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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3182 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3182 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 102, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 437, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 314, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 422, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 385, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 477, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 224, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Immunology Letters
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.168
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 13  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0165-2478
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3182 journals]
  • Repeated intravenous injection of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem
           cells enhances Th1 immune responses in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c
           mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Elham Zanganeh, Sara Soudi, Ahmad Zavaran Hosseini, Arezou Khosrojerdi Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapy are among new strategies that are used to combat infections through immunomodulation. Cell number, route and frequency of injection and the duration of exposure to the infectious agent are of the main factors to determine the effectiveness of cell therapy. The current study was aimed to assess the effect of multiple intravenous (i.v.) injection of adipose tissue derived (AD)-MSCs on immune response of Leishmania (L.) major-infected BALB/c mice. Therefore, infected mice received AD-MSCs four times during the early phase of infection through i.v. route. They were then monitored weekly for footpad swelling and lesion development. Parasite burden, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production were measured in the spleen and lymph node 90 days post-infection. Delayed lesion development, significant reduction in footpad swelling and lower parasite burden in the spleen of AD-MSCs-treated mice showed the relative effect of AD-MSCs therapy in the control of L. major dissemination. In addition, MSCs were able to manage direct cytokine responses toward T‐helper 1 (Th1). Although the level of interleukin (IL)-10 was still higher than the associated level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a shift towards higher level of TNF-α was also observed.
       
  • Cancer immunotherapy with lymphocytes genetically engineered with T cell
           receptors for solid cancers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Lei Chen, Dongjuan Qiao, Juntao Wang, Geng Tian, Mingjun Wang Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T cells) have proven to be highly effective for treating CD19+ B cell-derived hematologic malignancies. However, due to the lack of ideal tumor surface antigens, CAR-T cell therapy has limited success in treating solid tumors. T cells genetically engineered with T cell receptors (TCR-T cells) recognize intracellular and cell-surface antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation and thus have the potential to access much more target antigens than CAR-T cells, providing great promise in treating solid tumors. There is an increasing interest in the application of TCR-T cell therapy for solid tumors, and fifty-six clinical trials are undergoing worldwide to confirm its validity. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in clinical studies of TCR-T cell therapy, describe strategies in the preparation and characterization of TCR-T cells, focusing on antigen selection, TCR isolation and methods to further enhance the potency of adoptively transferred cells.
       
  • A combination regimen of low-dose bortezomib and rapamycin prolonged the
           graft survival in a murine allogeneic islet transplantation model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): So-Hee Hong, Kihyun Kim, Jun-Seop Shin, Hyunwoo Chung, Chung-Gyu Park As the first FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor drug, bortezomib has been used for the treatment of multiple myeloma and lymphoma. However, its effects alone or in combination with other immunosuppressants on allogeneic islet transplantation have not been reported so far. In this study, we showed that the short-term combination treatment of low-dose bortezomib and rapamycin significantly prolonged the survival of islet allografts. Short-term treatment of low-dose (0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg) bortezomib reduced the MHC class II expression in dendritic cells (DCs) of alloantigen-sensitized mice, and prolonged the islet allograft survival for up to 50 days in diabetic mice. Notably, when bortezomib was combined with rapamycin, it induced islet-specific immunological tolerance which allowed the acceptance of a second graft without additional immunosuppression. This regimen dramatically reduced the alloantigen-specific IFN-γ-producing T cells in the spleen, and increased regulatory T cells both at the graft site and in the spleen. Therefore, we propose that short-term treatment of low-dose bortezomib and rapamycin could be a new tolerance-promoting immunosuppressive regimen for allogeneic islet transplantation.
       
