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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3181 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3181 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 442, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 320, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 424, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 482, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.747
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 58  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0167-8809 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2305
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • The long-term recovery of a moderately fertilised semi-natural grassland
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): Katrin Heinsoo, Marek Sammul, Toomas Kukk, Tiiu Kull, Indrek Melts Semi-natural grasslands (SNG) are ecosystems whose characteristics can only be maintained by continuous human husbandry. Extensive management without ploughing, sowing or fertilising is advocated to ensure the durability of the various ecosystem services provided by these plant communities. As a semi-natural grassland rich in plant species, the Laelatu wooded meadow in western Estonia has been the subject of numerous studies. A fertilisation experiment conducted between 1961 and 1981 and the later annual observations in some areas of the meadow have provided longitudinal data for evaluating the impact of fertilisation and monitoring recovery time following the application of mineral nutrients. The characteristics under investigation were plant biomass, divided by functional groups (grasses, sedges & rushes, legumes and other herbaceous species) and species richness. Fertilisation caused a more than fourfold increase in biomass, which persisted over the following 10 years after the end of experiment. However, differences in biomass could no longer be detected during the later years of observation. On fertilised plots, ratios of forbs and sedges & rushes biomasses decreased from the second treatment year and were replaced mainly by legumes and/or grasses. In some of those plots, the higher ratio of legumes was noticeable even 35 years after the last fertilisation. Similarly, the number of plant species has not yet reached the level of the control plots. On that basis, intensification of SNG management cannot be advocated for conventional agricultural or bioeconomy purposes.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Changes in seed germination strategy along the successional gradient from
           abandoned cropland to climax grassland in a subalpine meadow and some
           implications for rangeland restoration
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): Kun Liu, Ting Liang, Weiya Qiang, Guozhen Du, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Haiyan Bu, Hui Yang, Sa Xiao Various plant successional gradients on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are created by overgrazing of rangelands and by abandonment of cultivated land. A key point for restoration of these grasslands is the germinability of seeds that are sown in the field. Thus, information on how germination strategies change during succession will be helpful in restoring the grasslands in different successional stages. We sampled subalpine meadows abandoned from agriculture for 1, 5 and 15 years and an undisturbed (climax) meadow. Seed germination of species of communities in different successional stages and the climax were tested in the laboratory under different conditions. Change in germination strategy from the pioneer stage to climax was analyzed at the community level. Our results indicated that 1) at the community level, germination of species in the pioneer stage of succession (SS) is significantly different with that of those in the later SS; 2) species in the pioneer SS germinated better at 10-25℃ than those in the later (5 and 15 years) stages and in the climax; 3) the optimal temperature range for germination for the 1-year-old and climax communities (15-25℃) is wider than that of the 5- and 15-year-old communities (20-25℃); 4) germination of species in the 5- and 15-year-old communities had a significant positive response to alternating temperature and wet-cold storage but the 1-year-old and climax communities did not; 5) the SS has different effects on the diversity index for a single germination trait (FDrao), depending on the kind of trait, however, the diversity for the suite of seed germination traits (FRic) tends to decrease with progression of succession; 6) both species richness and phylogenetic diversity increase with progression of succession. Thus, the seed germination strategy changed with the progression of succession, and it was correlated with changes in vegetation density and height along the successional gradient. This research can give us some guidelines for grassland restoration by adding seeds.
