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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3031 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
  [SJR: 1.249]   [H-I: 88]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0889-5406
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Communication between doctor and patient in contemporary times
    • Authors: Meropi N. Spyropoulos
      Pages: 629 - 632
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Meropi N. Spyropoulos


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.004
       
  • Child abuse prevention month
    • Authors: Patrick K. Turley
      First page: 633
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Patrick K. Turley


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.02.006
       
  • “Real-world” evaluation of AcceleDent
    • Authors: David Alpan; Sam Daher; S. Jay Bowman
      Pages: 633 - 635
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): David Alpan, Sam Daher, S. Jay Bowman


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.013
       
  • Authors' response
    • Authors: Peter Miles; Liz Fisher
      Pages: 635 - 636
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Peter Miles, Liz Fisher


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.012
       
  • Necessities of documentation in canine-lateral transposition
    • Authors: Swati Acharya; Pritam Mohanty
      Pages: 636 - 637
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Swati Acharya, Pritam Mohanty


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.009
       
  • Authors' response
    • Authors: Yu Lin Hsu; Chris H. Chang; W. Eugene Roberts
      First page: 637
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yu Lin Hsu, Chris H. Chang, W. Eugene Roberts


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.010
       
  • Good science, bad science, and junk science
    • Authors: Florián Benicio Chauca
      Pages: 637 - 638
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Florián Benicio Chauca


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.008
       
  • Does orthodontic treatment before the age of 18 years improve oral
           health-related quality of life? A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Hanieh Javidi; Mario Vettore; Philip E. Benson
      Pages: 644 - 655
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Hanieh Javidi, Mario Vettore, Philip E. Benson
      Introduction Orthodontics aims to improve oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this systematic review, we examined the evidence for changes in OHRQoL after orthodontic treatment for patients treated before they were 18 years old. Methods The participants were patients aged less than 18 years. The interventions were nonorthognathic and cleft orthodontic treatment. The comparisons were before and after orthodontic treatment, or nonorthodontic control. The outcomes were validated measures of OHRQoL. The study designs were randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, and cross-sectional or case-control studies. Multiple electronic databases were searched, with no language restrictions; authors were contacted, and reference lists screened. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for quality assessments. Screening, data extraction, and quality assessments were performed by 2 investigators independently. Results We found 1590 articles and included 13 studies (9 cohort, 3 cross sectional, and 1 case control), with 6 in the meta-analyses. All were judged of low or moderate quality. A moderate improvement in OHRQoL was observed before and after orthodontic treatment (n = 243 participants; standardized mean difference, −0.75; 95% CI, −1.15 to −0.36) particularly in the dimensions of emotional well-being (n = 213 participants; standardized mean difference, −0.61; 95% CI, −0.80 to −0.41) and social well-being (n = 213 participants; standardized mean difference, −0.62; 95% CI, −0.82 to −0.43). Conclusions Orthodontic treatment during childhood or adolescence leads to moderate improvements in the emotional and social well-being dimensions of OHRQoL, although the evidence is of low and moderate quality. More high quality, longitudinal, prospective studies are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.12.011
       
  • Expert panels as a reference standard in orthodontic research: An
           assessment of published methods and reporting
    • Authors: Evangelia Lempesi; Electra Toulia; Nikolaos Pandis
      Pages: 656 - 668
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Evangelia Lempesi, Electra Toulia, Nikolaos Pandis
      Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the expert panel methodology applied in orthodontics and its reporting quality. Additionally, the relationship between the reporting quality and a range of variables was explored. Methods PubMed was searched for orthodontic studies in which the final diagnosis or assessment was made by 2 or more experts published up to March 16, 2015. Reporting quality assessment was conducted using an established modified checklist. The relationship between potential predictors and the total score was assessed using univariable linear regression. Results We identified 237 studies with a mean score of 9.97 (SD, 1.12) out of a maximum of 15. Critical information about panel methodology was missing in all studies. The panel composition differed substantially across studies, ranging from 2 to 646 panel members, with large variations in the expertise represented. Only 17 studies (7.2%) reported sample size calculations to justify the panel size. Panel members were partly blinded in 65 (27.4%) studies. Most studies failed to report which statistic was used to compute intrarater (65.8%) and interrater (66.2%) agreements. Journal type (nonorthodontic: β, 0.23; 95% CI, −0.07 to 0.54 compared with orthodontic), publication year (β, 0; 95% CI, −0.02 to 0.02 for each additional year), number of authors (1-3: β, 0.30; 95% CI, −0.13 to 0.74 compared with at least 6; 4-5: β, 0.18; 95% CI, −0.29 to 0.33 compared with at least 6), and number of centers involved (single: β, 0.20; 95% CI, −0.14 to 0.54 compared with multicenter) were not significant predictors of improved reporting. Studies published in Asia and Australia had significantly lower scores compared with those published in Europe (β, −0.54; 95% CI, −0.92 to −0.17). Conclusions Formal guidelines on methodology and reporting of studies involving expert panels are required.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.020
       
