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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3157 journals)

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Showing 1401 - 1600 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
Intl. J. of Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Accounting Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.399, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Africa Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.699, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Approximate Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Biochemistry & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Biological Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.917, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.2, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Child-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Clinical and Health Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.345, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.186, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.648, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Developmental Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 460, SJR: 1.441, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Educational Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.617, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.276, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.82, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.402, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.366, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.879, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Gerontology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.458, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.947, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280, SJR: 1.498, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.027, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Human-Computer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.116, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.334, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.124, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Industrial Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.873, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.514, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Law and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.546, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.362, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.597, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.92, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.595, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.247, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.717, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mining Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.323, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.032, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.646, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.717, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.618, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.783, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.11, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.395, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.981, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.401, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.463, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.157, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.485, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.471, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.528, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.259, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.295, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.793, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgery Open     Open Access   (SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Surgery Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.746, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.429, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Women's Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Medical Review on Down Syndrome     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.973, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.841, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Economics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.632, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.497, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Intl. Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.667, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Strategic Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Investigación en Educación Médica     Open Access  
Investigaciones de Historia Económica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 0)
Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa     Open Access  
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.115, CiteScore: 4)
iScience     Open Access  
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71, SJR: 3.169, CiteScore: 8)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription  
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 3.571, CiteScore: 2)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.495, CiteScore: 2)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription  
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription  
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. Européen des Urgences et de Réanimation     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
J. for Nurse Practitioners     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 0)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1049, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 6.875, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.882, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Accounting Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Acute Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.01, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.828, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.053, CiteScore: 4)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.681, CiteScore: 2)
J. of African Trade     Open Access  
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.8, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.981, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.187, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Algorithms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 5.049, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.461, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.02, CiteScore: 4)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Anesthesia History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.24, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.043, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.339, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.636, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.321, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.255, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.303, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.907, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.885, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.659, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.763, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Arrhythmia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.398, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Arthroplasty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.373, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity     Open Access   (SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.509, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.488, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 0.696, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.046, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Behavior, Health & Social Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.147, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.028, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.712, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Bionic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.584, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.929, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.522, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Bone Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.941, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.753, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.26, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.917
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0141-8130
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • High-toughness natural polymer nonwoven preforms inspired by silkworm
           cocoon structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Hyo Won Kwak, Jungju Eom, Se Youn Cho, Min Eui Lee, Hyoung-Joon Jin As the interest in environmentally friendly materials and concerns regarding depletion of petroleum resources has increased, the research on natural polymers is being actively pursued. Among the various materials based on natural polymeric resources, the interest in using natural fibers in bio-composites has grown due to their lightweight, non-toxicity, low cost, and abundance. However, the lack of interfacial adhesion between filaments and poor water resistance make the use of natural fiber-based polymer composites less attractive. To overcome these drawbacks, formaldehyde-based synthetic binders have been used. However, this requires an additional synthesis of the binder, and potential toxicity problems exist. In this work, robust and rigid natural polymer nonwoven preforms were prepared by mixing jute fibers with silk sericin (SS). SS was employed as a natural facile binder and the strong binding between jute fibers and SS resulted in remarkable enhancements in tensile strength, elongation, and toughness, which increased up to 539.1, 385.7, and 1943.8%, respectively, compared with the pristine jute nonwoven. In addition, the dense and rigid structure obtained through SS coating ensured the structural stability of the nonwoven preforms in moisture environments. Silkworm cocoon-structured natural polymer nonwoven preforms with excellent mechanical strength and higher physical stability may have more potential utilization in the composite material fields.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Repeated repeat problems: Combinatorial effect of C9orf72-derived
           dipeptide repeat proteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): April L. Darling, Leonid Breydo, Emma G. Rivas, Niad T. Gebru, Dali Zheng, Jeremy D. Baker, Laura J. Blair, Chad A. Dickey, John Koren, Vladimir N. Uversky A microsatellite expansion mutation in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD). The expansion mutation leads to C9orf72 loss of function, RNA foci formation, and generation of five species of non-AUG RAN translated dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs), such as poly(GA), poly(GP), poly(GR), poly(PA), and poly(PR). Although one cell can contain more than type of DPRs, information about interplay between different DPR species is limited. Here we show that the combined expression of distinct C9orf72-derived dipeptide repeat species produces cellular outcomes and structural differences that are unique compared to the expression of a single DPR species, suggesting the complex biological interactions that occur when multiple DPR variants are simultaneously expressed. Our data highlights the need for further analysis of how combined expression of different DPRs affects the disease state.
       
  • Zinc encapsulated chitosan nanoparticle to promote maize crop yield
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Ram Chandra Choudhary, R.V. Kumaraswamy, Sarita Kumari, S.S. Sharma, Ajay Pal, Ramesh Raliya, Pratim Biswas, Vinod Saharan Zinc deficient/or alkaline soil is globally widespread issue and cultivation of cereals in such soil results in severe depression in plant growth, higher disease incidence and lower grain yield. To address such problems, laboratory synthesized Zn-chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated via seed priming and foliar application in maize plants. Zn-chitosan NPs (0.01–0.16%) showed strong in vitro antifungal and seedling growth promotry activities. Further, Zn-chitosan NPs exhibited significant disease control through strengthening of plant innate immunity by elevating antioxidant and defense enzymes, balancing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhancing lignin accumulation. In field, seed treatment and foliar application of developed NPs (0.01–0.16%) significantly controlled Curvularia leaf spot (CLS) disease, increased grain yield from 20.5 to 39.8% and enriched the grain with zinc micronutrient from 41.27 to 62.21 μg/g dw. Results claim that Zn-chitosan NPs could be an effective growth promotry, disease controlling and micronutrient fortifying agent in maize crop.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Characterization of mitochondrial genomes of three Andrena bees (Apoidea:
           Andrenidae) and insights into the phylogenetics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Bo He, Tianjuan Su, Zeqing Niu, Zeyang Zhou, Zhanying Gu, Dunyuan Huang Andrena is a large bee genus of>1500 species, which includes many important pollinators of agricultural systems. In this study, we present three mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Andrena species, which are the pollinators of Camellia oleifera. Compared with putative ancestral gene arrangement of insects, the three mitogenomes present identical gene rearrangement events, including local inversion (trnR) and gene shuffling (trnQ/trnM, trnK/trnD, and trnW/trnC-trnY). Most PCGs initiate with standard ATN codon and share the stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas truncated stop codon T was detected in the atp6 gene of A. chekiangensis. Furthermore, the nad4 gene end with a single T in all three Andrena species. All tRNAs could be folded into clover-leaf secondary structure except for trnS1, with the dihydrouracil (DHU) arm forming a simple loop. Phylogenetic analysis is performed on 17 Andrena mitogenomes. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods generate identical topology, in which A. hunanensis and A. striata form a group and are close to A. camellia. Although A. chekiangensis is also difficult to be distinguished from A. camellia by morphological methods, A. chekiangensis and A. haemorrhoa form a clade and are grouped with the other taxa of the genus Andrena.
       
  • Rice starch citrates and lactates: A comparative study on hot water and
           cold water swelling starches
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Natasha Abbas Butt, Tahira Mohsin Ali, Abid Hasnain In the present study, modifications were done by varying concentration of citric and lactic acid (20 g and 40 g) to produce starch citrates (SC20, SC40) and lactates (LA20, LA40), followed by alcoholic alkaline treatment to produce cold water swelling modified starches (CWS). These modified starches were then compared to their native hot water swelling (HWS) counterparts in terms of functional properties. The CWS starches demonstrated instant viscosity even at room temperature and thus eliminate the need of heating assembly. The CWS (SC40) showed the highest swelling power and water binding capacity among all samples. Morphological characteristics revealed enlargement and roughening of granules after alcoholic alkaline treatment. Absence of 1047 cm−1 peak in FTIR spectra of CWS samples verified the loss of crystalline structure. The least percent retrogradation of 31.33% was exhibited by HWS SC40. Percent increase in hardness of gels after 7 days' storage showed remarkable decline in retrogradation tendency of CWS samples. Absence of gelatinization peak and high initial viscosity of CWS samples confirmed gelatinization due to alcoholic alkaline treatment.
       
  • The E-helix is a central core in a conserved helical bundle involved in
           nucleotide binding and transmembrane domain intercalation in the ABC
           transporter superfamily
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Poonam Vishwakarma, Atanu Banerjee, Ritu Pasrija, Rajendra Prasad, Andrew M. Lynn ABC transporter proteins are involved in active transport, both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Sequence analysis of nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of ABC proteins from all taxa revealed a well-conserved new motif having the signature: xT/ShxE/DNhxF, located between Q-loop and ABC signature sequence. A recent structure of an ABC transporter, ABCG5/G8 highlighted the motif as an essential structural determinant of inter-domain crosstalk and termed it as E-helix. We carried out an extensive computational analysis to unravel important structural entities alongside E-helix which plausibly play role in the interlocking mechanism of NBD with TMD. We identified E-helix to be a central structural moiety which interacts with three helices and an intracellular loop that leads to the transmembrane domain. Considering its wide occurrence, we examined the importance of this motif in one representative multidrug ABC transporter of Candida albicans, Cdr1p. The motif residues were replaced by alanines both individually as well as in combinations. The GFP-tagged versions of mutant proteins were overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overall, our mutational data suggested that this motif plays a role in the maintenance of proper structural fold and/or inter-domain contacts in Cdr1p. We, thus, unveil an essential structural motif in ABC superfamily transporters.
       
  • Chitosan-heparin nanoparticle coating on anodized NiTi for improvement of
           blood compatibility and biocompatibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Fatemeh Mohammadi, Nasim Golafshan, Mahshid Kharaziha, Ali Ashrafi The aim of this study was to simultaneously improve blood compatibility and corrosion resistance of nitinol via two-step process; anodizing and consequently coating with chitosans-heparin nanoparticles. Moreover, the role of these surface modification processes on the heparin release kinetic and blood compatibility was investigated. Finally, the interaction between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and surface modified samples was investigated. Electrochemical characterization revealed that while Ni ions released from the anodized sample (9 ppb), chitosan-heparin nanoparticle coatings prohibited from Ni ion release form NiTi substrate. Moreover, the controlled release of heparin was found from chitosan-heparin nanoparticle coating deposited on the nanotubes, leading to significant improvement of blood compatibility. Finally, HUVECs were attached and proliferated on the chitosan-heparin nanoparticle coated samples confirming the cell compatibility of samples. In summary, results proved that two-step anodizing process and heparin release could promote both endothelial cell compatibility and blood compatibility to nitinol surface which might be appropriate for coronary stent application.
       
  • Studying the mechanisms and targets of glycation and advanced glycation
           end-products in simple eukaryotic model systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Christian Q. Scheckhuber Biological systems are usually astonishingly complex. This complexity makes it often difficult if not impossible to study their inner workings. In order to address complex research questions more simply structured models (e.g., microorganisms, plants, non-vertebrate animals) are utilized. Findings from these studies can then be translated to more complex systems like mammals. This strategy facilitates the identification of relevant ‘leads’ that can be specifically addressed in the higher organism. In this review studies to elucidate the relevance, modes of action and molecular targets of reactive carbonyl species using simple model systems are discussed. These dicarbonyls are formed during metabolic activity in all organisms as toxic by-products that lead to the dysfunction of essential cellular components by a process termed glycation, resulting ultimately in the generation of advanced glycation end-products. Understanding how both dicarbonyls and advanced glycation end-products are formed, which environmental conditions influence their levels and what cellular pathways they affect is paramount to develop efficient strategies targeting diseases that are related to reactive carbonyl species, like diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. This contribution presents important findings in the field of dicarbonyls and glycation from fungi, plants, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.
       
  • Glycation of α-synuclein amplifies the binding with
           glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Pavel Semenyuk, Kseniya Barinova, Vladimir Muronetz α-Synuclein was recently found to interact with moonlighting glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) involved in neurodegenerative diseases development. In the present work, we have analyzed influence of α-synuclein glycation on this interaction, because the literature data suggest relation between diabetes and Parkinson's disease. According to zeta potential measurement, glycation can shift the charge of α-synuclein to more negative values that was pronounced in case of modification by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. We selected carboxymethyl lysine as a typical advanced glycation end product and performed molecular dynamics simulations. The binding was found to be electrostatically driven and was significantly amplified after α-synuclein glycation because of increase the number of acidic residues. Since the main binding site was located in the anion-binding groove, which comprises the active site of GAPDH, enhanced binding of α-synuclein can result in GAPDH inactivation. This hypothesis was proven experimentally. Glycation of α-synuclein resulted in increase of GAPDH inactivation, and this effect was more pronounced in case of modification by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The obtained results can reflect the probable relations between protein glycation and neurodegenerative diseases.
       
  • Stabilizing bromelain for therapeutic applications by adsorption
           immobilization on spores of probiotic Bacillus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Tochukwu Nwamaka Nwagu, Chika Jude Ugwuodo Bromelain, a protease from pineapple plant can be applied as oral drug for the treatment of inflammation and certain diseases. Unlike most conventional supports, immobilization on edible support will make the enzyme suitable for therapeutic use. In this study, spores of probiotic Bacillus sp was used for the adsorption of bromelain. Effect of pH, temperature and enzyme concentration on bromelain immobilization was studied, followed by characterization of the enzymes. Maximum bromelain coupling (%) (50.607 ± 4.194) was obtained when immobilization was carried out at pH 6.0, 24 °C for 150 min. The immobilized enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 8 and 80 °C, while the free enzyme had 6 and 60 °C as its optimum pH and temperature, respectively. Bromelain Vmax increased after immobilization while Km decreased. Activation energy, Ea was 26.513 kJ/mol and 20.942 kJ/mol for the free and immobilized enzymes, respectively. The immobilized bromelain also showed significantly greater storage and thermal stability than the free bromelain. At 80 °C, the free bromelain lost all its activity after 50 min while the immobilized enzyme lost only 46.89% activity. Bromelain was successfully immobilized on Bacillus spores with improved catalytic and non-catalytic properties and this holds great potential for its growing therapeutic applications.
       
  • Unravelling protein -organic solvent interaction of organic solvent
           tolerant elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K crystal structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Zatty Syamimi @. Adura Mat Said, Fatin Amirah Mohd Arifi, Abu Bakar Salleh, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman, Adam Leow Thean Chor, Wahhida Latip, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad Ali The utilization of organic solvents as reaction media for enzymatic reactions provides numerous industrially attractive advantages. However, an adaptation of enzyme towards organic solvent is unpredictable and not fully understood because of limited information on the organic solvent tolerant enzymes. To understand how the enzyme can adapt to the organic solvent environment, structural and computational approaches were employed. A recombinant elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K was an organic solvent tolerant zinc metalloprotease was successfully crystallized and diffracted up to 1.39 Å. Crystal structure of elastase from strain K showed the typical, canonical alpha-beta hydrolase fold consisting of 10-helices (118 residues), 10- β-strands (38 residues) and 142 residues were formed other secondary structure such as loop and coil to whole structure. The elastase from Pseusomonas aeruginosa strain K possess His-140, His-144 and Glu-164 served as a ligand for zinc ion. The conserved catalytic triad was composed of Glu-141, Tyr-155 and His-223. Three-dimensional structure features such as calcium-binding and presence of disulphide-bridge contribute to the stabilizing the elastase structure. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of elastase revealed that, amino acid residues located at the surface area and disulphide bridge in Cys-30 to Cys-58 were responsible for enzyme stability in organic solvents.
       
