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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3160 journals)

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Showing 1201 - 1400 of 3160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Growth Factors and Cytokines in Health and Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Growth Hormone & IGF Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.059, CiteScore: 2)
Gynecologic Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.339, CiteScore: 4)
Gynecologic Oncology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 1)
Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Habitat Intl.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.336, CiteScore: 3)
Hand Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.556, CiteScore: 1)
Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.358, CiteScore: 1)
Handai Nanophotonics     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Agricultural Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Handbook of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Analytical Separations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Handbook of Biological Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Clinical Neurology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.007, CiteScore: 2)
Handbook of Clinical Neurophysiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Complex Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Computational Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 4.16, CiteScore: 2)
Handbook of Defense Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Development Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Handbook of Differential Equations: Evolutionary Equations     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Differential Equations: Ordinary Differential Equations     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Differential Equations: Stationary Partial Differential Equations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Differential Geometry     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Dynamical Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Econometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Handbook of Economic Forecasting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Handbook of Economic Growth     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Handbook of Environmental Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Handbook of Experimental Economics Results     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Exploration and Environmental Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Ferromagnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Geophysical Exploration: Seismic Exploration     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Handbook of Immunohistochemistry and in Situ Hybridization of Human Carcinomas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Income Distribution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Handbook of Industrial Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Handbook of Intl. Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Labor Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Handbook of Law and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Handbook of Macroeconomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0, CiteScore: 2)
Handbook of Magnetic Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.467, CiteScore: 2)
Handbook of Mathematical Economics     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Mathematical Fluid Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Metal Physics     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook of Monetary Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Handbook of Natural Resource and Energy Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Handbook of Numerical Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Handbook of Perception and Action     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Petroleum Exploration and Production     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Population and Family Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Handbook of Powder Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of Public Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Handbook of Sensors and Actuators     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Handbook of Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Handbook of Surface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Handbook of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Handbook of the Economics of Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0, CiteScore: 2)
Handbook of the Economics of Finance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of the Geometry of Banach Spaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of the History of Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Handbook of Thermal Conductivity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Handbook of Vapor Pressure     Full-text available via subscription  
Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 3)
Handbooks of Management Accounting Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
HardwareX     Open Access  
Harmful Algae     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 4)
HBRC J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Health & Place     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.506, CiteScore: 3)
Health Outcomes Research in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Health Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.252, CiteScore: 2)
Health Policy and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.322, CiteScore: 1)
Health Professions Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Healthcare : The J. of Delivery Science and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Hearing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.35, CiteScore: 3)
Heart & Lung: The J. of Acute and Critical Care     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.757, CiteScore: 2)
Heart Failure Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 2)
Heart Rhythm     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.231, CiteScore: 4)
Heart, Lung and Circulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 1)
HeartRhythm Case Reports     Open Access   (SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 0)
Heliyon     Open Access   (SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 1)
Hellenic J. of Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 1)
Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, CiteScore: 1)
Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.282, CiteScore: 3)
Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases Intl.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.711, CiteScore: 2)
High Energy Density Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.933, CiteScore: 2)
Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
Historia Mathematica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
History of CERN     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
History of Neuroscience in Autobiography     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
HIV & AIDS Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Homeopathy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.678, CiteScore: 1)
HOMO - J. of Comparative Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.335, CiteScore: 1)
Hong Kong J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.137, CiteScore: 0)
Hong Kong J. of Occupational Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.237, CiteScore: 1)
Hong Kong Physiotherapy J.     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
Hormigón y Acero     Full-text available via subscription  
Hormones and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.638, CiteScore: 4)
Horticultural Plant J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Hospital Medicine Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
Human Factors in Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Human Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.856, CiteScore: 2)
Human Movement Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.756, CiteScore: 2)
Human Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.304, CiteScore: 3)
Human Pathology : Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Human Resource Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.675, CiteScore: 4)
Hydrometallurgy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.208, CiteScore: 3)
IATSS Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 1)
Icarus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74, SJR: 2.037, CiteScore: 3)
ICT Express     Open Access   (SJR: 0.234, CiteScore: 1)
IDCases     Open Access   (SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
IERI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IFAC-PapersOnLine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
IIMB Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.24, CiteScore: 1)
IJC Heart & Vessels     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJC Heart & Vasculature     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.342, CiteScore: 1)
IJC Metabolic & Endocrine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.4, CiteScore: 1)
Image and Vision Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.612, CiteScore: 3)
Imagen Diagnóstica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.106, CiteScore: 0)
Imagerie de la Femme     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.124, CiteScore: 0)
Immunity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 13.393, CiteScore: 16)
Immuno-analyse & Biologie Spécialisée     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Immunobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.1, CiteScore: 3)
Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.132, CiteScore: 3)
Immunology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.168, CiteScore: 3)
Immunotoxicology of Drugs and Chemicals: an Experimental and Clinical Approach     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Implantodontie     Full-text available via subscription  
Indagationes Mathematicae     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 1)
Indian Heart J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Specialities     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Tuberculosis     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.221, CiteScore: 0)
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.273, CiteScore: 0)
Industrial Chemistry Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Crops and Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, CiteScore: 4)
Industrial Marketing Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.663, CiteScore: 4)
Industrial Safety Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Infant Behavior and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Infectio     Open Access   (SJR: 0.133, CiteScore: 0)
Infection, Disease & Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 1)
Infection, Genetics and Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 3)
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.359, CiteScore: 5)
Informatics in Medicine Unlocked     Open Access   (SJR: 0.224, CiteScore: 1)
Information & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.628, CiteScore: 5)
Information and Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Information and Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.202, CiteScore: 3)
Information and Software Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 4)
Information Economics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.63, CiteScore: 1)
Information Fusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.832, CiteScore: 7)
Information Processing & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 412, SJR: 0.92, CiteScore: 4)
Information Processing in Agriculture     Open Access   (SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 2)
Information Processing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 1)
Information Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 475, SJR: 1.635, CiteScore: 5)
Information Security Technical Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 4)
Infosecurity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Infrared Physics & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.54, CiteScore: 2)
Injury     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.99, CiteScore: 2)
Injury Extra     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Inmunología     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.201, CiteScore: 3)
Inorganic Chemistry Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.43, CiteScore: 2)
Inorganica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.485, CiteScore: 2)
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.912, CiteScore: 4)
Instabilities in Silicon Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Insulin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Insurance: Mathematics and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.083, CiteScore: 2)
Integration, the VLSI J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.223, CiteScore: 1)
Integrative Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intellectual Economics     Open Access  
Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.633, CiteScore: 3)
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.611, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.164, CiteScore: 0)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.568, CiteScore: 4)
Internet Interventions : The application of information technology in mental and behavioural health     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.962, CiteScore: 4)
Interventional Cardiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Biodeterioration & Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.086, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.553, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. Comparative Jurisprudence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Dairy J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.051, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Emergency Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intl. Immunopharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.051, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. for Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.638, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Drugs and Drug Resistance     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.556, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. for Parasitology : Parasites and Wildlife     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.455, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Accounting Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.399, CiteScore: 2)

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Journal Cover
International Dairy Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.051
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0958-6946
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Bio-controlling capability of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus
           against some common foodborne pathogens in yoghurt
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Rania M. Kamal, Mohamed E. Alnakip, Salah F. Abd El Aal, Mohamed A. Bayoumi Despite there being many food preservation techniques, foodborne illnesses are still a growing problem. Developing alternative natural methods to control foodborne pathogens is still necessary. The antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied against four common foodborne pathogens, both in vitro and in a food model (yoghurt). Using an agar well diffusion assay, acidified L. rhamnosus cell free supernatant was shown to significantly inhibit all pathogens tested: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Moreover, neutralised supernatant also had an antimicrobial effect against most pathogens, which proved the presence of inhibitory compounds rather than acids. With addition of L. rhamnosus to pathogen-spiked yoghurt, complete elimination or at least reductions of pathogen counts was achieved. Pathogen reduction by L. rhamnosus was correlated with the initial count. From this pilot study, addition of L. rhamnosus to yoghurt seems to be a beneficial and applicable bio-control strategy.
       
  • Perspectives on casein interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): John A. Lucey, David S. Horne Over the past 60 years considerable progress has been made on understanding the nature of casein interactions. Although there is ongoing debate, most researchers now view that casein micelles are assembled due to the concerted action of two major types of interactions, namely hydrophobic interactions, and formation of calcium phosphate nanoclusters across phosphoserine clusters. This paper provides the authors’ perspectives on these interactions, reviews evidence supporting the involvement of these two types of interactions, critiques some of the proposed models, and gives several examples where these interactions are manipulated to modify the functionality of dairy products.
       