  • Streptococcus mutans forms xylitol-resistant biofilm on excess adhesive
           flash in novel ex-vivo orthodontic bracket model
    • Authors: Cindy S.F. Ho; Yue Ming; Kelvin W.C. Foong; Vinicius Rosa; Truong Thuyen; Chaminda J. Seneviratne
      Pages: 669 - 677
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Cindy S.F. Ho, Yue Ming, Kelvin W.C. Foong, Vinicius Rosa, Truong Thuyen, Chaminda J. Seneviratne
      Introduction During orthodontic bonding procedures, excess adhesive is invariably left on the tooth surface at the interface between the bracket and the enamel junction; it is called excess adhesive flash (EAF). We comparatively evaluated the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans on EAF produced by 2 adhesives and examined the therapeutic efficacy of xylitol on S mutans formed on EAF. Methods First, we investigated the biofilm formation of S mutans on 3 orthodontic bracket types: stainless steel preadjusted edgewise, ceramic preadjusted edgewise, and stainless steel self-ligating. Subsequently, tooth-colored Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and green Grengloo (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) adhesives were used for bonding ceramic brackets to extracted teeth. S mutans biofilms on EAF produced by the adhesives were studied using the crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness and surface energy of the EAF were examined. The therapeutic efficacies of different concentrations of xylitol were tested on S mutans biofilms. Results Significantly higher biofilms were formed on the ceramic preadjusted edgewise brackets (P = 0.003). Transbond XT had significantly higher S mutans biofilms compared with Grengloo surfaces (P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in surface roughness between Transbond XT and Grengloo surfaces (P >0.05). Surface energy of Transbond XT had a considerably smaller contact angle than did Grengloo, suggesting that Transbond XT is a more hydrophilic material. Xylitol at low concentrations had no significant effect on the reduction of S mutans biofilms on orthodontic adhesives (P = 0.016). Conclusions Transbond XT orthodontic adhesive resulted in more S mutans biofilm compared with Grengloo adhesive on ceramic brackets. Surface energy seemed to play a more important role than surface roughness for the formation of S mutans biofilm on EAF. Xylitol does not appear to have a therapeutic effect on mature S mutans biofilm.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.017
       
  • Assessment of antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of orthodontic stainless
           steel brackets coated with different phases of titanium oxide: An in-vitro
           study
    • Authors: Roshen Daniel Baby; Siva Subramaniam; Ilakkiya Arumugam; Sridevi Padmanabhan
      Pages: 678 - 684
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Roshen Daniel Baby, Siva Subramaniam, Ilakkiya Arumugam, Sridevi Padmanabhan
      Introduction Our objective was to assess the antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of orthodontic stainless steel brackets coated with different phases of photocatalytic titanium oxide. Methods From a total sample of 115 brackets, 68 orthodontic stainless steel brackets were coated with titanium oxide using a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering machine. The coated brackets were then converted into 34 each of the anatase and rutile phases of titanium oxide. These brackets were subdivided into 4 groups for antibacterial study and 3 groups for cytotoxicity study. Brackets for the antibacterial study were assessed against the Streptococcus mutans species using microbiologic tests. Three groups for the cytotoxicity study were assessed using the thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Results The antibacterial study showed that both phases were effective, but the rutile phase of photocatalytic titanium oxide had a greater bactericidal effect than did the anatase phase. The cytotoxicity study showed that the rutile phase had a greater decrease in viability of cells compared with the anatase phase. Conclusions It is recommended that orthodontic brackets be coated with the anatase phase of titanium oxide since they exhibited a significant antibacterial property and were only slightly cytotoxic.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.014
       
  • Improvement in Peer Assessment Rating scores after nonextraction, premolar
           extraction, and mandibular incisor extraction treatments in patients with
           Class I malocclusion
    • Authors: Adeel Tahir Kamal; Attiya Shaikh; Mubassar Fida
      Pages: 685 - 690
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Adeel Tahir Kamal, Attiya Shaikh, Mubassar Fida
      Introduction Different treatment protocols implemented for correction of Class I malocclusion aim at achieving ideal occlusal characteristics. This study was planned to evaluate the improvement in the occlusal characteristics of Class I patients treated with nonextraction (NE), all first premolar extractions (PME), and mandibular incisor extraction (MIE) as assessed by the percentage of improvement in Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on the pretreatment and posttreatment dental casts of 108 subjects with Class I malocclusion. The total sample was divided into 3 equal groups according to the treatment protocol implemented: NE, PME, and MIE. The mean pretreatment and posttreatment PAR scores, and the percentages of improvement were compared among the 3 treatment modalities using Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunnett T3 tests. Results The mean percentages of improvement in the PAR score were 75.8% ± 25.8% in the NE group, 73.1% ± 19.4% in the PME group, and 70.6% ± 24.1% in the MIE group. There was no significant difference (P = 0.351) in the percentages of improvement in PAR scores among the 3 treatment modalities. However, the mean pretreatment and posttreatment PAR scores varied significantly (P <0.001) in the 3 groups. The average pretreatment and posttreatment PAR scores were highest in the MIE group and lowest in the NE group. Conclusions The comparable percentages of improvement in PAR scores among the 3 groups denote that equivalent occlusal corrections were achieved in Class I patients treated with the NE, PME, and MIE protocols.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.016
       