  • CD3-CD56+ NK cells display an inflammatory profile in RR-MS
           patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Ilhan Tahrali, Umut Can Kucuksezer, Nilgun Akdeniz, Ayse Altintas, Ugur Uygunoglu, Esin Aktas Cetin, Gunnur Deniz Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated and neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system. Relapsing-remitting (RR)-MS occurring with acute attacks and remissions, is the most common clinical type of MS. There are different strategies applied in first-line treatment of RR-MS patients such as interferon-beta (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate. In this study, activating and inhibitory receptor expressions and IL-22 levels of NK cells were investigated in RR-MS patients with or without IFN-β therapy. Activating receptor expression and IL-22 levels of NK cells were increased in RR-MS patients under IFN-β therapy. Elevated NK cells with activating profile and increased IL-22 under IFN-β therapy suggest that IFN-β treatment might direct NK cells toward a pro-inflammatory status.
       
  • Genetic Mutations and Immunological Features of Severe Combined
           Immunodeficiency Patients in Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Zahra Shahbazi, Reza Yazdani, Sepideh Shahkarami, Shirin Shahbazi, Mohammad Hamid, Mahnaz Sadeghi-Shabestari, Tooba Momen, Soheila Aleyasin, Hossein Esmaeilzadeh, Sepideh Darougar, Sama Delavari, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Hamid Ahanchian, Fatemeh Behmanesh, Fatemeh Kiaee, Mansoureh Shariat, Mohammad Keramatipour, Nima Rezaei, Hassan Abolhassani, Nima Parvaneh BackgroundSevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiency disorders that is characterized by impaired early T lymphocyte differentiation and is variably associated with abnormal development of other lymphocyte lineages. SCID can be caused by mutations in more than 20 different genes. Molecular diagnosis in SCID patients contributes to genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, treatment modalities, and overall prognosis. In this cohort, the clinical, laboratory and genetic data related to Iranian SCID patients were comprehensively evaluated and efficiency of stepwise sequencing methods approach based on immunophenotype grouping was investigatedMethodsClinical and laboratory data from 242 patients with SCID phenotype were evaluated. Molecular genetic analysis methods including Sanger sequencing, targeted gene panel and whole exome sequencing were performed on 62 patients.ResultsMortality rate was 78.9% in the cohort with a median follow-up of four months. The majority of the patients had a phenotype of T-NK-B+ (34.3%) and the most severe clinical manifestation and highest mortality rate were observed in T-NK-B- SCID cases. Genetic mutations were confirmed in 50 patients (80.6%), of which defects in recombination-activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2) were found in 16 patients (32.0%). The lowest level of CD4+ and CD8+ cells were observed in patients with ADA deficiency (p = 0.026) and IL2RG deficiency (p = 0.019), respectively.ConclusionCurrent findings suggest that candidate gene approach based on patient's immunophenotype might accelerate molecular diagnosis of SCID patients. Candidate gene selection should be done according to the frequency of disease-causing genes in different populations. Targeted gene panel, WES and WGS methods can be used for the cases which are not diagnosed using this method.
       
  • Impact of combination therapy with anti-PD-1 blockade and a STAT3
           inhibitor on the tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte status
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Tadashi Ashizawa, Akira Iizuka, Chie Maeda, Emiko Tanaka, Ryota Kondou, Haruo Miyata, Takashi Sugino, Takuya Kawata, Shoichi Deguchi, Koichi Mitsuya, Nakamasa Hayashi, Akira Asai, Mamoru Ito, Ken Yamaguchi, Yasuto Akiyama Recently, clinical studies using anti-immune checkpoint molecule antibodies have been successful in solid tumors, such as melanoma and non-small cell lung cancers. However, pancreatic cancers are still intractable and difficult to treat once recurrence or metastasis occurs; thus, novel combined use of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with molecular targeted drugs is considered a therapeutic option.Previously, we developed a novel humanized MHC-double knockout (dKO) NOG mouse model and demonstrated that an anti-PD-1 antibody or a STAT3 inhibitor showed anti-tumor effects through an immunological mechanism.In the current study, using a humanized mouse model, we aimed to develop a combination therapy with an anti-PD-1 antibody and a STAT3 inhibitor (STX-0119) for use in vivo against pancreatic cancer. In an in vitro investigation, STX-0119 showed weak to moderate cytotoxic activity against several pancreatic cancer cell lines, which exhibited activated pSTAT3 and weak PD-L1 expression.However, unexpectedly, an in vivo study indicated that the combination of the anti-PD-1 antibody with STX-0119 remarkably reduced the anti-tumor effect and TIL numbers despite the effective anti-tumor activity against pancreatic cancer produced individually by STX-0119 and the anti-PD-1 antibody.These results suggested that the combination of an anti-PD-1 antibody with specific signal inhibiting drugs should be carefully evaluated to avoid unexpected side effects, and such studies might contribute to the development of an effective combination regimen of ICB with cancer-targeting drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
       