  • Impact of Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III on the composition of infant gut
           microbiota and its potential synergism with breast milk and infant formula
           as revealed by an in vitro study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Minghui Yan, Wanyi Chen, Nan Li, Jing Ren, Chen Chen, Chunping You, Zhenmin Liu Several studies have demonstrated the effect of probiotics on prevention of diseases in infants. However, the mechanisms remain not fully addressed. In the present study a modified standard ileal efflux medium (SIEM) was exploited in an in vitro analysis and the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III on the composition of infant gut microbiota was examined in I-chip analysis followed by qPCR confirmation. Also, the effect of ST-III, when administered in combination with breast milk and infant formula, was investigated. The results showed that ST-III could reduce the overall amount of Enterobacteria and Bacteroidetes bacteria, yet increase the abundance of Lactobacillus and certain Bifidobacterium species. Notably, some species/genus of bacteria of medical significance, e.g., Alcaligenaceae sutterella and Desulfovibrio bacteria were inhibited by ST-III. Moreover, co-administration of breast milk or infant formula could increase the abundance of ST-III, suggesting a synergistic effect between ST-III and infant formula and breast milk.
       
  • A universal PCR method and its application in sequence-based
           identification of microorganisms in dairy
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Hongfa Zhang, Chunping You To resolve problems with dairy product quality related to microbial contamination, it is necessary to be able to identify microorganisms in those dairy products quickly and accurately. With traditional PCR-based methods for microbial identification, specific primers need to be designed for the different microorganisms. In this study, we developed a universal PCR method with two semi-random primers to amplify microbial genomic DNA without considering the gene sequence of the test microorganism. The sequence obtained using this method was specific and could be used to identify the microorganism. The DNA sequences of known microorganisms related to dairy were amplified and identified to the species level, confirming the validity of this method. The DNA sequences of unknown common microorganisms were then amplified directly without culturing, and these microorganisms could also be identified to the species level. Compared with the common rRNA sequencing methods, this new method has high universality and resolution.
       
  • Macronutrient and micronutrient composition of breast milk from women of
           different ages and dietary habits in Shanghai area
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Mi-ya Su, Hong-xin Jia, Wen-liang Chen, Xiao-yan Qi, Cui-ping Liu, Zhen-min Liu Breast milk samples were collected in Shanghai, and classified into four groups according to mothers' age and dietary habits. No major difference was found in the saturated fatty acids among the four groups. The percentage relative to total palmitic acid of palmitic acid in sn-2 position ranged from 71.5 to 77.8% and was not affected by the mothers’ age. The content of vitamins D and E were very low, and vitamins K, B1, B2, and B12 were not detected in all the groups. For the same age group, the group with regular vitamin and mineral supplements intake with higer content of calcium, zinc and iron, and with higer Ca/P ratio. Sufficient docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were found and the daily supplementation may be not necessary. Vitamin D, vitamin K and vitamin B supplementation is needed for breastfed babies.
       
  • Biogenic amine and antibiotic resistance profiles determined for lactic
           acid bacteria and a propionibacterium prior to use as antifungal
           bioprotective cultures
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Monika Coton, Mégane Lebreton, Marcia Leyva Salas, Lucille Garnier, Marion Navarri, Audrey Pawtowski, Gwenaëlle Le Blay, Florence Valence, Emmanuel Coton, Jérôme Mounier Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and propionibacteria are two microbial groups studied as alternatives to chemical preservatives in foods. As potential bioprotective cultures in the food industry, not only does antimicrobial efficiency need to be ensured, but safety criteria should be evaluated. Here, 21 LAB and 1 propionibacterium with previously determined antifungal properties were screened for two relevant criteria: biogenic amine production and antibiotic resistance patterns. Low risk profiles were observed for 15 strains, highlighting their potential industrial use as bioprotective cultures. Some exceptions were identified: both Lactobacillus buchneri strains tested were histamine-producers, while 1 Lactobacillus brevis, 2 Lactobacillus rhamnosus and 1 Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains were tyramine-producers. These same strains were resistant to up to 5 antibiotics, thus excluding them as candidates for industrial use. These results confirm the importance of ensuring safety criteria are met before considering a candidate strain for use as a bioprotective agent in food products.
       
  • Physicochemical properties of milk protein ingredients and their acid
           gelation behaviour in different ionic environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Guanchen Liu, Tanja C. Jæger, Søren B. Nielsen, Colin A. Ray, Richard Ipsen Dispersions of whey protein isolate (WPI), microparticulated whey protein (MWP), nanoparticulated whey protein (NWP) and micellar casein isolate (MCI) were characterised in terms of protein denaturation and particle size. WPI exhibited high native whey protein content, while MWP and NWP showed low native whey protein content. The acid gelation behaviour of milk protein ingredients and mixtures thereof (5% protein) in different ionic environments (deionised water, whey permeate and dialysed against skimmed milk) was also investigated. The gelation curves of NWP showed no significant difference for in the three different ionic environments, and high gel strength after acidification was observed. WPI, MWP and MCI dispersed in deionised water gelled faster than in the other two ionic environments. MCI in whey permeate showed slower gelation and lower G’ than their dialysed samples.
       
  • Starter cultures and preservation liquids modulate consumer liking and
           shelf life of mozzarella cheese
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Ada Braghieri, Teresa Zotta, Giuseppe Morone, Nicoletta Piazzolla, Majid Majlesi, Fabio Napolitano A holistic approach was set up to first identify the main dimensions affecting consumer decisions for purchasing mozzarella cheese and then modulate these aspects to meet consumer expectations. As sensory properties and absence of preservatives were identified through a preliminary food choice questionnaire, we compared two starters (commercial versus natural) and two preservation liquids (traditional versus inoculated solution) to evaluate their effects on sensory profile and shelf-life. Based on partial least squares regression, the largest subgroup of consumers preferred mozzarella made by natural starter, whereas there was no significant difference between the liking scores for the two preservation liquids studied. Lower counts of Enterobacteriaceae and psychrotrophs were observed in the product kept in the inoculated preservation solution. Therefore, the combination of the natural starter with the inoculated preservation liquid may represent the best option to meet the expectations of the consumers of mozzarella in terms of sensory characteristics and absence of preservatives.
       
  • Molecular characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus from some
           artisanal Brazilian dairies
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Virgínia Farias Alves, Fabian Camilo Niño-Arias, André Pitondo-Silva, Diego de Araújo Frazilio, Larissa de Oliveira Gonçalves, Luíza Chaul Toubas, Ieda Maria Sapateiro Torres, Virginie Oxaran, Karen Kiesbye Dittmann, Elaine Cristina Pereira De Martinis The clonal relationships and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from three fresh Minas cheese production lines were investigated. Putative S. aureus were confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Overall, 33 out of 64 samples were contaminated with S. aureus (51.6%). The contamination rates of the dairies were 60.8%, 21% and 68.2%. Thirty representative isolates were selected to be typed by MLST and five sequence types (ST) were found (ST1, 97, 126, 3531), including the new ST 3816. The clonal complex 1 (CC1) was dominant. Resistance to commonly used antimicrobials was observed but only one strain was resistant to methicillin. This methicillin resistant S. aureus strain belonged to the CC126 that is commonly associated with mastitis in ruminants. The dissemination of zoonotic bacteria through the food chain is not a frequent event but represents a concern to public health.
       
  • Peptidomic study of casein proteolysis in bovine milk by Lactobacillus
           casei PRA205 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PRA331
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Lisa Solieri, Luciana De Vero, Davide Tagliazucchi Lactobacilli contain different cell envelope proteinases (CEPs) responsible for the hydrolysis of caseins and the release of various bioactive peptides. In this work, we explored the CEP activity of Lactobacillus casei PRA205 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PRA331 whole cells towards β-, αS1-, κ- and αS2-caseins in bovine milk. Mass spectrometry analysis of fermented milk hydrolysates identified a total of 331 peptides, which were mainly derived from β-caseins (59.0 and 60.1% for PRA205 and PRA331, respectively). Analysis of αS1-casein (f1–23) cleavage site specificity congruently supports that Lb. casei PRA205 and Lb. rhamnosus PRA331 exhibited a mixed-type CEPI/III activity. PRA205 and PRA331 CEPs also showed cleavage site specificity toward β-casein. These CEPs cleaved the peptide bond preferentially when hydrophobic or negatively charged amino acids were present. 13.5% and 13.7% of peptides released by Lb. casei PRA205 and Lb. rhamnosus PRA331 CEPs were found to have 100% homology with previously identified bioactive peptides.
       