  • Management of overbite with the Invisalign appliance
    • Authors: Roozbeh Khosravi; Bobby Cohanim; Philippe Hujoel; Sam Daher; Michelle Neal; Weitao Liu; Greg Huang
      Pages: 691 - 699.e2
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Roozbeh Khosravi, Bobby Cohanim, Philippe Hujoel, Sam Daher, Michelle Neal, Weitao Liu, Greg Huang
      Introduction Most of the published literature on the management of overbite with the Invisalign appliance (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) consists of case reports and case series. Methods In this retrospective study of 120 patients, we sought to assess the nature of overbite changes with the Invisalign appliance. Records were collected from 3 practitioners, all experienced with the Invisalign technique. The patients were consecutively treated adults (>18 years old) who underwent orthodontic treatment only with the Invisalign appliance. Patients with major transverse or anteroposterior changes or extraction treatment plans were excluded. The study sample included 68 patients with normal overbites, 40 with deepbites, and 12 with open bites. Their median age was 33 years, and 70% of the patients were women. Results Cephalometric analyses indicated that the deepbite patients had a median overbite opening of 1.5 mm, whereas the open bite patients had a median deepening of 1.5 mm. The median change for the normal overbite patients was 0.3 mm. Changes in incisor position were responsible for most of the improvements in the deepbite and open bite groups. Minimal changes in molar vertical position and mandibular plane angle were noted. Conclusions The Invisalign appliance appears to manage the vertical dimension relatively well, and the primary mechanism is via incisor movements.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.022
       
  • Genetic polymorphisms underlying the skeletal Class III phenotype
    • Authors: Christiane Vasconcellos Cruz; Claudia Trindade Mattos; José Calasans Maia; José Mauro Granjeiro; Maria Fernanda Reis; José Nelson Mucha; Beatriz Vilella; Antonio Carlos Ruellas; Ronir Raggio Luiz; Marcelo Castro Costa; Alexandre Rezende Vieira
      Pages: 700 - 707
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Christiane Vasconcellos Cruz, Claudia Trindade Mattos, José Calasans Maia, José Mauro Granjeiro, Maria Fernanda Reis, José Nelson Mucha, Beatriz Vilella, Antonio Carlos Ruellas, Ronir Raggio Luiz, Marcelo Castro Costa, Alexandre Rezende Vieira
      Introduction Our goal was to verify the association between candidate polymorphisms and skeletal Class III malocclusion in a well-characterized homogeneous sample set. Methods Thirty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were studied from 10 candidate loci in 54 Class III subjects and 120 controls. Skeletal Class III characteristics included ANB angle less than 0°, SNB angle greater than 83° (mandibular prognathism), SNA angle less than 79° (maxillary deficiency), Class III molar relationship, and negative overjet. Inclusion criteria for the controls were ANB angle between 0° and 4°, Class I molar relationship, and normal overjet. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests and principal component (PC) analysis were used to determine overrepresentation of marker alleles with alpha of 0.05. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results MYO1H (rs10850110 A<G) (P <0.01; odds ratio, 7.44 [4.02-13.77]) was associated with an increased risk for the mandibular prognathism phenotype. These results were confirmed by PC analysis, which showed 4 PCs representing the sample variations (PC1, 37.24%; PC2, 20.02%; PC3, 12.18%; and PC4, 11.40%), and PC1 was associated with MYO1H (P <0.001). We also found by PC analysis associations between MYO1H (P <0.001) and GHR (rs2973015 A>G) (P = 0.001) with PC2 and between FGF10 (rs593307 A<G) (P = 0.001) with PC4. Conclusions Polymorphism in MYO1H could be used as a marker for genetic susceptibility to Class III malocclusion with mandibular prognathism, and polymorphisms in GHR and FGF were associated with maxillomandibular discrepancies. This study may contribute to improved diagnosis and further research assessing possible differences in treatment responses based on genetic polymorphisms.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.013
       
  • Apical root resorption due to mandibular first molar mesialization: A
           split-mouth study
    • Authors: Jonas Winkler; Nicolas Göllner; Peter Göllner; Pawel Pazera; Nikolaos Gkantidis
      Pages: 708 - 717
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jonas Winkler, Nicolas Göllner, Peter Göllner, Pawel Pazera, Nikolaos Gkantidis
      Introduction Our aim was to evaluate the risk of external apical root resorption (EARR) in mesialized mandibular molars due to space closure in patients with unilateral second premolar agenesis. The contralateral side served as the control. Methods After application of eligibility criteria, 25 retrospectively selected subjects (median age, 14.9 years; range, 12.0-31.9 years) were analyzed. Space closure (approximately 10 mm) was performed using skeletal anchorage. EARR was measured at the mandibular permanent canines, first premolars, and first molars in the pretreatment and posttreatment orthopantomograms. Measurements were performed by 2 examiners independently and were corrected for distortion and magnification of radiographs, which were assessed in a pilot study. Multivariate analysis of covariance and pairwise comparisons were performed. Results The mean enlargement factor of the panoramic machine was 29% ± 0.3%. Distortion exceeded 5% only in cases of large positioning errors (>20°). Intraclass correlation coefficients showed strong to almost perfect agreement (mean, 0.80 mm; 95% CI, 0.75-0.85) of the two examiners. Multivariate analysis of covariance resulted in no difference in EARR between the canines and premolars of the space closure and control sides. On the contrary, there was a statistically significant difference between mesialized and nonmezialized molars (0.73 mm; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-1.27). The mean total EARR in each tooth type did not exceed 1 mm. Conclusions Space closure through extensive tooth movement in the mandible was identified as a risk factor for EARR. However, the amount of EARR attributed to space closure and the total EARR were not considered clinically significant.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.12.005
       