  • Hypoxia enhances IL-10-producing B cell generation through upregulating
           high-mobility group B1 on tumor cell-released autophagosomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Yue Zhang, Ning Pan, Yemeng Sheng, Meng Zhou, Zhifa Wen, Yongqiang Chen, Fang Huang, Li-Xin Wang As common features of human solid tumors, hypoxia and nutrient starvation play multifaceted roles in cancer progress. However, the mechanisms are far from clear. Our previous work has indicated that tumor cell-released autophagosomes (TRAPs) are sufficient to suppress anti-tumor immune response in mouse by inducing IL-10-producing B cells through high-mobility group B1 (HMGB1). Here, we hypothesized that hypoxia or starvation might exert immunosuppressive effect through upregulating HMGB1 on TRAPs. We found that HMGB1 on TRAPs from human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 played a significant role in IL-10-producing B cell induction. HMGB1 in tumor cells was upregulated under hypoxia and starvation, but only hypoxia significantly enhanced the level of HMGB1 present on the surfaces of TRAPs. Moreover, hypoxic TRAPs induced more IL-10-producing B cells with suppressive activities on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The finding indicates the role of TRAPs as a messenger of hypoxic response to enhance immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment.
       
  • IL-21 and IL-21-producing T cells are involved in multiple sclerosis
           severity and progression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Tohid gharibi, Arezoo Hosseini, Faroogh Marofi, Mona Oraei, Saeed Jahandideh, Meghdad Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Vida Hashemi, Morteza Motallebnezhad, Zohreh Babaloo, Bezahd Baradaran Multiple sclerosis is a common neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system causing nervous system defects and severe physical disability. IL-21 is a proinflammatory cytokine produced mainly by Th-17 and Tfh cells which its exact role in MS was not yet clearly understood. In the present study we aimed to investigate the possible correlation of IL-21 gene expression, methylation, and its serum levels with MS severity and progression. The results showed that IL-21 mRNA level and serum level were significantly increased in patient group compared with control group (p = 0.02 and p 
       
  • FoxO1 controls the expansion of pre-B cells by regulating the expression
           of interleukin 7 receptor α chain and its signal pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Zhi Li, Nianzhu Zhang, Fang Hui, Danish Zahid, Wei Zheng, Xuezhu Xu, Wenzhe Li Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) has a crucial role in the early B cell development. To understand the functional importance of FoxO1 gene in the early B cell expansion, we established a FoxO1 knockdown model using 70Z/3 pre-B cell line. The FoxO1 knockdown 70Z/3 cells (70Z/3-KD cells) showed the down-regulated expression of interleukin 7 receptor α chain (IL-7Rα). Moreover, the signaling via IL-7Rα was significantly attenuated in the 70Z/3-KD cells, and this alteration was fully rescued by re-expression of FoxO1 gene. Compared to the mock cells, loss of FoxO1 reduced the growth rates in the 70Z/3-KD cells, and was fully rescued by reintroduction of FoxO1 gene. The expansion of pre-B cells (CD45R+CD43- fraction) was also reduced by the knockdown of FoxO1 gene. Indeed, FoxO1 induces accumulation in the p27-mediated G0/G1 phase arrest in 70Z/3 cells. FoxO1 bound to the Il7ra locus specifically and regulate the IL-7Rα transcription. In conclusion, FoxO1 regulates the expansion of pre-B cells by regulating the expression of IL-7Rα and its signal transduction.
       
