and
       
  • Hydrothermal encapsulation of lanthanum oxide derived Aegle marmelos
           admixed chitosan bead system for nitrate and phosphate retention
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Ilango Aswin Kumar, Chellappa Jeyaprabha, Sankaran Meenakshi, Natrayasamy Viswanathan The potential of hydrothermal technology was utilized for the preparation of promising adsorbents in order to overcome the troubles of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) and eutrophication which is caused by excess nitrate (NO3−) and phosphate (PO43−) ions in water. Hence, in the present investigation, the chitosan (CS) encapsulated lanthanum oxide (La2O3) admixed Aegle marmelos(AM) (La2O3AM@CS) composite beads was prepared by both in situ precipitation (In situ) and hydrothermal (Hydro) methods for NO3− and PO43− adsorption. The hydro supported La2O3AM@CS composite beads hold an enhanced nitrate and phosphate sorption capacity (SC) of 27.84 and 34.91 mg/g than the other adsorbents prepared by in situ method. The characterization studies of the adsorbents such as FTIR, XRD, SEM and BET analysis were explored in detail. In batch scale, the adsorption affecting parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage, initial adsorbate strength, competing anions and temperature was optimized. The fitted experimental data of various isotherms and thermodynamic parameters supports the feasible nature of NO3− and PO43− adsorption system. The field trial investigations and reuse of La2O3AM@CS composite beads were also executed.
       
  • Performance of chitosan engraved iron and lanthanum mixed oxyhydroxide for
           the detoxification of hexavalent chromium
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Jayaram Preethi, Sivakumar Vigneshwaran, Sankaran Meenakshi The iron - lanthanum mixed oxyhydroxide (FLMOH) and chitosan engraved iron - lanthanum mixed oxyhydroxide materials (CSFLMOH) were prepared successfully and utilized for the hexavalent chromium adsorption studies. The physicochemical properties of pristine and Cr(VI) treated adsorbents were characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM with EDX, TGA and DSC analysis. The efficacy of the CSFLMOH was compared with FLMOH towards the uptake of Cr(VI) ions and was explored using batch technique under various influencing parameters viz., time, dose, pH, initial concentration and co-existing anions. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin - Radushkevich isotherms were used to analyze the adsorption behavior at 303, 313 and 323 K. The rate of the reaction was calculated using reaction based and diffusion-based models. Recycle and reuse studies were demonstrated using 0.05 M NaOH as the desorbing medium.
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of metal loaded chitosan-alginate
           biopolymeric hybrid beads for the efficient removal of phosphate and
           nitrate ions from aqueous solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Perumal Karthikeyan, Hyder Ali Thagira Banu, Sankaran Meenakshi The aim of this present scenario is to examine the removal performance and mechanism of phosphate and nitrate removal onto metal (Fe3+) loaded chitosan and alginate biopolymeric hybrid beads (Fe-CS-Alg) from aqueous solution. The batch adsorption experiments were accomplished via various operating parameters like pH, dosage, contact time, co-existing anions, and temperature. The equilibrium isotherm study was scrutinized by three different isotherm models like Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The thermodynamic statics specifies that the spontaneous and endothermic nature of phosphate and nitrate adsorption. The proposed mechanism indicated that the removal of phosphate and nitrate ions was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, complexation and ion exchange mechanism. Consequently, the adsorption mechanism was examined by studying the physicochemical characteristics of the beads and sorbate adsorbed beads using the FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDAX with mapping analysis and TGA analytical techniques. The performance of the Fe-CS-Alg beads in field condition was assessed with contaminated water sample taken from nearby an industrial area. Thus, the experimental outcomes clearly indicated that the developed biopolymeric hybrid beads could be utilized as the potential adsorbents for the removal of phosphate and nitrate ions from aqueous solution.
       
  • Bioactive fish scale incorporated chitosan biocomposite scaffolds for bone
           tissue engineering
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 130Author(s): Aylin Kara, Sedef Tamburaci, Funda Tihminlioglu, Hasan Havitcioglu Recently, biologically active natural macromolecules have come into prominence to be used as potential materials in scaffold design due to their unique characteristics which can mimic the human tissue structure with their physical and chemical similarity. Among them, fish scale (FS) is a biologically active material with its structural similarity to bone tissue due to including type I collagen and hydroxyapatite and also have distinctive collagen arrangement. In the present study, it is aimed to design a novel composite scaffold with FS incorporation into chitosan (CH) matrix for bone tissue regeneration. Therefore, two biological macromolecules, fish scale and chitosan, were combined to produce bio-composite scaffold. First, FS were decellularized with the chemical method and disrupted physically as microparticles (100 μm), followed by dispersal in CH with ultrasonic homogenisation, CH/FS scaffolds were fabricated by lyophilization technique. Scaffolds were characterized physically, chemically, mechanically, and morphologically. SEM and porosity results showed that CH/FS scaffolds have uniform pore structure showing high porosity. Mechanical properties and degradation rate are enhanced with increasing FS content. In vitro cytotoxicity, proliferation and osteogenic activity of the scaffolds were evaluated with SaOS-2 cell line. CH/FS scaffolds did not show any cytotoxicity effect and the cells were gradually proliferated during culture period. Cell viability results showed that, FS microparticles had a proliferative effect on SaOS-2 cells when compared to control group. ALP activity and biomineralization studies indicated that FS microparticle reinforcement increased osteogenic activity during culture period. As a biological macromolecule with unique characteristics, FS was found as cytocompatible and provided promising effects as reinforcement agents for polymeric scaffolds. In conclusion, fabricated CH/FS bio-composites showed potential for bone tissue engineering applications.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
 
 
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