  • Radiographic prognostic factors determining spontaneous space closure
           after loss of the permanent first molar
    • Authors: Sameer Patel; Paul Ashley; Joseph Noar
      Pages: 718 - 726
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Sameer Patel, Paul Ashley, Joseph Noar
      Introduction Permanent first molars (PFM) with a poor prognosis are routinely extracted in children throughout the United Kingdom. National guidelines suggest that to achieve spontaneous closure for the mandibular arch, the PFM should be extracted at 8 to 10 years of age, during bifurcation formation of the second molar. The literature is of limited quality and has suggested alternative variables that may be associated with successful space closure. Our aim was to investigate the radiographic prognostic factors associated with space closure after extraction of PFM. Two objectives of the research are reported in this article: to determine factors that might predict space closure of the second molar after extraction of the PFM, and to develop a tool kit to aid clinical decision making. Methods We assessed 148 maxillary and 153 mandibular PFM extracted from 81 participants retrospectively. Dental age, second molar developmental stage, second premolar and second molar angulations, and presence or absence of the third molar were assessed on the preextraction orthopantomograms. Outcome was assessed via visual examination, study models, or radiographs. Results Closure occurred in 89.9% of the maxillary and 49.0% of the mandibular quadrants. Dental age was statistically, but not clinically, significant in the maxillary arch (P <0.05). For the mandibular arch, presence or absence of the third molar and second molar angulation were statistically and clinically significant (P <0.01 and P <0.05, respectively). A tool kit was developed in relation to the mandibular arch variables. Conclusions These findings are contradictory to the Royal College of Surgeons guidelines and suggest that the presence of the third molar and a mesially angulated second molar are favorable for space closure. The developed tool kit requires further validity testing.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.018
       
  • Sixteen-week analysis of unaltered elastomeric chain relating in-vitro
           force degradation with in-vivo extraction space tooth movement
    • Authors: Kristin S. Evans; Cory M. Wood; Allen H. Moffitt; John A. Colgan; J. Kevin Holman; Steven D. Marshall; D. Spencer Pope; Lew B. Sample; Stephen L. Sherman; Peter M. Sinclair; Tim S. Trulove
      Pages: 727 - 734
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kristin S. Evans, Cory M. Wood, Allen H. Moffitt, John A. Colgan, J. Kevin Holman, Steven D. Marshall, D. Spencer Pope, Lew B. Sample, Stephen L. Sherman, Peter M. Sinclair, Tim S. Trulove
      Introduction The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether unaltered elastomeric chain can continue to move teeth for 16 weeks and to relate it to the amount of force remaining for the same batch of elastomeric chains. Methods The in-vivo portion of the study had a sample of 30 paired extraction space sites from 22 subjects who were measured for closure of the space every 28 days. The altered side elastomeric chain served as the control and was replaced at 28-day intervals whereas the experimental side remained unaltered. In the in-vitro portion of the study, 100 each of 2-unit and 3-unit segments of the same batch of elastomeric chains were placed in a water bath, and the force was measured for 20 of each segment length at the 28-day measurement points. Results Statistically significant amounts of space closure occurred at both the altered and unaltered sites at all measurement time points. The mean space closure at the altered sites was minimally greater than that observed at the paired unaltered sites. The mean differences of space closure between the altered and unaltered sites ranged from a minimum of –0.05 mm at 4 weeks to a maximum of –0.14 mm at 8 weeks. The elastomeric chain force degraded rapidly by 4 weeks but continued a gradual diminution of force to 86 g at 16 weeks. Conclusions Unaltered elastomeric chain continued to move teeth into extraction spaces for 16 weeks in this sample from both statistically and clinically significant standpoints. There were minimal and statistically insignificant differences in the mean space closure measurements between the paired altered and unaltered sites. The elastomeric chain force at 16 weeks was less than 100 g, yet at the same time point, teeth continued to move clinically.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.10.020
       
  • Arch-width changes in extraction vs nonextraction treatments in matched
           Class I borderline malocclusions
    • Authors: Claudio Herzog; Dimitrios Konstantonis; Nikoleta Konstantoni; Theodore Eliades
      Pages: 735 - 743
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Claudio Herzog, Dimitrios Konstantonis, Nikoleta Konstantoni, Theodore Eliades
      Introduction The aims of this study were to identify a sample of borderline Class I extraction and nonextraction patients and to investigate posttreatment changes in arch-width and perimeter measurements. Methods A parent sample of 580 Class I patients was subjected to discriminant analysis, and a borderline subsample of 62 patients, 31 treated with extraction of 4 first premolars and 31 treated without extractions, was obtained. The patients' plaster casts were digitally scanned, and the maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar widths and perimeters were assessed. Results The extraction group showed increases in maxillary and mandibular intercanine widths (P <0.001) and decreases in mandibular intermolar width and in maxillary and mandibular perimeters (P <0.001). The nonextraction group showed increases in all 4 arch-width measurements (P ≤0.003), whereas the maxillary and mandibular perimeters were maintained. The posttreatment differences between the 2 groups showed significant differences in the maxillary (P <0.001) and mandibular intermolar widths (P <0.001). Also, the comparison of the arch perimeters between the 2 treatment groups showed adjusted differences of −8.51 mm (P <0.001) and −8.44 mm (P <0.001) for the maxillary and mandibular arches, respectively. The intercanine widths showed no changes between the 2 treatment groups. Conclusions Borderline Class I patients treated with extraction of 4 first premolars had decreased maxillary and mandibular intermolar and perimeter measurements compared with nonextraction patients. The maxillary and mandibular intercanine widths showed no significant difference between the 2 treatment groups.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.10.021
       
