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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3181 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3181 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 442, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 320, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 426, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 481, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Alcohol
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.153
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 12  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0741-8329
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Young adult binge drinkers have immunophenotypical disarrangements in
           peripheral natural killer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2019Source: Alcohol, Volume 81Author(s): Adolfo Pérez-García, América Guadalupe Arroyo-Valerio, Mayra A. Bustos-Esquivel, Rosa M. Quispe-Siccha, José Luis Zaldívar-Fujigaki, Judith Pacheco-Yepez, David Kershenobich, J.C. López-Alvarenga, Joselín Hernández-Ruiz Alcohol consumption is an issue of worldwide relevance and a problem of national scale in Mexico. The consumption pattern of large amounts of alcohol on the weekends is rapidly increasing in young adults between 18 and 29 years. Despite various studies that have focused on the noxious effect of alcohol in immunity, the changes in the immunoprofiles of peripheral blood cells have not been completely described. Natural killer cells (NKCs) are lymphoid-origin cells of the immune system that are responsible for defense against tumors, among other functions. In homeostatic conditions, they are found to be in a state of “dynamic balance” between activation and inhibition stimuli, which, if broken, may lead to immunosuppression or activation of cytotoxic mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated the immunoprofile of peripheral NKCs of 54 young adults, 29 of whom were binge drinkers and 25 of whom were low risk (LR), as classified by validated tools. Drinking habits were assessed. Blood samples were collected to perform hematic biometry and liver enzyme tests. Peripheral NKCs were identified by FACS, and stained for CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD69, CD127, CD137, TLR4, and Granzyme B. The data were analyzed using the t test and Mann–Whitney's U test for contrasts, and the effect size was obtained in order to evaluate the impact of each immunoprofile. The binge group showed increased expression of CCR5 and PD-1 in NKCs, respective to the LR group, and decreased expression of TLR4, along with fewer CCR4+ cells. Moreover, the increase found in CCR5 and PD-1 expression was correlated with the number of drinks in the last drinking session. Our findings show that young binge drinkers have different immunoprofiles that could suggest an early status of immunosuppression and trafficking of NKCs to the liver, which could be related to the onset of early liver damage, early in a subject's lifespan.
       
  • Effects of the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca on voluntary ethanol
           intake by rats and on cFos expression in brain areas relevant to drug
           addiction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Luciana Marangni Nolli, Danilo Gustavo Rodrigues de Oliveira, Stefany Sousa Alves, Marcus Vinicius von Zuben, Aline Pic-Taylor, Marcia Renata Mortari, Eloisa Dutra Caldas Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic infusion used in religious ritualsthat has serotoninergic properties and may be a potential therapeutic option for drug addiction. In this study, Wistar rats had intermittent access to ethanol for 8 weeks, receiving water (control), naltrexone (NTX, 2 mg/kg pc ip) or ayahuasca (Aya) at 0.5, 1 or 2X the ritual dose in the final 5 days. A naïve group had only access to water. Ethanol intake was estimated throughoutthe experimentand cFos expression was evaluated in medial orbital cortex (MO), ventral orbital (VO), lateral orbital (LO), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum. Treatment with either NTX or Aya (oral) did not decrease ethanol intake compared to the baseline level (5th to 7th week), but the NTX group intake was significantly lower than control (p< 0.05). Ethanol significantly increased cFos expression in the MO region for control (p < 0.0001), NTX (p< 0.05), Aya1 (p
       
  • Ethanol-Paired Stimuli Can Increase Reinforced Ethanol Responding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): R.J. Lamb, Charles W. Schindler, Brett C. Ginsburg While ethanol-paired stimuli are frequently postulated to increase drinking motivation and thus increase ethanol-responding and precipitate relapse, no study has demonstrated increases in ethanol-reinforced responding following presentation of an ethanol-paired stimulus that had not previously been part of a contingent relationship. Previous studies have shown that food-paired stimuli can increase food-responding that is at low rates and increase food consumption in food-sated rats. In Experiment 1, we show that an ethanol-paired stimulus can increase ethanol responding that is at low levels late in the experimental session, presumably due to satiation. However, these increases may have resulted from either associative or non-associative mechanisms. In Experiment 2, we compared the effects of an ethanol-paired stimulus to those of the same stimulus in a Truly-Random-Control group. In a Truly-Random-Control, the stimulus and ethanol each are presented on independent random schedules, and thus any differences between the effects of the stimulus in the experimental and control groups is likely attributable to the association between the stimulus and ethanol. The stimulus increased ethanol-reinforced responding in both the experimental and control groups, but these increases were greater in the experimental than the control group. Thus, both stimulus-change and the pairing of the stimulus with ethanol may result in increases in ethanol-reinforced responding.
       
  • A Nationwide Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Physicians’
           Trial of Loxoprofen for the Treatment of Fatigue, Headache, and Nausea
           after Hangovers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Masahiko Hara, Kenichi Hayashi, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Michitaka Honda, Masatake Tamaki Hangovers are associated with negative economic consequences due to decreased job performance or frequent visits to physicians. Thus, a new strategy for the alleviation of hangover-related symptoms is needed to avoid this detriment to the society. The purpose of this nationwide randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled physicians’ trial was to evaluate the efficacy of loxoprofen sodium for the alleviation of fatigue, headache, and nausea after hangover. A total of 229 participants were randomised to receive loxoprofen sodium (60 mg once orally) or placebo. The study was closed when the first 150 participants (n = 74 in the loxoprofen vs. n = 76 in the placebo groups) experienced hangovers. The primary endpoint was set as the difference in severity of general fatigue before and 3 hours after taking the test drugs and was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Secondary endpoints included difference in severity of headache, nausea, and incidence of adverse events. The study participants were 34 (interquartile range; 30–39) years old, 92.0% were men, and both groups were comparable for baseline characteristics. The alleviation of general fatigue did not differ statistically between the loxoprofen and placebo groups (24 [14–49] vs. 19 [9–35], p = 0.07). However, the alleviation of headache was statistically greater in the loxoprofen group (25 [10–50] vs. 10 [2–30], adjusted difference 14, 95% confidence interval 8–21, p < 0.001), whereas, there was no difference in nausea (7 [0–27] vs. 10 [0–24], p = 0.68). The incidence of adverse symptoms such as epigastric discomfort was also comparable between groups (2.7% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.25). Loxoprofen sodium was effective for relieving headaches after hangovers but did not alleviate general fatigue or nausea.
       