  • Combinations of isocitrate and citrate enhance calcium salt solubility and
           supersaturation robustness
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Hong Cheng, André C. Garcia, Ning Tang, Bente P. Danielsen, Leif H. Skibsted Calcium isocitrate tetrahydrate was characterised and found to be less soluble in water than calcium citrate tetrahydrate. The solubilities of both decrease with temperature, but increase with pressure. Calcium binds isocitrate with a constant of Ka = (6.80 ± 0.05) × 103 (ΔH° = −22.1 ± 2.6 kJ mol−1; ΔS° = −6.7 ± 8.7 J mol−1 K−1). The solubility product is Ksp = (8.7 ± 0.08) × 10−17 (ΔH° = 30.1 ± 2.2 kJ mol−1; ΔS° = −206 ± 7 J mol−1 K−1). Calcium isocitrate dissolves in aqueous sodium citrate, spontaneously forming solutions supersaturated in calcium citrate by a factor of at least two for 0.50 mol L−1 sodium citrate from which precipitation initiates after 20 h. Calcium citrate dissolves under similar conditions in sodium isocitrate forming supersaturated solutions in calcium isocitrate without precipitation for months. Slow crystallisation kinetics of calcium isocitrate explains the supersaturation robustness for combinations of calcium citrate and sodium isocitrate inspiring for formulation of whey mineral products.
       
  • Effect of pH and heat treatment on viscosity and heat coagulation
           properties of milk protein concentrate
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Quang Tri Ho, Kevin M. Murphy, Kamil P. Drapala, Tom F. O'Callaghan, Mark A. Fenelon, James A. O'Mahony, Noel A. McCarthy The effect of pH, adjusted using either hydrochloric acid (HCl), citric acid or sodium hydroxide, on calcium ion (Ca2+) activity, and consequent changes in viscosity and heat coagulation time (HCT) of milk protein concentrate (MPC) was investigated. Reducing the pH of MPC dispersions resulted in a reduction in their viscosity, which subsequently increased during heat treatment. The maximum heat stability of MPC was observed at pH 6.7. Reducing the pH of MPC from 6.7 to 6.2 resulted in a significant (P 
       
  • Robust detection methodology of milk heat treatment in cheese based on
           volatile profile fingerprinting
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Martin Alewijn, Ron Wehrens, Saskia M. van Ruth The aim of the study was to develop an approach to discriminate whether cheese is produced from raw or heat-treated milk. The method was based on multivariate discrimination of volatile organic compounds in the cheeses' headspace. Although the method was developed to detect issues with food authenticity for a Dutch traditional speciality guaranteed-protected cheese, this principle is likely to be applicable to detect heat-treatment in milk in other raw-milk cheese types. The multivariate classification method was aimed to be robust, employing an ensemble classification, based on six independent classification algorithms that require little or no tuning. The method was validated using a recently developed validation protocol designed for multivariate classification methods with a large validation set that was gathered separately from the training set. Based on the method's “worst-case”-classification performance, an overall 88% correct classification is expected.
       
  • The effect of starters with a functional arginine deiminase pathway on
           cheese ripening and quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Claudia Wenzel, Stefan Irmler, Walter Bisig, Dominik Guggisberg, Alexandra Roetschi, Reto Portmann, Daniel Wechsler, Marie-Therese Fröhlich-Wyder The arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway catalyses the degradation of l-arginine via the intermediate l-citrulline into l-ornithine, ammonia, and CO2. This constitutes an important metabolic feature of some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in their response to acid stress. We investigated the capacity of four thermophilic starters to degrade arginine via the ADI pathway and studied their influence on the ripening and quality of experimental Gruyere cheeses. One of the starters could not degrade arginine, while another had an impaired ADI pathway and formed mainly citrulline. In cheeses produced with the two starters exhibiting a fully functional ADI pathway, ornithine content, pH-value, and CO2 and eye formation were significantly increased, indicating that the quality and ripening of the cheeses were affected by ADI metabolism. This is the first study investigating thermophilic starter cultures that contain Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis with a functional ADI pathway converting arginine into ornithine and CO2 in cheese.
       
  • The effect of heat treatments and homogenisation of cows’ milk on
           gastrointestinal symptoms, inflammation markers and postprandial lipid
           metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): A. Nuora, T. Tupasela, J. Jokioja, R. Tahvonen, H. Kallio, B. Yang, M. Viitanen, K.M. Linderborg Dairy products are often reported as a source of stomach discomfort, and processing of cows' milk has been claimed to be one reason for this. To investigate the role of milk processing on adverse gastrointestinal symptoms, a cross-over, double blind clinical trial with fourteen milk sensitive subjects was set up. Pasteurised, pasteurised and homogenised, and ultra-high temperature-treated and homogenised milk, representing products from the mildest and hardest processing, were used as study meals. The amount, severity or duration of the reported symptoms or postprandial lipaemia did not differ, while significant differences were seen in the postprandial fatty acid composition of plasma between the milk types. The 92 inflammation markers measured in plasma did not differ between the subjects who consumed different types of milk. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that cows’ milk processing could induce gastrointestinal symptoms in milk sensitive but lactose tolerant subjects.
       
  • A portable mid-infrared spectrometer and a non-targeted chemometric
           approach for the rapid screening of economically motivated adulteration of
           milk powder
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): William Limm, Sanjeewa R. Karunathilaka, Betsy Jean Yakes, Magdi M. Mossoba A portable, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) device in conjunction with chemometrics was evaluated as rapid screening tools for the non-targeted detection of milk powder (MP) adulteration using melamine (MEL) as a surrogate contaminant. A single-class soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed for each of two spectral ranges using a diverse set of MPs and applied to the classification of both wet-blended (WB) and dry-blended (DB) MEL and a set of MP control test samples. Satisfactory prediction of economically motivated (EM) concentrations of MP adulteration was obtained along with 100% correct classification rates for concentrations as low as ≥0.30% for WB and ≥1.0% for DB MEL test samples. This portable infrared device in conjunction with SIMCA classification is potentially an ideal screening tool for the rapid and routine non-targeted assessment of economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of milk powder.
       
  • Physical and microbiological properties of yoghurt powder produced by
           refractance window drying
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): İsmail Tontul, Firuze Ergin, Emrah Eroğlu, Ahmet Küçükçetin, Ayhan Topuz The present study aimed to determine the effect of refractance window (RW) drying comparatively with freeze drying on some physical properties and microbiological properties of yoghurt powder. Physical properties of yoghurt powders obtained by RW drying were generally better than those of yoghurt powders obtained by freeze drying except for colour properties. RW drying caused reduction in the counts of yoghurt bacteria during drying, and this reduction increased as the drying temperature increased. Spreading thickness did not play a critical role on the viability of yoghurt bacteria in dried samples. The viability of yoghurt bacteria in yoghurt powders was observed during 90 days of storage at 4 °C. At the end of storage period, the survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the yoghurt powders produced by RW drying at 50 °C was higher than those produced by RW drying at 60 °C and 70 °C.
       
  • Rennet coagulation properties of milk in the presence of MFGM fragments
           isolated from raw – and pasteurised-cream buttermilk
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Marie-Pierre Gauvin, Yves Pouliot, Michel Britten Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments were isolated from raw- and pasteurised-cream buttermilks to determine their impact on the rennet coagulation properties of milk. These MFGM fragments were recovered by ultracentrifugation after casein micelle dissociation using sodium citrate. This procedure was also applied to raw skim milk as a control. More protein was recovered from the two types of buttermilk than from the skim milk upon centrifugation. This protein was mostly MFGM, but significant amounts of caseins and whey proteins were also recovered. This suggests that the churning of cream induces changes in these proteins, favouring their sedimentation upon ultracentrifugation. The isolated material was suspended in reconstituted skim milk, and rennet coagulation kinetics and gel contraction capacity were measured. The MFGM fragments isolated from buttermilk impaired rennet gel formation and reduced gel contraction capacity, but these effects were not related to the cream pasteurisation treatment.
       