  • Immunomodulatory effect of thymopentin on lymphocytes from supramammary
           lymph nodes of dairy cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Ran Guan, Wei Xu, Lijia Yuan, Yong Wang, Xuemei Cui, Songhua Hu Previous study showed that injection of thymopentin (TP 5) in the area of supramammary lymph nodes (SMLN) had therapeutic effect on the intramammary infection (IMI) in cows. This study was to explore the underlying mechanisms by investigating the immunomodulatory effect of TP 5 on SMLN lymphocytes. Lymphocyte proliferation, cell cycle distribution and cytokine mRNA expression were determined by MTT, FCM and RT-qPCR, respectively. Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) was used to observe the binding between TP 5 and SMLN lymphocytes. Moreover, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to observe the difference between the lymphocytes with and without TP 5 treatment. The results showed that TP 5 significantly promoted lymphocyte proliferation, accelerated cell cycle progression, and enhanced mRNA expression of IL-17A and IL-17 F. Laser scanning confocal microscopic analysis revealed the binding of TP 5 to the surface of SMLN lymphocytes. A total of 1094 genes were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using RNA-seq with 692 up- and 402 down-regulated genes. 48 significantly enriched GO terms were identified by RNA-seq. In KEGG analysis, 1/3 of DEGs were enriched in the immune system pathway, including IL-17 signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, T cell receptor signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation. Among them, IL-17 signaling pathway was the most prominent. This study suggested that the therapeutic benefit of TP 5 in the treatment of bovine mastitis might be attributed to its immunomodulatory activity in SMLN lymphocytes.
       
  • Melatonin protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced epididymitis in
           sheep epididymal epithelial cells in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Wen-bo Ge, Long-fei Xiao, Hong-wei Duan, Zong-shuai Li, Yu-ting Jiang, Shan-shan Yang, Jun-jie Hu, Yong Zhang, Xing-xu Zhao
       
  • ATP and adenosine: role in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Jean L.G. da Silva, Daniela F. Passos, Viviane M. Bernardes, Daniela B.R. Leal Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a classic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Local joint destruction and extra-articular manifestations of RA deeply compromise the life quality of the affected patients. RA immunopathogenesis depends on continuous immunogenic activation in which the purinergic system participates. The purinergic system comprises the signaling and metabolism of purines such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine. ATP signaling is involved in the activation and maintenance of the inflammatory state of RA through the activation of P2 × 7 and the production of cytokines, which orchestrate the pathogenesis of RA. The breakdown of ATP through the CD39/CD73 axis produces adenosine, which mostly inhibits the inflammatory process through activation of specific P1 receptors. Adenosine is hydrolyzed by adenosine deaminase (ADA) that interacts with other molecules playing additional roles in this disease. This review explores the release, metabolism, and the effects of binding of ATP and adenosine to their respective receptors in the context of RA, as well as their potential use as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
       
  • Oral delivery of single-chain insulin (SCI-59) analog by bacterium-like
           particles (BLPs) induces oral tolerance and prevents autoimmune diabetes
           in NOD mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Ruifeng Mao, Yingying Chen, Qian Wu, Tong Zhang, Enjie Diao, Dongli Wu, Man Wang, Yu Liu, Lu Lu, Xin Chang, Ying Zheng, Yefu Wang Oral tolerance, induced by oral administration of autoantigens, is a promising therapeutic approach to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the degradation of antigens passing through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) leads to low induction efficiency. Based on our previous study, a single-chain insulin (SCI-59) analog, bound to the surface of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) bacterium-like particles (BLPs), was more stable in the simulated gastric fluid, compared to free SCI-59 and insulin. Based on the analysis of diabetes progression, a significant decrease in the incidence of diabetes was observed in mice fed BLPs-SCI-59. Oral administration of BLPs-SCI-59 can enhance glucose tolerance in NOD mice and this effect may result from the protection of pancreatic islet beta cells, as compared to the free SCI-59 group and BLPs group. Oral administration of BLPs-SCI-59 can significantly reduce insulitis and preserve the ability of insulin secretion in treated mice. Oral vaccination with BLPs-SCI-59 induced SCI-59 specific T cell tolerance in treated mice, which may due to the repair of Th1/Th2 imbalance and increased CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). These results show that oral vaccination with BLPs-SCI-59 is a promising way to prevent T1DM in NOD mice.
       