  • Plasma cytokine levels in patients with chronic alcohol overconsumption:
           relations to gut microbiota markers and clinical correlates
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Steinar Traae Bjørkhaug, Sudan Prasad Neupane, Jørgen G. Bramness, Håvard Aanes, Viggo Skar, Asle W. Medhus, Jørgen Valeur BackgroundAlcohol-related morbidity may involve changes in the gut microbiota and immune dysregulation. We have previously demonstrated alterations in gut microbiota composition and functions in patients with alcohol overconsumption, and now aimed to investigate possible associations between cytokine levels, gut microbiota and clinical symptoms.MethodsWe included hospital inpatients with a history of chronic alcohol overconsumption. For comparison, we included control patients with a low alcohol intake. Cytokine levels (TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-8, IL-6, IFN-γ, MCP-1, IL-1RA, IL-1β and IL-17) were determined using a customized V-plex assay. We then examined associations of cytokine levels with the abundance of Proteobacteria and Faecalibacterium, percentage of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, psychiatric symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and biochemical liver variables.ResultsWe included 28 patients with alcohol overconsumption (79% men), and 25 control patients (72% men). Patients with alcohol overconsumption had higher levels of IL-6 (p = 0.002), IFN-γ (p = 0.018) and MCP-1 (p = 0.006), and lower levels of TGF-β1 (p = 0.017) compared with control patients. Inverse correlations were found between Proteobacteria abundance and TNF-α (Rs = -0.55, p = 0.02) and IL-8 (Rs = -0.58, p = 0.014), and between Faecalibacterium and MCP-1 levels (Rs = -0.56, p = 0.02) in the control patients, but not in patients with alcohol overconsumption. Patients with alcohol overconsumption reported more psychiatric symptoms, and these symptoms were inversely correlated with IL-10 levels. There were positive correlations between several of the assessed cytokines and biochemical liver variables, and negative correlations between cytokine levels and albumin.ConclusionPatients with alcohol overconsumption had a cytokine profile suggestive of increased systemic inflammatory activity, with higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IFN-γ and MCP-1) and lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β1). The findings may represent a link between alcohol use and alcohol-related morbidity.
       
  • Corrigendum to < Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: Re-wiring
           the alcoholic human brain>
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Diana M, Bolloni C, Antonelli M, Di Giuda D, Cocciolillo F, Fattore L, Addolorato G
       
  • Are hazardous drinkers more impulsive than light drinkers' A
           comprehensive assessment in young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Matthew J. Mayhew, James M. Byrne, Jane H. Powell, Tim Meynen Those with alcohol dependence are characteristically impulsive. It is unclear whether the same is true of hazardous drinkers (i.e. women routinely drinking more than 14 units in a typical week but less than 35, and men drinking more than 14 units but less than 50). Yet it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in such drinking, since it places the drinker at risk for future harm. The present study thus comprehensively assessed whether impulsivity was elevated in hazardous drinkers, compared to lighter drinkers. An opportunity sample of 57 light and 49 hazardous drinkers were assessed on the following impulsivity sub-domains (via the measures in parentheses): (i) trait impulsivity (the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Version 11); (ii) temporal impulsivity (the Monetary Choice Questionnaire); (iii) stopping impulsivity (the Stop-Signal Task); (iv) waiting impulsivity (the Continuous Performance Task or CPT); (v) reward-sensitivity (the Behavioural Activation Scales); and (vi) risk-taking (the Balloon Analogue Risk Task). Alcohol- and other drug-dependent individuals were excluded from the study, whilst socio-demographics (age, gender and socio-economic status), mood, binge-drinking and nicotine intake were all controlled for. The groups were compared via a series of Bonferroni-corrected, independent-measures t-tests. The results revealed that hazardous drinkers were more impulsive than light drinkers on the CPT; there were no other statistically significant group differences. Consistent with the above, a logistic regression, with drinking group as the dependent variable and the impulsivity indices as independent variables, revealed that only CPT performance was a significant predictor of drinking status. Other than gender, none of the control variables significantly correlated with CPT performance. A sequential linear regression revealed that drinking status continued to predict CPT performance, after first accounting for gender. Thus, from a battery of impulsivity measures, only waiting impulsivity (i.e. CPT score) was elevated in hazardous drinkers, relative to lighter drinkers. Waiting impulsivity may thus be important in the maintenance of hazardous drinking.
       
  • Differential patterns of alcohol and nicotine intake: Combined alcohol and
           nicotine binge consumption behaviors in mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Margot C. DeBaker, Jenna M. Robinson, Janna K. Moen, Kevin Wickman, Anna M. Lee Late adolescence and young adulthood, corresponding to the high school and college years, are vulnerable periods for increased alcohol and nicotine use. The dramatic increase in the prevalence of electronic cigarette use is particularly concerning in these age groups. Late adolescents and young adults are more likely to engage in cycles of binge drug consumption, and alcohol and nicotine are frequently used together. However, there is little data examining the combination of alcohol and nicotine in binge models in animal models. In this study, our objectives were to determine how voluntary nicotine consumption beginning in late adolescence influenced subsequent binge alcohol consumption in young adulthood, how a combination of alcohol and nicotine binge consumption differed from alcohol-only binge consumption, and whether nicotine would be consumed when presented in a binge procedure. Male C57BL/6J mice voluntarily consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine in continuous access bottle choice procedures in combination with cycles of drinking-in-the-dark. Our results show that experience with voluntary nicotine consumption in late adolescence did not affect subsequent binge alcohol consumption in early adulthood. However, mice that consumed nicotine in adolescence showed an initial decrease in alcohol preference, and consequently increase in nicotine preference, on the first session of combined ethanol and nicotine binge consumption in adulthood compared with mice that drank only water during late adolescence. Lastly, we found that mice readily consumed unsweetened nicotine when presented in a binge procedure, and the level of consumption exceeded the nicotine consumption observed in the combination alcohol and nicotine binge. Our data show that expansion of the patterns of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in mouse models is possible, which will enable us to dissect relevant molecular targets underlying these consumption patterns and better inform drug development efforts.
       