  • The effect of direct and indirect heat treatment on the attributes of whey
           protein beverages
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Clodagh M. Kelleher, James A. O'Mahony, Alan L. Kelly, Donal J. O'Callaghan, Kieran N. Kilcawley, Noel A. McCarthy Thermal processing of ready-to-drink high protein beverages can have a substantial impact on the physical and sensory properties of the final product for long-life milks such as extended shelf life and ultra high temperature processed products. Direct and indirect heat treatment technologies were applied to whey protein isolate (WPI) -based beverages containing 4, 6 or 8% (w/w) protein. Lower levels of protein denaturation (66–94%) were observed using direct heating compared with indirect heating (95–99%) across protein levels and heating temperatures (121 and 135 °C final heat). Direct heat treatment resulted in significantly lower viscosity and less extensive changes to the volatile profile, compared with indirect heat treatment. Overall, the application of direct and indirect heat treatment to WPI solutions resulted in significantly different final products in terms of appearance, physical characteristics and volatile profile, with direct heating resulting in many enhanced properties compared with conventional indirect heat treatment.
       
  • Addition of proline-rich whey peptides during dehydration increases
           solubility of rehydrated milk protein concentrates
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Marcela Torres-Hernandez, Kate Howell, Louise E. Bennett Protein solubility of milk protein concentrate (80% protein; MPC80) is compromised by condition-dependent processing and storage due to both physical and chemical self-association of caseins. Solubility of MPC80 was studied following storage at 4 °C to selectively focus on efficacy of adding the whey-proline rich peptide hydrolysate, ‘DISSPEP’, in regulating physical protein aggregation processes. A range of concentrations of total solids [5% (control), 50%, 90%, w/w], DISSPEP [0% (control), 5%, 10%, 25% of solids substituted], storage and rehydration pH (6.0, 6.5, 7.5) and storage time [0 (control), 7, 14 days], were examined. Relative to controls, the addition of DISSPEP generally improved MPC80 protein solubility by factors of 50–600%, dependent on storage time and pH. DISSPEP was particularly effective for rehydrating MPC80 following concentration and drying to 50%–90% solids, respectively. The results suggest potential industrial usefulness of DISSPEP for improving solubility of MPCs, particularly at low temperatures.
       
  • Forced syneresis determination results from commercial cream cheese
           samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Alan F. Wolfschoon-Pombo, Bich Phuong Dang, Bernardo Chiriboga Chiriboga pH, ζ-potential and ionic calcium of 26 commercial cream cheese samples were determined along with forced syneresis by stepwise centrifugation and the results analysed in consideration of their gross composition to create three statistical models. The first model evaluated all samples and revealed that those with high salt content had significantly lower serum release with a threshold of 0.66 g NaCl 100 g−1 partitioning 5 samples from the rest. Higher fat content had a similar effect. The second model only considered samples without added stabilisers, identifying fat and protein to be the fundamental factors that contained syneresis. Aligning with model 1, the third model only considered samples with stabilisers, confirming salt to be the influencing parameter to decrease serum release showing the dominating effect of hydrocolloids on syneresis in cream cheese. ζ-Potential and pH had no significant effect. Forced syneresis was on average 6.4% and 27.1% in cheeses with/without stabilisers.
       
  • Application of membrane technologies to bovine Ricotta cheese exhausted
           whey (scotta)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Lucia Monti, Emanuela Donati, Angelo Vittorio Zambrini, Giovanna Contarini Bovine Ricotta cheese exhausted whey (scotta) is the final by-product of two consecutive cheese-making processes, with still a strong organic content; lactose was the main component (about 3.73 g 100 g−1). The total protein content was low (about 0.39 g 100 g−1), consisting of non-protein-nitrogen (almost 50%), whey proteins mostly in the denatured state, and abundant soluble peptides (nearly 1 g L−1). A membrane fractionation system composed of two ultrafiltration and one nanofiltration steps was investigated, testing different combinations of membranes and operational parameters, to separate residual proteins and peptides and recover lactose. Due to both fouling phenomena and protein-membrane interactions, a complete separation between whey proteins and peptides was not achieved. However, the application of only one ultrafiltration step, followed by nanofiltration, allowed separation of both one pure fraction, including whey proteins and peptides, and of another one in which 80% of the original lactose was concentrated.
       
  • Characterisation of African elephant beta casein and its relevance to the
           chemistry of caseins and casein micelles
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Moses Madende, Gabre Kemp, Stoyan Stoychev, Gernot Osthoff Caseins in milk exist as casein micelles, the structure of which is unclear. The combination of all four casein types, together with calcium phosphate clusters, are believed to be important for the stabilisation of casein micelle structure. In African elephant milk, only two major caseins, β- and κ-casein, have been identified, with β-casein forming the greater part, similar to human milk. African elephant β-casein was purified and identified as five isomers with different isoelectric points. A single β-casein isoform in its equal unphosphorylated and singly phosphorylated forms at Ser 9 was characterised. This phosphoprotein seems to be a major β-casein variant with an internal truncation of the peptide sequence ESVTQVNK encoded by exon 5, resulting in a variant with 200 amino acid residues. The other minor β-casein isoforms are possibly different splice variants of exons 3 and 4. This combination of proteins may provide additional insight into casein micelle structure.
       
  • Time consolidation of skim milk powder near the glass transition
           temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Frank Schulnies, Thomas Kleinschmidt Time consolidation (caking) of skim milk powder was studied at 35% relative humidity and different temperatures and consolidation stresses using a ring shear tester. Unconfined yield strength developed linearly with storage time. The storage time until the powder formed hard lumps (caking time) was lower when storage temperature and consolidation pressure were increased. Even a slight increase in storage temperature near the glass transition temperature resulted in a drastic decrease of storage stability. For example, when the skim milk powder was stored 2.5 °C below the glass transition temperature, the caking time was 110 h. In contrast, an increase in storage temperature of 4 °C reduced the caking time by 80% to only 18 h. The caking time increased markedly when the storage temperature was more than 3 °C below the glass transition temperature of the skim milk powder.
       
  • Selective hydrolysis of whey proteins using a flow-through monolithic
           reactor with large pore size and immobilised trypsin
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Yuhong Mao, Ulrich Kulozik Immobilised trypsin in a flow-through monolithic reactor was able to selectively hydrolyse β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) in whey protein isolate (WPI), producing a whey product still rich in native α-lactalbumin (α-La). The monolith, with 6.2 ± 0.3 μm pore size, ensured long-term stability and operation at high flow rates, i.e., low backpressure. Increasing the flow rate from 0.8 to 32 mL min−1 reduced the recirculation time by 45% to reach the same degree of hydrolysis (DH) value. The immobilised trypsin showed the greater accessibility to intact β-Lg at increased pH and low ionic strength, i.e., only 14.75 ± 10.14% β-Lg at DH 4% was detectable (pH 9.2, without NaCl). Although α-La was almost inaccessible to the immobilised trypsin (85% of its initial native amount remained in all obtained hydrolysates), its presence significantly influenced the susceptibility of β-Lg, i.e., a three-fold decrease in Vmax for β-Lg hydrolysis was found in the kinetic analysis.
       
  • Impact of surface properties on morphology of spray-dried milk serum
           protein/lactose systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): I.M. Andersson, M. Glantz, M. Alexander, A. Millqvist-Fureby, M. Paulsson, B. Bergenståhl This study investigated milk serum protein concentrate/lactose systems with varying ratios and how the morphology of the spray-dried particles of these systems could be described by the surface properties of the feed as well as the protein surface coverage of the particles. An extrapolation of the surface pressure of the feed to 0.3 s, the approximate time for molecular diffusion in an atomised droplet in the spray-dryer, showed a relationship with the particle morphology. At low protein concentrations (
       
  • Purification of lactulose derived-galactooligosaccharides from enzymatic
           reaction mixtures
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Lesbia Cristina Julio-González, Laura Ruiz-Aceituno, Nieves Corzo, Agustín Olano This study compares two different procedures for purification of lactulose-derived galactooligosaccharides (GOS) using fresh Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast or activated charcoal with water or ethanol/water solutions for selective removal of monosaccharides. Yeast fermentation allowed the complete removal of monosaccharides without any losses of di- and oligosaccharides; however besides ethanol, glycerol and higher alcohols difficult to remove are also produced. The presence of higher alcohols affects the sensory quality of the lactulose-derived GOS and may limit its use in certain food applications. Fractionation of these oligosaccharides using activated charcoal was compared with that of lactose-derived GOS the latter being the most strongly adsorbed. When water was utilised as solvent, all monosaccharides were removed, as well as about 20% of unreacted disaccharides. Removal of tri-, tetra- and pentasaccharides was not observed. Using water/ethanol mixtures, desorption of oligosaccharides increased with ethanol content, allowing the selective recovery of different sugar fractions.
       