  • l-amino+acid+oxidase+isolated+from+Bothrops+jararacussu+venom+in+a+co-culture+model+of+HepG2+and+HUVEC+cells&rft.title=International+Journal+of+Biological+Macromolecules&rft.issn=0141-8130&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Cytotoxic, genotoxic, and oxidative stress-inducing effect of an l-amino
           acid oxidase isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom in a co-culture
           model of HepG2 and HUVEC cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): A.R.T. Machado, A.F. Aissa, D.L. Ribeiro, T.R. Costa, R.S. Ferreira, S.V. Sampaio, L.M.G. Antunes Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence rates have increased worldwide, which encouraged the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs. l-Amino acid oxidases from snake venoms are cytotoxic towards human tumor cells in in vitro monoculture systems, which do not simulate the tumor microenvironment. We examined the antitumor potential of BjussuLAAO-II, an l-amino acid oxidase from Bothrops jararacussu venom, in hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) in monoculture and co-culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. All the concentrations tested (0.25–5.00 μg/mL) were cytotoxic (MTT and clonogenic survival assays) towards HepG2 and HUVEC cells in monoculture, and increased oxidative stress by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence assay. Only 1.00 and 5.00 μg/mL exerted these effects in HepG2 cells co-cultured with HUVEC cells, and were genotoxic (comet assay) to HUVEC cells in monoculture. BjussuLAAO-II at 5.00 μg/mL induced DNA, but not chromosomal damage (micronucleus assay) in HepG2 cells in mono- and co-culture. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was more pronounced in monoculture, indicating that the tumor microenvironment influences the cellular response. BjussuLAAO-II caused cell death and DNA damage in HepG2 cells in vitro by inducing oxidative stress. Therefore, BjussuLAAO-II is a promising molecule for the development of new antitumor drugs.
       
  • Polysaccharides from chayote enhance lipid efflux and regulate NLRP3
           inflammasome priming in macrophage-like THP-1 cells exposed to cholesterol
           crystals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Victor Costa Castro-Alves, Tânia Misuzu Shiga, João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento The contribution of dietary fiber to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis may occur through other mechanisms besides the increased excretion of cholesterol. Although macrophages are crucial for lipid clearance, the excessive uptake of cholesterol crystals (CC) by these cells induce NLRP3 inflammasome and foam cell formation. Thus, we investigated whether the water-soluble DF from chayote (WSP) regulate CC-pretreated macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Linkage analysis indicated that WSP is composed mainly of pectic homogalacturonan and highly branched type I rhamnogalacturonan as well as hemicellulosic material including glucomannan, xyloglucan, and glucurono(arabino)xylan. WSP reduced interleukin (IL)-1β and chemokine release in CC-pretreated macrophages. Notably, WSP also reduced lipid accumulation in cells previously exposed to CC. Furthermore, WSP upregulated liver X receptor alpha expression, which may account for increased lipid efflux, and reduced matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression. WSP also reduced active caspase-1 protein levels, and downregulated NLRP3 and IL-1β gene expression in CC-pretreated cells, suggesting that this polysaccharide fraction regulates the priming signals required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Thus, WSP regulate lipid efflux and suppress inflammasome priming in macrophages, suggesting that the health benefits of this dietary fiber could go beyond its physical properties on the gastrointestinal tract.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Allura red (AR) is quickly incite to form amyloid-like fibril in hen egg
           white lysozyme (HEWL) at physiological pH
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Nasser Abdulatif Al-Shabib, Javed Masood Khan, Ajamaluddin Malik, Priyankar Sen, Sriroopreddy Ramireddy, Sudandiradoss Chinnappan, Salman Freeh Alamery, Fohad Mabood Husain, Aqeel Ahmad, Hani Choudhry, Mohmmad Imran Khan, Sayed Ali Shahzad Allura red (AR) is an artificial azo dye mostly used in food industries and has potential health risks. We examined the role of AR in amyloidogenesis using hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) at pH 7.0. The amyloidogenic induction properties of AR in HEWL were identified by circular dichroism (CD), turbidity, intrinsic fluorescence, light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and molecular dynamic simulation studies. Turbidity and light scattering measurements showed that HEWL becomes aggregated in the presence of 0.03–15.0 mM of AR at pH 7.0 but not at very low AR concentrations (0.01–0.28 mM). However, AR-induced aggregation is a kinetically rapid process, with no observable lag phase and saturation within 6 s. The kinetics results suggested that the HEWL aggregation induced by AR is very rapid. The CD results demonstrated that the total β-sheet content of HEWL was increased in the AR treated samples. The TEM results are established that AR-induced aggregates had amyloid-like structures. Molecular dynamics simulations analysis showed that the bound AR-HEWL structures were highly favored compared to unbound structures. The mechanism of AR-induced amyloid fibril formation may involve electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions.
       
  • The effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles on tau protein and neuron-like
           cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Mozhdeh Hajimohammadjafartehrani, Sara Haji Hosseinali, Abolfazl Dehkohne, Pegah Ghoraeian, Mahsa Ale-Ebrahim, Keivan Akhtari, Koorosh Shahpasand, Ali Akbar Saboury, Farnoosh Attar, Mojtaba Falahati Herein, the thermodynamic parameters of tau upon interaction with NiO NPs were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Also, molecular docking studies were run to explore the binding affinities of NiO NPs clusters with different sizes of 30 Å and 50 Å toward tau. Also, cytotoxic activity of NiO NPs against SH-SY5Y was determined by MTT, LDH, caspase-9/3 activity, and expression of apoptotic Bax and Bcl-2 genes assays.DLS study showed that NiO solution had a good colloidal stability. Fluorescence study revealed that KSV values were 2.95 ± 0.35 × 104, 3.31 ± 0.59 × 104 and 3.92 ± 0.65 × 104 at 298 K, 310 K and 315 K, respectively. Also, ∆G° (kJ/mol), ∆H° (kJ/mol) and T∆S° (kJ/mol) values were − 13.27 ± 1.57, 1.98 ± 0.14, 15.25 ± 2.01, respectively at 298 K. Theoretical studies depicted that affinity of 5O3T segment toward NiO NP (30 Å) is higher than NiO NP (50 Å) and the proportion of Lys residues are higher in the docked pose of NiO NP (30 Å)/5O3T complex than NP (50 Å)/5O3T complex. Moreover, NiO NPs demonstrated a significant increase in the mortality of SH-SY5Y cells in an apoptotic manner. This study determined that NiO NPs may mediate the formation of electrostatic interactions with tau and induction of undesired harmful effects on the neurons.
       
  • Structural and functional characterisation of xylanase purified from
           Penicillium chrysogenum produced in response to raw agricultural waste
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Sadia Fida Ullah, Amanda Araújo Souza, Pedro Ricardo V. Hamann, Alonso Roberto P. Ticona, Gideane M. Oliveira, Joao Alexandre R.G. Barbosa, Sonia M. Freitas, Eliane Ferreira Noronha Commercial interest in plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE) is motivated by their potential for energy or bioproduct generation that reduced dependency on non-renewable (fossil-derived) feedstock. Therefore, underlying work analysed the Penicillium chrysogenum isolate for PCWDE production by employing different biomass as a carbon source. Among the produced enzymes, three xylanase isoforms were observed in the culture filtrate containing sugarcane bagasse. Xylanase (PcX1) presenting 35 kDa molecular mass was purified by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. Unfolding was probed and analysed using fluorescence, circular dichroism and enzyme assay methods. Secondary structure contents were estimated by circular dichroism 45% α-helix and 10% β-sheet, consistent with the 3D structure predicted by homology. PcX1 optimally active at pH 5.0 and 30 °C, presenting t1/2 19 h at 30 °C and 6 h at 40 °C. Thermodynamic parameters/melting temperature 51.4 °C confirmed the PcX1 stability at pH 5.0. PcX1 have a higher affinity for oat spelt xylan, KM 1.2 mg·mL−1, in comparison to birchwood xylan KM 29.86 mg·mL−1 activity was inhibited by Cu+2 and activated by Zn+2. PcX1 exhibited significant tolerance for vanillin, trans-ferulic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, activity slightly inhibited (17%) by gallic and tannic acid.
       
  • Effect of debranching and temperature-cycled crystallization on the
           physicochemical properties of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) resistant starch
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Feng Zeng, Tao Li, Hui Zhao, Hongpei Chen, Xiaodan Yu, Bin Liu Resistant starch from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was prepared by debranching and subsequent recrystallization under isothermal and cycled temperature conditions. The granule morphology of the resistant starch was irregular in shape and size with rough surface. All the resistant starch samples exhibited B + V-type crystalline structure. The peripheral regions of native starch were better organized than that of the resistant starch samples. The solubility and swelling degree of native starch and resistant starch samples increased with the increase of temperature. The water holding capacity of native starch was much higher in comparison with resistant starch when the temperature was above 80 °C. The resistant starch showed better transmittance and freeze-thaw stability than that of native starch. These results suggest that kudzu starch is a potential resource for resistant starch preparation.
       
  • Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase: Structural feature in a biomimetic
           solution and structural changes in extrinsic conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Jongchan Lee, Li Xiang, Sumiya Byambabaatar, Heesoo Kim, Kyeong Sik Jin, Moonhor Ree Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) in a biomimetic buffer and extrinsic solutions (various pH values, temperatures, and metal ions) has been investigated for the first time in the view of three-dimensional (3D) structure by synchrotron X-ray and dynamic light scattering analyses. BLA in buffer is determined to have a structure resembling its crystallographic structure; but the 3D structure is slightly larger than the crystal structure. Such a structure is maintained with little variations in extrinsic solutions of pH 4.0–9.7, temperature 4–55 °C, and metal ions such as Ba2+, Mg2+, and Li+. These results collectively inform that BLA tends to favorably form a stable monomeric structure, which could provide structural clues to its enzymatic activities in moderate levels. Interestingly, BLA is found to reveal highly expanded structures at 65–75 °C and in Co2+ solution, which could correlate to the significantly pronounced enzymatic activities. However, BLA shows somewhat shrunken structures at pH 3.0 and in Hg2+ solution, supporting for the suppressed activities under these conditions.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of
           fucoidan compound agents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Yongbo Peng, Yuefan Song, Qiukuan Wang, Yue Hu, Yunhai He, Dandan Ren, Long Wu, Shu Liu, Haihua Cong, Hui Zhou Fucoidan extracted from brown algae displays diverse biological activities. In the present study, fucoidan was mixed with Chinese herb extracts, and the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of two fucoidan compound agents were evaluated. The results showed that fucoidan from Kjellmaniella crassifolia (KF) and Undaria pinnatifida (UF) were sulfated polysaccharides, Astragalus polysaccharide (AP) was composed of α-d-glucose, and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CPP) was a furanose. Furthermore, fucoidan compound agents stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cell proliferation and enhanced the secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro. In addition, KCA (KF + AP + CPP) and UCA (UF + AP + CPP) could improve the nonspecific immunity and the specific immunity of BALB/c mice. Fucoidan compound agents also increased the secretion of GM-CSF, TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 in vivo. Therefore, we confirmed that fucoidan compound agents have promise for development as supplementary immunopotentiators.
       
  • Purification, antitumor and anti-inflammation activities of an
           alkali-soluble and carboxymethyl polysaccharide CMP33 from Poria cocos
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Xiaofei Liu, Xiaoqin Wang, Xiaofei Xu, Xuewu Zhang A carboxymethyl polysaccharide CMP33 (15.23 × 104 Da) was isolated from edible and pharmaceutical mushroom Poria cocos using alkaline extraction followed by DEAE-52 and Saphadex-G200 + Saphadex-G150 column chromatographies. The structure analysis showed that CMP33 was composed of glucosyl residues containing a backbone chain of (1 → 3)-linked glucose residues and side chains of (1 → 6) and (1 → 2)-linked glucose residues, and possessed triple-helix structure. Bioassay results revealed that CMP33 displayed a dose-dependent inhibition on 5 cancer cells (HepG-2, MCF-7, SGC-7901, A549) in the range of 31.25–1000 μg/mL, but low cytotoxicity on normal liver cells L-O2. Moreover, CMP33 stimulated NO release and cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), and also inhibited LPS-stimulated overproduction of NO, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β, in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggested that CMP33 possessed anticancer, anti-inflammation and immune-stimulation activities, and potential for developing as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods.
       
  • Electrospun Schizophyllan/polyvinyl alcohol blend nanofibrous scaffold as
           potential wound healing
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Mohammad Reza Safaee-Ardakani, Ashrafalsadat Hatamian-Zarmi, Seyedeh Mahdieh Sadat, Zahra Beagom Mokhtari-Hosseini, Bahman Ebrahimi-Hosseinzadeh, Jamal Rashidiani, Hamid Kooshki In this study, aqueous Schizophyllan (SPG) (1.5 w/v%) was mixed with aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (10 w/v%) at various volume ratios and electrospun to prepare nanofibers. The fiber diameter was decreased by increasing the SPG content. A reliable linear relationship (p 
       
  • Radioprotective effect of Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides through
           mediation of ER apoptosis pathway in vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Lu Wang, Xiaoyu Li Exposure to ionizing radiation would induce human body to serious oxidative damage, leading to production of various diseases. In present study, the radioprotective effect based on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) apoptosis pathway of neutral polysaccharides from Hohenbuehelia serotina (NTHSP) was systematically investigated through establishment of radiation damage model in mice. Toxicological analyses showed that NTHSP did not possess any acute or chronic toxic on mice within experimental concentration range. In order to elucidate the radioprotective mechanism, immunohistochemical and RT-qPCR methods were respectively performed. The results suggested that the mice administrated with NTHSP could significantly prevent the splenocytes apoptosis induced by gamma-radiation through block of three major types in ER apoptosis pathway: PERK-ATF4-CHOP, IRE1α-XBP1-CHOP, as well as ATF6-XBP1-CHOP, compared with the mice in radiation group. Moreover, NTHSP could also inhibit the activation of Caspase-12 in ER, induced by gamma-radiation. Taken together, our results indicated that H. serotina polysaccharides possessed the excellent potential to serve as natural radioprotector for human body against the damage induced by radiation.
       
  • Preparation and characterization of resorcinol-dialdehyde
           starch-formaldehyde copolycondensation resin adhesive
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Ping Li, Yiqiang Wu, Ya Zhou, Yingfeng Zuo A resorcinol-dialdehyde starch-formaldehyde (RDSF) copolycondensation resin adhesive was prepared by substituting high reactive dialdehyde starch for a portion of formaldehyde in the formulation. Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR) analysis results confirmed that the copolycondensation reaction of the dialdehyde starch with resorcinol and formaldehyde was successful. The curing property, thermal stability, permeability and crystal structure of the RDSF adhesive were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The solids content, viscosity, curing time, bonding strength were also obtained. The results showed that the RDSF adhesive had a higher solids content, moderate viscosity, shorter curing time and better bond strength than a standard resorcinol-starch-formaldehyde (RSF) adhesive. It was found that dialdehyde starch could accelerate the curing rate, while decreasing the curing temperature and heat release during the curing process of RDSF. The dense cross-linked structure of the dialdehyde starch and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) system produced improved thermal stability. SEM results showed that the RDSF adhesive formed a thin and continuous adhesive layer on the surface of a poplar board, and filled the pores of the wood, which improved the bond strength. The crystal structure of the RDSF was not altered by addition of the starch, and the physicochemical properties of the adhesive were similar to those of a normal resorcinol-formaldehyde resin.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Role of DHH superfamily proteins in nucleic acids metabolism and stress
           tolerance in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Rajpal Srivastav, Rakesh Sharma, Simran Tandon, Chanderdeep Tandon DHH superfamily proteins play pivotal roles in various cellular processes like replication, recombination, repair and nucleic acids metabolism. These proteins are important for homeostasis maintenance and stress tolerance in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The prominent members of DHH superfamily include single-strand specific exonuclease RecJ, nanoRNases, polyphosphatase PPX1, pyrophosphatase, prune phosphodiesterase and cell cycle protein Cdc45. The mutations of genes coding for DHH superfamily proteins lead to severe growth defects and in some cases, may be lethal. The members of superfamily have a wide substrate spectrum. The spectrum of substrate for DHH superfamily members ranges from smaller molecules like pyrophosphate and cyclic nucleotides to longer single-stranded DNA molecule. Several genetic, structural and biochemical studies have provided interesting insights about roles of DHH superfamily members. However, there are still various unexplored members in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Many aspects of this superfamily associated with homeostasis maintenance and stress tolerance are still not clearly understood. A comprehensive understanding is pre-requisite to decipher the physiological significance of members of DHH superfamily. This article provides the current understanding of DHH superfamily members and their significance in nucleic acids metabolism and stress tolerance across diverse forms of life.
       