  • Autoantibodies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic
           review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Rachel Byrne, Ian Todd, Patrick J. Tighe, Lucy C. Fairclough Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of death worldwide in which the involvement of autoimmunity has been widely investigated and debated. The role of autoantibodies in COPD has been extensively researched in recent years. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the association between autoantibodies and COPD and analyse whether autoantibody levels correlate with disease severity and/or phenotype. PubMed, Embase, OpenGrey and the reference lists of articles were searched. The strongest evidence for an association between autoantibodies and COPD lies with anti-endothelial/epithelial cell autoantibodies (7 studies, all positive), rheumatoid factor autoantibodies (4 studies, all positive), anti-cytokeratin autoantibodies (3 studies, all positive), anti-nuclear autoantibodies (8 studies, 7 positive) and anti-collagen autoantibodies (10 studies, 6 positive). This review also identifies several other autoantibodies which had both positive and negative associations with COPD, however the evidence for these was not as strong and/or the number of studies is low, and further research is required. In particular, a clear case can be made for the potential importance of autoantibodies to carbonylated proteins. The relationship between autoantibody levels and disease severity requires further research with only 17/43 studies investigating this; however, 12 of the studies did show a positive association, making it a promising area for future research. There was also not enough evidence available on the relationship between autoantibody levels and disease phenotype to draw any conclusions, with only 2 studies investigating it (1 positive and 1 negative). This review has shown very promising evidence for the association of several autoantibodies in COPD and has identified those autoantibodies which require further research.
       
  • Combination treatment with lipoteichoic acids isolated from Lactobacillus
           plantarum and Staphylococcus aureus alleviates atopic dermatitis via
           upregulation of CD55 and CD59
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Yenny Kim, Yoon Doo Lee, Minsub Kim, Hangeun Kim, Dae Kyun Chung The innate immune complement system helps clear invading pathogens by forming membrane attack complexes (MACs) on their surface. Abnormal activation of the complement system may aggravate atopic dermatitis (AD) symptoms in AD patients. Here, we investigated the anti-AD effects of LTAs isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum (pLTA) and Staphylococcus aureus (aLTA) by examination of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs). Combination treatment with pLTA and aLTA increased CD55 and CD59 production in HaCaT cells. The regulation of CD55 and CD59 was mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) signaling pathways in pLTA- and aLTA-treated cells. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and bactericidal assays revealed that combination treatment with pLTA and aLTA down-regulated the complement system. In experiments using an irritant contact dermatitis (ICD)-induced mouse model, the levels of MAC and C3 convertase (C3C) were lower in serum collected from pLTA- and aLTA-injected mice than in serum from mice who were untreated or received pLTA or aLTA alone. Combination treatment also inhibited IgE and CCL2 levels in ICD mice. On the other hand, IFN-γ level was significantly increased, indicating that combination treatment switches the Th2 response to a Th1 response. Our results suggest that combination treatment with LTAs could be a good therapeutic approach to alleviate AD by reducing formation of MACs and inducing a Th1 response.
       
  • Blockade of CCL2/CCR2 Signaling Pathway Prevents Inflammatory Monocyte
           Recruitment and Attenuates OVA-Induced Allergic Asthma in Mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Shaohong Jiang, Qiang Wang, Yuxin Wang, Xicheng Song, Yu Zhang Recent studies have reported recruitment of inflammatory monocytes by cytokines including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) are critical in allergic responses. We aimed to investigate the role of inflammatory monocytes and CCL2 in mouse model with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Mice were sensitized with OVA to induce allergic asthma. The proportion of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) were measured by flow cytometry. The expression of CCL2 and CCL2 receptor (CCR2) were determined by qPCR and western blot. The concentrations of Type 1 helper T (Th1) and Type 2 helper T (Th2) cytokines in PLF were detected by ELISA. Inflammatory monocytes are recruited in PLF, and expression of CCL2 and CCR2 were elevated in OVA-induced mice. In addition, transfer of CCR2 knockdown inflammatory monocytes decreased the levels of allergic asthma biomarkers. Injection of anti-CCL2 or anti-CCR2 antibody decreased the proportion of eosinophils and inflammatory monocytes in BALF. Blockade of CCL2/CCR2 signaling pathway suppressed the allergen-induced Th2 cytokines and enhanced the levels of Th1-associated cytokines. Blockade of CCL2/CCR2 signaling pathway in sensitization-recruited inflammatory monocytes exhibits protective effects in mouse model of OVA-induced allergic asthma by inhibiting the Th2 inflammatory responses.
       