  • Influence of lactococcal surface properties on cell retention and
           distribution in cheese curd
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): M. Tarazanova, T. Huppertz, J. Kok, H. Bachmann During cheese manufacturing, on average 90% of the starter culture cells are believed to be entrapped in the curd, with the remainder lost in whey. This paper shows that plasmid-cured dairy strains of Lactococcus lactis show cell retention in the curd of 30–72%, whereas over-expression of pili on the lactococcal cell surface can increase cell retention to 99%. Exopolysaccharide production and cell clumping and chaining do not influence cell retention in cheese curd. L. lactis surface alteration also strongly affected the distribution of cells in the cheese matrix: clumping and over-expression of pili led to formation of large cell aggregates embedded in the protein matrix whereas exopolysaccharide expression resulted in cells being surrounding by small serum regions in the protein matrix of the cheese. These results suggest that surface properties of dairy starter cultures strongly determine retention and distribution of the bacteria in cheese curd.
       
  • Sampling effects on the quantification of sodium content in infant formula
           using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Xavier Cama-Moncunill, Maria Markiewicz-Keszycka, Raquel Cama-Moncunill, Yash Dixit, Maria P. Casado-Gavalda, Patrick J. Cullen, Carl Sullivan Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was employed to predict the sodium content of infant formula (IF) over the range 0.5–4 mg Na g−1. Calibration models were built using partial least squares regression (PLS), correlating the LIBS spectral data with reference Na content quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The main aim of this study was to demonstrate the ability of LIBS as a rapid tool for quantifying sodium in IF, but also to explore strategies concerning the acquisition and pre-processing of LIBS spectra. A range of different pre-processing techniques, measuring depths (repetition of laser shots) and accumulations were conducted and evaluated in terms of PLS performance. The best calibration model was developed using the third-layer spectra normalised by the H I 656.29 nm emission line, yielding a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.93, and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of 0.37 and 0.13 mg g−1 for cross-validation and validation, respectively.
       
  • Cholesterol oxidation products in kefir from goats’ milk during
           storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Łukasz K. Kaczyński, Dorota Cais-Sokolińska, Magdalena Rudzińska Cholesterol oxidation products were identified in goats’ whole fat milk kefir when stored under different light sources (500–590 cd) and luminous flux (90–120 Lm). The total sum of cholesterol oxidation products was 1.75 mg kg−1 fat, which after 4 weeks increased to 6.85 mg kg−1 fat. The largest component among the identified oxysterols was 7β-hydroxycholesterol (0.72 mg kg−1 fat), and secondly 25-hydroxycholesterol (0.41 mg kg−1 fat). The storage time and light intensity influenced the formation of 7-ketocholesterol. After 4 weeks at a light intensity of 450 lx, the amount of 7-ketocholesterol in the kefir was 1.92 mg kg−1 fat, and at an intensity of 80 lx it was 0.98 mg kg−1 fat.
       
  • Effect of olive oil in dairy cow diets on the fatty acid profile and
           sensory characteristics of cheese
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): E. Vargas-Bello-Pérez, C. Geldsetzer-Mendoza, M.S. Morales, P. Toro-Mujica, M.A. Fellenberg, R.A. Ibáñez, P. Gómez-Cortés, P.C. Garnsworthy The effects of dietary unrefined olive oil (OO) residues and hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) on the fatty acid profiles of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheeses were determined. For 9 weeks, animals were fed a control diet with no added lipid (n = 5 cows), or fat-supplemented diets containing OO or HVO (in both cases n = 5 cows; 30 g kg−1 dry matter). Compared with control and HVO, OO increased C18:1 cis-9, and C18:3 cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 fatty acids in milk; and also increased C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 trans-11, C18:1 cis-9, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:3 cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 fatty acids in cheeses. OO reduced the number of holes, overall odour and acidity of cheeses, whereas HVO increased the cow milk odour, bitterness and acidity of cheeses. Overall, OO can improve the cheese fatty acid profile, but with adverse effects on sensory attributes.
       
  • Research on histamine in cheese by response surface methodology and its
           exposure risk in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Jing Liu, Mi-Ya Su, Zhi-Yuan Xu, Chun-Ping You, Zhen-Min Liu To investigate histamine content in commercial cheeses in China and evaluate the risk of exposure, 201 samples (97 different types of cheeses) were analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with pre-column derivatisation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the concentration of derivative agent (dansyl chloride), pH, temperature, and time of derivation. Histamine was detected in 80% of the samples (0.43–332.70 mg kg−1). A quantitative exposure assessment was performed on Chinese population using Monte-Carlo methods. The result shows that children (3–10 years old) residing in North China and Shanghai are exposed with the highest histamine in cheese.
       
  • Colostrum immunoglobulins: Processing, preservation and application
           aspects
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Sanket G. Borad, Ashish K. Singh Colostrum contains an abundance of immune components and can be exploited to address the poor immune status of developing countries' populations. The ability of colostrum immunoglobulins (Igs) to offer passive immunity to calves has been validated previously; the equivalent of only 7–10% of a calf's bodyweight of colostrum is required for passive immunisation. To transfer the immunotherapeutic properties of colostrum to the human being, the excess colostrum left over after feeding calves must be processed, preserved and utilised. Chemical preservatives cannot preserve colostrum satisfactorily; chilling and freezing are the most preferred methods. Freeze drying could retain a greater proportion of active Igs. Spray drying at controlled drying conditions can be adapted to retain a reasonably greater proportion of Igs. Among novel technologies, high pressure processing has been found to be a promising preservation method for the colostrum Igs. Membrane processing can be employed to manipulate the composition of formulations.
       
  • Microbiota of milk powders and the heat resistance and spoilage potential
           of aerobic spore-forming bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 85Author(s): Faizan A. Sadiq, Steve Flint, GuoQing He Aerobic spore forming bacteria are a concern to the dairy industry because of their ability to produce heat-resistant spores and heat-stable enzymes; The presence of spores in end products results in non-compliance with spore content specifications and the enzymes may withstand all heat treatments applied during the manufacture of milk powders, causing severe quality defects in the final product leading to reduced shelf life. The factors conferring heat resistance to bacterial spores are related to the spore's macromolecular structure, also to a mobile genetic element involved in the heat resistance of spores. A greater understanding of the microbiota of milk powders, its heat resistance and spoilage potential is needed to develop better strategies to fight with these spore-forming bacteria. Therefore, the current status of the microbiota of milk powders is reviewed. Furthermore, heat resistance and spoilage potential of major milk powder contaminants and the factors affecting these properties are discussed in detail.
       
  • Identification and characterisation of aerobic spore-forming bacteria
           isolated from Maltese cows’ milk
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Karl Montebello, David Spiteri, Vasilis P. Valdramidis Aerobic spore-forming bacteria, mainly Bacillus spp., are of real concern to dairy industries due to their ability to produce hydrolytic extracellular enzymes causing off-flavours and structural defects in pasteurised milk. In this study, bacteria were isolated and characterised from Maltese raw and pasteurised cows’ milk samples, with sample collection carried out in both summer and winter seasons. Winter and summer raw milk samples had similar bacterial count, while winter pasteurised milk samples showed a higher level of surviving bacteria than summer pasteurised milk samples. The 16S r RNA sequencing performed on isolates from pasteurised milk showed aerobic spore-forming bacteria (e.g., Bacillus cereus) and a wide range of non-spore forming bacteria were identified including; coryneforms, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus sp. Growth kinetic studies using B. cereus indicated that the minimum temperature for growth (Tmin), and the maximum cardinal temperatures (Tmax) of the isolated B. cereus were 6.38 °C and 44.23 °C, respectively.
       