  • The regulation of Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport and
           accessory proteins in multivesicular body sorting and enveloped viral
           budding - An overview
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Ishtiaq Ahmed, Zain Akram, Hafiz M.N. Iqbal, Alan L. Munn ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) machinery drives different cellular processes such as endosomal sorting, organelle biogenesis, vesicular trafficking, maintenance of plasma membrane integrity, membrane fission during cytokinesis and enveloped virus budding. The normal cycle of assembly and disassembly of some ESCRT complexes at the membrane requires the AAA-ATPase vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4p). A number of ESCRT proteins are hijacked by clinically significant enveloped viruses including Ebola, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to enable enveloped virus budding and Vps4p provides energy for the disassembly/recycling of these ESCRT proteins. Several years ago, the failure of the terminal budding process of HIV following Vps4 protein inhibition was published; although at that time a detailed understanding of the molecular players was missing. However, later it was acknowledged that the ESCRT machinery has a role in enveloped virus budding from cells due to its role in the multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. The MVB sorting pathway facilitates several cellular activities in uninfected cells, such as the down-regulation of signaling through cell surface receptors as well as the process of viral budding from infected host cells. In this review, we focus on summarising the functional organisation of ESCRT proteins at the membrane and the role of ESCRT machinery and Vps4p during MVB sorting and enveloped viral budding.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Development of glycerol biosensor based on co-immobilization of enzyme
           nanoparticles onto graphene oxide nanoparticles decorated pencil graphite
           electrode
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 127Author(s): Vinay Narwal, C.S. Pundir An improved amperometric biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing glycerol kinase (GK) and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) nanoparticles (NPs) onto graphene oxide nanoparticles (GrONPs) modified pencil graphite (PG) electrode. The GKNPs, GPONPs and GrONPs were characterized by UV spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The working electrode (GKNPs/GPONPs/GrONPs/PGE) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The biosensor exhibited optimal current response at an applied potential of 0.45 V, pH 8.0, and 35 °C. The biosensor displayed a wide linear response for glycerol concentration from 0.001 to 60 mM with a detection limit of 0.002 μM. Moreover, a very high sensitivity 121.45 μA·mM−1·cm−2, rapid response time (2 s) and a good concurrence with the standard enzymic colorimetric technique with a correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.99) was offered by the present biosensor. Evidently, biosensor revealed an analytical recovery of 98.5% after addition of glycerol to the sera samples. Within and between batches studies of working electrode demonstrated coefficients of variation of 0.098% and 0.101%, respectively. The biosensor measured blood serum glycerol level in patients suffering from hyperglyceridemia. The biosensor lost 25% of its initial activity after its regular use over a period of 210 days, at 4 °C storage condition.
       
  • Preparation of chitosan-based nanoparticles for enzyme immobilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Deqiang Wang, Weifeng Jiang The aim of the present work was to prepare high loading capacity carriers for immobilizing glucoamylase. Different sizes of chitosan based particles were successfully prepared by different methods to evaluate the performance in immobilization. Chitosan particles on millimeter size were prepared by dripping granulation method, chitosan covered magnetic nanoparticles and chitosan mixted graphene oxide nanosheets covered magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step method, chitosan-glucoamylase nanoparticles were synthesized by ionic cross linking method with Sodium tripolyphosphate. These particles were characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR and DLS analysis. The performance of the immobilized enzyme was also investigated. The results showed that the loading capacity was greatly increased on chitosan based nanoparticles. The reaction conditions of immobilized enzyme were optimized, the reusability and storage stability was also investigated. The results showed the pH durance and storage stability of the immobilized enzyme on nanosize particles were enhanced.
       
  • Mango leaf extract incorporated chitosan antioxidant film for active food
           packaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Rambabu K., Bharath G., Fawzi Banat, Pau Loke Show, Heriberto Hernández Cocoletzi Health hazards associated with usage of plastic films for food preservation demands for development of active films from non-toxic and antioxidant rich bio-sources. The reported work highlights the development, characterization and application studies of chitosan films enhanced for their antioxidant activity by mango leaf extract (MLE) incorporation. Effect of MLE variation (1–5%) on the morphology, optical nature, water exposure and mechanical characteristics of the chitosan-MLE composite films was studied. Increase in the MLE concentration resulted in films with increased thickness and decreased moisture content. Contact angle, water solubility and vapor permeability analysis demonstrated the reduced hydrophilicity and water vapor penetrability of the films due to MLE inclusion. MLE films possessed better tensile strength (maximum of 23.06 ± 0.19 MPa) with reduced elongation ratio than the pure chitosan film (18.14 ± 0.72 MPa). Antioxidants assessment in terms of total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing power and ABTS radical scavenging showed improved antioxidant activity with the incremental amounts of MLE in the chitosan films. Microscopic studies revealed the smooth, compact and dense nature of the MLE-chitosan films favouring low oxygen transport rates. Application studies to cashew nuts preservation for 28 days storage indicated 56% higher oxidation resistance for the 5% MLE film than a commercial polyamide/polyethylene film. Results highlight the potential and promising nature of MLE impregnated chitosan films as suitable alternative for active packaging films for food preservation.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Preparation of β-chitin nanofiber aerogels by lyophilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Shin Suenaga, Mitsumasa Osada In this study, chitin nanofiber dispersions prepared in neutral and acidic pH conditions were lyophilized to produce aerogels. The effects of the freezing speed of the nanofiber dispersions and the dispersibility of the chitin nanofiber were studied. The characteristics of the aerogels were studied using scanning electron microscopy, relative surface area measurements, and compression tests. The repulsion forces of the chitin nanofiber in acidic conditions were effective in the formation of a more uniform microstructure during water solidification, resulting in aerogels with a high mechanical strength. The aerogel made from the chitin nanofiber dispersion prepared in neutral conditions was influenced by ice crystal growth during freezing, resulting in a nonuniform structure. In contrast, the surface area of the aerogel in neutral conditions interestingly remained unchanged compared to that of the original powder, which was due to the morphological transformation.
       
  • Preparation and electro-optical properties of triphenylamine-bound
           chitosan derivative
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Masaya Shibano, Makoto Karakawa, Hiroshi Kamitakahara, Toshiyuki Takano 3,6-Di-O-hexanoyl-N-[4-(N,N-diphenylamino)-1-phenyl] thiocarbamoyl chitosan was prepared from 3,6-di-O-hexanoyl chitosan isothiocyanate in a 78% yield, and spin-coated films of the chitosan derivative and tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium (Ir(ppy)3) were fabricated. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra of the films indicated efficient Förster energy transfer from the chitosan derivative to the Ir(ppy)3. An electroluminescent device using both compounds emitted green luminescence when voltage was applied. The results suggested that the regio-selectively substituted chitosan derivative could be used as a scaffold in the emitting layer of organic light emitting diode.
       
  • Ultrasensitive bioassay of epitope of Mucin-16 protein (CA 125) in human
           plasma samples using a novel immunoassay based on silver conductive
           nano-ink: A new platform in early stage diagnosis of ovarian cancer and
           efficient management
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Mohsen Jafari, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Elham Solhi, Soodabeh Hassanpour, Nasrin Shadjou, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Abolghasem Jouyban, Soltanali Mahboob Ovarian cancer (OC) is known to be one of the most lethal malignancies associated with women disease. The CA-125 protein is a repetitive epitope of MUC-16, which plays key role in enhancing the proliferation of cancer cells and inhibiting anticancer immune responses. It is the most widely used biomarker for early stage diagnosis of OC. Also it is the only serum marker which currently used in clinical diagnosis. Monitoring of CA-125 protein in the serum sample is also valuable in evaluating the response of ovarian cancer to treatment. In this research, a novel immunoassay based on immobilization of CA-125 antibody on the biointerface of silver nanoparticles modified graphene quantum dots ink (Ag NPs-GQDs) was successfully designed to recognition of CA-125 protein in a human plasma sample. The supplied immunoassay presents the proper ability to detect and determine the amount of CA-125 biomarker in low concentrations of CA-125 biomarker. The proposed immunosensor was employed for the detection of CA-125 using differential pulse voltammetry (DPVs) and square wave voltammetry (SWVs) techniques. The proposed interface leads to enhancement of accessible surface area for immobilizing a high amount of anti-CA-125 antibody, increasing electrical conductivity, boosting stability, catalytic properties and biocompatibility. Under the optimized operating conditions, the low limit of quantitation (LLOQ) for the proposed immunosensor was recorded as 0.01 U/mL, which this evaluation was performed at highly linear range of 0.01–400 U/mL. The proposed immunoassay was successfully applied for the monitoring of CA-125 in unprocessed human plasma samples.
       
  • Binding interaction of a heteroleptic silver(I) complex with DNA: A joint
           experimental and computational study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Elaheh Movahedi, Ali Reza Rezvani, Hafez Razmazma A new heteroleptic Ag(I) complex formulated as [Ag(daf)(phen)]NO3, where daf and phen stand for 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one and 1,10-phenanthroline, respectively, has been prepared and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, 1HNMR, and UV–Vis) and cyclic voltammetry. The geometry optimization around Ag(I) at the level of DFT has demonstrated that the Ag(I) center has been nested in a tetrahedral N4 coordination geometry which found to be in close agreement with the experimentally proposed structure. The bond lengths, angles, and the HOMO/LUMO energies have been calculated to substantiate the geometry of the complex. The DNA binding property of the Ag(I) complex has been explored in detail both theoretically (DFT and molecular docking) and experimentally (UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, luminescence quenching, competitive binding with ethidium bromide, cyclic voltammetry, and gel electrophoresis), indicating the good affinity of the Ag(I) complex for the intercalation (Kb (binding constant) = 3.45 × 105 M−1). Providing a fuller picture of Ag(I) complex–DNA interaction, the energy-minimized structure of the complex has been docked to the DNA with a d(AGACGTCT)2 sequence and the results are in close agreement with experimental achievements and make a deeper insight into the relationship between the structure and biological activity of the complex.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Anion-specific interaction with human NQO1 inhibits flavin binding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Angel L. Pey Ion binding to biomacromolecules can modulate their activity and stability in vivo. It is of particular interest to understand the structural and energetic basis of anion binding to functional sites of biomacromolecules. In this work, binding of anions to the FAD binding pocket of human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a flavoprotein associated with cancer due to a common polymorphism causing a P187S amino acid substitution, was investigated. It is known that NQO1 stability in vivo is strongly modulated by binding of its flavin cofactor. Herein, binding and protein stability analyses were carried out to show that anion binding to the apo-state of NQO1 P187S inhibits FAD binding with increasing strength following the chaotropic behavior of anions. These inhibitory effects were significant for some anions even at low millimolar concentrations. Additional pH dependent analyses suggested that protonation of histidine residues in the FAD binding pocket was not critical for anion or flavin binding. Overall, this detailed biophysical analysis helps to understanding how anions modulate NQO1 functionality in vitro, thus allowing hypothesize that NQO1 stability in vivo could be modulated by differential anion binding and subsequent inhibition of FAD binding.
       
  • Optimized fabrication of newly cholesterol biosensor based on
           nanocellulose
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Mahnaz M. Abdi, Rawaida Liyana Razalli, Paridah Md Tahir, Naz Chaibakhsh, Maryam Hassani, Mahdi Mir A novel and sensitive electrochemical cholesterol biosensor was developed based on immobilization cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) on the polyaniline/crystalline nanocellulose/ionic liquid modified Screen-Printed Electrode (PANi/CNC/IL/SPE). A thin layer of ionic liquid (IL) was spin coated on the modified electrode to enhance the electron transferring. Crystalline nanocellulose was prepared from Semantan bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) via acid hydrolysis and it was used to synthesize a nanocomposite of PANi/CNC via in situ oxidative polymerization process. FESEM and TEM images showed high porosity of the nanostructure with no phase separation, revealing the homogenous polymerization of the monomer on the surface of the crystalline cellulose. Research surface methodology (RSM) was carried out to optimize the parameters and conditions leading to maximize the performance and sensitivity of biosensors. The PANi/CNC/IL/GLU/ChOx-modified electrode showed a high sensitivity value of 35.19 μA mM/cm−2 at optimized conditions. The proposed biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear range of 1 μM to 12 mM (R2 = 0.99083) with the low Limit of Detection of 0.48 μM for cholesterol determination. An acceptable reproducibility (RSDs ≤3.76%) and repeatability (RSDs ≤3.31%) with the minimal interference from the coexisting electroactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and glucose was observed for proposed biosensor.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Post-translational modifications on glycated plasma fibrinogen: A
           physicochemical insight
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Shahida Perween, Minhal Abidi, Abul Faiz Faizy, Moinuddin Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde. It reacts with basic amino acids of the proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Fibrinogen is a soluble multi-domain glycoprotein whose major function is to form fibrin clots that prevent blood loss upon vascular injury. In the present study, fibrinogen was incubated with varying concentration of MGO for 7 days followed by its biochemical and biophysical analysis. Glycated plasma fibrinogen (MGO-fibrinogen); exhibited hyperchromicity, a drop in tryptophan and intrinsic fluorescence, augmented AGE-specific fluorescence and melting temperature. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed decrease in mobility of MGO-fibrinogen. Structural perturbations in secondary and tertiary structure were identified by fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), followed by far and near-UV circular dichroism (CD). Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) mass spectrometry studies suggested increase in molecular mass of MGO-fibrinogen. Amyloid like aggregates were confirmed by Thioflavin T (ThT), Congo red assay (CR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ketoamine moieties, carbonyl content (CO), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), superoxide and hydroxyl content were markedly elevated, whereas, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and free thiol content decreased in MGO-fibrinogen as compared to the native protein. These investigations confirmed the structural and functional alterations in MGO-fibrinogen which leads to different physiological conditions like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease etc.
       
  • Expression and characterization of an esterase belonging to a new family
           via isolation from a metagenomic library of paper mill sludge
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Mei-Lu Jia, Xiao-Lin Zhong, Zhi-Wei Lin, Bing-Xue Dong, Gang Li A new bacterial lipolytic enzyme Est903 was obtained from paper mill sludge via metagenomic approach. Est903 displayed moderate similarities to two lipolytic enzymes from Rhodopirellula islandica and contained a distinctive pentapeptide motif (GFSAG) that differed from those of all known fourteen families of bacterial lipolytic enzymes. Est903 was regarded as from a new bacterial lipolytic enzyme family through multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis.The recombinant Est903 showed the highest activity for ρ-nitrophenol butyrate. The pH optimum and temperature optimum of the recombinant enzyme was 9.0 and 51 °C, respectively. Also, this enzyme displayed moderate thermostability, high activity under alkaline conditions, and good tolerance against several organic solvents. In addition, the compatibility test and washing performance analysis revealed that Est903 had good compatibility with commercial laundry detergent and high cleaning ability of oil stains. These good properties make Est903 a potential candidate in organic synthesis or detergent industry.
       
  • Covalent modification of β-lactoglobulin by
           (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate results in a novel antioxidant molecule
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Fei Tao, Chaogeng Xiao, Wenwei Chen, Yongyong Zhang, Jiarong Pan, Zhenbao Jia β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), the predominant protein in bovine whey, was chemically modified by (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to develop a biomacromolecule with antioxidant activity. The EGCG-modified β-lg was characterized by SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. The antioxidant properties of EGCG-modified β-lg was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging activity, iron chelating ability, and inhibition of Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation. SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS results indicated the dimerization of β-lg after EGCG modification. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra suggested that EGCG modification caused an alteration in the conformational structure of β-lg. The results demonstrated that EGCG-modified β-lg possessed great antioxidant potential in terms of scavenging DPPH radical and chelating ferrous ion. Furthermore, the EGCG-modified β-lg showed a protective effect against LDL peroxidation. The results indicate that EGCG-modified β-lg could provide significant health benefits as an antioxidant.
       
