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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3184 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3184 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 433, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 418, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 470, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
American Journal of Medicine Supplements
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.967
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1548-2766
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • CME section
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2Author(s):
       
  • Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in patients with human
           immunodeficiency virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2Author(s): Steven K. GrinspoonUse of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, fat redistribution, and hypertension. The results of the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study showed that HAART therapy is associated with a 26% relative risk increase in the rate of myocardial infarction per year of HAART exposure. A number of studies have shown that insulin resistance often precedes lipodystrophy, suggesting that insulin resistance may be a primary feature of the metabolic syndrome in this population. The rate-limiting step in the uptake of glucose is glucose transport, and the predominant glucose transporter (GLUT) in muscle and fat is GLUT-4. Specific protease inhibitors (PIs) have been associated with decreased GLUT-4-mediated glucose transport and insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo, whereas newer protease inhibitors may have fewer effects on insulin sensitivity. Data also suggest that endothelial dysfunction, impaired fibrinolysis, and excess inflammation may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in the population infected with HIV. Moreover, recent data suggest that evidence for coronary atherosclerotic disease can be revealed by means of carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) assessments in specific groups of HIV patients. Pharmacologic strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of HAART-induced dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose homeostasis include 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), resins, nicotinic acid, fibrates, and insulin-sensitizing agents. However, newer PIs such as atazanavir may result in less insulin resistance and dyslipidemia and, as part of a HAART regimen, use of atazanavir may reduce the metabolic complications associated with HAART.
       
  • Metabolic issues and cardiovascular disease in patients with psychiatric
           disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2Author(s): Daniel E. CaseyIndividuals with psychiatric disorders tend to have excessive morbidity. They typically have high rates of respiratory illnesses, infectious diseases, substance abuse (including smoking), obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Persons with schizophrenia and affective disorders also have a high prevalence of risk factors for CVD, such as diabetes and obesity, which are on the order of 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than in the general population; this translates into increased mortality rates due to CVD.The use of certain psychotropics results in metabolic sequelae, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose dysregulation, and the metabolic syndrome. These sequelae exacerbate the already elevated risk of CVD and diabetes in this group of people. Therefore, the use of psychotropic agents that result in, for example, excessive weight gain not only add another complication for physicians managing a patient with schizophrenia but also may have serious prognostic and cost implications with respect to treatment-related diabetes and coronary disease incidence.The recent American Diabetes Association (ADA) Consensus Panel concluded that some agents are associated with greater diabetes risk than others. The current review describes the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in people with affective disorders and schizophrenic populations, its prognostic relevance, and its exacerbation among patients treated with particular psychotropic agents, including certain atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and mood stabilizers. The costs associated with the treatment of the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary heart disease in populations with schizophrenia are also described.
       
  • Evaluation of the patient with diabetes mellitus and suspected coronary
           artery disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2Author(s): Gary V. HellerCoronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. In fact, patients with diabetes have the same risk of myocardial infarction as do nondiabetic subjects with a history of infarction. For this reason, diabetes has been designated by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) as a CAD equivalent. For women, data indicate a substantially elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) even before a clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has been made. Identifying patients with diabetes who have CAD and who will benefit from medical and/or invasive intervention to prevent cardiovascular events is a challenge in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The decision to evaluate patients with diabetes who are asymptomatic for CAD presents the greatest challenge; investigation will reveal 10% to 15% of these patients to have CAD. Current diagnostic tools include exercise tolerance testing, stress echocardiography, stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and cardiac catheterization. Few guidelines are available to aid in the choice of testing modalities for a given patient. Although cardiac catheterization is useful, it is generally reserved for patients in whom invasive intervention is suitable. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends exercise tolerance testing alone in symptomatic patients with ≥2 CAD risk factors or an abnormal resting electrocardiogram (ECG). However, that recommendation is not based on data; it is the consensus of an expert panel. Stress echocardiography is a useful, noninvasive procedure; however, there is limited experience with this technology in the diabetic population. Recently accumulated data support both diagnostic and prognostic roles for stress MPI, particularly with ECG-gated single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging. In symptomatic patients with diabetes, the presence and extent of abnormal stress MPI findings have been found to be highly accurate independent predictors of subsequent cardiac events: 18% to 26% of asymptomatic patients with diabetes have perfusion defects consistent with CAD. However, CVD risk factors are not predictive of abnormal MPI findings even though duration of diabetes and abnormal ECGs are. The results of future studies may be helpful in guiding the selection of asymptomatic patients to undergo myocardial perfusion and function studies. In conclusion, MPI provides clinicians with an important diagnostic tool, because it offers perfusion as well as functional information for diagnosis and risk stratification in patients with diabetes. These capabilities facilitate decision making regarding the appropriateness of medical therapy or surgical intervention in these individuals.
       
  • Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular risk
           factors: Focus on human immunodeficiency virus and psychiatric disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2Author(s): Paul ZimmetType 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many developing and developed nations, leading to talk of the “twin epidemics.” The latest projections from the International Diabetes Federation suggest that 190 million people worldwide currently have type 2 diabetes. In addition, ≥300 million people worldwide have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). These statistics represent an epidemic of major proportions—possibly the largest epidemic in human history—in terms of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk because individuals with IGT are at substantially higher risk for diabetes and CVD than are members of the general population. Along with IGT, the metabolic syndrome comprises other major CVD risk factors, including insulin resistance, central obesity, and dyslipidemia; insulin resistance has been implicated as the single most common cause of the syndrome. Although the exact prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is unknown, the syndrome is widespread among adults in developed nations, becoming more prevalent with age. Epidemiologic data suggest that in patients with schizophrenia or affective disorders, both diabetes and obesity are 1.5 to 2.0 times more prevalent than in the general population. Furthermore, because adverse effects of certain therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and psychiatric disorders increase the risk for developing diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome, such therapies should be carefully chosen, particularly considering CVD risk. Appropriate therapy may be determined via screening of patients for levels of fasting blood glucose and lipids, as well as other CVD risk factors, before initiating use of second-generation antipsychotic agents or highly active antiretroviral therapy.
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2Author(s): Alan J. Garber
       
  • CME information
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 2Author(s):
       
  • Conclusion: How primary care physicians can help their patients with
           migraine
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1Author(s): Elizabeth W. Loder, Richard B. Lipton
       
  • Evaluating the safety and tolerability profile of acute treatments for
           migraine
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1Author(s): Vincent T. Martin, James A. GoldsteinAmong the medications that have been used as acute treatments for migraine are nonspecific agents, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), analgesics (either single or combination), and narcotics, as well as migraine-specific medications, including ergot alkaloids and triptans (5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D agonists). All of these drugs have side effects that vary in type and severity. Side effects of nonspecific medications, including gastrointestinal (GI) and renal effects with NSAIDs and cognitive effects and the potential for abuse with narcotics and butalbital-containing medications, have been documented over time, as these medications have been used for various indications. Side effects of the migraine-specific medications include GI and vascular symptoms with the ergots; for the triptans, they include chest and neurologic symptoms. Although adverse events are reported fairly frequently in patients receiving triptans, they are usually mild, and few patients discontinue therapy because of them. The most serious adverse events are cardiovascular. Because of potential vasoconstrictor effects—mild and transient increases in blood pressure and mild and transient effects on coronary artery tone—triptans as a class are contraindicated in patients with established or clinically suspected cardiovascular disease, specifically ischemic heart disease and uncontrolled hypertension. Other adverse events, including the potential for drug-drug interactions, are less common. Therefore, consideration should be given to the tolerability and safety of medications before their use as abortive medications for the treatment of migraine headache.
       
  • Evaluating the triptans
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1Author(s): Ninan T. Mathew, Elizabeth W. LoderThe debilitating effect of migraine has fueled the search for more specific agents to treat its characteristic and associated symptoms. Second-generation oral triptans have shown an improved efficacy profile in comparison with the pioneer sumatriptan and with the over-the-counter medications and prescription analgesics that have been staples of migraine treatment. Although all triptans exert effects through the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D receptors, each triptan has distinctive pharmacokinetic properties that determine its efficacy and tolerability profile. Empirical findings based on clinical trials have led to associations between triptan pharmacology and efficacy. With the expanded treatment choices, the onus is on healthcare providers (especially primary care physicians, who see the majority of patients with migraine) to determine which treatment has an efficacy profile that best suits the individual patient’s needs. Patients prefer pharmacotherapy with a rapid onset of action that facilitates complete pain relief and no recurrence. Data from published comparator trials, based on commonly used efficacy end points and pharmacokinetic properties underlying patient-preferred outcomes, are reviewed in this article.
       