  • Application of a decanter centrifuge for casein fractionation on pilot
           scale: Effect of operational parameters on total solid, purity and yield
           in solid discharge
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Thomas Schubert, Asutay Meric, Remko Boom, Jörg Hinrichs, Zeynep Atamer Individual casein fractions are of growing interest because of their multifunctional applications. The fractions of caseins (αS-, β- & κ-) possess a wide range of bio- and techno-functional properties. Although various isolation and purification methods to obtain casein fractions have been reported, there is still a need for improvement, especially on a technical scale. The aim of this study was to develop and establish a continuous process for the fractionation of caseins. The fractions were obtained from micellar casein by means of selective precipitation. The separation process was performed using a temperature-controlled decanter centrifuge. Enrichment of the fractions was optimised by altering the operational parameters of the decanter (inner weir diameter (Øweir), centrifugal force (FZ), differential speed (Δn), flow rate (V̇)). A 95% pure casein fraction containing αS- and β-casein was obtained. The purity and yield of the κ-casein fraction were 54% and 83%, respectively.
       
  • Changes in physicochemical properties and gelation behaviour of
           caseinomacropeptide isolate by treatment with transglutaminase
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Meral Kilic-Akyilmaz, Esra Kocaman, Zehra Gulsunoglu, Ceren Sagdic-Oztan, Solmaz Mohammadipour Mavazekhan The gelation behaviour of caseinomacropeptide isolate (CMPI) treated with transglutaminase at levels of 1 and 25 U g−1 protein was investigated at different pH and temperatures. Cross-linking of CMPI protein fractions by transglutaminase was confirmed using tricine-sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cross-linking reduced the isoelectric point and hydrophobicity of CMPI. The gelation temperature of CMPI at pH 3 was reduced from 54 to 42 °C; a gel point (G’>1 Pa) was not observed at pH 4.5 after enzyme treatment during temperature sweep measurements. Cross-linked CMPI formed a gel with lower stiffness and fracture stress at 90 °C at pH 3.0 or 4.5 compared with gels of untreated CMPI. However, stiffness and fracture stress of CMPI gels formed at 70 °C at pH 3.0 increased by three- and four-fold, respectively, by cross-linking with 25 U g−1 protein of enzyme. Transglutaminase affected gelation of CMPI by cross-linking of both CMP and residual whey proteins.
       
  • Effects of camel milk in dyslipidaemia: A randomised clinical trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Asma Mohammaddin, Dileep Kumar Rohra, Sarah Mortaja, Shahad Abanmi, Ola Al Saati, Peter M.B. Cahusac, Rajab Ali Khawaja, Ahmad Al-Selaihem, Yousef Al-Omran Treating dyslipidaemia lowers the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although statins stand as the first line agents used for CAD prevention, patients may not reach their recommended goals or they discontinue treatment due to adverse effects. Camel milk has been postulated to have an effect on dyslipidaemia. A single blind, randomised clinical trial was conducted with the aim of investigating the anti-dyslipidaemic effect of camel milk in patients with untreated dyslipidaemia. Study participants were recruited from the Family Medicine Clinics of the King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Blood levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total cholesterol dropped following three months of treatment with both statins and camel milk. The effects in both treatment groups were statistically equivalent. The results demonstrate that camel milk could be an alternative intervention to statin therapy for dyslipidaemia under some circumstances; however, further studies are needed to understand its efficacy.
       
  • Effect of fermentation-produced camel chymosin on quality of Crescenza
           cheese
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): M. Alinovi, M. Cordioli, S. Francolino, F. Locci, R. Ghiglietti, L. Monti, F. Tidona, G. Mucchetti, G. Giraffa Quality properties of Crescenza cheese, a typical Italian soft cheese with a short shelf life, are negatively affected by proteolysis due to residual rennet activity, causing a bitter taste and excessive softening of its structure. Chemical composition, textural, rheological and sensory properties of Crescenza cheese manufactured with a fermentation-produced camel chymosin (FPCC) were compared with Crescenza cheese obtained with calf rennet during a 3-week shelf life period. Both Crescenza cheeses complied with the overall expected cheese quality. FPCC Crescenza cheese was characterised by a slightly higher moisture content and lower rate of hydrolysis of αS1-casein than Crescenza cheese obtained with calf rennet. However, FPCC cheese showed a slightly firmer body. The use of FPCC as clotting enzyme may be a valid alternative to calf rennet to prevent the defect of excessive cheese softening.
       
  • Dissolution of calcium hydrogen phosphate in aqueous δ-gluconolactone;
           long-lasting supersaturation increasing calcium availability
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Hong Cheng, Leif H. Skibsted Calcium hydrogen phosphate dissolves readily in aqueous δ-gluconolactone/gluconate, forming solutions supersaturated in calcium gluconate by a factor up to seven at 25 °C. The critical gluconate concentration for dissolving calcium hydrogen phosphate to form homogeneous supersaturated solutions was linearly dependent on the concentration of dissolved calcium hydrogen phosphate rather than the δ-gluconolactone/gluconate ratio. Based on ion speciation, the solution was initially found spontaneously supersaturated with calcium gluconate, while the dissolution of calcium was limited by the solubility product of calcium hydrogen phosphate. After equilibration the concentration of dissolved calcium was controlled by the solubility product of calcium gluconate. The lag phase for initiation of precipitation of calcium gluconate from the supersaturated solutions were up to 9 d, and were slightly increased by presence of calcium saccharate. The transient increase in solubility of calcium hydrogen phosphate in the presence of gluconate may be exploited in functional foods, enhancing calcium availability.
       
  • Tocopherols in human milk: Change during lactation, stability during
           frozen storage, and impact of maternal diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Wei Wei, Jie Yang, Yuan Xia, Chang Chang, Cong Sun, Renqiang Yu, Qin Zhou, Ce Qi, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang Tocopherols in human milk samples collected from 103 healthy mothers from China were determined. Samples were obtained at 1–7 d, 8–14 d and after 15 d postpartum. The maternal dietary intake of 24 h dietary recall was collected. Four tocopherol isomers (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol) were measured by HPLC. The total tocopherol concentrations significantly decreased from 7.5 ± 2.1 mg L−1 in colostrum to 3.8 ± 1.4 mg L−1 in transitional milk and 3.1 ± 1.4 mg L−1 in mature milk. The similar results were found for α- and γ-tocopherols. However, the content of β- and δ-tocopherols was almost constant. The four tocopherol isomers did not degrade during frozen storage (−20 °C and −80 °C) for 180 d. Total tocopherol content was significantly raised with the increase of fat intake in the maternal diet.
       
  • Cheese supplementation with five species of edible seaweeds: Effect on
           microbiota, antioxidant activity, colour, texture and sensory
           characteristics
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Ana del Olmo, Antonia Picon, Manuel Nuñez Supplementation of dairy products with non-dairy ingredients with the aim of increasing the concentration of particular nutrients is a common industrial practice. In the present study, a semi-hard cheese was supplemented with each of five seaweeds (Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria ochroleuca, Porphyra umbilicalis, Ulva lactuca, Undaria pinnatifida). Addition of 10 g of dehydrated seaweed per kg of curd caused significant differences in dry matter and pH value, but it hardly influenced cheese microbiota. Antioxidant activity, which was correlated with total phenolic compounds, was significantly higher in cheese supplemented with H. elongata than in control cheese. Instrumental colour and texture parameters of cheese varied significantly with the added seaweed species. Cheeses supplemented with H. elongata, U. pinnatifida and L. ochroleuca received odour and flavour quality scores from panellists that did not differ from those of the respective control cheese until day 60 and were associated with low seaweed odour and flavour scores.
       
  • Evaluation of goat milk fat and goat milk casein fraction for
           anti-hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidative properties in
           hypercholesterolaemic rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Sunny Kalyan, Sunita Meena, Suman Kapila, Kandukuri Sowmya, Raj Kumar Goat milk fat (GMF) or casein (GMC) were fed to hypercholesterolaemic rats to investigate the effects on lipid homeostasis. Thirty two rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats each) and fed on standard diet (SD), cholesterol-enriched diet (CED), or CED containing either GMF (CED + GMF) or GMC (CED + GMC). Rats fed with CED exhibited higher plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and atherogenic indices, but lower plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than the SD group. This effect was significantly decreased in the CED + GMF or CED + GMC groups. HDL-C levels were restored in the CED + GMC group while better and pronounced effects were observed for the CED + GMF group. Furthermore, CED induced liver cholesterol deposition was attenuated by GMF or GMC and faecal cholesterol excretion was increased in the CED + GMF and CED + GMC groups. Additionally, plasma/liver lipid peroxidation was decreased in the CED + GMF and CED + GMC groups. Thus, both GMF and GMC possess anti-hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidative effects.
       