  • Simultaneous removal of phosphate and ammonium nitrogen from agricultural
           runoff by amending soil in lakeside zone of Karst area, Southern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): Jingfu Wang, Jingan Chen, Zuxue Jin, Jianyang Guo, Haiquan Yang, Yan Zeng, Yong Liu The loss of phosphorus(P) and nitrogen from agricultural non-point source(ANPS) is one of the main causes of eutrophication in rivers, lakes and reservoirs in the Karst region, southern China. The lakeside buffer zone has proven to be effective in reducing the input of ANPS pollutants. However, the interception efficiency of natural soil for P and ammonia nitrogen is insufficient to control ANPS pollution. In this study, natural zeolite(NZ), aluminium modified clay(AMC) and lanthanum modified bentonite(LaMB) were used to amend the natural soil collected in the lakeside zone of Kelan Reservoir, Guangxi, China. An experimental study was conducted to examine the dissolved inorganic P(DIP) and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency and fixation mechanism of three amended soils under simulation conditions. The results showed that natural soil had a high fraction of clay and silt (particle size95 % for the DIP at the beginning of the experiment. With the intermittent input of farmland drainage, the P removal rate of natural soil from runoff decreased gradually. Compared with the control group, P removal rates of AMC- and LaMB amended soils remained at a high level within 46 days, with means of 93.6 % and 93.9 %. However, NZ amended soil has a weak interception capacity of runoff P pollutant. The chemical sequential extraction showed that AMC increased soil P capacity by forming NaOH-P and NaHCO3-P, while LaMB by forming NaOH-P, NaHCO3-P and Residual-P. In addition, LaMB amended soil can simultaneously remove ammonia from farmland runoff, with the removal rate of 89.3 %. AMC- and LaMB amended soils are proved to be potential and effective technologies for ANPS pollution control. This study provide an important basis for the treatment of ANPS pollutants and the construction of lakeside buffer zone in eutrophic watershed.
  • Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has a more significant
           positive impact on the growth of open-pollinated heirloom varieties of
           carrots than on hybrid cultivars under organic management conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): Michelle Keller-Pearson, Yang Liu, Annika Peterson, Kaley Pederson, Luke Willems, Jean-Michel Ané, Erin M. Silva To meet the high demand for organic produce, farmers must select crop cultivars that perform well under the low-input conditions of organic production systems. Most cultivars grown on organic farms are genotypes selected through conventional breeding programs, which may impact responsiveness to microbial symbionts. The use of biological inputs such as mycorrhizal inoculants offers the promise of improving yield, quality, and stress-responsiveness of crops, but evidence of efficacy in the field remains elusive. Moreover, interspecific and intraspecific variability may impact the ability of mycorrhizal inoculants to provide benefits. This work evaluated four cultivars (two heirlooms and two hybrids) of carrots and their propensities to benefit from inoculation with isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in organic field conditions with and without late-season water restriction. Inoculants included geographically-distinct isolates from four species (Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus clarus, Rhizophagus intraradices, and Septoglomus deserticola). Heirloom cultivars demonstrated a higher propensity to benefit compared to hybrid cultivars from inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We observed benefits and costs with respect to yield associated with inoculation within four experiments over twoditions. Breeding histories of plant genotypes likely contribute to their mycorrhizal responsiveness.
  • Spatiotemporal overlap of pesticide use and species richness hotspots in
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): Ashley E. Larsen, D. Nakoa Farrant, Andrew J. MacDonald The consequences of agricultural pesticide use for ecological and environmental health are partially determined by the overlap of pesticide use, in space and time, with ecologically important regions. Yet, data limitations have largely inhibited understanding of where and when such overlap occurs. Combining detailed pesticide use data from the diverse agricultural regions of California with species richness data for several taxa including birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles, we evaluate the location and persistence of pesticide use hotspots, and where and when they align with ecologically important areas. Hotspots of pesticide use were generally located in agricultural valleys, as anticipated, yet were surprisingly ephemeral. Between 0–5 % of species richness hotspots intersected annual pesticide use hotspots depending on the focal taxa. The level of overlap also varied over the growing season, peaking for most taxa in May through July. Considering the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in both pesticide use and biodiversity is important to focus monitoring and mitigation efforts to reduce the ecological impacts of pesticide use when and where they occur.