  • Biomolecular interactions of lysosomotropic surfactants with cytochrome c
           and its effect on the protein conformation: A biophysical approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Tomasz Janek, Przemysław Czeleń, Eduardo J. Gudiña, Lígia R. Rodrigues, Żaneta Czyżnikowska The molecular interactions between two single-chain lysosomotropic surfactants DMM-11 (2-Dodecanoyloxyethyl)trimethylammonium bromide) and DMPM-11 (2-Dodecanoyloxypropyl)trimethylammonium bromide) with a small heme-protein (cytochrome c (cyt-c)) in Hepes buffer (pH = 7.4) were extensively investigated by surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamic simulation techniques. The results demonstrated that surfactants can destroy the hydrophobic cavity of cyt-c, make the α-helical become loose and convert it into the β-sheet structure. The interactions between surfactants and cyt-c are mainly hydrophobic. Molecular modelling approaches were also used to gather a deeper insight on the binding of lysosomotropic surfactants with cyt-c and the in silico results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones. This study provides a molecular basis for the applications of protein-surfactant complexes in biological, food, pharmaceutical, industrial and cosmetic systems.
       
  • Structural and enzymatic characterization of Peruvianin‑I, the first
           germin-like protein with proteolytic activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Wallace T. da Cruz, Eduardo H.S. Bezerra, Thalles B. Grangeiro, Jose L.S. Lopes, Maria Z.R. Silva, Márcio V. Ramos, Bruno A.M. Rocha, Jefferson S. Oliveira, Deborah C. Freitas, Cleverson D.T. Freitas The germin-like protein (GLP) purified from Thevetia peruviana, Peruvianin-I, is the only one described as having proteolytic activity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the structural features responsible for its enzymatic activity. Although the amino acid sequence of Peruvianin-I showed high identity with other GLPs, it exhibited punctual mutations, which were responsible for the absence of oxalate oxidase activity. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Peruvianin-I does not belong to any classification of GLP subfamilies. Moreover, Peruvianin-I contains a catalytic triad found in all plant cysteine peptidases. Molecular docking simulations confirmed the role of the catalytic triad in its proteolytic activity. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism assays confirmed that Peruvianin-I was stable at pH ranging from 5.0 to 8.0 and that it presented significant structural changes only above 60 °C. The addition of iodoacetamide caused changes in its native conformation, but only a slight effect was observed after adding a reducing agent. This study reports an unusual protein with germin-like structure, lacking typical oxalate oxidase activity. Instead, the proteolytic activity observed suggests that the protein is a cysteine peptidase. These structural peculiarities make Peruvianin‑I an interesting model for further understanding of the action of laticifer fluids in plant defense.
       
  • Mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity by a polysaccharide from
           Dictyophora indusiata in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Yalin Wang, Li Lai, Liping Teng, Yuhong Li, Jianqing Cheng, Jinghua Chen, Chao Deng Dictyophora indusiata polysaccharides (DIP) shows antioxidant, anti-tumor and immunostimulatory activities. However, the anti-inflammatory roles of DIP in NLRP3 inflammasome in LPS-stimulated macrophages are still not well defined. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of DIP in LPS-primed RAW264.7 macrophages. Our data showed that DIP inhibited NF-κB signal pathway via modulating TLR4 expression, phosphorylation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 subunit. Meanwhile, DIP reduced inflammasome activation via decreasing NLRP3 expression in cytoplasmic pools, limiting self-assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome, as well as the subsequent activation of caspase-1 and the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18. For the first time, we show that the anti-inflammatory activity of DIP is mediated by inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signal pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome activation during LPS-induced acute inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages.
       
  • Hyaluronic acid and hyaluronic acid: Sucrose nanogels for hydrophobic
           cancer drug delivery
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Selin Sagbas Suner, Betul Ari, Ferah Comert Onder, Bulent Ozpolat, Mehmet Ay, Nurettin Sahiner Porous and biodegradable hyaluronic acid (HA) nanogel and their copolymeric forms with sucrose (Suc), HA:Sucrose (HA:Suc) nanogels, were synthesized by employing glycerol diglycidyl ether (GDE) as crosslinker with a single step reaction in surfactant-free medium. The size of the nanogels was determined as 150 ± 50 nm in dried state from SEM images and found to increase to about 540 ± 47 nm in DI water measured with DLS measurements. The surface areas of HA and HA:Suc nanogels were measured as 18.07 ± 2.4 and 32.30 ± 6.1 m2/g with porosities of 3.58 ± 1.8, and 9.44 ± 3.1 nm via BET analysis, respectively. The zeta potentials for HA and HA:Suc nanogels were measured as −33 ± 1.4 and − 30 ± 1.2 mV, respectively. The thermal degradation of both types of nanogels revealed similar trends, while hydrolytic degradation of the nanogels was about 22.7 ± 0.2 wt% in 15 days. Both HA and HA:Suc nanogels were stable in blood up to 250 μg/mL concentration with approximately 0.5 ± 0.1% hemolysis ratio and 76 ± 12% blood clotting indices, respectively. Finally, these nanogels were used as a sustained slow-release or long-term delivery system over 2 days for a hydrophobic cancer drug, 3‑((E)‑3‑(4‑hydroxyphenyl)acryloyl)‑2H‑chromen‑2‑on (A#) established by our group. The nanogels successfully delivered the model drug A at 10.43 ± 2.12 mg/g for 2 days.
       
  • Phosphorus removal and recovery from water with macroporous bead adsorbent
           constituted of alginate-Zr4+ and PNIPAM-interpenetrated networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Huayong Luo, Xueyang Zeng, Peng Liao, Hongwei Rong, Tian C. Zhang, Z. Jason Zhang, Xiangchao Meng Currently, there is a growing trend in employing natural biomaterials (e.g., alginate) to prepare a novel bead adsorbent for phosphorus (P) elimination. However, the utilization of alginate beads to remove and recover P from effluents possesses limitations associated with its physical characteristics such as a dense gel layer, poor mechanical strength and low stability. To overcome the limitations and improve the adsorption performances, we synthesized a novel alginate-derived bead constituted of PNIPAM network interpenetrated in alginate-Zr4+ network (PNIPAM/SA-Zr) decorated with polyethylene glycol as a pore-forming agent, and then investigated its ability to remove and recover P from effluents. The morphology, functional groups, surface area, and mechanical strength of the beads were evaluated by SEM, FTIR, BET, and swelling analysis. The adsorption of P was investigated by varying various factors. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics were studied. Particularly, the P-loaded beads exhibited a faster desorption rate under thermal stimulus, and remained good desorption efficiency and reusability within five consecutive cycles. Zeta-potential and XPS results revealed that the adsorption mechanisms were related to electrostatic interactions, ligand exchange, and the formation of inner-sphere complexes. The beads possessed favorable fixed-bed column operation performances for P removal and recovery from real wastewater.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • l-lactic+acid+scaffolds&rft.title=International+Journal+of+Biological+Macromolecules&rft.issn=0141-8130&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Surface modification of nanodiamond: Toward the dispersion of reinforced
           phase in poly-l-lactic acid scaffolds
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Cijun Shuai, Yang Li, Guoyong Wang, Wenjing Yang, Shuping Peng, Pei Feng The agglomeration of nanodiamond severely reduces the reinforcement in matrix of composites although it is often used as a reinforcing phase. In this study, nanodiamond was modified by phospholipid to promote its dispersion in Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering. Concretely, phospholipid was an amphiphilic substance with hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails. The hydrophilic head could adsorb on nanodiamond surface through hydrogen bonding between the OH of head and the COOH of nanodiamond. The hydrophobic tails were forced arrange toward the PLLA matrix. As a result, nanodiamond particles were covered with a layer of phospholipid. They are compelled far away from each other due to the exclusion between the hydrophobic tails. This promoted the dispersion of nanodiamond in PLLA scaffolds. Consequently, the compressive strength, compressive modulus and Vickers hardness of the scaffolds modified by phospholipid increased by 162.8%, 163.2% and 88.2% compared with those of unmodified scaffolds, respectively. Meanwhile, the scaffolds could provide a suitable environment that enabled cells to adhere, grow and migrate, indicating good cytocompatibility. This study suggested the PLLA/nanodiamond scaffolds modified by phospholipid could be a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering applications.
       
  • Exopolysaccharide (pullulan) production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate
           aiming to favor the development of biorefineries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): R. Terán Hilares, J. Resende, A.C. Orsi, M.A. Ahmed, M.T. Lacerda, S.S. da Silva, J.C. Santos Pullulan is a biopolymer used in food industry produced by Aureobasidium pullulans from starch. In the present work, sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate was evaluated as an alternative substrate in fermentation process assisted by blue LED lights. The best fermentation conditions in Erlenmeyer flasks were 25.3 °C, stirring speed of 232 rpm and yeast extract concentration of 1.88 g/L, yielding 25.19 g/L of pullulan, that corresponded to yield of 0.48 g/g and 0.28 g/(L·h) of volumetric productivity. By using a column bubble photobioreactor, similar yield values were obtained. Thermal properties of the produced pullulan as glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures were 38 °C and 160 °C, respectively, which were similar to the corresponding values of commercial food grade pullulan. Therefore, SCB hydrolysate is a promising substrate to produce good quality pullulan (86% of purity) with application in food industry, besides to represent a new alternative for biorefineries.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Magnetic cellulose nanocrystal stabilized Pickering emulsions for enhanced
           bioactive release and human colon cancer therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Liang Ee Low, Loh Teng-Hern Tan, Bey-Hing Goh, Beng Ti Tey, Boon Hoong Ong, Siah Ying Tang Stimuli-responsive drug release and controlled delivery play crucial roles in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy and lowering over-dosage induced side effects. In this paper, we report magnetically-triggered drug release and in-vitro anti-colon cancer efficacy of Fe3O4@cellulose nanocrystal (MCNC)-stabilized Pickering emulsions containing curcumin (CUR). The loading efficiency of CUR in the micron-sized (≈7 μm) MCNC-stabilized Pickering emulsions (MCNC-PE) template was found to be 99.35%. The drug release profiles showed that the exposure of MCNC-PE to external magnetic field (EMF) (0.7 T) stimulated the release of bioactive from MCNC-PE achieving 53.30 ± 5.08% of the initial loading over a 4-day period. The MTT assay demonstrated that the CUR-loaded MCNC-PE can effectively inhibits the human colon cancer cells growth down to 18% in the presence of EMF. The formulation also resulted in 2-fold reduction on the volume of the 3-D multicellular spheroids of HCT116 as compared to the control sample. The MCNC particle was found to be non-toxic to brine shrimp up to a concentration of 100 μg/ml. Our findings suggested that the palm-based MCNC-PE could be a promising yet effective colloidal drug delivery system for magnetic-triggered release of bioactive and therapeutics.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • The use of bacterial cellulose as a basement membrane improves the
           plausibility of the static in vitro blood-brain barrier model
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Ece Bayir, M. Mert Celtikoglu, Aylin Sendemir There are several blood-brain barrier (BBB) models available for pharmaceutical research, but none of those are able to properly imitate the permeability of this special barrier. In this study, it is aimed to produce different BBB models with different cellular combinations and different basement membrane polymers, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and bacterial cellulose (BC), which has not been used for BBB models before, to compare their barrier properties. Primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells were seeded on the luminal side and primary human astrocytes and/or primary human brain microvascular pericytes were seeded on the abluminal side of the membranes. Immunofluorescence (IF) staining results indicate that the expression of tight and adherence junction proteins increases on the 5th day of the cultivation. In accordance with Live-Dead staining results, IF images show that cells in the model lose their viability before the 10th day. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements indicate that BC membrane leads to statistically higher (p 
       
  • Functionalized cross-linked chitosan with ionic liquid and highly
           efficient removal of azo dyes from aqueous solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Haixia Lyu, Jingshuang Fan, Yunxiafei Ling, Yan Yu, Zenghong Xie In this study, a new ionic liquid functionalized cross-linked chitosan (IL-CCS) was prepared and utilized as an adsorbent for removing sunset yellow FCF (SY) from aqueous solutions. The physicochemical properties of the adsorbent were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The effects of the experimental parameters such as initial pH, the adsorbent dose and contact time on the absorption process of SY on IL-CCS were investigated in detail. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of IL-CCS for SY had no significant differences when pH of the solution changed from 2.0 to 10.0, and the maximum adsorption capacity of IL-CCS was 300.28 mg/g, obviously higher than that of CCS (36.08 mg/g). In addition, the results of adsorption isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamics showed that the adsorption process could fit with Langmuir model, pseudo-second order model, separately. The exothermic nature of the reaction was revealed through thermodynamic parameters. From the above, IL-CCS has a good prospect for treatment of wastewater containing anionic dyes due to high efficiency adsorption during a broad pH range.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Preparation of quaternary amine-grafted organosolv lignin biosorbent and
           its application in the treatment of hexavalent chromium polluted water
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Zhen Wang, Wenxiu Huang, Pingping Bin, Xuan Zhang, Guihua Yang A novel cationic biosorbent was synthesized by grafting organosolv lignin with GT (also named (2-hydrazinyl-2-oxoethyl)-trimethylazanium chloride, abbreviated as GT) and formaldehyde in an aqueous solution by an eco-friendly way (named QA-g-OL). QA-g-OL was employed as biosorbent to remediate hexavalent chromium polluted water. Research found Cr(VI) removal is a pH-dependence process. It was also found that part of the Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) during the process of adsorption in the range of pH was 2.0 to 7.0. Furthermore, QA-g-OL possess strong absorbability for Cr (VI) in a broad concentration range (from 10 to 100 mg/L). The removal efficiencies of Cr (VI) were 93.40%, 96.70%, 98.78% and 97.84% when initial concentration was 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 mg/L under optimum pH, respectively. On the other side, the adsorption process exhibited swift equilibrium characteristics, the adsorption equilibrium can be achieved within 10 min. The mechanism of hexavalent chromium removed by QA-g-OL were also discussed, results can be benefit for the application of biomass-based adsorbents in the treatment of hexavalent chromium polluted wastewater.
       
  • LncRNA GAS5 confers the radio sensitivity of cervical cancer cells via
           regulating miR-106b/IER3 axis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Junbi Gao, Liya Liu, Gailing Li, Mingbo Cai, Chaoyue Tan, Xiaoxiao Han, Liping Han ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to investigate the biological role of growth arrest special 5 (GAS5) in the radio sensitivity of cervical cancer (CC).MethodsThe expressions of GAS5, miR-106b and immediate early response 3 (IER3) were detected in CC tissues and CC cell lines. RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assays were performed to test the interaction of GAS5 and miR-106b. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the regulatory relationship between miR-106b and IER3. The nude mouse model of CC was established for verifying the effects of GAS5 on the resistance of CC to radiation therapy in vivo.ResultsGAS5 and IER3 were low expressed in the radio-resistant human CC tissues and SiHa cells, while miR-106b expression was highly expressed. Overexpression of IER3 or GAS5 enhanced radio-sensitivity in SiHa cells, while knockdown of IER3 or GAS5 decreased radio-sensitivity in ME180 cells. Moreover, GAS5 served as a miR-106b sponge, and miR-106b negatively regulated IER3 expression. Besides, GAS5 could regulate IER3 expression through miR-106b, and GAS5 enhanced the radio-sensitivity in CC cells through inhibiting miR-106b both in vitro and in vivo.ConclusionOverexpression of GAS5 enhanced the sensitivity of CC cells to radiation treatment via up-regulating IER3 through miR-106b.
       
  • Surface chemical functionalization of starch nanocrystals modified by
           3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Yacheng Hao, Yun Chen, Huiping Xia, Qunyu Gao A comparative experiment about the 3‑aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) modification of waxy potato starch nanocrystals (WPSNCs) and waxy maize starch nanocrystals (WMSNCs) was employed in the present study. The purpose of surface chemical functionalization was to introduce functional groups and improve hydrophobicity of SNCs for the extensive application. The degree of substitution (DS) of both SNCs displayed the upward trend with the increase of applied APTES, while WPSNCs showed higher DS than that of WMSNCs in the same dosage of APTES. XRD revealed the un-changed crystalline structure and decreased relative crystallinity after the modifications. The structure of silylated SNCs surface was characterized by FT-IR and XPS, which confirmed the presence of functional amino groups. The introduction of amino groups resulted in a simultaneous enhancement of zeta potentials for both SNCs relatively. The modified SNCs could be uniformly dispersed both in water and ethanol phase revealing improved hydrophobicity through wettability experiments.
       