  • Initiating and optimizing acute therapy for migraine: The role of
           patient-centered stratified care
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1Author(s): Merle Diamond, Roger CadyMigraine is a chronic, intermittently disabling condition that affects physical, mental, and social aspects of health-related quality of life. Because patients seeking assistance with migraine most often present to primary care providers, these healthcare professionals play critical roles in the diagnosis and treatment process. A comprehensive migraine management plan involves a partnership between the patient and healthcare professional where treatment goals and strategies are established. Elements of such a plan should include preventive strategies to reduce the frequency and effects of future attacks as well as the use of acute treatments to address the immediate need for relief during an attack. Approaches to prevention include education, lifestyle modification, and, often, appropriate medication. Many medications have been used for acute treatment. Nonspecific agents include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), single or combination analgesics (sometimes including antiemetics or caffeine), and narcotics. Migraine-specific medications include ergot alkaloids and triptans (5-hydroxytryptamine1B/1D agonists). Various professional organizations have created guidelines to help providers in choosing appropriate management interventions. Clinical approaches to the patient with migraine include step care, whereby all patients begin on a simple or nonspecific treatment, stepping up to the next level of therapy if treatment is unsuccessful; or stratified care, whereby first-line therapy is tailored to the severity of the patient’s pattern of headache. Studies have demonstrated that for more disabled headache patients, the stratified-care approach results in more robust headache response with less disability and greater cost-effectiveness than step care. Patient satisfaction studies demonstrate that the use of migraine-specific abortive medications (triptans) is associated with a higher satisfaction rate than over-the-counter preparations, NSAIDs, and analgesic combinations. Patients who initially reported satisfaction with the latter medications also reported a preference for triptan therapy. Healthcare professionals can assist patients, not only by choosing the most appropriate medication but also by assessing whether the level of benefit the patient is currently receiving could be improved.
       
  • Identifying migraine in primary care settings
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1Author(s): Richard Sadovsky, David W. DodickMigraine disorders are largely unrecognized and untreated, despite the heavy burden they impose on individuals and society. Studies have shown that the symptom severity and disability associated with undiagnosed migraine are as burdensome as those associated with diagnosed migraine. Of those persons with migraine identified in population-based surveys, many were previously unaware that they had migraine. Furthermore, coexisting headache types and comorbid conditions contribute to misdiagnosis among those who consult a physician for headache. Patients who do seek medical attention for headaches usually visit their primary care providers. The purpose of this review is to highlight the distinguishing characteristics of migraine compared with other headache disorders, based on the new International Classification of Headache Disorders. To aid in diagnosis, simple screening tools, such as ID Migraine (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY), are recommended. The clinical interview and headache diary aid in refining the diagnosis or suggesting the need for further evaluation. Improved recognition of migraine in primary care will increase the rate of successful treatment with effective migraine-specific therapies. This will result in improved functionality and decreased pain, and may help prevent disease progression.
       
  • The epidemiology of migraine
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1Author(s): Richard B. Lipton, Marcelo E. BigalThis article provides a review of the epidemiology and risk factors for migraine in population studies, as well as patterns for healthcare use. The burden and costs of migraine, as well as risk factors for disease progression, are also discussed. Although migraine is a remarkably common cause of temporary disability, many persons with migraine, even those with disabling headache, have never consulted a physician for the problem. Prevalence is highest in women, in persons between the ages of 25 and 55 years, and, at least in the United States, in individuals from lower income households. However, prevalence is high in groups other than these high-risk groups. In a subgroup of patients, migraine may be a progressive disorder.
       
  • Introduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2005Source: The American Journal of Medicine Supplements, Volume 118, Supplement 1Author(s): Richard B. Lipton, Elizabeth W. Loder
       
 
 
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