  • Response of dung beetle assemblages to grazing intensity in two distinct
           bioclimatic contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): William Perrin, Marco Moretti, Alan Vergnes, Daniel Borcard, Pierre Jay-Robert Given the impact of livestock on ecosystems worldwide, it is necessary to understand the effects of grazing practices on biodiversity in order to improve the sustainability of pasture management practices. In a pasture, spatio-temporal variability in livestock activity results in a heterogeneous distribution of defoliation, trampling and excreta. To date, fine-scale analyses of grazing intensity have been rare, and the geographical extent of the studies often limited. In this study, we addressed this gap by analysing the influence of contrasting intra-pasture grazing intensity on the structure and composition of dung beetle assemblages. To do this, we studied a three-level grazing intensity gradient in two distinct bioclimatic contexts, a Mediterranean steppe and the Alps, which also allowed us to determine if dung beetle responses to grazing intensity are related to bioclimatic conditions. The observed dung beetle responses showed an imprint of the bioclimatic context and the local pasture conditions, and species composition and relative abundance showed strong variations along the grazing intensity gradient in both study areas. Species assemblages from the most and least grazed parts of pastures differed strongly. By altering habitat conditions, changing dung availability and modifying competitive interactions, fine-scale heterogeneity in grazing intensity led to substantial variations in the abundance of dung beetle nesting guilds. In both study areas an increase in grazing intensity was detrimental to the largest species and the soil-digging species (which bury dung in underground nests), whereas dung-dwelling species (which reproduce inside dung pads) were favoured. We discuss the combined use of nesting guilds and body mass as potential features to generalize the application of dung beetles as indicators of grazing practices.
  • Distribution of soil properties along forest-grassland interfaces:
           Influence of permanent environmental factors or land-use
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): Maxime Burst, Sandrine Chauchard, Etienne Dambrine, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Bernard Amiaud Soil properties vary spatially according to land use; both because land users have selected specific soil properties for specific land uses, and land uses modify the soil properties. However, permanent environment factors and land-use effects are unlikely to display the exact same spatial patterns. Study of the spatial and historical patterns of distribution of soil properties could help to separate between these two causes. In this aim, we studied 22 forest-grassland interfaces with controlled historical configurations in northeast France. In each land use (forest and grassland), three distances to the edge (edge, periphery and core) and two land-use histories (ancient and recent) were studied.Along forest-grassland interfaces, forests were usually located slightly upslope of grasslands, and mainly because this non-random topographic position the topsoil texture was significantly more silty in forests, and clayey in grasslands. After statistically controlling for the effects of topography and soil texture, we observed two main gradients of variation in soil properties according to the distance-to-edge (acidity in forest and nutrient content in grassland). In forest, pH and Ca dropped from the edges to the peripheries (15 m distance), while in grassland, C, N, P and Na sharply increased from the edges to the cores (25 m distance). These results demonstrate, through the edge effect, the strong influence of the land use on a part of soil properties. Furthermore, less than two centuries after grassland afforestation or deforestation, we observed that soil properties in recent forests and recent grasslands were respectively closer to their current land use than to their former land use. These results demonstrate a rapid change in soil properties after land-use change. However, recent forests and recent grasslands kept a legacy of soil texture from their former land use, respectively. Recent grasslands also kept a lower soil density, N and Na content compared to ancient grasslands.Hence, this study of forest-grassland interfaces show strong and short-scale relationships between land use and soil properties and suggest that they express both original choices of land users for specific soil properties and land-use after-effects. The non-random topographic position of the forest-grassland interfaces indicates a conscious choice of this positioning by the land users, for agronomic reasons. Beyond that, land use, through vegetation composition and management practices, also has a strong impact on soil properties. The fact that land-use changes affect most soil properties after only a few decades confirms the existence of land-use effects over time.