  • Racial and sex differences in timing of the cervical vertebrae maturation
           stages
    • Authors: Mona A. Montasser; Grace Viana; Carla A. Evans
      Pages: 744 - 749
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Mona A. Montasser, Grace Viana, Carla A. Evans
      Introduction Our objective was to investigate skeletal maturation of female and male subjects from different racial groups by comparing the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) stages. Methods The study included 3 racial groups: white, African American, and Hispanic subjects. Each group was subdivided into female and male. The age range of the subjects was between 7 and 18 years. The sample included 60 lateral cephalographs for each subgroup. Skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae was assessed according to a method that described 6 CVM stages. Results Racial differences were evident in the mean ages of CVM stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 (P = 0.002; P = 0.003; P = 0.001; and P = 0.001, respectively) among females; among males, only stage 3 was different (P = 0.001). Sex differences in the mean ages of stages 1, 2, and 3 in Hispanic subjects (P <0.001), and in stages 2 and 3 in African American subjects (P = 0.019 and P <0.001) and white subjects (P = 0.004 and P <0.001) were detected. Conclusions In both sexes, racial differences were not apparent between whites and African Americans, but differences were evident between Hispanics vs both whites and African Americans. Sex differences were apparent between the sexes in each of the 3 ethnic groups in CVM stages 2 and 3. No sex differences were detected in stages 4, 5, or 6 in any of the 3 racial groups. It is recommended to consider racial and sex differences when using the CVM stage as a skeletal maturation indicator.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.019
       
  • Atomic force microscopy analysis of enamel nanotopography after
           interproximal reduction
    • Authors: Lydia Meredith; Mauro Farella; Sam Lowrey; Richard D. Cannon; Li Mei
      Pages: 750 - 757
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Lydia Meredith, Mauro Farella, Sam Lowrey, Richard D. Cannon, Li Mei
      Introduction Interproximal reduction (IPR) removes enamel and leaves grooves and furrows on the tooth surface, which may increase the risk of caries. The aims of this study were to assess the nanotopography of enamel surfaces produced by the most commonly used IPR instruments and to evaluate the effect of polishing after IPR. Methods Enamel slabs were cut from the interproximal surfaces of healthy premolars and then treated with diamond burs, strips, or discs, or Sof-Lex polishing discs (3M ESPE, St Paul, Minn). All samples were cleaned by sonication in distilled water. The control group had no IPR performed and was subjected only to cleaning by sonication. The enamel surfaces were assessed using atomic force microscopy. Results The IPR instruments all produced surfaces rougher than the control sample; however, the samples that received polishing with Sof-Lex discs after enamel reduction were smoother than untreated enamel (P <0.05 for all comparisons). The larger grit medium diamond burs and medium strips generated rougher enamel surfaces than their smaller grit counterparts: fine diamond burs and fine strips (P <0.001). The difference in roughness generated by mesh and curved disks was not statistically significant (P = 0.122), nor was the difference caused by fine strips and mesh discs (P = 0.811) or by fine strips and curved discs (P = 0.076) (surface roughness values for medium bur, 702 ± 134 nm; medium strip, 501 ± 115 nm; mesh disc, 307 ± 107 nm; fine bur, 407 ± 95 nm; fine strip, 318 ± 50 nm; curved disc, 224 ± 65 nm). The smoothest surfaces were created by use of the entire series of Sof-Lex polishing discs after the enamel reduction (surface roughness, 37 ± 14 nm), and these surfaces were significantly smoother than the control surfaces (surface roughness, 149 ± 39 nm; P = 0.017). Conclusions Different IPR instruments produced enamel surfaces with varied nanotopography and different degrees of roughness. Enamel surfaces treated with diamond-coated burs were the roughest, followed by diamond-coated strips and diamond coated discs. Polishing with Sof-Lex polishing discs after IPR reduced the enamel surface roughness, and this surface was even smoother than untreated enamel.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.021
       
  • Leveling the curve of Spee with continuous archwire appliances in
           different vertical skeletal patterns: A retrospective study
    • Authors: Matteo Rozzi; Manuela Mucedero; Chiara Pezzuto; Paola Cozza
      Pages: 758 - 766
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Matteo Rozzi, Manuela Mucedero, Chiara Pezzuto, Paola Cozza
      Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the leveling of the curve of Spee in subjects treated with preadjusted appliances in different skeletal vertical patterns. Methods The study sample consisted of 90 white patients (39 male, 51 female; age, 19 years 4 months ± 1 year 9 months), with a curve of Spee of 2 mm or greater before treatment. They were categorized into 3 groups: low-angle group (30 subjects; 12 male, 18 female; age, 19 years 1 month ± 1 year 4 months), normal-angle group (30 subjects; 14 male, 16 female; age, 19 years 6 months ± 2 years 1 month), and high-angle group (30 subjects; 13 male, 17 female; age, 19 years 7 months ± 1 year 5 months) by their vertical facial types. Cephalometric parameters were used to evaluate the different dental movements after treatment. The curve of Spee was measured on digital dental casts. Analysis of variance was used to determine any differences between the changes in the groups with time. Results For the skeletal variables, no significant modifications were found in the 3 groups. For the dentoalveolar variables, the low-angle group showed significant buccal movements and intrusion of the mandibular incisors. The high-angle group had greater extrusion of the posterior teeth associated with uprighting of the first and second molars. Conclusions In low-angle subjects, leveling of the curve of Spee occurs through buccal movement and intrusion of the mandibular incisors; in high-angle subjects, it occurs through extrusion and uprighting of the posterior teeth.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.023
       