  • Alcohol preferring P rats exhibit aversion resistant drinking of alcohol
           adulterated with quinine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Nicholas M. Timme, David Linsenbardt, Maureen Timm, Taylor Galbari, Ethan Cornwell, Christopher Lapish Understanding why some people continue to drink alcohol despite negative consequences and others do not is a central problem in the study of alcohol use disorder (AUD). In this study, we used alcohol preferring P rats (a strain bred to prefer to drink alcohol, a model for genetic risk for AUD) and Wistars (control) to examine drinking despite negative consequences in the form of an aversive bitter taste stimuli produced by quinine. Animals were trained to consume 10% ethanol in a simple Pavlovian conditioning task that paired alcohol access with an auditory stimulus. When the alcohol was adulterated with quinine (0.1 g/L), P rats continued to consume alcohol+quinine at the same rate as unadulterated alcohol, despite a demonstrated aversion to quinine adulterated alcohol when given a choice between adulterated and unadulterated alcohol in the home cage. Conversely, Wistars decreased consumption of quinine adulterated alcohol in the task, but continued to try the alcohol+quinine solution at similar rates to unadulterated alcohol. These results indicate that following about 8 weeks of alcohol consumption P rats exhibit aversion resistant drinking. This model could be used in future work to explore how biological basis of alcohol consumption and genetic risk for excessive drinking lead to drinking that is resistant to devaluation.
       
  • Evoked K-complexes and Altered Interaction Between the Central and
           Autonomic Nervous Systems during Sleep in Alcohol Use Disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Adrian R. Willoughby, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Fiona C. Baker, Ian M. Colrain There is evidence for impairment in both central nervous system (CNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function with prolonged alcohol use. While these impairments persist into abstinence, partial recovery of function has been demonstrated in both systems during sleep. To investigate potential ANS dysfunction associated with cortical CNS responses (impairment in CNS-ANS coupling), we assessed phasic heart rate (HR) fluctuation associated with tones that did and those that did not elicit a K-complex (KC) during stable N2 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in a group of 16 recently abstinent alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients (41.6±8.5 years) and a group of 13 sex- and age-matched control participants (46.6±9.3 years). Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded throughout the night. Alcohol consumption questionnaires were also administered to the AUD patients. AUD had elevated HR compared to controls at baseline prior to tone presentation. The HR fluctuation associated with KCs elicited by tone presentation was significantly smaller in amplitude, and tended to be delayed in time, in the AUD group compared with the control group, and the subsequent deceleration was also smaller in AUD. In both groups the increase in HR was larger and occurred earlier when KCs were produced than when they were not and there was no difference in the magnitude of the KC effect between groups. Phasic HR changes associated with KCs elicited by tones are impaired in AUD participants, reflecting ANS dysfunction possibly caused by an alteration of cardiac vagal trafficking. However, only the timing of the HR response was found to relate to estimated lifetime alcohol consumption in AUD. The clinical meaning and implications of these novel findings need to be determined.
       
  • Association between alcohol consumption and hypertension in Chinese
           adults: findings from the CHNS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Fanfan Zhao, Qingqing Liu, Yuanjie Li, Xiaojie Feng, Hong Chang, Jun Lyu ObjectivesTo obtain information about alcohol consumption (henceforth “drinking”) among Chinese adults from 1991 to 2011, and to explore the association between drinking behavior and hypertension.MethodsAccording to the longitudinal data obtained in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991–2011), 50013 records of 12577 adults were selected by applying eligibility criteria. Chi-test was employed to explore the association between drinking and hypertension, by considering the frequency of drinking, daily alcohol intake, alcohol type, and the prevalence of hypertension. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to analyze the longitudinal association between drinking frequency and the prevalence of hypertension.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension was higher in participants with a high drinking frequency than those with a low drinking frequency among both males and females (P
       
  • Consequences Of Alcohol Use, And Its Association With Psychological
           Distress, Sensitivity To Emotional Contagion And Age Of Onset Of Alcohol
           Use, In Uruguayan Youth With Or Without College Degree
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Paul Ruiz, Angelina Pilatti, Ricardo M. Pautassi Psychological distress can promote alcohol consumption during emerging adulthood. Still unknown is, however, how predisposition to emotional contagion alters psychological distress, and how these phenomena are affected by level of education. The present study analyzed the effect of psychological distress, age of first contact with alcohol (early, late), and predisposition to emotional contagion on alcohol-induced negative consequences and on the volume of alcohol consumed during the last year. We also described alcohol-use behaviors as a function of sex, maximum level of education and age of first contact with alcohol, in 1505 youth from Uruguay (18-30 years). A survey measured alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and ad-hoc questionnaire), negative consequences of alcohol use [young adult alcohol consequences questionnaire (YAACQ)], psychological distress (Kessler scale) and proclivity to emotional contagion (Doherty Emotional contagion scale). The patterns of alcohol use were greater in men vs. women and in those featuring an early age of first alcohol use, yet similar in college and non-college graduates. Early drinkers had greater levels of psychological distress than late-onset drinkers. There was a significant bivariate and multiple correlation between psychological distress and the number of negative consequences of alcohol experienced during the last year, which remained significant even after controlling for total volume of alcohol consumed. Significant associations emerged between YAACQ scores and frequency of heavy episodic or binge drinking, and between psychological distress and emotional contagion, but not between emotional contagion and any of the remaining variables. Psychological distress was not significantly correlated with heavy episodic or binge drinking. The study indicates that, during adolescence and youth, psychological distress is associated with experiencing negative consequences of alcohol consumption. The study also suggested that greater levels of psychological distress may underlie the facilitating effect of an early age of drinking onset upon alcohol drinking patterns.
       
  • Inhibitory Influence of Agmatine in Ethanol Withdrawal-Induced Depression
           in Rats: Behavioral and Neurochemical Evidences
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Niyamat Chimthanawala, Shruti Patil, Rishabh Agrawal, Nandkishor R. Kotagale, Milind J. Umekar, Brijesh G. Taksande Although ethanol withdrawal depression is one of the prominent reasons for its reinstatement and dependence, its neurochemical basis is not clearly understood. Present study investigated the role of agmatinergic system in ethanol withdrawal-induced depression using forced swim test (FST) in rats. Chronic exposure of animals to ethanol for 21 days and its abrupt withdrawal produced depression like behavior as evidenced by increased immobility time in FST, compared to the pair-fed control animals. The ethanol withdrawal-induced depression was significantly attenuated by agmatine (20-40 μg/rat, i.c.v.), moxonidine (50 μg/rat, i.c.v.), 2-BFI (20 μg/rat, i.c.v.), L-arginine (80 μg/rat, i.c.v.), amino-guanidine (25 μg/rat, i.c.v.) and arcaine (50 μg/rat, i.c.v.) by their once daily administration during the withdrawal phase (Day 21, 22 and 23). The antidepressant effect of agmatine in ethanol withdrawn rats was potentiated by imidazoline receptor I1 agonist, moxonidine (25 μg/rat, i.c.v.) and imidazoline receptor I2 agonist 2-BFI (10 μg/rat, i.c.v.) at their sub-effective doses. On the other hand, it was completely blocked by imidazoline receptor I1 antagonist, efaroxan (10 μg/rat, i.c.v.) and imidazoline receptor I2 antagonist, idazoxan (4 μg/rat, i.c.v.). In addition, agmatine levels were significantly reduced in brain samples of ethanol withdrawn rats as compared to the pair-fed control animals. In conclusion, the present study suggests the importance of endogenous agmatinergic system and imidazoline receptors system in ethanol withdrawal-induced depression. The data projects agmatine as a potential therapeutic target for the alcohol withdrawal-induced depression.
       