  • Predicting how seed-eating passerines respond to cattle grazing in a
           semi-arid grassland using seed preferences and diet
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): M. Cecilia Sagario, Víctor R. Cueto, Agustín Zarco, Rodrigo Pol, Luis Marone Numerical responses of animals to habitat perturbation often seem inconsistent, spreading skepticism about the predictive capacity of applied ecology. Domestic grazing changes several habitat variables that can affect seed-eating birds. Birds, in turn, show adaptations (e.g. in their feeding behavior) that could allow them to overcome habitat perturbations. Here we modelled habitat variables (e.g. cover of different plants, panicles, soil seed bank) in grazed and ungrazed (or lightly grazed) habitats of the central Monte desert, Argentina, to detect those affected by grazing activity. There was no effect of grazing on shrub and tree cover, but grazing reduced the abundance mostly of large grass seeds but also of small grass and forb seeds. Then, we used model’s outputs and knowledge of feeding preferences of the five most common seed-eating passerines in the Monte to make species-specific predictions: changes in abundance of grass seed specialists (Saltatricula multicolor, Microspingus torquatus and Porphyrospiza carbonaria) due to grazing activity should be consistent and should depend on large grass seeds (i.e. preferred seeds), whereas changes in abundance of more generalist species (Zonotrichia capensis and Diuca diuca) should be less consistent and explained also by the abundance of other seeds. The abundance of large grass seeds was sufficient to predict the abundances of S. multicolor, M. torquatus and P. carbonaria. The best model for predicting the abundance of Z. capensis included large grass seeds as well as small grass or forb seeds. No model including the abundance of seeds predicted the abundance of D. diuca. Therefore, feeding behavior explained the abundance of four out of the five bird species. A review of the literature showed that feeding behavior is also a good predictor of habitat use in other desert grasslands. Conservative range management should consider, and even manipulate, the level of the seeds preferred by wildlife. Grazed grasslands should be rested from grazing on a rotational basis so that grasses, especially those whose seeds are preferred by birds, can seed.Graphical abstractUnveiling the mechanisms that act as causal links between habitat alteration and bird abundance conciliates results often interpreted as unpredictable or irreproducible.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Field design can affect cross-pollination and crop yield in strawberry
           (Fragaria x ananassa D.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): Gail MacInnis, Jessica R.K. Forrest The distance travelled by pollinators between successive flower visits can affect the quality of pollen transferred among plants. In cropping environments, especially monoculture systems, pollinators that travel between plants or rows may increase cross-pollination and consequently crop yield. However, the most commonly utilized crop pollinator, Apis mellifera L., tends to forage consecutively on nearest-neighbouring plants within rows. The level of cross-pollination can be further restricted in crops that are propagated by cloning. When a clonal variety is planted over large areas, the potential for outcrossed pollen deposition could be limited, regardless of pollinator flight distances. To investigate how pollinator movement and varietal diversity interact to affect crop pollination, we conducted an experiment with wild and honey bees in single- and multiple-variety strawberry fields. We hypothesized that the amount of cross-pollination provided by wild bees in multiple-variety strawberry fields would be greater than in single-variety fields, and greater than that provided by honey bees in either field type. We found that, indeed, flowers visited by wild bees produced larger strawberries than those visited by honey bees in multiple-variety plots, but only in the more self-incompatible of the two strawberry varieties tested. Strawberries resulting from honey bee pollination were of similar size regardless of the number of varieties planted in the field. Our results show that certain multiple-variety strawberry fields can benefit from the irregular foraging patterns of some solitary bee species, leading to increased cross-pollination and crop yield. Strawberry growers could take advantage of this effect by planting multiple varieties in close proximity and by supporting wild bee populations on farms.
  • Long-term effects of combined land-use and climate changes on local bird
           communities in mosaic agricultural landscapes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 289Author(s): P. Gaüzère, L. Barbaro, F. Calatayud, K. Princé, V. Devictor, L. Raison, C. Sirami, G. Balent Rural landscapes of western Europe have considerably changed in the last decades under the combined pressure of climate and land use changes, leading to a dramatic decline of farmland biodiversity, including common farmland birds. The respective roles of climate and land use and cover changes in driving bird population trends are primarily assessed at national or continental levels. Yet, it is often challenging to integrate their intertwined effects at such large scales due to the lack of data on fine-scale land cover changes. Here, we used a long-term bird monitoring scheme, combined with a land cover survey, conducted during 30 years (1981–2011) across 780 sites in a 20,000 ha study area in south-western France, dominated by low-intensity farming systems. We tested the direct effect of temporal changes in climate and land use on the dynamics of two community-level metrics: the bird Community Thermal Index (CTI) and bird Community Generalization Index (CGI). We used a novel method to assess the contribution of species-specific dynamics to CTI and CGI trends. We observed a significant increase in CTI and a significant decrease in CGI between 1981 and 2011, i.e., bird communities now have higher thermal preferences and are more specialized than 30 years ago. Bird CTI and CGI changes were both related to local climate- and land use-related drivers, especially mean temperature increase and hedgerow loss. Trends in CTI and CGI were primarily driven by the loss of cold-dwelling and generalist species, and secondly by a gain in hot-dwelling specialists. Our long-term study brings new empirical evidence that the effects of climate and land cover changes on bird communities are intrinsically intertwined, and need to be considered together to monitor and predict the future of farmland biodiversity. It also suggests that low-input, diversified agriculture combined with the maintenance of semi-natural habitat cover can contribute to the conservation of both specialist and generalist bird communities in agricultural landscapes experiencing rapid climate change.