  • Analysis of dentoalveolar structures with novel corticotomy-facilitated
           mandibular expansion: A 3-dimensional finite element study
    • Authors: Deepal Haresh Ajmera; Pradeep Singh; Chao Wang; Jinlin Song; Shui Sheng Xiao; Yubo Fan
      Pages: 767 - 778
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Deepal Haresh Ajmera, Pradeep Singh, Chao Wang, Jinlin Song, Shui Sheng Xiao, Yubo Fan
      Introduction Surgically assisted mandibular arch expansion is an effective treatment modality for alleviating constriction and crowding. However, only mandibular symphyseal osteotomy is recommended for mandibular arch expansion. No relevant studies have compared the biomechanical responses of different corticotomy designs on mandibular expansion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different corticotomy approaches and modes of loading on the expansion of adult mandibles using biomechanics. Methods Nine finite element models including 2 novel corticotomy designs were simulated. Stress, strain, and displacement of crown, root, and bone were calculated and compared under different corticotomy approaches and loading conditions. Results The biomechanical response seen in the finite element models in terms of displacement on the x-axis was consistent from anterior to posterior teeth with parasymphyseal step corticotomy and tooth-borne force application. In addition, the amount of displacement predicted by parasymphyseal step corticotomy in the tooth-borne mode was greater compared with other models. Conclusions These results suggest that parasymphyseal step corticotomy with tooth-borne force application is a viable treatment option for true bony expansion in an adult mandible.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.09.015
       
  • Orthodontic and surgical management of a patient with severe skeletal
           Class II deformity and facial asymmetry: A case report with a 5-year
           follow-up
    • Authors: Xiang Gao; Tao Wang; Jinlin Song
      Pages: 779 - 792
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Xiang Gao, Tao Wang, Jinlin Song
      In this case report, we present the orthodontic and surgical management of an 18-year-old girl who had a severe craniofacial deformity, including maxillary prognathism, vertical maxillary excess (gummy smile), mandibular retrognathism, receding chin, and facial asymmetry caused by unilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis. For correction of the facial asymmetry, the patient's right mandibular ramus and body were lengthened via distraction osteogenesis after 5 months of preoperative orthodontic therapy. Subsequently, extraction of 4 first premolars, bimaxillary anterior segmental osteotomy, and genioplasty were simultaneously performed in the second-stage operation to correct the skeletal deformities in the sagittal and vertical planes. Postoperative orthodontic treatment completed the final occlusal adjustment. The total active treatment period lasted approximately 30 months. The clinical results show that the patient's facial esthetics were significantly improved with minimal surgical invasion and distress, and a desirable occlusion was achieved. These pleasing results were maintained during the 5-year follow-up.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.02.034
       
  • Long-term follow-up of a patient with achondroplasia treated with an
           orthodontic approach
    • Authors: Hiroyo Mori; Kazuma Matsumoto; Nobuhiko Kawai; Takashi Izawa; Shinya Horiuchi; Eiji Tanaka
      Pages: 793 - 803
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Hiroyo Mori, Kazuma Matsumoto, Nobuhiko Kawai, Takashi Izawa, Shinya Horiuchi, Eiji Tanaka
      We successfully treated a patient with achondroplasia with conventional orthodontic techniques. It was followed by long-term retention. The patient, a 12-year-old boy, had chief complaints of occlusal disturbance and mandibular protrusion. He had been diagnosed with achondroplasia and had growth hormone treatment in his early teenage years. His facial profile was concave with a bulging forehead and a retrognathic maxilla. It was characterized by a skeletal Class III jaw-base relationship with a retropositioned maxilla. At the age of 12 years 9 months, maxillary protraction was initiated with a reverse headgear; for 2 years 6 months, the maxillomandibular growth was controlled. After the growth spurt, at the age of 15 years 6 months, leveling and alignment of both dental arches were started with preadjusted edgewise appliances. After 83 months of multibracket treatment, an acceptable occlusion with a Class I molar relationship and an adequate interincisal relationship was achieved, despite the simultaneous marked vertical growth of the mandible. The resultant occlusion was stable during a 6-year retention period, although considerable forward-downward mandibular growth was observed. Conclusively, our results indicated the necessity of long-term observation in this patient with achondroplasia, especially because of the persistent mandibular growth.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.03.034
       
  • Camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with conventional
           orthodontic therapy
    • Authors: Jae Hyun Park; Joseph Yu; Ryan Bullen
      Pages: 804 - 811
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jae Hyun Park, Joseph Yu, Ryan Bullen
      Nonextraction camouflage treatment along with Class III elastics was used to treat a 39-year-old woman with a skeletal Class III pattern and a low mandibular plane angle and short lower anterior facial height. The total active treatment time was 26 months. Her occlusion, smile esthetics, and soft tissue profile were significantly improved after treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.04.033
       