  • The role of IL-10-producing B cells in Repeated Implantation Failure
           patients with cellular immune abnormalities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Ladan Koushaeian, Farzaneh Ghorbani, Majid Ahmadi, Shadi Eghbal-Fard, Majid Zamani, Shahla Danaii, Bahman Yousefi, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Kobra Hamdi, Mehdi Yousefi There are a few data of the role of B cells in RIF pathogenesis. Accordingly, the objective of the current study was to determine the role of IL-10-producing B cells in RIF. Twenty-three RIF women with cellular immune abnormalities and 25 normal controls were enrolled in this experiment. Isolated naïve B cells from peripheral blood of the subjects were cultured in vitro, divided into two parts and activated by CpG ODN and imiquimod as TLR agonists. Afterwards, the number of CD19+ IL-10+ B cells was evaluated by flow cytometry and their related IL-10 cytokine level was assessed by ELISA. The mRNA expression levels of related genes in just CPG stimulated B cell population were also analyzed using real-time PCR. RIF patients exhibited a decreased level of the cells (P = 0.014, P = 0.023, respectively) and IL-10 cytokine (P = 0.009, P = 0.045, respectively) in both CPG and imiquimod stimulated B cell groups. IL-10 serum level was also lower in these patients (P = 0.0014). Additionally, we found a negative relationship between the frequency of these cells with the number of failed ET and total IgG titers in RIF patients. The mRNA levels of IL-10-producing B cells related genes (IL-10 and PD-L1) was also significantly lower in RIF women, whereas the expression of plasma cells-associated transcriptional factors (BLIMP1, IRF4, and XBP1) was higher. Summing up the obtained results, we concluded that peripheral blood IL-10-producing B cells down-regulation might result in RIF pathogenesis. It is further suggested that these cells can suppress autoantibody generation and contribute to a successful implantation.
       
  • Tregs and Th17 lymphocytes in human DYRK1A haploinsufficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Erica Valencic, Francesca Todaro, Elisa Piscianz, Fabio Sirchia, Alessandro Mauro Spinelli, Alberto Tommasini, Raffaele Badolato, Flavio Faletra
       
  • Potential role of regulatory B cells in Immunological diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Amir Valizadeh, Roozbeh Sanaei, Nima Rezaei, Gholamreza Azizi, Saba Fekrvand, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Reza Yazdani Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are immune-modulating cells that affect the immune system by producing cytokines or cellular interactions. These cells have immunomodulatory effects on the immune system by cytokine production. The abnormalities in Bregs could be involved in various disorders such as autoimmunity, chronic infectious disease, malignancies, allergies, and primary immunodeficiencies are immune-related scenarios. Ongoing investigation could disclose the biology and the exact phenotype of these cells and also the assigned mechanisms of action of each subset, as a result, potential therapeutic strategies for treating immune-related anomalies. In this review, we collect the findings of human and mouse Bregs and the therapeutic efforts to change the pathogenicity of these cells in diverse disease.
       