  • Peak flow rate response to vegetation and terraces under extreme
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Suhua Fu, Yanfen Yang, Baoyuan Liu, Hanqi Liu, Jiaxin Liu, Liang Liu, Panpan Li Soil and water conservation measures such as vegetation cover and terraces effectively reduce runoff and sediment yield. However, there is little information available on how vegetation cover and terraces affect peak flow under extreme rainstorm conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetation cover and terraces on peak flow rate in small catchments under “7.26” extreme rainstorm conditions on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Thirty-two small watersheds located in Chabagou Watershed, Zizhou County, Shaanxi Province, were selected. The watershed areas ranged from 0.03 to 1.55 km2. An aerial image with a resolution of 0.2 m was used to determine the land use and engineering practice by means of visual interpretation. The cross-section at the watershed outlets were investigated. At each cross-section, the flow depth, cross-sectional area of flow, wetted perimeter, and slope gradient of the channel were measured. Then, flow velocity was calculated using Manning’s equation. Peak flow rate was calculated based on flow velocity and cross-sectional area of flow. The results showed that peak flow rates varied from 0.35 to 79.89 m3/s. Unit flood peak ranged from 4.3 to 153.0 m3/(km2·s). Peak flow rate was significantly correlated with watershed area, main channel length of the watershed, mean slope gradient of the watershed, and area percentage of the grassland at p < 0.01. The unit flood peak in the grassland and woodland decreased by 36% and 64%, respectively, compared with that in the watershed with the largest cropland component. Terraces reduced the unit flood peaks in the farmland and grassland by 48% and 39%, respectively. Thus, vegetation cover and terraces effectively reduced peak flow rate, and the susceptibility of the sampled watersheds to flood generation was evaluated as “average’’ under extreme storm conditions. Our findings indicate that vegetation cover and terraces play an important role in soil conservation onsite and flood safety offsite under extreme rainstorm conditions.
  • Seed predation intensity and stability in agro-ecosystems: Role of
           predator diversity and soil disturbance
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Francesco Lami, Francesco Boscutti, Roberta Masin, Maurizia Sigura, Lorenzo Marini Seed predation by arthropods can contribute in regulating population and community dynamics of weeds. While the role of insects, and especially ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as seed predators in crop fields is well studied, the drivers of predation stability and the relationships between species diversity and predation are less understood. The aims of the study were: 1) to unveil the direct relationships between predator community diversity and seed predation intensity and stability, and 2) to test the effects of soil disturbance (conventional vs. conservation tillage) and distance from field margin on seed predator communities and predation. Seed predation was measured using seed cards, and predator communities were sampled using pitfall traps over two years. Granivorous ground beetles, ants and crickets were the most abundant seed predators in both conventional and conservation tillage fields. Abundant and diverse predator communities were beneficial to predation intensity and stability. However, in communities dominated by large predators, an increase in number of species was related to a partial suppression of seed predation. Soil disturbance per se did not influence the overall predator community composition and predation, but it modified their spatial patterns within the fields. At the margins of conventional tillage fields, predation was lower and patchier than at the margins of conservation tillage fields. However, predation increased more steeply towards the center of conventional tillage field. Our results could find applications in sustainable weed management through biological control, as well as in better understanding the role of functional diversity in regulating ecosystem services.