  • Memotain: A CAD/CAM nickel-titanium lingual retainer
    • Authors: Neal D. Kravitz; Dan Grauer; Pascal Schumacher; Yong-min Jo
      Pages: 812 - 815
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Neal D. Kravitz, Dan Grauer, Pascal Schumacher, Yong-min Jo
      Approximately 1/2 of maxillary and 1/5 of mandibular multi-stranded lingual retainers fail during retention in some form, either bond failure or wire breakage. Memotain is a new CAD/CAM fabricated lingual retainer wire made of custom-cut nickel-titanium, as an alternative to multi-stranded lingual retainers. It offers numerous perceived advantages to the traditional multi-stranded stainless steel wire, including precision fit, avoidance of interferences, corrosion resistance and even the potential for minor tooth movement as an active lingual retainer.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.11.021
       
  • Use of redundant arrays of inexpensive disks in orthodontic practice
    • Authors: David Matthew Graham; Michael James Graham; Mel Mupparapu
      Pages: 816 - 820
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): David Matthew Graham, Michael James Graham, Mel Mupparapu
      In a time when orthodontists are getting away from paper charts and going digital with their patient data and imaging, practitioners need to be prepared for a potential hardware failure in their data infrastructure. Although a backup plan in accordance with the Security Rule of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 may prevent data loss in case of a disaster or hard drive failure, it does little to ensure business and practice continuity. Through the implementation of a common technique used in information technology, the redundant array of inexpensive disks, a practice may continue normal operations without interruption if a hard drive fails.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.10.022
       
  • Do web-site postings qualify as learned treatises?
    • Authors: Laurance Jerrold
      Pages: 821 - 823
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Laurance Jerrold


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.003
       
  • Logistic regression: Part 1
    • Authors: Nikolaos Pandis
      Pages: 824 - 825
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Nikolaos Pandis


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.017
       
  • Etiology-based dental and craniofacial diagnostics
    • Authors: Birte Melsen
      First page: 827
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Birte Melsen


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.011
       
  • Robert L. Vanarsdall Jr, 1940-2017
    • Authors: Peter M. Greco
      Pages: 828 - 829
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Peter M. Greco


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.014
       
  • April 2017:151(4)
    • Authors: Allen H. Moffitt
      Pages: 826.e1 - 826.e2
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Allen H. Moffitt


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.016
       
  • New certification renewal options of the American Board of Orthodontics
    • Authors: Steven A. Dugoni; Chun-Hsi Chung; Larry P. Tadlock; Nicholas Barone; Valmy Pangrazio-Kulbersh; David G. Sabott; Patrick F. Foley; Timothy S. Trulove; Eladio DeLeon
      Pages: 427 - 428
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3
      Author(s): Steven A. Dugoni, Chun-Hsi Chung, Larry P. Tadlock, Nicholas Barone, Valmy Pangrazio-Kulbersh, David G. Sabott, Patrick F. Foley, Timothy S. Trulove, Eladio DeLeon


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.12.002
       
  • Clarification of the ABO certification process
    • Authors: Steven A. Dugoni; Chun-Hsi Chung; Larry P. Tadlock; Nicholas Barone; Valmy Pangrazio-Kulbersh; David G. Sabott; Patrick F. Foley; Timothy S. Trulove; Eladio DeLeon
      First page: 429
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3
      Author(s): Steven A. Dugoni, Chun-Hsi Chung, Larry P. Tadlock, Nicholas Barone, Valmy Pangrazio-Kulbersh, David G. Sabott, Patrick F. Foley, Timothy S. Trulove, Eladio DeLeon


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.007
       
  • Leadership in a time of disruption
    • Authors: Marc Bernard Ackerman
      Pages: 429 - 430
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3
      Author(s): Marc Bernard Ackerman


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.01.006
       
  • Rapid palatal expansion in a patient with cleft lip and palate
    • Authors: Chandrika G. Katti; Ashok Kumar Talapaneni
      First page: 430
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3
      Author(s): Chandrika G. Katti, Ashok Kumar Talapaneni


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.12.010
       
  • Author's response
    • Authors: Kang Ting
      Pages: 430 - 431
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3
      Author(s): Kang Ting