  • Polyhydroxyalkanoate production from statistically optimized media using
           rice mill effluent as sustainable substrate with an analysis on the
           biopolymer's degradation potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Poorna Chandrika Sabapathy, Sabarinathan Devaraj, Anburajan Parthipan, Preethi Kathirvel The present study focuses on the optimization of the bioprocess for the fermentative production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by Acinetobacter junii BP 25 using rice mill effluent as a cheap substrate, henceforth to develop an economically feasible biopolymer production process. Statistical tools like Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were used to evaluate the important variables that influence the yield of PHA. Initially from PBD three factors (glycerol, KH2PO4 and incubation time) were taken for further optimization using Box-Behnken design where, the interaction between each of the factors were studied in detail, providing a final optimized media for the high concentration of PHA. Before the optimization process the concentration of PHA was 0.52 ± 0.05 g/l for 1.07 ± 0.32 g/l cell dry mass (CDM) after which a 5.84 fold increase in PHA concentration was observed with 3.04 g/l of PHA. Biodegradation studies of the produced PHA sheets were investigated briefly in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem, showing degradation within 8 weeks in soil and 4 weeks in water which was very promising, as the non-degrading property of the conventional plastic have made scientist to research on biopolymers mainly.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Molecular and structural characterization of a novel Cry1D toxin from
           Bacillus thuringiensis with high toxicity to Spodoptera littoralis
           (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Dalel BenFarhat-Touzri, Sonia Jemli, Fatma Driss, Slim Tounsi The investigation of new Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Cry) with specific toxicity is one of the alternative measures used for Lepidopteran pest control. In the present study, a new Cry toxin was identified from a promising Bt strain BLB250 which was previously selected for its high toxicity against Spodoptera littoralis. The corresponding gene, designated cry1D-250, was cloned. It showed an ORF of 3498 bp, encoding a protein of 1165 amino acid residues with a putative molecular mass of 132 kDa which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses. The corresponding toxin named Cry1D-250 showed a higher insecticidal activity towards S. littoralis than Cry1D-133 (LC50 of 224.4 ng cm−2) with an LC50 of only 166 ng cm−2. Besides to the 65 kDa active toxin, proteolysis activation of Cry1D-133 protein with S. littoralis midgut juice generated an extra form of 56 kDa, which was the result of a second cleavage. Via activation study and 3D structure analysis, novel substitutions found in the Cry1D-250 protein compared to Cry1D-133 toxin were shown to be involved in the protein stability and toxicity. Therefore, the Cry1D-250 toxin can be considered to be an effective alternative for the control of S. littoralis.
       
  • Polysaccharide from alfalfa activates RAW 264.7 macrophages through MAPK
           and NF-κB signaling pathways
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Yuhuai Xie, Lixue Wang, Hua Sun, Yuxi Wang, Zaibin Yang, Guiguo Zhang, Shuzhen Jiang, Weiren Yang Alfalfa polysaccharide (APS), a bioactive compound extracted from alfalfa, has been proposed to exhibit potential growth-promoting and immune-enhancing functions. But, little is known about the cellular immunomodulatory and intrinsic molecular mechanisms. Here we extracted the APS, and performed in vitro experiments to characterize the immunomodulatory functions as well as the molecular mechanisms of APS on RAW 264.7 macrophages cells. Chemical analyses showed that APS was mainly composed of fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid. The results of in vitro assays demonstrated that 50 and 100 μg/mL APS increased the cell viability of RAW 264.7 cells. The secretion and gene expression of NO/iNOS, IL-6 and TNF-α in APS-induced macrophage cell were significantly enhanced. However, APS-induced TNF-α production was decreased by blocking the MAPK or NF-κB signaling pathways, especially for the blockade of p38. Moreover, APS enhanced the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK, promoted the degradation of IκBα, and increased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Therefore, we demonstrated that APS could improve the immune functions of RAW 264.7 macrophages cells by promoting the cell viability and increasing secretion and gene expressions of NO/iNOS, IL-6 and TNF-α through the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.
       
  • Enzymatically cross-linked arabinoxylan microspheres as oral insulin
           delivery system
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): A.L. Martínez-López, E. Carvajal-Millan, N. Sotelo-Cruz, V. Micard, A. Rascón-Chu, Y.L. López-Franco, J. Lizardi-Mendoza, R. Canett-Romero Arabinoxylans (AX) microspheres with different insulin/AX mass ratio were prepared by formation of phenoxy radical issued from the ferulic acid by enzymatic oxidation (entrapped in situ of insulin). Phenolic acid content and FT-IR spectrum of unloaded and insulin-loaded AX microspheres revealed that the phenoxy radical issued from the ferulic acid by enzymatic oxidation did not interact covalently with insulin. The microspheres showed a spherical shape, smooth surface and an average diameter of particles of 320 μm. In vitro control release found that AX microspheres minimized the insulin loss in the upper GI tract, retaining high percentage (~75%) of insulin in its matrix. The stability of the secondary structure of insulin was studied by dichroism circular (CD). The CD spectra of insulin released from AX microspheres did not change according to the insulin/AX mass ratio of the microsphere. Significant hypoglycemic effects with improved insulin-relative bioavailability tested on an in vivo murine model revealed the efficacy of these enzymatically cross-linked arabinoxylans microspheres as a new oral insulin carrier.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Unfolding of Acinetobacter baumannii MurA proceeds through a metastable
           intermediate: A combined spectroscopic and computational investigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Amit Sonkar, Harish Shukla, Rohit Shukla, Jupitara Kalita, Timir Tripathi Peptidoglycan (PG) is the main constituent of the bacterial cell wall. The enzyme UDP‑N‑acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) catalyzes the transfer of enolpyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate to uridinediphospho‑N‑acetylglucosamine, which is the first committed step of PG biosynthesis. In this study, we have systematically examined the urea-induced unfolding of Acinetobacter baumannii MurA (AbMurA) using various optical spectroscopic techniques and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The urea-induced unfolding of AbMurA was a three-state process, where a metastable intermediate conformation state is populated between 3.0 and 4.0 M. Above 6.0 M urea, AbMurA gets completely unfolded. The transition from the native structure to the partially unfolded metastable state involves ~30% loss of native contacts but little change in the radius of gyration or core hydration properties. The intermediate-to-unfolded state transition was characterized by a large increase in the radius of gyration. MD trajectories simulated in different unfolding conditions suggest that urea destabilizes AbMurA structure weakening hydrophobic interactions and the hydrogen bond network. We observed a clear correlation between both in vitro and in silico studies. To our knowledge, this is also the first report on unfolding/stability analysis of any MurA enzyme.
       
  • Rice bran polysaccharide-metal complexes showed safe antioxidant activity
           in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Xianhu Pan, Shuheng Wu, Yujian Yan, Xin Chen, Jintao Guan, Yuping Bao, Xuemin Xiong, Liang Liu The effect on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and the antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties of rice bran polysaccharides (RBP) and RBP-metal complexes RBP-Fe(III), RBP-Cu, RBP-Zn and RBP-Ca, were evaluated using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), scavenging activity assays, cell viability assay and fluorescence microscopy. The RBP-metal complexes were prepared using the hydrothermal method. The RBP-Fe(III) complexes were found to be potent scavengers for superoxide (O2−) free radicals. The RBP alone and RBP-Ca complex showed high scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. In addition, the RBP-Fe(III) complex also showed good biocompatibility and lowered the intracellular ROS levels, while RBP alone, RBP-Zn and RBP-Ca complexes were observed to increase the intracellular ROS level. Our findings suggest that among the tested RBP-metal complexes, RBP-Fe(III) complex is a strong candidate as an antioxidant therapeutic.
       
  • Structural characterization of a polysaccharide from Coreopsis tinctoria
           Nutt. and its function to modify myeloid derived suppressor cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Wen-Sheng Zhang, Qi-Li Sun, Wei Zheng, Yuan Zhang, Juan Du, Cai-Xia Dong, Ning Tao Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. (C. tinctoria) is a natural plant with many health benefits, such as clearing heat and toxic materials. In this study, we investigate the effect of a polysaccharide from C. tinctoria, aiming at improving the tumor microenvironment, which is associated with non-resolving inflammation. Through combining ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography, a polysaccharide named CTAP-3 is purified from the crude polysaccharides of C. tinctoria. The structure of CTAP-3 is characterized through high-performance gel permeation chromatography, chemical derivative analyses, GC–MS, FT–IR, and NMR. Results reveal that CTAP-3 consists of predominant amounts (87.2%) of galacturonic acid (GalA) residues, small amounts of arabinose (Ara) and rhamnose (Rham), and trace amounts of galactose (Gal). CTAP-3 is deduced to be native pectin-type polysaccharide containing a homo-galacturanan backbone consisting of α-(1 → 4)-linked GalAp and methyl-esterified α-(1 → 4)-linked GalAp residues in the ratio of 4:1. When myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are treated by CTAP-3, its suppressive effect on T cell proliferation is impaired. This result indicates that CTAP-3 is a candidate drug for improving the tumor microenvironment.
       
  • Preservation of Ginkgo biloba seeds by coating with chitosan/nano-TiO2 and
           chitosan/nano-SiO2 films
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Fang Tian, Weiliang Chen, Cai'E Wu, Xiaohong Kou, Gongjian Fan, Tingting Li, Zhihao Wu In this study, the chitosan, chitosan/nano-TiO2 and chitosan/nano-SiO2 coating films were prepared, their physico-chemical properties were determined. Then the preservation of Ginkgo biloba seeds coating with these films were investigated during storage. The incorporation of nano-TiO2 and nano-SiO2 particles of the best formula enhanced the mechanical properties of the composite films, which improved the water-vapor and gas permeability. Chitosan coating incorporation of nano-TiO2 and nano-SiO2 particles could significantly decrease the decay rate, shrinkage rate, respiration rate, ethylene production rate, electrolyte leakage rate, superoxide anion (O2·−) production rate and the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content. After storage, the firmness of G. biloba seeds coated with chitosan alone and chitosan/nanocomposite were markedly higher than those of control. Higher activities of scavenger antioxidant enzymes including peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were enhanced in the chitosan/nano-TiO2 and chitosan/nano-SiO2 coating treatments during storage time. Either the composite treatment of chitosan with nano-TiO2 or chitosan/nano-SiO2 exhibited desirable performance in inhibiting mildew occurrence, shrinkage and maintaining the firmness of G. biloba seeds, positively affect the antioxidant activity in G. biloba seeds, thereby leading to the enhancement of seed quality. Coating G. biloba seeds with chitosan/nano-TiO2 or chitosan/nano-SiO2 is a potential method for commercial preservation.
       
  • Synthesis and metal ion adsorption characteristics of graphene oxide
           incorporated chitosan Schiff base
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): S.M. Anush, H.R. Chandan, B. Vishalakshi The work reports the development of a novel adsorbent material based on modified chitosan for removal of Cu (II) and Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solution. Heterocyclic modification of chitosan has been achieved by the reaction of chitosan with 5-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde resulting in a Schiff base. This was further modified by incorporation of graphene oxide at the C6 position through ester linkage. This modification results in increase in the number of binding sites like donor nitrogens, OH and COOH groups. The modified polymer was characterized using FTIR, TGA, SEM, EDS and XRD techniques. The adsorption capacity exhibited by the modified chitosan towards Cu (II) and Cr (VI) were 111.11 and 76.92 mg/g respectively which is a significant improvement compared to chitosan. The adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic analysis of adsorption data indicated endothermic and spontaneous nature of adsorption. A high desorption of over 80% was achieved for Cu (II) in acidic solution and for Cr (VI) in basic solution indicating efficient recovery of adsorbate species.
       
  • The protein-binding N-terminal domain of human translation elongation
           factor 1Bβ possesses a dynamic α-helical structural organization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Tetiana V. Bondarchuk, Dmytro M. Lozhko, Vyacheslav F. Shalak, Agnieszka Fatalska, Roman H. Szczepanowski, Michał Dadlez, Boris S. Negrutskii, Anna V. El'skaya Translation elongation factor 1Bβ (eEF1Bβ) is a metazoan-specific protein involved into the macromolecular eEF1B complex, containing also eEF1Bα and eEF1Bγ subunits. Both eEF1Bα and eEF1Bβ ensure the guanine nucleotide exchange on eEF1A while eEF1Bγ is thought to have a structural role. The structures of the eEF1Bβ catalytic C-terminal domain and neighboring central acidic region are known while the structure of the protein-binding N-terminal domain remains unidentified which prevents clear understanding of architecture of the eEF1B complex.Here we show that the N-terminal domain comprising initial 77 amino acids of eEF1Bβ, eEF1Bβ(1–77), is a monomer in solution with increased hydrodynamic volume. This domain binds eEF1Bγ in equimolar ratio. The CD spectra reveal that the secondary structure of eEF1Bβ(1–77) consists predominantly of α-helices and a portion of disordered region. Very rapid hydrogen/deuterium exchange for all eEF1Bβ(1–77) peptides favors a flexible tertiary organization of eEF1Bβ(1–77). Computational modeling of eEF1Bβ(1–77) suggests several conformation states each composed of three α-helices connected by flexible linkers.Altogether, the data imply that the protein-binding domain of eEF1Bβ shows flexible spatial organization which may be needed for interaction with eEF1Bγ or other protein partners.
       
  • Apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cells induced by a novel
           Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide via intrinsic mitochondrial
           pathways
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Juan Yu, Haiyu Ji, Xiaodan Dong, Yingying Feng, Anjun Liu In our previous study, a novel cold-water-soluble polysaccharide (APS4) was isolated from Astragalus membranaceus. This study aimed to evaluate the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis-induced effects of APS4 on human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cells and to investigate its potential molecular mechanism. It was found that APS4 could significantly suppress the proliferation of MGC-803 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Morphologic observations and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that APS4-treated MGC-803 cells exhibited typical morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Cell cycle detection revealed that APS4 could arrest MGC-803 cells in S phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, APS4 treatment could induce the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which was closely related to the accumulation of intracellular ROS, the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, the increase of the pro-apoptotic/anti-apoptotic (Bax/Bcl-2) ratios, the release of cytochrome c, further activating the expression of caspase-9/-3 and the cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in MGC-803 cells. Taken together, our results suggested that APS4 had observable apoptosis-induced effects on MGC-803 cells via arresting the cell cycle in S phase and inducing the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
       
  • In-vitro evaluation on drug release kinetics and antibacterial activity of
           dextran modified polyurethane fibrous membrane
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Sagitha P., Reshmi C.R., Suja P. Sundaran, Anupama Binoy, Nandita Mishra, Sujith A. pH stimuli drug release nanofibrous membranes of polyurethane/dextran were developed for tailoring of antibacterial wound dressings. Incorporation of dextran in polyurethane (PU) showed increment in hydrophilicity, vapour transmission rate, percentage sorption values, and biodegradability. Dextran also acts as reinforcement filler in PU matrix. Dextran induces a high degree of platelet adhesion and hemostasis potential which is essential for promoting the wound healing process. Moreover, 20 wt% dextran loaded membranes (PU/20D) exhibited enhanced cell proliferation, attachment and viability against 3T3 fibroblasts. Curcumin loaded PU/20 dextran membrane exhibited pH-controlled drug release potency and synergistic antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. It is confirmed that, PU/20D membranes could promote, pH-controlled drug release and synergistic antibacterial activity for a promising wound dressing material.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • l-phenylalanine+catabolism+of+a+photosynthetic+bacterium,+Rubrivivax+benzoatilyticus+JA2&rft.title=International+Journal+of+Biological+Macromolecules&rft.issn=0141-8130&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Pyomelanin production: Insights into the incomplete aerobic
           l-phenylalanine catabolism of a photosynthetic bacterium, Rubrivivax
           benzoatilyticus JA2
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Lakshmi Prasuna Mekala, Mujahid Mohammed, Sasikala Chinthalapati, Venkata Ramana Chinthalapati Rubrivivax benzoatilyticus JA2 is a metabolically versatile bacterium, thrives on a wide array of organic compounds under different growth modes. Though genomic insights revealed the aromatic compound catabolic potential of strain JA2 under anaerobic/aerobic conditions, the studies are largely restricted to anaerobic metabolism. The previous study on phenylalanine metabolism in strain JA2 indicated melanin-like pigment production under aerobic conditions; however, characterization of pigment and its biosynthetic pathway is not explored. The current study aims at the characterization of pigment and elucidation of its biosynthetic pathway. Strain JA2 utilized l-phenylalanine as source of nitrogen under anaerobic/aerobic conditions but not as a carbon source. Strain JA2 produced a brown-pigment under phenylalanine-amended aerobic conditions. Spectroscopic and physicochemical analysis identified the purified brown-pigment as a melanin. Further, the genomic insights revealed the presence of a complete set of genes related to pyomelanin synthesis. Identification of key metabolites l-tyrosine, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and homogentisic acid and their respective enzyme activities further supports the pyomelanin synthesis. Moreover, the precursors feeding, pathway specific inhibitor studies confirmed the pyomelanin synthesis in strain JA2. Our study revealed an incomplete catabolism of phenylalanine; absence of ring cleavage gene, homogentisate dioxygenase leading to homogentisate accumulation thereby pyomelanin synthesis in strain JA2.
       