  • Alcohol-induced lipid dysregulation impairs glycolytic responses to LPS in
           alveolar macrophages
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): William S. Slovinsky, Hoora Shaghaghi, Rachel Para, Freddy Romero, Ross Summer Several conditions are marked by increased susceptibility to, and enhanced severity of, bacterial infections. Alcohol use disorder, one of these conditions, is known to predispose to bacterial pneumonia by suppressing the lung’s innate immune system, and more specifically by disrupting critical alveolar macrophage (AM) functions. Recently, we established that chronic ethanol consumption also perturbs surfactant lipid homeostasis in the lung and that elevated concentrations of free fatty acids contribute to blocking essential AM functions, such as agonist-induced cytokine expression. In this study, we extend these observations by showing that elevated free fatty acid levels impair metabolic responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in AMs. In particular, we show that the glycolytic reprogramming characteristic of LPS-stimulated AMs is blunted by the saturated fatty acid palmitate, whereas oleate, an unsaturated fatty acid, or ethanol alone, had no effect on this adaptive metabolic response. Additionally, we found that elevated concentrations of palmitate induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and that glycolytic reprogramming and cytokine production to LPS could be partially restored in AMs by either pharmacologically blocking palmitate entry into mitochondria or administering a mitochondrial specific antioxidant. Taken together, these findings suggest that alcohol and elevated levels of saturated fatty acids conspire to impair pulmonary innate immunity by altering metabolic responses in AMs. Additionally, our findings suggest that targeting the mechanisms involved in fatty acid metabolism can restore pulmonary immunity and limit bacterial pneumonia in individuals with alcohol use disorder.
       
  • Overexpression of MHCII by hepatocytes in Alcoholic Hepatitis (AH)
           compared to Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and normal controls
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Jiajie G. Lu, Askalu Iyasu, Barbara French, Brittany Tillman, Samuel W. French, Samuel W. French, M.D Previously we have shown that in autoimmune hepatitis CD4 positive lymphocytes form an immunologic synapse with hepatocytes, leading to gradual diminishing and elimination of the hepatocyte. We wondered whether a similar mechanism may occur in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We conducted immunofluorescence studies of expression of MHCII, the binding partner of CD4, on patient liver biopsies of AH, NASH, and normal controls. In cases of alcoholic hepatitis, there was prominent sinusoidal expression of MHC II; In NASH biopsies there was comparatively lower expression of MHC II, but still more than control tissue. Immunohistochemical stain for CD4 showed CD4 positive lymphocytes closely associated with hepatocytes in AH biopsies. Furthermore, expression levels of the multifunctional cytokine IL-1α was higher in AH compared to NASH and control biopsies. These results underlie the more severe nature of alcoholic hepatitis and underscore the autoimmune mechanisms involved in the liver damage found in alcoholic hepatitis.
       
  • Home-detoxification and relapse prevention for alcohol dependence in low
           resource settings: an exploratory study from Goa, India.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Abhijit Nadkarni, Richard Velleman, Urvita Bhatia, Godwin Fernandes, Ethel D’souza, Pratima Murthy Despite the increasing burden of alcohol dependence, treatment resources in low- and middle-income countries such as India, are concentrated in poorly accessible tertiary care facilities. The aim of our study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of lay health worker delivered home-based packages of care for alcohol dependence. We conducted an uncontrolled treatment cohort with alcohol dependent adult males recruited in primary and secondary care. Lay health workers delivered home-detoxification and/or relapse prevention counselling. Process data was analysed using descriptive statistics. 11 men with alcohol dependence received home detoxification and relapse prevention counselling and 27 received only relapse prevention counselling. Of the 11 receiving home detoxification, one participant re-started drinking; all the rest safely completed the home detoxification. During detoxification, the pulse, blood pressure and temperature remained within the normal range and ataxia, dehydration, disorientation, sleep normalised over the course of the detoxification. Of the 38 who entered relapse prevention treatment, 15 (39.5%) completed treatment or had a planned discharge. The mean number of sessions was 2.4 (SD=1.3); those who had a planned discharge received on an average 3.7 (SD 0.5) sessions and those who dropped out received on an average 1.4 (SD 0.8) sessions. There was no significant change in daily alcohol consumption and percentage days of heavy drinking (PDHD) between baseline and follow-up in the whole cohort. The SIP score reduced significantly in the whole cohort (24.5 vs 15.0, p=0.002), and also when segregated by treatment settings, and type of treatment package received. With appropriate adaptations, our intervention warrants further research as it has the potential to bridge the significant treatment gap for alcohol dependence in low- and middle- income countries.
       
  • Correlations between subunits of GABAA and NMDA receptors after chronic
           alcohol treatment or withdrawal and the effect of taurine in the
           hippocampus of rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Alana Witt Hansen, Felipe Borges Almeida, Solange Bandiera, Rianne Remus Pulcinelli, Greice Caletti, Grasiela Agnes, Leonardo Fernandes de Paula, Natália Azuaga Nietiedt, Maurício Schüler Nin, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros, Rosane Gomez Chronic use of alcohol and its withdrawal impairs the delicate balance between GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. This unbalance includes changes in GABA receptors – importantly in GABAA subtypes – and glutamate receptor – especially in NMDA subtypes. A better comprehension of the different roles of GABAAR and NMDAR subunits could be helpful to define new strategies to counteract the deleterious effects observed during alcohol withdrawal. Taurine, a sulfonated amino acid, has been proposed to attenuate alcohol withdrawal symptoms due to its neuromodulatory properties. In this study, we evaluated the correlations between GABAAR and NMDAR subunits in the hippocampus of rats chronically treated with alcohol or in alcohol withdrawal, and the effects of taurine treatment on these parameters. Male Wistar rats received alcohol (2 g/kg) or water by oral gavage (control), 2x/day, for 28 days. From day 29 to 33, withdrawal rats received water instead of alcohol and all groups were reallocated to receive 100 mg/kg taurine or saline intraperitoneally, once a day. On day 34, rats were euthanized and the hippocampus was dissected for GABAAR α1, α4, δ, and γ2 and NMDAR GluN2A and GluN2B subunits mRNA expression determination by RT qPCR. There were no differences between groups in the studied GABAAR and NMDA subunits. However, we observed a correlation of α1 and γ2 subunits induced by taurine, while in the alcohol group there was a correlation between α4 and GluN2A. In the group treated with alcohol and taurine, we observed an extra correlation, between α1 and GluN2A. After 5 days of withdrawal, a correlation observed in the control group, between δ and GluN2A was reestablished. The correlation found between subunits suggests a neuroadaptation of GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in withdrawal rats. Results from this study contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms beyond neuroadaptations observed in alcohol use and withdrawal.
       