  • Effects of industrial processing methods on camel skimmed milk properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Adel Omar, Niamh Harbourne, Maria J. Oruna-Concha Effects of pasteurisation (high-temperature-short-time; HTST), ultra-high-temperature (UHT), and high-pressure (HP) treatments on some physical and chemical properties of camel milk (CM), including whey protein denaturation, colour change, casein micelle size, and rennet coagulation time (RCT), was investigated. UHT treatment caused the biggest colour change and highest whey protein denaturation in CM; in contrast, the effects of HP treatments on these properties were considerably less. Casein micelle size decreased after all treatments. The RCT of CM was significantly delayed and coagulum strength (G′) decreased after HTST. HP treatment at 200 and 400 MPa increased the RCT of CM and the G′ value was the highest after treatment at 200 MPa. Processing at 600 and 800 MPa inhibited coagulation of CM. The effects of both thermal and non-thermal treatments on many constituents and properties of CM were different from those on constituents and properties of bovine milk.
       
  • Key pathogenic bacteria associated with dairy foods: On-farm ecology and
           products associated with foodborne pathogen transmission
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: International Dairy Journal, Volume 84Author(s): Edward M. Fox, Yujun Jiang, Kari S. Gobius Dairy foods are produced and enjoyed the world over as part of a healthy diet. As with other foods, however, contamination with bacterial pathogens can present a risk to public health, resulting in sporadic illness or outbreaks of disease. Many of the bacterial pathogens associated with dairy food transmission are naturally found in the dairy environment, and understanding their ecology is fundamental to directing appropriate food safety controls. This review will discuss the key pathogenic bacteria associated with modern dairy food production, including their biology, ecology and association with categories of dairy foods. Control measures and their application point along the dairy food supply continuum will be highlighted.
       
  • Occurrence of lipid oxidation compounds in commercialised functional dairy
           products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): M. Carmen García-Martínez, Javier Fontecha, Joaquín Velasco, Francisca Holgado, Gloria Márquez-Ruiz Oxidative stability of bioactive lipid-functional dairy products is essential to ensure their role in the prevention and/or treatment of certain diseases. The oxidation state of commercial functional dairy products, along with conventional dairy products, was evaluated at the acquisition and expiry dates. Functional dairy products containing omega-3 fatty acids (FPω3), conjugated linoleic acid (FPCLA) or stanol esters (FPSE) were tested. Quantitation of oxidised triacylglycerols, not applied so far to dairy products, was used as a measurement of primary and secondary oxidation compounds. Tocopherols and peroxide values were also determined. Conventional dairy products and FPSE showed high stability, in contrast to the relatively lower stability of FPω3 and FPCLA. FPω3 and FPCLA were significantly oxidised even at the initial date, and half of such samples oxidised further during the shelf-life period. However, while hydroperoxides were predominant in FPω3, polymer formation was found to be the early oxidation marker of FPCLA oxidation.
       
  • Casesidin-like anti-bacterial peptides in peptic hydrolysate of camel milk
           β-casein
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Dalila Almi-Sebbane, Isabelle Adt, Pascal Degraeve, Julien Jardin, Emmanuel Bettler, Raphaël Terreux, Nadia Oulahal, Abderahmane Mati The antibacterial activity of camel milk β-casein and its peptic hydrolysate was investigated. The hydrolysate was fractionated by ultrafiltration successively through membranes with a 10 kDa and a 1 kDa cut-off, sequentially. Antibacterial activity assays against Staphylococcus aureus CNRZ 3, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were performed. The growth of S. aureus and L. innocua strain was not inhibited by β-casein; E. coli strain growth was slightly inhibited. All fractions of hydrolysates exhibited some anti-bacterial activity and molecular mass fraction
       
  • Concentrated emulsions as novel fat replacers in reduced-fat and low-fat
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Mohammad Anvari, Helen S. Joyner (Melito) The effects of concentrated emulsions as a fat replacer in reduced-fat (15% fat) and low-fat (6% fat) Cheddar cheese microstructural and rheological properties were determined. Concentrated emulsions were prepared by adding a fish gelatin–gum arabic mixture at pH 5.0 and 3.6 to olive oil at W:O = 30:70 (w/w). Cheddar cheeses containing the emulsions were produced by adding the emulsions to skim milk after adding starter culture and before renneting and subsequent cheesemaking. Two control cheeses at each fat level were produced with either olive oil or cream. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that concentrated emulsions acted as casein matrix breakers by making large pockets of aggregated emulsion droplets. Emulsion-containing cheeses exhibited lower rigidity under compression compared with controls. However, aging and emulsion addition had no significant effect on cheese mechanical spectra.
       
  • Influence of substrate concentration on the extent of protein enzymatic
           hydrolysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Yuxi Deng, Claire I. Butré, P.A. Wierenga Changes in substrate concentration were shown to affect the experimental maximum degree of hydrolysis (DHmax,exp). Such changes may affect the outcome of in vitro protein digestion models. To study this effect, apo α-lactalbumin (0.5–10%) was hydrolysed by digestive enzymes, bovine, porcine and human trypsins, bovine α-chymotrypsin or Bacillus licheniformis protease (BLP), at a constant enzyme to substrate ratio (E:S). Hydrolysis by human trypsin was not sensitive to changes in substrate concentration. The DHmax,exp by bovine and porcine trypsins, or bovine α-chymotrypsin increased with an increasing substrate concentration, while the DHmax,exp by BLP decreased. For hydrolyses with different DHmax,exp, a change in the percentage of intact protein versus DH was observed, meaning that the peptide concentrations differed during the hydrolyses. If some peptides could be protease inhibitors, the differences in DHmax,exp could be explained. This was confirmed by performing the hydrolysis at a higher E:S, which reached a higher DHmax,exp.
       
  • Manufacturing of reverse osmosis whey concentrates with extended shelf
           life and high protein nativity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Melanie Marx, Simone Bernauer, Ulrich Kulozik The suitability of a two-step preservation process for whey concentrates consisting of cold microfiltration (MF) (1.4 μm pore size) and gentle heat treatment was investigated. The purpose was to produce reverse osmosis (RO) whey concentrates [dry matter (DM) contents: 12–30%] showing high native protein levels and sufficient shelf life as a substitute for whey powder. Strong bacterial reduction of 4.8–6.0 log cycles could be achieved by MF in whey concentrates with 12, 18 and 24% DM. Concurrently, low whey protein denaturation of 0.1–6.6% and 2.3–12.7% was found after pasteurisation at 75 °C and 80 °C, respectively, for 30 s. Microbiological shelf life of the whey concentrates was at least four months at 4 °C storage temperature. The applied process is suitable to produce extended shelf life (ESL) whey concentrates with DM of up to 24% that might serve as energy efficient substitutes for whey powder.
       
  • Effect of dry heating on physico-chemical, functional properties and
           digestibility of camel whey protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Shima Momen, Maryam Salami, Farhad alavi, Zahra Emam-Djomeh, Elnaz Hosseini, Nader Sheibani, Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi Dry heating was successfully exploited to form camel whey protein (CWP) aggregates with improved solubility, emulsifying activity and thermal stability. The stable structures were established by rearrangement of primary structures and formation of disulphide bonds through dry heating, confirmed by sodium dodecylsulphate –polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and free thiol content determination. Solubility, emulsion and thermal stability of CWP increased after dry heating, which was attributed to the ζ-potential increase and the binding of residual lactose molecules to CWP molecules. The results of in vitro digestion revealed that large disulphidic aggregates formed during dry heating could be digested by simulated gastrointestinal fluid. In vitro digests of dry heated CWP showed higher antioxidant properties compared with native CWP. Our data suggest that dry heating could be considered as a valuable pre-treatment to produce the soluble and heat stable of CWP aggregates with improved functionality.
       