  • Antibacterial activity of quaternized chitosan modified nanofiber membrane
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Wai Yan Cheah, Pau-Loke Show, I-Son Ng, Guan-Yu Lin, Chen-Yaw Chiu, Yu-Kaung Chang The electrospinning PAN nanofiber membrane (P-CN) was hydrolysed to convert carboxylic groups as reaction sites and covalently graft chitosan molecule. The chitosan derivatives with quaternary ammonium groups exerted greater efficiency against bacteria as compared to pure chitosan. Hence, the chitosan modified membrane (P-CS), can be functionalized with quaternary amine (i.e., glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, GTMAC) to form quaternized chitosan nanofiber membrane (designated as P-HTCC) under various conditions (acidic, neutral, and alkaline). N-quaternized derivatives of chitosan modified membrane (N-HTCC) showed 72% and 60% degree of quaternization (DQ) under acidic and neutral conditions, respectively. Under alkaline condition, additional quaternization of N, O-HTCC via its amino and hydroxyl groups, has improved up to 90% DQ of the chitosan. The antibacterial activity of the quaternized chitosan modified membrane prepared from acetic acid medium is stronger than that prepared from water and alkaline media. Also, antibacterial activity of quaternized chitosan is stronger than chitosan modified membrane against E. coli. The microbiological assessments showed that the water-stable P-HTCC nanofiber membrane under modification in acidic medium exerted antibacterial activity up to 99.95% against E. coli. Therefore, the P-HTCC membrane exhibited high potential to be integrated into microfiltration membrane to effectively disinfect E. coli.
       
  • Long non-coding RNA HULC promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of
           pancreatic cancer cells by down-regulating microRNA-15a
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Haomiao Feng, Bing Wei, Yuanyuan Zhang Pancreatic cancer is a common and lethal cancer in digestive system. This study investigated the potential oncogenic effects of lncRNA HULC on pancreatic cancer. Briefly, qRT-PCR was conducted to measure the expression of HULC and miR-15a in pancreatic tissues and cells. Cell transfection was used to change the expression of HULC and miR-15a in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. The viability, migration and invasion and apoptosis of Panc-1 cells after relevant transfection were detected using CCK-8 assay, two chamber transwell assay and Guava Nexin assay, respectively. Results found that HULC had a higher expression level, while miR-15a had a lower expression level in pancreatic cancer tissues. Overexpression of HULC promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of Panc-1 cells. Suppression of HULC had opposite effects and dramatically induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, HULC negatively regulated the expression of miR-15a in Panc-1 cells. miR-15a participated in the effects of HULC on Panc-1 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HULC activated PI3K/AKT pathway in Panc-1 cells by down-regulating miR-15a. In conclusion, HULC exerted oncogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Overexpression of HULC promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells by down-regulating miR-15a and then activating PI3K/AKT pathway.
       
  • Effects of deproteinization methods on primary structure and antioxidant
           activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Xiaotong Zeng, Panyu Li, Xi Chen, Yan Kang, Yi Xie, Xiang Li, Tonghui Xie, Yongkui Zhang Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) as one of water-soluble polysaccharides has attracted much attention because of its bioactivities, especially antioxidant activity. Deproteinization is an essential step in the purification process of polysaccharides. In this study, three classic deproteinization methods, including neutral protease method, TCA precipitation and CaCl2 salting out, were evaluated for crude GLP processing. The methods had ability to remove proteins (71.50–87.36%), and meanwhile polysaccharide loss (8.35–11.39%) was observed. Structure analysis indicated that these deproteinization methods had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on molecular weight of polysaccharides, but led to varying degrees of glycoside bond losses (1.14–64.05%). Moreover, the antioxidant activities of deproteinized polysaccharides were measured in vitro by hydroxyl radical, reducing power, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and ferric-reducing antioxidant power tests. Purified GLP by enzymolysis maintained the strongest antioxidants activities with the retention rate of over 47.40%, and its deproteinization efficiency and polysaccharide loss ratio were 74.03% and 11.39% respectively. In view of relatively high purity and antioxidant activity, enzymolysis was a suitable deproteinization method for GLP production.
       
  • A higher efficiency removal of neonicotinoid insecticides by modified
           cellulose-based complex particle
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Meng Yuan, Xue Liu, Changsheng Li, Jingyang Yu, Bingjie Zhang, Yongqiang Ma Cellulose as an eco-friendly material is extensive in the nature. In this study, modified cellulose-based complex particle (MCCP) was produced through hydrothermal carbonization with methacrylic acid in the stirring and sand bath circumstance. The activated modified carbon-based porous particle (AMCCP) was prepared by treating with potassium hydroxide at high temperature, showing higher efficiency in removing neonicotinoids than MCCP. The AMCCP was fully characterized via scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis showed the prepared AMCCP has smaller aggregated particles with higher surface area than MCCP. The adsorption kinetic and the adsorption isotherm of AMCCP were studied, revealing that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model correlated with the experimental data better. The maximum adsorption capacity of AMCCP is 142.36 mg/g for acetamiprid. The adsorption process is spontaneous, favorable, and endothermic in nature. After five regeneration time, the adsorption efficiency of the AMCCP is still over 95%.
       
  • Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction and characterization of
           polysaccharides from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Libo Wang, Tengfei Li, Fangcheng Liu, Dawei Liu, Yaqin Xu, Yu Yang, Yanbo Zhao, He Wei Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) technology was employed to extract the polysaccharides from dandelion leaves (DLP). The extraction conditions were optimized by response surface method (RSM) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The polysaccharide yield (14.05 ± 0.95%), which well matched with the predicted value of 14.27%, was obtained under the optimum parameters: ultrasound power 500 W, ultrasound time 42 min, cellulase amount 4.90%, and particle size 80 mesh. After purification by AB-8 Macroporous Resin and Sephadex G-100 column, a novel polysaccharide (DLP-I) was isolated and its molecular weight was estimated to be 87,000 g/mol by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed that DLP-I was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and glucose in the molar ratio of 1.14:1.00:1.05:4.76:1.52. 1D and 2D NMR spectra confirmed that the backbone of DLP-I was mainly consisted of →4)-α-D-Galp-(1→, →4)-β-D-Manp-(1→, →4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →2,4)-α-L-Rhap-(1→, and α-L-Araf-(1→ with branching at O-2 and O-4 of →2,4)-α-L-Rhap-(1→. In addition, the digestion results showed DLP-I could keep its stability during the simulated digestive juices.
       
  • The antioxidant activities of phosphorylated polysaccharide from native
           ginseng
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Xiong Xiong, Gangliang Huang, Hualiang Huang The extraction method and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from native ginseng were studied. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of material to liquid (g/mL) was 1/25, the extraction temperature was 85 °C, the ultrasonic power was 195 W, and the action time was 60 min. The yield of polysaccharide was 27%. The polysaccharide was chemically modified with phosphorus oxychloride-pyridine to obtain phosphorylated derivative. Antioxidant test showed that polysaccharide from native ginseng had significant scavenging effect on free radicals. It indicated that the phosphorylated derivative had higher scavenging ability to every kind of radicals than the underivatized polysaccharide. The polysaccharide and its phosphorylated derivative had strong antioxidant activity, which could provide scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization and development of the resources of native ginseng.
       
  • Immobilization of α-amylase in ultrafine polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers
           via electrospinning and their stability on different substrates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Mariana Dias Antunes Porto, Jaqueline Pozzada dos Santos, Helen Hackbart, Graziella Pinheiro Bruni, Laura Martins Fonseca, Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias The objective of this study was to immobilize α-amylase in ultrafine polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers by electrolysis and to evaluate its stability at different temperatures and pHs using various starch substrates such as corn starch and germinated and ungerminated wheat starches. The α-amylase-loaded ultrafine fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and loadability and enzymatic activity evaluations. Incorporation of the enzyme resulted in a slight change in fiber morphology; the fibers became flatter and thicker with increasing enzyme concentration. The mean diameters ranged from 187 to 282 nm. FT-IR spectra indicated that the enzyme was incorporated into the fibers. PVA showed a high loading capacity for α-amylase at all concentrations tested (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v), indicating that PVA is an excellent support. The enzymatic activity of α-amylase was tested on the different starch substrates; the activity was higher in the immobilized form than in the free form. Enzymatic immobilization improved the stability of α-amylase over a wide range of temperatures and pHs. Enzymatic activity was highest when germinated wheat starch was used as the substrate at different temperatures and pHs, indicating great potential for its application in hydrolysis with α-amylase.
       
  • Pectin hydrolysis in cashew apple juice by Aspergillus aculeatus URM4953
           polygalacturonase covalently-immobilized on calcium alginate beads: A
           kinetic and thermodynamic study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): J.d.C. Silva, Pedro Renann Lopes de França, Attilio Converti, Tatiana Souza Porto The kinetics and thermodynamics of pectin hydrolysis in cashew apple juice by polygalacturonase (PG) from Aspergillus aculeatus URM4953 covalently-immobilized on calcium alginate beads were investigated. Immobilized-PG activity in cashew apple juice was the highest at 20 °C, showing a maximum hydrolysis rate of 58.2 mg/mL·min, a catalytic constant of 166.2 s−1 and an affinity constant of 113.0 mg/mL. Since the enzyme exhibited an allosteric behavior, the hydrolysis rate was modeled, with excellent accuracy, by the Hill Equation as function of pectin concentration. The Hill coefficient increased from 3 to 5 with increasing temperature from 20 to 50 °C, evidencing a positive cooperativity mechanism. The reaction activation energy and the standard enthalpy variation of enzyme unfolding were 80.3 and 16.6 kJ/mol, respectively. Consistently with the kinetic results, PG-catalyzed pectin hydrolysis proceeded with maximum spontaneity at 20 °C, showing activation Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of 59.3 kJ/mol, 77.9 kJ/mol and 63.4 J/mol·K, respectively. Immobilized PG was successful in the hydrolysis of cashew apple juice pectin, requiring a low temperature to act optimally.
       
  • Polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor blocks inflammatory
           osteoarthritis pain-morphine tolerance effects via activating cannabinoid
           type 2 receptor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Kai Wang, Zhongli Wang, Rongsheng Cui, Haichen Chu Analgesia with opioids such as morphine is an effective clinical strategy for the treatment of cancer pain and chronic inflammatory pain. However, long-term use of morphine can cause morphine tolerance (MT), which limits the clinical application of opioids. Polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor (TPSP) is a biologically active macromolecule that exerts anti-tumor, immune-enhancing and pain-relieving effects. In order to address the clinical problem of MT, herein, we investigated the inhibitory effect and mechanism of TPSP in rats with inflammatory pain-morphine tolerance. A chronic inflammatory osteoarthritis pain-morphine tolerance model was simulated by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) through the ankle joint cavity and continuous intrathecal administration of morphine. Different doses of TPSP (50 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg and 200 μg/kg) were intrathecally administered for consecutive 3 weeks. Our results indicate that TPSP can significantly inhibit the development of morphine dependence and acute withdrawal in rats, alleviate the decrease of paw withdrawal mechanical threshold and heat stimulation retraction latency. In addition, mechanistically at the molecular level, these effects are elicited via up-regulation of the cannabinoid type 2 receptor, up-regulating the level of β-endorphin, and reducing the levels of IL-1, NO and PGE2. In summary, we report for the first time the application of TPSP as an adjunctive therapy strategy for the relief of MT in clinic.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Structure characterization, physicochemical property and immunomodulatory
           activity on RAW264.7 cells of a novel triple-helix polysaccharide from
           Craterellus cornucopioides
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): M.-Z. Guo, M. Meng, S.-Q. Duan, C.-C. Feng, C.-L. Wang In the study, a new triple-helix polysaccharide with favorable stability was purified from C. cornucopioides. Its structural characterization, stability and solution behavior were investigated by the GC–MS, periodate oxidation-smith degradation, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis, Scanning electron microscope, Congo-red, CD, TGA and DSC analysis. The results showed that Craterellus cornucopioide polysaccharide (CCP) possessed the molecular weight of 1.97 × 103 kDa, is mainly composed of mannose (48.73%), galactose (17.37%), glucose (15.97%) and xylose (17.93%), respectively. It was a heteroglycan with (1 → 3)‑linked‑β‑d‑Manp‑(1 → 6)‑linked α‑d‑Galp backbone distributed by (1 → 4)‑linked‑α‑d‑Xylp‑t‑α‑d‑Manp and t‑β‑d‑Glup units at O-6. The result of TGA and DSC assay indicated that CCP has a favorable thermal stability. MTT and Scanning electro microscopy (SEM) assay showed that CCP could significantly improve the proliferation activity and induce cells activation of RAW264.7 in a certain range of concentrations and period.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Investigation of efficiency of a novel, zinc oxide loaded TEMPO-oxidized
           cellulose nanofiber based hemostat for topical bleeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Anha Afrin Shefa, Mirana Taz, Monir Hossain, Yong Sik Kim, Sun Young Lee, Byong-Taek Lee Lethal bleeding due to street accidents, natural calamities, orthopedic/dental surgeries, organ transplantation and household injuries, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In the current study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was incorporated in TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer system for hemorrhage control by freeze drying method. SEM and XRD data showed the presence of ZnO in the porous structure. FT-IR analysis showed that, successful conjugation occurs among the TOCN and PEG. The results revealed that, the incorporation of ZnO and higher concentrations of PEG increased the degradability but decreased swelling of the scaffolds. The increase in PEG content and ZnO incorporation significantly decreased the bleeding time in rabbit ear arterial bleeding model. Further, the incorporation of ZnO enhanced the antibacterial property of TOCN-PEG. The results suggested that excellent hemostatic and mechanical properties of the TOCN-5% PEG-ZnO might contribute in controlling bleeding and reducing post traumatic dermal bacterial infection.Graphical abstractMechanism of hemostatic and antibacterial activity of TOCN-PEG-ZnO.Unlabelled Image
       
  • Characterisation comparison of polysaccharides from Dioscorea opposita
           Thunb. growing in sandy soil, loessial soil and continuous cropping
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Fanyi Ma, Ruijiao Wang, Jinhua Zhu, Yun Zhang, Yong Wang, Weiping Hu, Alan E. Bell, Xiuhua Liu This study compared the characterisations of polysaccharides from Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) growing in sandy soil (SSCY), loessial soil (LSCY) and second-year continuous cropping (CCCY). SSCY contained the highest total polysaccharides (36.55%) and 80.19% glucose, CCCY from sandy soil obtained 24.55% polysaccharides with 43.66% glucose, whereas LSCY contained 27.54% total polysaccharides and 7.94% glucose. The results indicated that Dioscorea opposita from sandy soil may obtain higher level of glucose. CCCY increased the galacturonic acids in yams from 7.03% to 26.19%, which may have been caused by the decrease in soil pH due to continuous cropping. The starches of SSCY and CCCY from sandy soil belongs to C-type, whereas the starch of LSCY from loessial soil has the A-type pattern. The results suggested that the two types of soil and continuous cropping change the compounds and contents of yams, which provide valuable evidences for cropping management and allelopathy effects.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Release of ciprofloxacin drugs by nano gold embedded cellulose grafted
           polyacrylamide hybrid nanocomposite hydrogels
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Kalyani Prusty, Sarat K. Swain The present work involves the designing of the porous nano gold embedded cellulose grafted polyacrylamide (PAM/C/Au) nanocomposite hydrogel which has been prepared by in situ polymerization process with an objective of application for the in vitro release of ciprofloxacin drugs. The structure, composition, morphology behaviour of the nanocomposite hydrogels are explored using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction study (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal stability of the as synthesized nanocomposite hydrogels are studied by TGA. The gelling actions of prepared nanocomposite hydrogels are determined by the rheological study. The investigations of cytotoxicity tests and antibacterial behaviour along with negative and positive actions of nanocomposite hydrogels are investigated. The study of the release rate of ciprofloxacin drugs is carried out by measuring water retention and swelling properties of nanocomposite hydrogels. The in vitro release rate of ciprofloxacin antibiotic drug is found to be 96.6% in 5 h. The PAM/C/Au nanocomposite hydrogels with improved thermal and rheological properties are suitable proposed as a good carrier towards in vitro release of the ciprofloxacin drugs.
       