  • Modelling crop diversification and association effects in agricultural
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Raphaël Paut, Rodolphe Sabatier, Marc Tchamitchian The need to redesign more sustainable agricultural systems able of producing more, especially through intercropping or agroforestry, cannot be achieved without taking into account the essential aspect of production variability. Yet, although many studies have focused on the effect of intercropping on overall production, the particular issue of production variability in such systems remains relatively unstudied. The approach we propose, for a shift towards sustainable intensification of agricultural systems, considers the dual dimensions of yield and risk in a combined framework for the assessment and the comparison of two diversification strategies: (i) a simple diversification strategy (SDS) considered as an increasing number of crops grown on separate plots within a farm and (ii) an intercropping strategy (IC) considered as a within-plot increased diversity, where more than one species is grown at the same time and place. The two perspectives examined here were Modern Portfolio Theory and Land Equivalent Ratio. The former quantifies the effect of diversification on risk, the latter measures the effect of association on production. This research merges both approaches in a combined framework in order to assess intercropping system performances. By applying our framework to cases selected from the literature, we explored and compared the potential benefits of these two strategies in terms of yield and risk. Results showed that intercropping, in addition to being interesting with regard to yield, can have an additional risk reduction effect compared to a simple diversification strategy. Conversely, some crop mixtures maintained or even increased yield variability. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the possible impacts of diversification strategies on trade-offs between yield and risk, but also underlines the importance of taking yield variability into account in further studies.
  • Responses of soil diazotrophs to legume species and density in a karst
           grassland, southwest China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Dan Xiao, Yongjun Tan, Xin Liu, Rong Yang, Wei Zhang, Xunyang He, Zhihong Xu, Kelin Wang Diazotrophs have potential for fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial ecosystems. The effects of legumes on free-living N-fixing diazotrophs in the karst grassland were determined to provide a basis for ecosystem restoration. In a field experiment, diazotroph responses were examined in five treatments: control, low, and high densities of Amorpha fruticosa and Indigofera atropurpurea. The abundance and community composition of diazotrophs were significantly affected by sampling time and the interaction between different leguminous shrubs and planting density. Legume treatments significantly increased diazotroph abundance compared with the control in December (non-growing season). Greater N input with I. atropurpurea at high density in July (growing season) may suppress soil free-living N-fixing bacteria by decreasing diazotroph abundance. Diazotroph diversity was highest under I. atropurpurea in July. Phyllobacteriaceae and Beijerinckiaceae were abundant in the A. fruticosa plots, while Burkholderiaceae, Comamonadaceae, and Geobacteraceae were abundant in the I. atropurpurea plots. Regardless of the treatments, dissolved organic carbon was the key factor driving seasonal changes in diazotroph abundance and community composition. It suggests seasonal changes in temperature and soil moisture that drive nutrient availability (e.g., ammonium N and nitrate N) under planting legumes may explain the variation in diazotroph communities. Legumes reduced negative interactions among the species in network analyses. These findings suggest that increasing N availability by legume N fixation reduced inter-specific competition among the diazotrophs, with essential roles of rare taxa during the restoration of degraded lands in the karst region.
  • Effects of farmland heterogeneity on biodiversity are similar to—or even
           larger than—the effects of farming practices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Amanda E. Martin, Sara J. Collins, Susie Crowe, Judith Girard, Ilona Naujokaitis-Lewis, Adam C. Smith, Kathryn Lindsay, Scott Mitchell, Lenore Fahrig Pressure to increase food production to meet the demands of a growing human population can make conservation-motivated recommendations to limit agricultural expansion impractical. Therefore, we need to identify conservation actions that can support biodiversity without taking land out of production. Previous studies suggest this can be accomplished by increasing “farmland heterogeneity”—i.e. heterogeneity of the cropped portions of agricultural landscapes—by, for example, decreasing field sizes. However, it is not yet clear whether policies/guidelines that promote farmland heterogeneity will be as effective as those targeting farming practices. Here, we estimated the relative effects of six practices—annual/perennial crop, fertilizer use, herbicide use, insecticide use, tile drainage, and tillage—versus two aspects of farmland heterogeneity—field size and crop diversity—on the diversity of herbaceous plants, woody plants, butterflies, syrphid flies, bees, carabid beetles, spiders, and birds in rural eastern Ontario, Canada. The strength of effect of farming practices and farmland heterogeneity varied among taxonomic groups. Nevertheless, we found important effects of both farming practices and farmland heterogeneity on the combined (multi) diversity across these groups. In particular, we found greater multidiversity in untilled, perennial crop fields than tilled, annual crop fields, and greater multidiversity in agricultural landscapes with smaller crop fields and less diverse crops. The directions of effect of these variables were generally consistent across individual taxonomic groups. For example, richness was lower in landscapes with larger fields and more diverse crops than in landscapes with smaller fields and less diverse crops for all taxa except spiders. The negative effect of crop diversity on multidiversity and the richness of most of the studied taxa indicates that this aspect of farmland heterogeneity does not necessarily benefit wildlife species. Nevertheless, a compelling implication of this study is that it suggests that policies/guidelines aimed at reducing crop field sizes would be at least as effective for conservation of biodiversity within working agricultural landscapes as those designed to promote a wildlife-friendly farming practice.