  • Background check: Profound differences in serum antibody isotypes
           discourage C57BL/6 substrain interchange in immunology experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): BG Jones, RR Penkert, SL Surman, RE Sealy, S Pelletier, H Berns, JL Hurwitz Scientists often assume a close genetic identity between C57BL/6 mice of different substrains in gene editing experiments, a practice that has led to data misinterpretation in research reports. We compared serum immunoglobulin patterns between C57BL/6 J and C57BL/6 NHsd substrains. Mean serum IgA values differed by more than 10-fold when male mice from the two substrains were compared (p 
       
  • Immune modulation by rebamipide in a mouse model of Sjogren’s syndrome
           via T and B cell regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Park Jin-Sil, Hwang Sun-Hee, Yang SeungCheon, Choi JeongWon, Jung Kyung-Ah, Cho Mi-La, Park Sung-Hwan Rebamipide is a gastroprotective drug used widely in the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcers. It has also been shown to improve dry eye and dry mouth, two major symptoms of Sjogren’s syndrome (SS). However, little is known about the effects of rebamipide on T and B cell regulation in SS. In this study, we used a NOD/ShiLtJ mouse model of SS to examine the ability of rebamipide to ameliorate disease development by modulating T and B cells. Our results show that the oral administration of rebamipide suppressed SS progression and the level of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-17, in the salivary glands and spleen of NOD/ShiLtJ mice. Rebamipide treatment also increased the number of ex vivo CD19+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory B cells and CD19+CD5+CD1d + IL-10+ cells in NOD/ShiLtJ mice. In vitro, rebamipide suppressed IL-6 and IL-17 production by Th17 cells in splenic CD4+ cells from the mice. Thus, rebamipide may be effective in controlling the immune imbalance between pathogenic immune cells and regulatory cells, resulting in fundamental improvement in patients with SS.
       
  • Prevalence of allergy and asthma in a rural community of children and
           adults in Bolivian Chaco
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Alessio Mazzoni, Mario Milco D’Elios, David Royo Mayaregua, Michele Spinicci, Marianne Strohmeyer, Francesco Cosmi, Lorenzo Cosmi
       
  • Virus Like Particles of GII.4 norovirus bind Toll Like Receptors 2 and 5
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Eleonora Ponterio, Sabrina Mariotti, Claudio Tabolacci, Franco Maria Ruggeri, Roberto Nisini Norovirus (NoV) is now recognized as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, worldwide. Norovirus replication mechanisms are still poorly understood, mainly because a reliable cell culture system is still lacking. The present study aims at understanding some aspects of the immune response against norovirus, and particularly the capacity of virus like particles (VLPs) from an Italian strain, belonging to the GII.4 genotype predominating worldwide, to interact with target cells via Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). The capacity of GII.4 NoV VLPs to interact and cause the activation of TLR2, 4 and 5 was studied in recombinant HEK cells. The results obtained show the ability of GII.4 NoV VLPs to induce activation of TLR2 and 5. The results on TLRs activation confirm that GII.4 NoV VLPs interact with human intestinal cells and that TLR2 and 5 may represent putative receptors.
       
  • Vaccine platforms for the prevention of Lassa fever
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Jyothi Purushotham, Teresa Lambe, Sarah C. Gilbert Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus (LASV), which is endemic throughout much of West Africa. The virus primarily circulates in the Mastomys natalensis reservoir and is transmitted to humans through contact with infectious rodents or their secretions; human-to-human transmission is documented as well. With the exception of Dengue fever, LASV has the highest human impact of any haemorrhagic fever virus. On-going outbreaks in Nigeria have resulted in unprecedented mortality. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has listed LASV as a high priority pathogen for the development of treatments and prophylactics. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines to protect against LASV infection. Although numerous candidates have demonstrated efficacy in animal models, to date, only a single candidate has advanced to clinical trials. Lassa fever vaccine development efforts have been hindered by the high cost of biocontainment requirements, the absence of established correlates of protection, and uncertainty regarding the extent to which animal models are predictive of vaccine efficacy in humans. This review briefly discusses the epidemiology and biology of LASV infection and highlights recent progress in vaccine development.
       