  • Structure characterization of low molecular weight sulfate Ulva
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Yinping Li, Xinping Wang, Yuechen Jiang, Jingfeng Wang, Hueymin Hwang, Xihong Yang, Peng Wang Sulfate Ulva polysaccharide with low molecular weight was prepared by enzymatic method and name SUE. The structural characterization of SUE and the effect of its derivative SUE-iron (III) on iron deficiency anemia were studied. Results showed SUE with molecular weight of 178 kDa were consisted of 57.9% rhamnose, 12.1% glucose, 16.3% glucuronic acid, and 13.7% xylose. The backbone contained (1 → 3, 4)-linked rhamnose, (1 → 4)-linked xylose, (1 → 6)-linked glucose and sulfate substitution was at C-3 of rhamnose. Due to high contents of sulfate group (23.7 ± 1.1%) and uronic acid, SUE-iron (III) with 20.3% iron content was synthesized. In order to evaluate the effects of SUE-iron (III) supplementation, an IDA animal model was created. After iron supplement administration, the SUE‑iron (III) showed effective effect on returning hemoglobin, red blood cells, serum iron, and erythropoietin to the normal levels. The hematological index of rats showed no difference from that in positive group. Besides, SUE-iron (III) is beneficial to alleviate inflammatory damage caused by IDA. These suggest that SUE-iron (III) might be exploited as safe and effective new iron supplement.
       
  • Antioxidant activities of sulfated pumpkin polysaccharides
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Ling Chen, Gangliang Huang Pumpkin polysaccharide was extracted by hot water extraction method. It was modified with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine to obtain sulfated pumpkin polysaccharides (SP1, SP2) with different degrees of substitution, which was 0.35 and 0.65, respectively. The total sugar contents of pumpkin polysaccharide and its sulfated derivatives were determined by phenol‑sulfuric acid method, the ability of scavenging hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions as well as the ability of reducing were determined. The results showed the scavenging effect of sulfated derivatives on hydroxyl radicals was not different after 0.8 mg/mL and was lower than that of pumpkin polysaccharides. The sulfated pumpkin polysaccharides with different degrees of substitution had better scavenging effects on superoxide anions than pumpkin polysaccharide, but the reducing ability was lower than that of pumpkin polysaccharide.
       
  • Comparative study of encapsulated peppermint and green tea essential oils
           in chitosan nanoparticles: Encapsulation, thermal stability, in-vitro
           release, antioxidant and antibacterial activities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Amro Shetta, James Kegere, Wael Mamdouh Essential oils (EOs) such as Peppermint oil (PO) and Green Tea oil (GTO) have extensively been reported for their nutritional and biomedical properties. To overcome the sensitivity of EOs to the environmental conditions, nano-encapsulation has emerged as a method to address this limitation. In this work, PO and GTO were encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) following emulsification/ionic gelation method. The nano-encapsulated PO (CS/PO NPs) and GTO (CS/GTO NPs) were fully characterized by various methods. Spherical NPs with an average size range of 20–60 nm were revealed by TEM for both systems. The loading capacity reached 22.2% and 23.1%, for PO and GTO, respectively, and the in-vitro release followed a Fickian behavior in different buffer systems. The TGA thermograms of both nano-encapsulated EOs showed an increase in the temperature of maximum degradation rate up to 350 °C. The nano-encapsulation maintained the stability of the total phenolic contents in both EOs, improved the antioxidant activity by ~2 and 2.4-fold for PO and GTO respectively. Surprisingly, the antibacterial activity of CS/GTO NPs was more potent than CS/PO NPs and especially against Staphylococcus aureus with ~9.4 folds improvement compared to pure GTO, and ~4.7 fold against Escherichia coli.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Structure elucidation and bioactivities of a new polysaccharide from
           Xiaojin Boletus speciosus Frost
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Hongqing Zhu, Xiang Ding, Yiling Hou, Yuming Li, Mei Wang A new water-soluble polysaccharide named BSF-X was extracted and purified from the fruiting bodies of Boletus speciosus Frost which had a molecular weight of 141,309 Da. The structure identification results showed that BSF-X was mainly composed of β-d-glucose and α-D-galactose. BSF-X had a backbone of 1, 4-linked β-d-glucose of which branches were mainly composed of two 1, 6-linked α-D-galactose residue and a 4-linked β-d-glucose at the end of the branches. Antitumor activities results showed that BSF-X could inhibit the proliferation of L929 cells in vitro and S180 tumor cells in vivo. Immunoregulatory activities results showed that BSF-X could promote the proliferation of T cells, B cells and macrophages by promoting the cells into S phase from G0/G1 phase. Polysaccharide BSF-X can also enhance the phagocytes is and cytokine secretion of macrophages. This study introduced the new polysaccharide BSF-X as a valuable source which exhibit unique antitumor and immunoregulatory properties.
       
  • Phycoerythrin-phycocyanin aggregates and phycoerythrin aggregates from
           phycobilisomes of the marine red alga Polysiphonia urceolata
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Mingri Zhao, Li Sun, Xuejun Fu, Min Chen Phycoerythrin-phycocyanin aggregates and phycoerythrin aggregates showing special spectral characteristics were prepared from the partly dissociated products of phycobilisomes from Polysiphonia urceolata. The absorption difference spectra between the aggregates and phycoerythrins showing normal spectral characteristics show peaks at 583 nm. The fluorescence emission difference spectra between the phycoerythrin aggregates and normal phycoerythrins show peaks at 602 nm. The special spectral characteristics of the PE aggregates disappeared when the PE aggregates were dissociated in deionized water. The intact phycobilisomes show similar characteristics as phycoerythrin-phycocyanin aggregates. When the peak values at 583 nm in absorption difference spectra were compared with those at 615 nm, it can be found that the amount of the 583 nm chromophores in the phycoerythrin-phycocyanin aggregates and intact phycobilisomes is similar to the amount of PCB chromophores in phycocyanins. It can be concluded that the 583 nm chromophores are at the interface between phycoerythrins and phycocyanins in phycobilisomes and transfer the light energy absorbed by other chromophores in phycoerythrins to the PCB chromophores in phycocyanins. A rod linker polypeptide with molecular weight of 40 kDa was found in the phycoerythrin-phycocyanin aggregates and phycoerythrin aggregates, and it is believed to play roles in the spectral red shift of the aggregates.
       
  • Inner membrane complex 1l protein of Plasmodium falciparum links membrane
           lipids with cytoskeletal element ‘actin’ and its associated motor
           ‘myosin’
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Vikash Kumar, Ankita Behl, Payal Kapoor, Bandita Nayak, Gurbir Singh, Amrit Pal Singh, Satish Mishra, Tejwant Singh Kang, Prakash Chandra Mishra, Rachna Hora The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a defining feature of apicomplexans comprising of lipid and protein components involved in gliding motility and host cell invasion. Motility of Plasmodium parasites is accomplished by an actin and myosin based glideosome machinery situated between the parasite plasma membrane (PPM) and IMC. Here, we have studied in vivo expression and localization of a Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) IMC protein ‘PfIMC1l’ and characterized it functionally by using biochemical assays. We have identified cytoskeletal protein ‘actin’ and motor protein ‘myosin’ as novel binding partners of PfIMC1l, alongside its interaction with the lipids ‘cholesterol’ and ‘phosphatidyl-inositol 4, 5 bisphosphate’ (PIP2). While actin and myosin compete for interaction with PfIMC1l, actin and either of the lipids (cholesterol or PIP2) simultaneously bind PfIMC1l. Interestingly, PfIMC1l showed enhanced binding with actin in the presence of calcium ions, and displayed direct binding with calcium. Based on our in silico analysis and experimental data showing PfIMC1l-actin/myosin and PfIMC1l-lipid interactions, we propose that this protein may anchor the IMC membrane with the parasite gliding apparatus. Considering its binding with key proteins involved in motility viz. myosin and actin (with calcium dependence), we suggest that PfIMC1l may have a role in the locomotion of Plasmodium.
       
  • Vascular targeted chitosan-derived nanoparticles as docetaxel carriers for
           gastric cancer therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Enhui Zhang, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, Kecheng Li, Yukun Qin, Huahua Yu, Pengcheng Li A gastric cancer angiogenesis marker peptide, GX1, is promising to be a desirable ligand for anti-angiogenesis targeted drug of gastric cancer treatment. In this study, GX1 was utilized to fabricate a multifunctional vascular targeting docetaxel (DCT)-loaded nanoparticle with N-deoxycholic acid glycol chitosan (DGC) as the carrier and GX1-PEG-deoxycholic acid (GPD) conjugate as the targeting ligand. The mean size of obtained GX1-DGC-DCT was 150.9 nm with a narrow size distribution and their shape was spherical with smooth surface texture. The in vitro drug release test revealed a sustained release manner and an acid pH could accelerate the release compared with the neutral pH. Furthermore, GX1-DGC-DCT showed stronger cytotoxicity against co-cultured gastric cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (co-HUVEC) than DCT within 100 μM. In addition, GX1 efficiently enhanced the cellular uptake of nanoparticles in co-HUVEC cells as confirmed by confocal fluorescence scanning microscopy. Moreover, in vivo delivery of GX1-DGC-DCT was demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth in SGC791 tumor-bearing mice with tumor inhibition rate (TIR) of 67.05% and no weight loss of mice was observed. The anti-tumor effects were further confirmed by H&E and TUNEL analysis. Therefore, this new drug delivery system represents a potential strategy for gastric cancer therapy.
       
  • Inhibition of UGT1A1 by natural and synthetic flavonoids
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Xin-Yu Liu, Xia Lv, Ping Wang, Chun-Zhi Ai, Qi-Hang Zhou, Moshe Finel, Bin Fan, Yun-Feng Cao, Hui Tang, Guang-Bo Ge Flavonoids are widely distributed phytochemicals in vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants. Recent studies demonstrate that some natural flavonoids are potent inhibitors of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), a key enzyme in detoxification of endogenous harmful compounds such as bilirubin. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 56 natural and synthetic flavonoids on UGT1A1 were assayed, while the structure–inhibition relationships of flavonoids as UGT1A1 inhibitors were investigated. The results demonstrated that the C-3 and C-7 hydroxyl groups on the flavone skeleton would enhance UGT1A1 inhibition, while flavonoid glycosides displayed weaker inhibitory effects than their corresponding aglycones. Further investigation on inhibition kinetics of two strong flavonoid-type UGT1A1 inhibitors, acacetin and kaempferol, yielded interesting results. Both flavonoids were competitive inhibitors against UGT1A1-mediated NHPN-O-glucuronidation, but were mixed and competitive inhibitors toward UGT1A1-mediated NCHN-O-glucuronidation, respectively. Furthermore, docking simulations showed that the binding areas of NHPN, kaempferol and acacetin on UGT1A1 were highly overlapping, and convergence with the binding area of bilirubin within UGT1A1. In summary, detailed structure-inhibition relationships of flavonoids as UGT1A1 inhibitors were investigated carefully and the findings shed new light on the interactions between flavonoids and UGT1A1, and will contribute considerably to the development of flavonoid-type drugs without strong UGT1A1 inhibition.
       
  • [λ‑Carrageenan‑calcium phosphate] and [sodium alginate‑calcium
           phosphate] modified with dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride and
           diallylamin co-polymer as efficient adsorbents of anionic dyes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Nouha Sebeia, Mahjoub Jabli, Adel Ghith Alginate and carrageenan bio-polymers have been proved to be, only, good sorbents of cationic dyes. In this study, we reported the synthesis of [λ‑carrageenan‑calcium phosphate] and [sodium alginate‑calcium phosphate] modified with dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride and diallylamin co-polymer, which could be used as effective adsorbents of anionic dyes. Evidence of chemical modification was proved through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) band shifting, peaks broadening in X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and the change in thermal event (TGA). The sorption process was studied using acid blue 25 as representative anionic dye. The adsorbed quantity reached, at equilibrium, 446 mg/g and 195 mg/g using cationized [sodium alginate‑calcium phosphate] and cationized [λ‑carrageenan‑calcium phosphate], respectively. However, it does not exceed 3.4 mg/g in the case of the unmodified [sodium alginate‑calcium phosphate]. The sorption of acid blue 25 using cationized hybrid materials complied well with the pseudo-second-order suggesting a chemi-sorption. Freundlich isotherm described well the adsorption mechanism of the three studied adsorbents. In summary, the high sorption capacities of the cationized hybrid materials obtained in this study suggest their use as effective adsorbents of acid dyes from wastewaters.
       
  • Receptor-mediated delivery of therapeutic RNA by peptide functionalized
           curdlan nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Tsogzolmaa Ganbold, Shuqin Han, Agula Hasi, Huricha Baigude Natural carbohydrate polymer-based nanoparticles have great biocompatibility that is required for the safe delivery of various drugs including nucleic acid therapeutics. Herein, we designed curdlan-based nanoparticles for cancer cell targeted delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA). iRGD peptide conjugated 6-amino-6-deoxy curdlan specifically delivered siRNA to integrin expressing cancer cells. Incubation of cancer cells with free iRGD peptide competitively blocked cellular uptake of the iRGD functionalized curdlan nanoparticles. Chloroquine but not nystatin inhibited cellular uptake of iRGD functionalized curdlan nanoparticles, indicating that the iRGD peptide conjugated curdlan nanoparticles were internalized through the receptor (clathrin)-mediated endocytosis. Moreover, a disease related gene Plk1 was substantially knocked down by siRNA carried by 6AC-iRGD nanoparticles in HepG2 cells. Our data suggested that iRGD functionalized curdlan may provide a biocompatible carrier for siRNA delivery.
       