  • Effects of landscape composition on bee communities and coffee pollination
           in Coffea arabica production forests in southwestern Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Lore Geeraert, Raf Aerts, Gezahegn Berecha, Gerba Daba, Nathan De Fruyt, Jolien D’hollander, Kenny Helsen, Hanna Stynen, Olivier Honnay Agricultural expansion and intensification threaten pollinator populations worldwide, potentially jeopardizing crop pollination. Although the highest rates of cropland expansion are currently found within the tropics, quantifying effects of landscape composition on tropical pollinator communities and the provided pollination services to crops has received relatively limited attention. Here, we studied the relationship between land use in the landscape matrix surrounding Ethiopian coffee production forests and their bee communities and coffee pollination services. We used pan traps to collect bees from 20 plots located in small-scale coffee (Coffea arabica) production forests of varying size in a major Arabica coffee production zone in southwestern Ethiopia. To estimate the provided coffee pollination services, we performed pollinator exclusion experiments and calculated yield stability across three years. We collected 595 bees belonging to 27 species, with the honeybee (Apis mellifera) as dominant species. We found a significant convex parabolic relationship between the non-Apis bee diversity within coffee production forests and the proportion of open agricultural land in the surrounding landscape. Pollinator exclusion resulted in a significantly lower initial, but not final, fruit set. Whereas initial fruit set was not affected by the composition of the bee community, our results indicated a positive relation between non-Apis bee diversity and temporal coffee yield stability. High proportions of fruit drop suggested that physiological stress factors may have abrogated the potential benefits of insect pollination in the final fruit set. We conclude that the agricultural land and homesteads surrounding the coffee production forests still support sufficient nesting and feeding resources for non-Apis bees, hence providing a source of potential coffee pollinators. Increasing human population in the region and the increasing demand for food may present future challenges to reconcile the required increased agricultural production with the conservation of pollinator species and pollination services.
  • The mechanisms underlying the reduction in aluminum toxicity and
           improvements in the yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) After
           organic and inorganic amendment of an acidic ultisol
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Wen-rui Zhao, Jiu-yu Li, Jun Jiang, Hai-long Lu, Zhi-neng Hong, Wei Qian, Ren-kou Xu, Kai-Ying Deng, Peng Guan Soil acidification limits crop and pasture production and leads to the degradation of agroecosystems. The dissolution of aluminum (Al) in acidic soils can lead to Al toxicity towards plants depending on the species of Al present, and can decrease crop yield. Different organic materials have been suggested to alleviate Al toxicity and increase the yields of important crops such as sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). Therefore, soil solution was collected from different treatments in a field experiment to investigate how sweet potato yield responds to different Al toxicity levels. The Al species in the soil solution were characterized and the nutrient contents were determined to evaluate the efficacy of alleviating Al toxicity by making a single application of canola straw (CS), peanut straw (PS), commercial organic fertilizer (OF), lime, or alkaline slag (AS); and a combined application of AS with one of the three organic materials in an acidic Ultisol. The aims were to alleviate Al toxicity and increase sweet potato yields. The results showed that all the amendments significantly decreased (P 
  • How does smallholder farming practice and environmental awareness vary
           across village communities in the karst terrain of southwest China'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): David M Oliver, Ying Zheng, Larissa A. Naylor, Madeleine Murtagh, Susan Waldron, Tao Peng Worldwide, karst terrain is highly sensitive to human activity due to extensive areas of thin soil and rapid water flow to groundwater. In the southwest China karst region, poor farming decisions can promote land degradation and reduce water quality with negative consequences for livelihoods in a region where farmers already suffer from the highest national poverty rates. Targeting management advice to farmers through knowledge exchange and decision support can help alleviate land use impacts on the karst environment but first requires baseline knowledge of how local farming