  • Performance of packed bed reactor on the enzymatic interesterification of
           milk fat with soybean oil to yield structure lipids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Ariela V. de Paula, Gisele F.M. Nunes, Heizir F. de Castro, Júlio C. dos Santos The interesterification reaction of milk fat with soybean oil mediated by Rhizopus oryzae lipase immobilised on a hybrid organic-inorganic support of polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol (SiO2-PVA) was assessed in a packed bed reactor running in continuous flow (45 °C, blend of milk fat and soybean oil 65:35%, w/w). The reactor performance was quantified for different flow rates corresponding to space times (0.5 and 4 h). For each condition, the influence of the space time on the consistency, free fatty acid and solid fat content (SFC, %) was determined. Percentages of reduction on consistency (71.2%) were obtained in relation to the initial blend (1431 ± 42 gf cm-2) and the SFC values (SFC10 °C = 39.6%; SFC20 °C = 20.5% and SFC35 °C = 0.2%) were within the ranges considered ideal for spreads with satisfactory spreadability. The immobilised lipase was stable with respect to its catalytic characteristics, exhibiting a half-life of 39 days.
       
  • The effect of thiol reagents on the denaturation of the whey protein in
           milk and whey protein concentrate solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Nguyen H.A. Nguyen, Christina Streicher, Skelte G. Anema Adding cysteine (CYS-HCl) to skim milk, whey protein isolate (WPI), or milk/WPI solutions promoted the irreversible denaturation of α-lactalbumin at temperatures between 61 and 70 °C, whereas little denaturation of β-lactoglobulin occurred at these temperatures. Above 70 °C, CYS-HCl promoted the irreversible denaturation of both α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. A greater effect was observed at higher CYS-HCl concentrations at any given pH, or at higher pH at any given CYS-HCl concentration. Similar effects were observed with glutathione and 2-mercaptoethanol. It is proposed that at temperatures between ∼61 and 70 °C, CYS-HCl initiates thiol-disulphide exchange reactions with the disulphide bonds on unfolded α-lactalbumin, but not with those on the native β-lactoglobulin, thus α-lactalbumin irreversibly aggregates. At higher temperatures, CYS-HCl and the free thiol on unfolded β-lactoglobulin initiates thiol-disulphide exchange reactions with the disulphide bonds on both α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, rapidly aggregating both proteins via disulphide bonds and non-covalent interactions.
       
  • Authentication of retail cheeses based on fatty acid composition and
           multivariate data analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Pilar Gómez-Cortés, Carolina Geldsetzer-Mendoza, María Sol Morales, Paula Toro-Mujica, María Angélica Fellenberg, Rodrigo A. Ibáñez A methodology to discriminate retail cheeses by principal component analysis (PCA) and consequent orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) using fatty acid (FA) profile differences is reported. Multivariate analysis included retail cheeses from 3 different varieties (Gouda, Chanco and Mantecoso) and 2 distinct scales of production. PCA was useful in discriminating cheeses according to their variety, but it did not allow differentiation according to the scale of production. Gouda and Chanco cheeses were differentiated by saturated FAs (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C11:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, and C18:0) whereas Mantecoso cheese was discriminated by specific (C4:0, C14:1, C16:1, C17:0, and C18:1) FAs. OPLS-DA differentiated cheeses based on the scale of production, which would be related to the feeding regime of the dairy cattle. C16:1c9 showed the strongest association with large-scale production cheeses and intensive systems, while C15:0c9, C17:0, C20:1n9, C20:4n6, and C22:2 were characteristic of artisanal cheeses and extensive feeding regimes.
       
  • Glycine betaine transport conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.
           bulgaricus in salt induced hyperosmotic stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Huiying Wu, Peng Yu, Lijuan Zhang, Sainan Zhao, Lanwei Zhang, Xue Han Glycine betaine (GB) is a naturally occurring osmolyte that helps cells adapt to osmotic stress. In this study, the osmoprotective role of GB in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 34.5 under salt stress was investigated. A concentration of 0.2 m NaCl provided sufficient osmotic constraint while allowing the cells to survive. Under conditions of salt stress, L. bulgaricus 34.5 continued to proliferate in the presence of GB, and the optimum growth was seen at 1.2 mm GB. The optimum culture conditions for L. bulgaricus 34.5 were 37 °C and pH 6.0 for 24 h. In addition, intracellular GB content increased in response to salt stress, and the extent of GB transport in L. bulgaricus 34.5 under high salt concentrations depended on the culture conditions. In conclusion, GB played a protective role in alleviating the detrimental effect of salt on L. bulgaricus 34.5.
       
  • Enhanced foaming and emulsifying properties of high-pressure-jet-processed
           skim milk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Charith A. Hettiarachchi, Marta Corzo-Martínez, Maneesha. S. Mohan, Federico. M. Harte The effect of high pressure jet (HPJ) processing on foaming and emulsifying properties of skim milk was studied. Viscosity of milk significantly increased at HPJ processing pressures ≥300 MPa and particle size distribution became bimodal for milk processed at 400 or 500 MPa. Cryo-electron microscopy of milk processed at 400 or 500 MPa showed formation of non-uniform aggregates of proteins, which were distinctly larger than intact casein micelles. HPJ processing markedly increased the foam expansion index of milk. In addition, significant increases in foam volume stability index and emulsion activity index were observed for milk following HPJ processing at ≥300 MPa. It is suggested that the structural modifications occurring in the micelles due to HPJ processing are primarily responsible for the observed changes in interfacial properties. The ability to modify key functional properties of milk by HPJ processing opens opportunities for milk-based novel ingredient manufacturing.
       
  • Influence of carrageenan on the preparation and stability of w/o/w double
           milk emulsions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Iveta Klojdová, Yana Troshchynska, Jiří Štětina The aim of this work was to achieve stable milk-based water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) that could be functional components in fermented products. Carrageenan GENULACTA® NM-300 was found to be a suitable stabiliser of the internal water phase and an answer to the question of how to handle the aggregation of w/o droplets. Polyglycerolpolyricinoleate (PGPR) and sunflower lecithin have previously been used as emulsifiers. All experiments confirmed that PGPR is a more appropriate emulsifier than sunflower lecithin. However, even a mixture of PGPR and sunflower lecithin did not support a stable double emulsion. In contrast, a combination of milk fat with 5% PGPR, plus 0.5% carrageenan in the internal and 0.03% carrageenan in the external water phases, showed the best stability.
       
  • Thermal denaturation kinetics of whey proteins in reverse osmosis and
           nanofiltration sweet whey concentrates
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Melanie Marx, Ulrich Kulozik Shelf-stable whey concentrates produced by membrane filtration represent an energy efficient alternative to whey powder. However, to obtain products with sufficient microbiological shelf-life, preservation of concentrates is necessary. The idea of this study was, therefore, to investigate the influence of ionic composition and dry matter (DM) of whey concentrates on thermal stability of the major whey proteins. Taking the thermal impact of heating up into account, denaturation kinetics of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin were determined in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) whey concentrates with DM contents of 12-30% at heating temperatures of 90 and 125 °C. Denaturation caused by heating up was strongly increased with increasing DM of both types of concentrates. During holding at 90 °C, whey proteins showed a higher thermal stability in RO concentrates as compared to NF concentrates. However, denaturation rates at 125 °C of whey proteins were lower in NF than in RO concentrates.
       
  • Effect of surfactant addition on particle properties of whey proteins and
           their subsequent complexation with salivary proteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018Source: International Dairy JournalAuthor(s): Ashkan Madadlou, Somayeh Zamani, Yixing Lu, Alireza Abbaspourrad The astringency of acidified whey protein beverages is unpleasant to consumers and a challenge to the industry to overcome. It may be associated with whey-salivary protein interactions. We examined the influence of complexation of whey proteins with a low molecular weight surfactant (Tween) on some characteristics of subsequently formed whey-salivary protein aggregates. Surface tension measurements indicated that hydrophobic interaction between Tween and whey proteins was initiated at a Tween-to-WPI ratio of 1:50. Tween dissociated β-lactoglobulin dimers to monomers, decreased the size and percentage of non-soluble aggregates (>4000 μm) and decreased the ζ-potential of WPI samples. Surfactant complexation also decreased the surface hydrophobicity of whey proteins. In addition, based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surfactant reduced intermolecular protein interactions. Nonetheless, measurement of accessible thiol group content revealed that surfactant-whey protein interaction did not unfold the proteins. Surfactant complexation resulted in smaller aggregates and a lower turbidity of whey protein-saliva mixture.
       
 
 
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