  • Preparation and in vitro characterization of cross-linked
           collagen–gelatin hydrogel using EDC/NHS for corneal tissue engineering
           applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Hamid Goodarzi, Khosrow Jadidi, Samiramis Pourmotabed, Esmaeel Sharifi, Hossein Aghamollaei Corneal disease is considered as the second leading cause of vision loss and keratoplasty is known as an effective treatment for it. However, the tissue engineered corneal substitutes are promising tools in experimental in vivo repair of cornea. Selecting appropriate cell sources and scaffolds are two important concerns in corneal tissue engineering. The object of this study was to investigate biocompatibility and physical properties of the bio-engineered cornea, fabricated from type-I collagen (COL) and gelatin (Gel). Two gelatin based hydrogels cross-linked with EDC/NHS were fabricated, and their physicochemical properties such as equilibrium water content, enzymatic degradation, mechanical properties, rheological, contact angle and optical properties as well as their ability to support human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) survival were characterized. The equilibrium water content and enzymatic degradation of these hydrogels can be easily controlled by adding COL. Our findings suggest that incorporation of COL-I increases optical properties, hydrophilicity, stiffness and Young's modulus. The viability of hBM-MSCs cultured in Gel and Gel: COL was assessed via CCK-8 assay. Also, the morphology of the hBM-MSCs on the top of Gel and Gel: COL hydrogels were characterized by phase-contrast microscopy. This biocompatible hydrogel may promise to be used as artificial corneal substitutes.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Design and synthesis of a native heparin disaccharide grafted
           poly‑2‑aminoethyl methacrylate glycopolymer for inhibition of melanoma
           cell metastasis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Zhi Cai, Liping Teng, Juan Zhou, Yishu Yan, Yan Zhang, Guozhong Lv, Jinghua Chen Numerous studies have proved that heparin, a sub-group of glycosaminoglycan, possesses great potential as anti-metastasis agent. However, the native strong anti-coagulant activity which causes serious side effects, such as bleeding, has limited its clinical applications for safety concern. To overcome this problem, we synthesized a panel of novel glycopolymers that mimic heparin structure with substantially reduced anti-coagulant activity by a simple grafted-on strategy. The influence of molecular weight & distribution, substituting degree and sulfonic density on cytotoxicity were determined by systematic MTT analysis to select the candidates with highly bio-compatibility. Among these glycopolymers, a sulfated poly‑2‑aminoethyl methacrylate grafted with heparin disaccharide (abbreviated as SGPHD) has shown potent efficacy in inhibition of heparanase activity and microvascular endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Further experiments demonstrated that SGPHD inhibited B16 murine melanoma cell migration, invasion and adhesion to platelets or microvascular endothelial cells, thus, presented as a possible anti-metastatic agent by providing a whole course protection during tumor metastasis. The results will have significant impacts for the further rational design of glycopolymer medicine.
       
  • Improvement of the bonding properties of cassava starch-based wood
           adhesives by using different types of acrylic ester
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Zhenjiong Wang, Hua Zhu, JunNan Huang, Zan Ge, Jing Guo, Xiangyu Feng, Qing Xu High performance of starch-based wood adhesives (SWAs) is important for their industrial applications. In this study, we designed and demonstrated the use of different types of acrylic ester for improving the bonding performance of SWAs. Results showed that the addition of acrylic ester as the co-monomer showed significantly the bonding capacity and hydrophobicity of SWAs. Furthermore, SWAs added hexyl acrylate could improve the shear strength to 11.23 MPa and 5.63 MPa in dry and wet states, respectively. Further analysis found that the improved bonding performance of SWAs could be attributed to the low minimum film-forming temperature, the enhanced the film-forming rate and the improved hydrophobicity by the addition of hexyl acrylate. These results offer a major development in the preparation of high-performance bio-based wood adhesives.
       
  • Multifunctional α-amylase Amy19 possesses agarase, carrageenase, and
           cellulase activities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Jiang Li, Xiaoqian Gu, Aihong Pan The open reading frame of an α-amylase coding gene, amy19, was obtained from a fosmid genomic library of hot spring bacterium Bacillus BI-19 by a plate-based assay of carrageenase activity. After heterologous expression of the gene, the recombinant Amy19 was found to possess α-amylase, agarase, carrageenase, and cellulase activities, and could degrade soluble starch, agarose, carrageen, and sodium cellulose into oligosaccharides with low degrees of polymerization. To explore the multifunctional mechanism of Amy19, three continuous glycosyl hydrolase 70 (GH70) motifs in the Amy19 encoding sequence were deleted one by one, then in pairs, then all at once. The GH70 motifs may play an important role in the multifunctionality of Amy19, but the multifunctionality was not determined by the GH70 motifs alone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an α-amylase from a hot spring bacterium with additional agarase, carrageenase, and cellulase activities.
       
  • Antibacterial oxidized starch/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel: Synthesis and
           evaluation of its swelling behaviours in various pHs and salt solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Hassan Namazi, Mohsen Hasani, Mehdi Yadollahi In this study, oxidized starch hydrogels have been fabricated, and then ZnO nanoparticles were added to swollen oxidized starch hydrogels through the in-situ process. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on swelling behavior of oxidized starch hydrogels, as well as investigation their potential to be used in the antibacterial applications. The obtained results showed that the swelling behavior of the nanocomposite hydrogels was dependent on pH conditions. And at pH 7 the highest swelling was observed for samples because of the carboxylate anions created from samples constituent. The ZnO nanoparticles formation in the hydrogels was established with FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs showed the construction of ZnO nanoparticles with a size range of 35–70 nm within the hydrogel matrix. Also, the swelling behaviours of the nanocomposite hydrogels were studied in several pH values and salt solutions. The swelling capacity of the ZnO nanocomposite hydrogels was reliant on the abundance of the zinc oxide nanoparticles in the oxidized starch hydrogels matrix. Furthermore, these oxidized starch/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogels showed smart swelling behaviours in NaCl, CaCl2 and AlCl3 aqueous solutions and their swelling ratio reduced with a growth of the salt concentration and valence of the cations. The swelling capacity for the resulted compounds in diverse salt solutions with the equal concentration was in order of NaCl > CaCl2 > AlCl3. Also, the antibacterial activities of the ZnO nanocomposite hydrogels were proven against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The nanocomposite hydrogels confirmed fine antibacterial properties. The developed oxidized starch/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogels have the potential to be used for biomedical use.
       
  • Effects of the aspect ratio of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the
           structure and properties of regenerated collagen fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Changkun Ding, Jianhua Du, Yuemiao Cao, Chengfei Yue, Bowen Cheng Collagen is a natural one-dimensional nanomaterial. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been previously shown to interact with biomolecules and to have promising applications in reinforced biopolymers for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, collagen/MWNT composite fibers are prepared using dry-jet wet-spinning technology. Three types of MWNTs with aspect ratios of 40, 150, and 4000 are used to investigate the effects of the MWNT aspect ratio on the properties of the composite fibers. There results show that there are strong molecular interactions between the MWNTs and collagen molecules. The mechanical properties and thermal stability of the composite fibers are significantly improved compared to those of the collagen fibers. The diameter and aspect ratio of the MWNTs are the main factors affecting the self-assembled structure of the collagen molecules, the alignment of the microfibrils, and the mechanical and thermal performance of the composite fibers.
       
  • Obtainment and characterization of nanocellulose from an unwoven
           industrial textile cotton waste: Effect of acid hydrolysis conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Maísa Milanez Ávila Dias Maciel, Kelly Cristina Coelho de Carvalho Benini, Herman Jacobus Cornelis Voorwald, Maria Odila Hilário Cioffi Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have a promising application in many advanced products, such as biomedical applications and hydrogels. In this research, industrial cotton waste was treated using alkali and bleaching to eliminate hemicellulose, lignin, and other amorphous contents. The efficiency of these treatments was proven by chemical compositions analysis, which showed an increase in cellulose percentage with the progression of treatments. Fibers were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). CNCs were then prepared by acid hydrolysis using different sulfuric acid concentrations (50 wt%, 60 wt% and 64 wt%) and two reactions time (60 min. and 75 min.) resulting in six CNCs suspensions. CNCs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, zeta potential, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). CNCs obtained exhibited a good crystallinity index varying from 75 to 81% and thermal stability between 146 °C and 200 °C. TEM analysis showed that sulfuric acid concentration influenced in CNCs length (105 nm–5880 nm). By analyzing all results, the optimal parameters for acid hydrolysis were 64% (w/w) of acid concentration combined with 60 min. of reaction time. The preparation of CNCs in this work showed some prospects of using untraditional industrial cotton waste as an advanced material.
       
  • Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity and in vitro
           gastrointestinal digestion of purified proteins from black cumin seeds
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Ines Trigui, Zied Zarai, Soizic Chevance, Salma Cheikh-Rouhou, Hamadi Attia, M.A. Ayadi The main purpose of this work was to investigate some physiochemical and antioxidant properties of purified proteins of 18 kDa from black cumin seeds. The structural properties of purified proteins were characterized using Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy analysis. The Tunisian purified protein exhibited a α-helix structure and the Turkish purified protein adopted a β-sheet conformation. The thermal properties were also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Tunisian purified protein presented two endothermic peaks, the first one was at 76.71 °C and the second one was at 131.32 °C. However, only one endothermic peak was found for the Turkish purified protein at 157.63 °C. Both Tunisian and Turkish purified proteins were very stable towards heat-induced denaturation. In addition, the effect of pH, salt (NaCl and Na2SO4) and temperature on functional properties was investigated. The Tunisian black cumin seeds pure protein exhibited better antioxidant activity than that of the Turkish one at all tested concentrations (0.2 to 1 mg/mL) and temperatures (50 °C, 75 °C and 100 °C), as well as after gastrointestinal digestion simulation.
       
  • Microcalorimetric and microscopic studies of the effect of chitosan
           quaternary ammonium salt on mitochondria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2019Source: International Journal of Biological MacromoleculesAuthor(s): Caifen Xia, Wei Li, Boqiao Fu, Caiqin Qin Chitosan quaternary ammonium salt (HACC) has been regarded as an effective biomedical carrier with good application because of its good water-solubility, high cationic potential and strong cell adhesion. Mitochondria are important organelle involved in ATP production and are the center of energy metabolism. In this work, we firstly investigated the effect of HACC on the thermogenic curve of isolated mitochondrial metabolism by microcalorimetry. The results showed that different concentration of HACC had great influence on the mitochondrial energy metabolism. Specifically, low level of HACC stimulated the metabolic activity of mitochondria and the inhibition was found with high concentration of HACC. Then, the effect of HACC on mitochondrial respiratory chain was studied, which was consistent with the results of microcalorimetry. Finally, the alteration of mitochondrial structure induced by HACC was observed and it showed that the membrane of mitochondria was dramatically damaged. These new findings can help us deeply understand the influence and action mechanism of HACC in the metabolic process and provide theoretical and practical foundation for the biosafety of HACC as a medical carrier.
       
  • Health-promoting effects of konjac glucomannan and its practical
           applications: A critical review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Ramya Devi Devaraj, Chagam Koteswara Reddy, Baojun Xu Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a dietary fiber hydrocolloidal polysaccharide isolated from the tubers of Amorphophallus konjac. Over the last few decades, the purified KGM has been offered as a food additive as well as a dietary supplement in many countries. Also, a diet containing konjac flour or KGM is considered as healthier, and these foods are popular in many Asian and European markets. Further, due to the adhesive property of KGM, it can form a defensive covering on the surface of the intestine. Additionally, KGM can reduce the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure and can enable weight loss. Its wide-ranging effects prevent many chronic diseases through the regulation of metabolism. In this review, the recent studies on the health benefits such as anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, laxative, prebiotic, and anti-inflammatory activities of KGM were discussed. Also, this review deals with the applications of KGM and its derivatives in bio-technical, pharmaceutical, tissue engineering, fine chemical fields, etc.
       
  • Enhanced antibacterial activity of Egyptian local insects' chitosan-based
           nanoparticles loaded with ciprofloxacin-HCl
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Narguess Marei, Ahmed H.M. Elwahy, Taher A. Salah, Youssef El Sherif, Emtithal Abd El-Samie Chitosan (CS), possess enormous properties, being biodegradable, biocompatible, and antimicrobial. CS could be formulated and casted into different forms including 2D films, hydrogels, and nanoparticles. Chitosan-based nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed countless interest as polymeric drug delivery system (DDS) with its improved bioavailability, and stability when compared with traditional DDS. Ciprofloxacin is a prescribed antibiotic for many diseases, but its efficiency was affected by antibacterial resistance. Therefore, in this study, CSNPs loaded with ciprofloxacin (Cipro/CSNPs) were prepared from CS isolated from desert locusts, beetles, honey bee exoskeletons, and shrimp shells were used as a standard control. CSNPs were formulated by ionic crosslinking method, then loaded with ciprofloxacin HCl, and characterized using particle size distribution, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency. The release of ciprofloxacin from CSNPs was evaluated and its kinetic modelling was performed. Antibacterial activity of CSNPs was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Bacillus thuringiensis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined and compared between chitosan sources. The Cipro/CSNPs results indicate that the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli and MRSA with MIC varying from 0.0043 to 0.01 μg/ml and from 0.07 to 0.14 μg/ml, respectively. In addition, CSNPs enhanced drug delivery, and allowed its controlled release.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Guided bone regeneration activity of different calcium phosphate/chitosan
           hybrid membranes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Yau-Hung Chen, Hung-Yin Tai, Earl Fu, Trong-Ming Don To fulfill the properties of membrane for guided bone tissue regeneration, chitosan (CS) and calcium phosphates were blended to produce porous hybrid membranes by lyophilization. We synthesized three different calcium phosphates: calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and β‑tricalcium phosphate (TCP) by a reverse emulsion method followed by calcination, and compared their efficacy on bone regeneration. The CDHA/CS, BCP/CS, and TCP/CS membranes had an interconnected pore structure with porosity of 91–95% and pore size of 102–147 μm. These hybrid membranes could promote the permeability and adhesiveness to bone cells as demonstrated by in-vitro cell culture of primary osteoblast. Particularly, the CDHA/CS and BCP/CS could further increase the cell attachment and differentiation, whereas the BCP/CS and TCP/CS could enhance cell proliferation. Finally, these hybrid membranes were assessed for guided bone regeneration in the critical-size calvarial bone defects created in SD rats. Histological and histomorphometric analyses revealed that the BCP/CS membrane had the most effective bone regeneration compared to the other two hybrid membranes. At three-week post-surgery, the BCP/CS membrane could enhance new bone generation up to 57% of the original bone defect area. The BCP/CS membrane thus has the potential to be applied for guided bone regeneration.
       
  • Preparation of polyelectrolyte complex gel of sodium alginate with
           chitosan using basic solution of chitosan
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Daiki Komoto, Tetsuya Furuike, Hiroshi Tamura In general, chitosan (CS) cannot be dissolved in basic solution, however it was found that the basic CS solution could be prepared using sodium hydrogen carbonate. NMR measurements revealed that CS was transformed to carbamate ion in the basic condition (around pH 8) thus it acts as anionic nature in this medium. Based on this discovery, novel polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) gel of sodium alginate (SA) and CS was successfully prepared using a basic CS solution and d-gluconolactone (GDL). Gel formation mechanism was explained based on the 1H and 13C NMR measurement results. It was found that the elastic modulus of SA/CS PEC gel were higher than that of SA/Chitosan oligomer gel. Moreover, the SA/CS PEC gel was the homogeneous gel and become over 7000 Pa for maximum of elastic modulus. This novel PEC gel will be used in several applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery system and fuel cell.
       
  • Insight on the changes of cassava and potato starch granules during
           gelatinization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 April 2019Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 126Author(s): Huijie Han, Jingwen Hou, Ning Yang, Yihui Zhang, Huanfei Chen, Zhipeng Zhang, Yuanyuan Shen, Shengtang Huang, Shengrong Guo Gelatinization is an important property of starch for biomedical applications. However, studies on the changes in starch granules in terms of morphology, swelling, amylose leaching and so on during gelatinization, which are key to uncovering the starch gelatinization process, have rarely been reported. Herein, changes of cassava and potato starch granules during gelatinization were investigated. It was found that there is a substantial difference in the granule changes during gelatinization between cassava and potato starch. Cassava starch granules remain intact with slight swelling, with approximately 8.5% amylose leaching in water for 30 min at 60 °C. In sharp contrast, potato starch granules swell very well and rapidly, losing much integrity with 51.05% amylose leaching. The gelatinization time and temperature have much greater effects on the changes of potato starch granules than cassava starch granules.
       
 
 
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