  • Disinhibited Personality, Incentives, Disincentives, and Drinking-Related
           Decisions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Peter R. Finn, Lindsey Fisher, Haley Mayer, Polly Ingram, Lindy Howe, Emily Atkinson Disinhibited personality traits, such as impulsivity (IMP), excitement seeking (ES), and low harm avoidance (HA) are thought to reflect a basic vulnerability toward alcohol use disorder (AUD), however, the specific vulnerability mechanisms associated with each trait are not well understood and there are no studies of the association between disinhibited personality and drinking-related decisions. This study investigated individual differences in drinking-related decisions associated with each trait using a task that manipulated the effects of incentives and disincentives on decisions to attend and drink at different hypothetical drinking events in a sample of 430 young adults (237 men, 193 women, mean age 21.3 years) over 60% of whom had an AUD of varying severity. The results revealed each personality domain was differentially associated with different aspects of drinking decisions. Both IMP and low HA were associated with being more likely to decide to attend party events with moderate and high goal-related responsibility disincentives. We suggest that low HA is associated with reduced sensitivity to the negative consequences of not meeting a responsibility, while IMP is associated with increased discounting of future rewards (associated with meeting a responsibility) relative to the immediate reward of attending a party event. ES was associated with being more responsive to alcohol party incentives when making decisions about attending party events and deciding to drink more at events with the highest reward potential suggesting that ES is related to a reward sensitivity decision bias. IMP appears to be associated with stronger approach that results in decisions to consume more alcohol regardless of context. The results suggest specific mechanisms by which different domains of disinhibited personality affect actual drinking-related decisions.
       
  • The effects of social instability stress and subsequent ethanol
           consumption in adolescence on brain and behavioural development in male
           rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Marina L. Marcolin, Jennet L. Baumbach, Travis E. Hodges, Cheryl M. McCormick Excessive drinking in adolescence continues to be a problem, and almost a quarter of young Canadians have reported drinking five or more in one occasion in recent surveys. The consequences of such drinking may be more pronounced when commenced in adolescence, given the ongoing brain development during this period of life. Here, we investigated the consequences of three weeks intermittent access to ethanol in mid-adolescence to early adulthood in rats and the extent to which a stress history moderated the negative consequences of ethanol access. In experiment 1, male rats that underwent adolescent social instability stress (SS; daily 1 hr isolation + return to unfamiliar cage partner every day from PND 30-45) did not differ from control (CTL) rats in intake of 10% ethanol sweetened with 0.1% saccharin (access period; PND 47-66). Ethanol drinking reduced proteins relevant for synaptic plasticity (αCaMKII, βCaMKII and PSD-95) in the dorsal hippocampus, and in CTL rats only in the prefrontal cortex (αCaMKII and PSD 95), attenuating the difference between CTL and SS rats in the water-drinking group. In experiment 2, ethanol also attenuated the difference between SS and CTL rats in a social interaction test by reducing social interaction in SS rats; CTL rats, however, had a higher intake of ethanol than did SS rats during the access period. Ethanol drinking reduced baseline and fear recall recovery concentrations of corticosterone relative to those exposed only to water, although there was no effect of either ethanol or stress history on fear conditioning. Ethanol drinking did not influence intake after 9 days of withdrawal, however, ethanol-naïve SS rats drank more than did CTL rats when given a 24-hour access in adulthood. These results reveal a complex relationship between stress history and ethanol intake in adolescence on outcomes in adulthood.
       
  • Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): Validation of the
           Persian Version in an Iranian Population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Hosein Rafiemanesh, Kamran Yazdani, Saharnaz Nedjat, Alireza Noroozi, John B. Saunders, Ramin Mojtabai, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar Background and AimsIt is important to incorporate a screening test for unhealthy alcohol use into primary and other health care settings. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is one of the most commonly used of such tests. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of AUDIT, and to determine the best cut-off points for detection of hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders.MethodsWe translated the AUDIT to Persian and assessed its face and content validity, reliability and criterion validity against the diagnosis of alcohol use disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic guidelines, as assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We determined the best cut-off points for detection of hazardous use, harmful use, and dependence using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Psychometric properties were assessed in a sample of 400 participants attending medium-term residential drug treatment centers located in Tehran, Iran.ResultsThe Persian AUDIT had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88), and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84). The questionnaire also had excellent face and content validity as well as criterion validity when compared with CIDI. The best cut-off points for alcohol dependence, harmful use, and hazardous use were 11 (sensitivity = 95.6, specificity = 80.4), 7 (sensitivity = 85.5, specificity = 84.2), and 5 (sensitivity = 87.6, specificity = 92.9), respectively.ConclusionsThe Persian version of the AUDIT has excellent psychometric properties as a screening tool for alcohol use disorders and hazardous alcohol use in settings in which alcohol use is common. Further research on the AUDIT in the general population and in primary health care settings is warranted.
       
  • Impact of acute ethanol exposure on body temperatures in aged, adult and
           adolescent male rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Meredith R. Watson, Kimberly James, Guy Mittleman, Douglas B. Matthews The United States population is continuing to increase in age and data suggest that by the year 2060 the population of people over the age of 65 will more than double, providing a potentially massive strain on healthcare systems. Research demonstrates individuals 65 and older continue to consume ethanol, often at high levels. However, preclinical animal models are still being developed to understand how ethanol might interact with the aged population. The current experiments investigated differential body temperature responses in aged rats compared to adult rats and adolescent rats. Aged (19 months of age), adult (70 days of age) or adolescent (30 days of age) male Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1.0 g/kg, 2.0 g/kg or 3.0 g/kg ethanol, i.p., in a balanced Latin square design. Prior to ethanol administration, a core body temperature via an anal probe was obtained, and then repeatedly determined every 60 minutes following ethanol exposure for a total of 360 minutes. In addition, a blood sample was obtained from a tail nick 60, 180 and 300 minutes following the ethanol injection to investigate the relationship of ethanol levels and body temperature in the same animals. Aged rats had significantly greater reductions in body temperature compared to either adult or adolescent rats following both the 2.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Additionally, adolescent rats cleared ethanol significantly faster than aged or adult animals. These experiments suggest body temperature regulation in aged rats might be more sensitive to acute ethanol compared to adult rats or adolescent rats. Future studies are needed to identify the neurobiological effects underlying the differential sensitivity in aged rats to ethanol.
       