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.12.009
       
  • Comparison of survival time and comfort between 2 clear overlay retainers
           with different thicknesses: A pilot randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Yafen Zhu; Jianchang Lin; Hu Long; Niansong Ye; Renhuan Huang; Xin Yang; Fan Jian; Wenli Lai
      Pages: 433 - 439
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yafen Zhu, Jianchang Lin, Hu Long, Niansong Ye, Renhuan Huang, Xin Yang, Fan Jian, Wenli Lai
      Introduction The objective of this 2-arm parallel trial was to compare the survival times, failure rates, and comfort of 2 clear overlay retainers with different thicknesses (0.75 and 1.00 mm). Methods Eighty eligible participants who had undergone orthodontic treatment at West China Stomatology Hospital of Sichuan University were recruited and randomly assigned to either the 0.75-mm group or the 1.00-mm group. Eligibility criteria included patients with central incisors, canines, and first molars and no systemic or oral disease. The main outcomes were survival time and total failure rate; the secondary outcomes were rates of different types of failure (fracture, loss, nonfitting, and abrasion); tertiary outcomes included patients’ comfort levels assessed with a visual analog scale and a health survey. Randomization was accomplished by tossing a coin, with the allocations concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes, and blinding implemented among practitioners, patients, and analysts. Patients were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. Results A total of 80 patients were initially recruited and randomized (42 in the 0.75-mm group, 38 in the 1.00-mm group); 72 patients completed the study and were analyzed (37 in the 0.75-mm group, 35 in the 1.00-mm group); there were 8 dropouts. Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. At the end of the 1-year follow-up, survival time did not differ significantly between the groups (46.5 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], −10.3 -103.2; P = 0.111). The hazard ratio was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.48-1.24; P = 0.281). With regard to total failure rate, no statistical difference (P = 0.118) existed between the 0.75-mm group (43.2%) and the 1.00-mm group (25.7%) (risk difference, 17.5%; 95% CI, −4.0%-39.1%). Among the different failure types, we found that fracture rates were significantly higher in the 0.75-mm group than in the 1.00-mm group (P = 0.028), whereas other failure types were similar between the groups (all, P >0.05). No clinically significant differences were found in comfort between the 2 groups. No harms were encountered. Conclusions Although the 0.75-mm group had a higher fracture rate, our results indicated no evidence that survival and comfort of retainers differ between 1.00 mm and 0.75 mm. When determining the type of retainer to be used, other factors such as retention effectiveness also should be considered. Registration This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02618330). Protocol The protocol was not published before trial commencement.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.10.019
       
  • Effectiveness of orthodontic miniscrew implants in anchorage reinforcement
           during en-masse retraction: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Joanna Antoszewska-Smith; Michał Sarul; Jan Łyczek; Tomasz Konopka; Beata Kawala
      Pages: 440 - 455
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3
      Author(s): Joanna Antoszewska-Smith, Michał Sarul, Jan Łyczek, Tomasz Konopka, Beata Kawala
      Introduction The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effectiveness of orthodontic miniscrew implants—temporary intraoral skeletal anchorage devices (TISADs)—in anchorage reinforcement during en-masse retraction in relation to conventional methods of anchorage. Methods A search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science was performed. The keywords were orthodontic, mini-implants, miniscrews, miniplates, and temporary anchorage device. Relevant articles were assessed for quality according to Cochrane guidelines and the data extracted for statistical analysis. A meta-analysis of raw mean differences concerning anchorage loss, tipping of molars, retraction of incisors, tipping of incisors, and treatment duration was carried out. Results Initially, we retrieved 10,038 articles. The selection process finally resulted in 14 articles including 616 patients (451 female, 165 male) for detailed analysis. Quality of the included studies was assessed as moderate. Meta-analysis showed that use of TISADs facilitates better anchorage reinforcement compared with conventional methods. On average, TISADs enabled 1.86 mm more anchorage preservation than did conventional methods (P <0.001). Conclusions The results of the meta-analysis showed that TISADs are more effective than conventional methods of anchorage reinforcement. The average difference of 2 mm seems not only statistically but also clinically significant. However, the results should be interpreted with caution because of the moderate quality of the included studies. More high-quality studies on this issue are necessary to enable drawing more reliable conclusions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.08.029
       
  • Extraction frequencies at a university orthodontic clinic in the 21st
           century: Demographic and diagnostic factors affecting the likelihood of
           extraction
    • Authors: Tate H. Jackson; Camille Guez; Feng-Chang Lin; William R. Proffit; Ching-Chang Ko
      Pages: 456 - 462
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3
      Author(s): Tate H. Jackson, Camille Guez, Feng-Chang Lin, William R. Proffit, Ching-Chang Ko
      Introduction The aims of this study were to report contemporary orthodontic extraction frequencies at a university center and to investigate what patient-related factors might influence the likelihood of extraction. Methods The records of 2184 consecutive patients treated at the University of North Carolina from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed. Year-by-year rates for overall orthodontic extractions and for extraction of 4 first premolars were calculated. Logistic regression, adjusting for all recorded patient risk factors for extraction, was used to examine both the changes in extraction frequencies over time and the influence of individual patient factors on the odds of extraction. Results Small linear decreases in orthodontic extraction frequency overall (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.95) and in extraction of 4 first premolars (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99) were seen. The overall extraction rate was 37.4% in 2000, and it fell just below 25% from 2006 onward. Four first premolar extraction rates ranged from 8.9% to 16.5%. Extractions were significantly more likely as crowding and overjet increased (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.14-1.25; OR, 1.1; 95% CI. 1.07-1.19), as overbite decreased (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.77-0.89), with Class II dental or skeletal relationships (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.12- 2.05; OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.04-1.85), and for nonwhite patients (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.2-4.06 for other races; OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 3.03-5.66 for African Americans). Conclusions Extractions were just as likely to be associated with Class II dental and skeletal problems and with open-bite problems as with crowding alone.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.08.021
       
  • Residents’ journal review
    • Authors: Dan Grauer
      Pages: 12 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Dan Grauer


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.11.004
       
  • Information for readers
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
       
  • Who benefits?
    • Authors: Peter Greco; Dennis Sommers
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4
      Author(s): Peter M. Greco, Dennis D. Sommers


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
       
  • Directory: AAO Officers and Organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 4


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
       
  • Information for readers
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
       
  • Is it cloudy in the pews?
    • Authors: Peter Greco
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Volume 151, Issue 3
      Author(s): Peter M. Greco


      PubDate: 2017-04-07T12:32:59Z
       
 
 
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