  • Targeting the tumor microenvironment to overcome immune checkpoint
           blockade therapy resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Yaqi Li, Jing Liu, Long Gao, Yuan Liu, Fang Meng, Xiaoan Li, F. Xiao-Feng Qin The ability of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) to reactivate the killing function of the immune system to tumor cells has led to long lasting immune response presenting highly promising clinical advances. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors related resistance due to the specialized tumor microenvironment has also drawn a widely attention. To overcome resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy, understanding the relationship of this type of therapy and tumor microenvironment is necessary and critical. This review will focus on how the tumor environment influences the effectiveness of the immunotherapeutic check inhibitors. Finally, we provide a briefly succinct glimpse into the most exciting pre-clinical discoveries and ongoing clinical trials to overcome the resistance of ICIs.
       
  • Medullary thymic epithelial cells: deciphering the functional diversity
           beyond promiscuous gene expression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Camila Ribeiro, Nuno L. Alves, Pedro Ferreirinha Within the thymus, cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs, respectively) provide unique microenvironments for the development of T cells that are responsive to diverse foreign antigens while self-tolerant. Essential for tolerance induction, mTECs play a critical role in negative selection and T regulatory cell differentiation. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the functional diversity within mTECs and discuss how these novel subsets contribute to tolerance induction and are integrated in the complex blueprint of mTEC differentiation.
       
  • Impact of B cell/lymphoid stromal cell crosstalk in B-cell physiology and
           malignancy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Claire Lamaison, Karin Tarte Stromal cells have been considered for a long time essentially as a structural component organizing tissue architecture, including those of secondary lymphoid organs. More recently, highly specialized stromal cell subsets were shown to differentially organize immune cell recruitment, survival, and differentiation within lymph nodes. In particular, mature B cells interact with different lymphoid stromal cell networks through bidirectional interactions involving cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the paradigm of a B-cell malignancy dependent on a lymphoid-like microenvironment supporting tumor cell growth, drug resistance, and clonal evolution. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of lymphoid stromal cell heterogeneity and functions in normal B-cell activation. In addition, we also depict the dynamic and plasticity of FL cancer-associated fibroblasts, the mechanisms underlying their key role within FL permissive niches, and their potential as therapeutic targets in this still fatal malignancy.
       
  • Salmonella SPI-2 type III secretion system-dependent inhibition of antigen
           presentation and T cell function
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Ondrej Cerny, David W. Holden Salmonella enterica serovars infect a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans, causing both gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. Effective immune responses to Salmonella infections depend largely on CD4+ T cell activation by dendritic cells (DCs). Bacteria are internalised by intestinal DCs and respond by translocating effectors of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) type III secretion system (T3SS) into host cells. In this review, we discuss processes that are hijacked by SPI-2 T3SS effectors and how this affects DC biology and the activation of T cell responses.
       
  • The role of type I interferons in CD4+ T cell differentiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Mirela Kuka, Marco De Giovanni, Matteo Iannacone Type I interferons (IFNs) released upon viral infections play different and opposing roles in disease outcome. This pleiotropic effect is mainly influenced by the cellular sources, timing and target cells for these molecules. The effect of type I IFN signaling on the activation and differentiation of antiviral CD4+ T cells remains ill defined, with studies reporting either a beneficial or a detrimental role, depending on the context of infection. This review will highlight several recent studies that have investigated the role of type I IFNs in the priming and polarization of CD4+ T cells and discuss areas of uncertainty that require further investigation.
       
  • Negative regulation of innate lymphoid cell responses in inflammation and
           cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Immunology LettersAuthor(s): Giuseppe Sciumè, Cinzia Fionda, Helena Stabile, Angela Gismondi, Angela Santoni The immune system employs an array of effector cells to ensure tissue homeostasis and protection against pathogens. Lymphocytes belonging to both the adaptive and innate branches share several functions, comprising the ability to directly kill stressed or transformed cells, and to provide helper responses through specific production of cytokines. These properties are regulated by distinct sets of soluble molecules, receptors, and intracellular factors, which altogether tune the functional output of effector lymphocytes and their final activation state. In contrast to adaptive T cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) do not require antigen receptors and are characterized for their ability to provide rapid immune responses. While the factors underlying functional diversification and the main principles leading to ILC activation have been dissected, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying termination of ILC effector functions is still in its infancy. Herein, we discuss the recent findings describing how ILC responses are turned off in the context of inflammation and cancer.
       
 
 
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