  • Functional exercise capacity in inpatients with alcohol use disorder
           versus healthy controls: a pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Davy Vancampfort, Mats Hallgren, Hannelore Vandael, Michel Probst, Philip Van Hoof, Joseph Firth, Tine Van Damme The purpose of this study was to compare the functional exercise capacity of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) with an age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy control group. Thirty patients (22♂, 40.4±10.5years, illness duration=9.7±9.3 years) and healthy control subjects (22♂, 40.2±10.7 years) participated. Participants performed a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to assess their functional exercise capacity, were asked about musculoskeletal problems and dyspnea, executed a standing broad jump to assess the muscular strength and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Patients also filled in the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Our data show that patients with AUD walked a significantly shorter distance on the 6MWT (649.0±72.9 meters versus 724.4±89.0 meters, P=0.001). In patients with AUD the variance in standing broad jump score explained 43.6% of the variance in the 6MWT-score. The current study demonstrates that an impaired muscle strength is negatively associated with functional outcomes in patients with AUD. Exercise interventions should be investigated in order assess whether they can ameliorate muscle strength and daily life functioning of this vulnerable population.
       
  • Chronic alcohol induced liver injury correlates with memory deficits: Role
           for neuroinflammation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Jean A. King, Benjamin C. Nephew, Asmita Choudhury, Guillaume L. Poirier, Arlene Lim, Pranoti Mandrekar Alcohol use disorder (AUD) affects over 15 million adults over age 18 in the United States, with estimated costs of 220 billion dollars annually—mainly due to poor quality of life and lost productivity, which in turn is intricately linked to cognitive dysfunction. AUD induced neuroinflammation in the brain, notably the hippocampus, is likely to contribute to cognitive impairments. The neuroinflammatory mechanisms mediating the impact of chronic alcohol on the central nervous system, specifically cognition, require further study. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption impairs memory and increases the inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL6, MCP1, and IL1β in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex regions in the brain. Using the chronic-binge Gao-NIAAA alcohol mouse model of liver disease, representative of the drinking pattern common to human alcoholics, we investigated behavioral and neuroinflammatory parameters. Our data show that chronic alcohol intake elevated peripheral and brain alcohol levels, induced serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker of liver injury, impaired memory and sensorimotor coordination, increased inflammatory gene expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, serum ALT and hippocampal IL6 correlated with memory impairment, suggesting an intrinsic relationship between neuroinflammation, cognitive decline, and liver disease. Overall, our results point to a likely liver-brain functional partnership and suggest that future strategies to alleviate hepatic and/or neuroinflammatory impacts of chronic AUD may result in improved cognitive outcomes.
       
  • Inverse association between habitual alcohol drinking and d-dimer in
           patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Mikio Marumo, Kazumi Ekawa, Shigeyuki Ebara, Ichiro Wakabayashi Alcohol is known to inhibit blood coagulation. Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to show hypercoagulability. However, it remains to be clarified whether and how habitual alcohol drinking affects coagulability in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol intake and d-dimer, a sensitive marker of blood coagulation, in patients with diabetes. We investigated the relationship between alcohol intake and d-dimer in plasma of 269 patients with type 2 diabetes by using analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, and histories of smoking and anti-coagulation therapy. Log-transformed d-dimer and HDL cholesterol were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in regular drinkers than in nondrinkers, while there were no significant differences in log-transformed d-dimer and HDL cholesterol in occasional drinkers and nondrinkers. Odds ratios of regular drinkers vs. nondrinkers for high d-dimer (0.46 [0.21-0.98]) and low HDL cholesterol (0.20 [0.08-0.50]) were significantly lower than the reference level, while the odds ratios of occasional drinkers for high d-dimer (1.24 [0.41-3.73] and low HDL cholesterol (0.43 [0.15-1.25]) were not significantly different from the reference level. HDL cholesterol showed a significant inverse correlation with log-transformed d-dimer both in overall subjects and in nondrinkers. Regular drinking, but not occasional drinking, was associated with lower d-dimer levels, suggesting that habitual alcohol drinking suppresses hypercoagulability in patients with diabetes. There is an alcohol intake-independent inverse association between HDL cholesterol and d-dimer.
       
  • Introduction to a Special Issue on Wearable Alcohol Biosensors:
           Development, Use, and State of the Field
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): M. Katherine Jung
       
  • Special Issue on Alcohol Biosensors: Development, Use, and State of the
           Field:Summary, Conclusions, and Future Directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Susan E. Luczak, Vijay A. Ramchandani
       
  • Is burden of disease differentially linked to spirits' A systematic
           scoping review and implications for alcohol policy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Jürgen Rehm, Omer S.M. Hasan Most epidemiological research on alcohol as a risk factor is based on the assumption that outcomes are linked to pattern and level of alcohol exposure where different beverages are converted into grams of ethanol. This review examines this basic assumption, that alcohol has the same impact, independent of beverage type. We conducted a systematic search on comparative research of beverage-specific alcohol exposure and consequences. Research was divided by methodology (survey, case-control, cohort, time-series analyses, interventional research). Overall, many studies showed higher risks for spirits compared to beer or wine; however, most research was not controlled adequately for confounders such as patterns of drinking. While there is no conclusive evidence for spirits being associated with more harm, given the same pattern and level of alcohol exposure, some evidence supports for certain outcomes such as injuries and poisonings a potential excess risk for spirits consumption due to rapid ethanol intake and intoxication. Accordingly, encouraging people to opt for beverages with lower alcohol content via taxation strategies has the potential to reduce alcohol-attributable harm. This does not necessarily involve switching beverage type, but also can achieved within the same beverage category, by shifting from higher to lower concentration beverages.
       
  • Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) predicts heavy drinking in
           adolescents with alcohol dependence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Deborah Deas, Natalie Johnson, Suzanne Thomas A biomarker that could indicate problematic drinking in adolescents and/or reflect changes in heavy drinking would be a valuable addition to prevention, treatment, and research efforts. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is a valid biomarker of heavy drinking in adults, however not well examined in adolescents. Adolescents with alcohol dependence (AD) (n=21; 9 females) and non-dependent controls (ND) (n=6; 3 females), ages 14-20, were interviewed to determine drinks per drinking day, peak number of drinks, and percent days heavy drinking (≥4 standard drinks/day). Blood samples from participants were assayed for percent of transferrin that was carbohydrate deficient (%CDT). Analyses compared groups on drinking and %CDT, examined the relationship between %CDT and indices of drinking, and provided preliminary estimates of the test validity of %CDT for heavy drinking in adolescents. Among adolescents with AD, %CDT was significantly and strongly correlated (r=.54) with percent heavy drinking days, and this relationship was consistent for both males and females. AD adolescents did not differ from ND on mean %CDT levels, despite significantly greater alcohol use. Indicators of test validity showed that %CDT had low sensitivity (33%) but adequate specificity (83%) for heavy drinking. Results provide proof of concept that %CDT is a potentially valuable tool to use in alcohol treatment and research in adolescents. Even if %CDT doesn’t discriminate between adolescents with and without alcohol dependence, it could be an effective monitoring tool to indicate changes over time in binge drinking. Improved %CDT measurement methods might enhance its utility.
       
  • Psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test
           (AUDIT) in adolescents and young adults from Suthern Mexico: Alcohol Use
           Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in young Mexicans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Luz Anyela Morales Quintero, María de la Villa Moral Jiménez, José Luis Rojas-Solís, Carolina Bringas Molleda, Alejandro Soto Chilaca, Francisco Javier Rodríguez Díaz IntroductionAlcohol abuse is a worldwide health problem because of its association with high rates of morbidity, mortality and interpersonal conflicts. In Mexico, young people are the group most severely affected by high levels of alcohol intake. This study attempts to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the Mexican youth population since validation studies do not exist to date.Material and methodsAn opinion sampling method was used based on the inclusion criteria for the study and the accessibility of the sample. Participants’ ages ranged from 14 to 30, and 44.2% (N=854) were male and 55.8% (N=1078) female.ResultsThe psychometric guarantees of AUDIT have been confirmed, highlighting the value of Alpha Cronbach (.804) of the scale, and the validity of its internal structure through a confirmatory factor analysis which showed the validity of the model of the three factors (Risky use, Dependence symptoms and Harmful alcohol use). The results confirm a pattern of non-daily use, and concentrated, excess use on a single occasion. The existence of significant differences has also been confirmed in terms of the legal drinking age in some of the indicators used, and the risk of alcohol consumption increases with age.ConclusionsThe appropriate psychometric properties of AUDIT have been confirmed in the Mexican youth population. It shows a public health issue that requires the design of prevention programs that impact risk factors and promote protective factors.
       
  • Lorazepam versus Chlordiazepoxide for the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal
           Syndrome and Prevention of Delirium Tremens in General Medicine Ward
           Patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Katherine L. March, Jennifer D. Twilla, Anne B. Reaves, Timothy H. Self, Melissa M. Slayton, Jaclyn B. Bergeron, Sami A. Sakaan Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a serious complication of abrupt alcohol cessation. Severe AWS can develop into delirium tremens (DT), which is potentially life-threatening. Lorazepam (LOR) and chlordiazepoxide (CDE) are mainstays of therapy for AWS. Current literature lacks studies comparing outcomes between the two for patients who are not in a de-addiction ward specifically for withdrawal treatment. The primary objective of the study was to determine the incidence rate of DT between the groups. Of 2112 patients screened, 142 met inclusion criteria (LOR=74, CDE=68). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. No significant difference in the primary outcome of DT development was observed (7% LOR, 9% CDE; p=0.76). No significant differences in cumulative doses of scheduled LOR or CDE were observed (LOR 14.6±8mg, CDE 15.4 ± 12; p=0.64). However, significant differences were found in the amount of as needed (PRN) LOR required for the two groups (LOR 3.2±4mg, CDE 6.6±13mg; p=0.03) and the amount of scheduled plus PRN LOR required (LOR 17.7±10mg, CDE 21.9±14mg; p=0.04). Doses are reported in LOR equivalents. There were no observed differences in duration of treatment (LOR 3.6±1.3 days, CDE 3.9±2.1 days; p=0.3) or length of stay (LOR 5.28±3.8 days, CDE 4.73±4.2 days p=0.4). No adverse events related to BZD were noted in either group. Hospital outcomes did not differ between the groups, but patients treated with CDE may require more adjuvant therapy to control symptoms of AWS. Both agents appear equally effective at preventing the development of DT in those patients admitted to general medicine wards.
       
  • Maternal Choline Supplementation Mitigates Alcohol-Induced Fetal
           Cranio-Facial Abnormalities Detected Using an Ultrasonographic Examination
           in A Sheep Model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Onkar B. Sawant, Sharla M. Birch, Charles R. Goodlett, Timothy A. Cudd, Shannon E. Washburn Early detection of prenatal alcohol exposure is critical for designing and testing effectiveness of interventional therapeutics. Choline supplementation during and after prenatal alcohol exposure has shown promising benefits in improving outcomes in rodent models and clinical studies. A sheep model of first trimester-equivalent binge alcohol exposure was used in this study to model the dose of maternal choline supplementation used in an ongoing prospective clinical trial involving pregnancies at risk for FASD. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to six groups: Saline+Placebo control, Saline+Choline, binge Alcohol+Placebo (light binging), binge Alcohol+Choline, Heavy binge Alcohol+Placebo (heavy binging) and Heavy binge Alcohol+Choline. Ewes received intravenous alcohol or saline on three consecutive days per week from gestational day (GD) 4 to 41 to mimic first trimester-equivalent weekend binge drinking paradigm. Choline (10 mg/kg in the daily food ration) was administered from GD 4 until term. On GD 76, 11 fetal ultrasonographic measurements were collected transabdominally. Heavy binge alcohol exposure reduced fetal Frontothalamic Distance (FTD), Mean Orbital Diameter (MOD) and Mean Lens Diameter (MLD) and increased Interorbital Distance (IOD) and Thalamic Width (TW). Maternal choline supplementation mitigated most of these alcohol-induced effects. Maternal choline supplementation also improved overall fetal femur and humerus bone lengths compared to their respective placebo groups. Taken together these results indicate a potential dose dependent effect that could impact the sensitivity of these ultrasonographic measures in predicting prenatal alcohol exposure. This is the first study in the sheep model to identify biomarkers of prenatal alcohol exposure in-utero with ultrasound and co-administration of maternal choline supplementation.
       
  • Relation of plasma carnitine and aminotransferases to alcohol dose and
           time of dependence.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Alina Kępka, Piotr Zwierz, Sylwia Chojnowska, Agnieszka Ochocińska, Ewa Skorupa, Marek Szczepański, Sławomir Dariusz Szajda, Napoleon Waszkiewicz BackgroundSerum aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT) and plasma carnitine are all indirect biomarkers of alcohol abuse. Carnitine transfers long chain fatty acids from cytoplasm to mitochondria for β-oxidation. The aim of the study was determination the relationship between daily alcohol intake, time of alcohol dependence, plasma carnitine and serum aminotransferases.Patients and methodswe studied 26 men addicted for 2-30 years, consuming ethanol 75-700 g/day (alcoholic group) and 17 healthy men (control group).ResultsIn alcoholics, compared to the controls, we found: a significant increase in serum: AST (p = 0.0014), ALT (p = 0.0071), AST/ALT ratio (p < 0.000); significantly lower plasma free carnitine (FC) (p = 0.0316) and total carnitine (TC) (p = 0.0349); a significant negative correlation between FC (r =-0.6200; R2 = 0.3844; p = 0.0007 ), TC (r = -0.4365; R2 = 0.1905; p = 0.0258) and time of alcohol dependence, suggesting carnitine as an indirect marker of alcohol abuse. We did not find any significant correlation between FC, TC and levels of alcohol or aminotransferase activity.ConclusionsIn the alcoholic group: an increase in serum activity of AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio confirm liver injury; low plasma FC, TC may indicate on damage to mitochondrial β-oxidation caused by alcohol metabolites. The significantly higher plasma FC and TC in patients consuming the largest, compared to patients consuming smaller doses of alcohol, may be caused by: lowered carnitine demand of injured liver cells, decreased urinary carnitine excretion by impaired renal tubules, leakage carnitine to blood from damaged muscles by the higher amount of alcohol. The negative correlation between carnitine concentration and time of alcohol dependence may suggest the potential use of carnitine for treatment of alcohol abuse.
       
  • CUE-ALCOHOL associative learning in FEMALE RATS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Roberto U. Cofresí, Marie-H. Monfils, Nadia Chaudhri, Rueben A. Gonzales, Hongjoo J. Lee The ability of environmental cues to trigger alcohol seeking behaviors is believed to facilitate problematic alcohol use. We previously showed that the development of this cue-evoked alcohol approach reflects cue-alcohol learning and memory in the adult male rat; however, we do not know whether the same is true for similarly aged female rats. Consequently, adult Long-Evans female rats were allowed to drink unsweetened alcohol in the homecage (MWF 24 hr two-bottle choice, 5 weeks) and subsequently split into two experimental groups: paired and unpaired. Groups were matched for ingested doses and alcohol bottle preference across the pre-conditioning homecage period. Both groups were trained in conditioning chambers using a Pavlovian procedure. For the paired group, the chamber houselight was illuminated to signal access to an alcohol sipper. Houselight onset was yoked for the unpaired group, but access to the alcohol sipper was scheduled to occur only during the intervening periods (in the absence of light). We found that in the paired, but not unpaired group, an alcohol approach reaction was conditioned to houselight illumination, and the level of cue-conditioned reactivity predicted drinking behavior within trials. Groups experienced equivalently low but non-negligible blood alcohol concentrations over the course of conditioning sessions. We conclude that cue-triggered alcohol seeking behavior in adult female rats reflects associative learning about the relationship between alcohol availability and houselight illumination.
       
  • The kisspeptin derivative - kissorphin reduces the acquisition, expression
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): E. Gibula-Tarlowska, P. Grochecki, J. Silberring, J.H. Kotlinska Research has shown that opioids are involved in the rewarding effects of ethanol. Neuropeptyde FF (NPFF) has been described as an anti-opioid peptide because it, in many cases, inhibits opioid and ethanol effects in rodents. Kissorphin (KSO) is a new peptide derived from kisspeptin-10 with structural similarities to NPFF. This peptide possesses NPFF-like biological activity in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a KSO (Tyr-Asn-Trp-Asn-Ser-Phe-NH2) influences the acquisition, expression and reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP) in rats. The EtOH-CPP was established (conditioning for 5 days) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of EtOH (1 g/kg, 20%, w/v) using an unbiased procedure. After that, one group of rats were used in final post-conditioning testing (expression of CPP) and the other group received priming injection of EtOH after 10 days of extinction (reinstatement of CPP). Our experiments showed that KSO, given intravenously (i.v.) at the doses of 1, 3 and 10 nmol before every EtOH administration inhibited the acquisition, and given acutely before the post-conditioning test or before the priming dose of EtOH inhibited the expression and reinstatement of EtOH-CPP, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. KSO given itself, neither induced place preference nor aversion and did not alter locomotor activity and coordination of rats. These results suggest that KSO can alter rewarding/motivational effects of EtOH. These data suggest this peptide possesses an anti-opioid character.
       
  • Status of inflammation and alcohol use in a 6-month follow-up study of
           patients with major depressive disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: AlcoholAuthor(s): Mari Archer, Onni Niemelä, Kaisa Luoto, Johanna Kultti, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Antti Koivukangas, Esa Leinonen, Olli KampmanEditor highlights•The level of IL-8 decreases in depressed patients during 6 months of treatment.•The decrease of IL-8 level during treatment is independent of alcohol consumption.•YKL-40 level correlates with serum liver-derived enzymes, but not depressive symptoms. IntroductionThe studies on the relations between alcohol consumption, the status of inflammation and depression have produced conflicting results. In this study we followed patients with major depressive disorders by monitoring biomarkers of inflammation together with biomarkers of heavy alcohol use.MethodThe levels of IL-6 (interleukin-6), IL-8 (interleukin-8), hs-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein), YKL-40 (also known as Chitinase-3-like protein 1 or CHI3L1) and biomarkers of alcohol consumption and liver status (GT, CDT, ALT, alkaline phosphatase) were measured at baseline and after 6 months of psychiatric treatment from 242 patients suffering from current major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 99) or without (n = 143) alcohol use disorder (AUD).ResultsAt baseline the patients with MDD + AUD showed higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 (p < 0.001), hs-CRP (p < 0.01), YKL-40 (p < 0.05), and biomarkers of alcohol consumption, than the corresponding group of non-AUD patients. These differences disappeared during follow-up and recovery from depression. The level of IL-8 decreased significantly in both AUD (p < 0.05) and non-AUD (p < 0.05) patients. During follow-up, the biomarkers of alcohol consumption, GT and CDT, in AUD patients were found to decrease in parallel with serum YKL-40 levels.ConclusionsAlcohol consumption appears to modulate the status of inflammation in depressive patients. A more systematic use of biomarkers of inflammation together with biomarkers of alcohol consumption and liver status may prove to be of value in a more comprehensive assessment and treatment of patients with depression.
       
 
 
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