communities understand and approach soil and water management. We used a catchment-wide survey (n = 312 individuals in seven villages) to investigate differences in environmental awareness, catchment understanding, and farming practices amongst farmers and community leaders in a typical karst catchment in southwest China. Age, gender and village of residence of farmers showed an association with the type of challenges perceived to be most serious. Access to labour, issues of water quantity and/or quality affecting irrigation, and fertiliser costs were recognised as being particularly problematic for the viability of farming. Sources of information used to learn about farming practices, the environment and fertiliser use were more diverse for younger (< 40 yr old) farmers and levels of training and acquired knowledge regarding land management practices varied significantly between villages in the catchment. The identification of significant associations between villages or sample demographics, and a variety of questions designed to understand farmer attitudes and their environmental awareness, provide clearer insight upon which knowledge exchange and training programmes can be co-designed with catchment stakeholders. This has the potential to lead to improved farming practices with co-benefits for farmers and the environment; helping sustain ecosystem services for impoverished communities in fragile karst ecosystems.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Effects of agricultural abandonment on soil aggregation, soil organic
           carbon storage and stabilization: Results from observation in a small
           karst catchment, Southwest China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Man Liu, Guilin Han, Qian Zhang Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and stabilization under land-use change, including agricultural abandonment, are critical for the recuperation of soil productivity and feedback to climate change. A space-for-time substitution approach was applied to investigate the responses of soil aggregation, SOC storage and stabilization to agricultural abandonment in a small karst catchment in Southwest China. Soil aggregate distribution, SOC concentration and δ13C composition in bulk soils and different-sized aggregates in soil profiles under cropland, abandoned cropland and native vegetation land were determined. The results showed that SOC storage and soil aggregation were significantly reduced in the surface soils of croplands compared to those under native vegetation; SOC storage was slowly restored in 3–8 years abandoned cropland, but soil aggregation was rapidly recovered. The rapidly recovered macro-aggregates controlled the recuperation of SOC storage after agricultural abandonment because most SOC (64%–83%) was sequestrated by macro-aggregates. The relationships between SOC concentrations and δ13C values in different-sized aggregates of surface soils could indicate a change in SOC stabilization under land-use change. In this study, SOC stabilization was gradually enhanced following agricultural abandonment. These results suggest that soil aggregation, SOC storage and stabilization are recovered following agricultural abandonment in the karst region.
  • Excessive nutrient balance surpluses in newly built solar greenhouses over
           five years leads to high nutrient accumulations in soil
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Xinlu Bai, Jiajia Gao, Shichao Wang, Hongming Cai, Zhujun Chen, Jianbin Zhou Over-application of fertilizers is very common in solar greenhouse vegetable production. Therefore, understanding nutrient balances and changes in soil is important for crop production and the environment. A five-year consecutive monitoring was conducted to investigate the nutrient balances and changes of soil properties, including soil organic matter (SOM), nutrient contents, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), in thirteen newly built solar greenhouses in the Loess Plateau. The average annual nutrient inputs from manure and mineral fertilizers were 1,871 kg N ha−1, 1,616 kg P2O5  ha−1, and 1,780 kg K2O ha−1, with manure accounting for 60.7%, 55.1%, and 53.3% of the total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) input, respectively. The annual nutrient apparent balances were 1354 kg N ha−1, 1492 kg P2O5  ha−1 and 960 kg K2O ha−1, respectively. Consequently, SOM and total N significantly increased in the 0–100 cm soil profile, with average annual rates of 0.84–3.76 g C kg−1 and 0.06–0.22 g N kg−1, respectively. Nitrate N in the 0–100 cm and 0–200 cm soil profiles were significantly increased, with annual average rates of 182 kg N ha−1 and 225 kg N ha−1, respectively. Olsen P and exchangeable K significantly increased, with average annual rates of 2.3–44.1 mg P kg−1 and 10.4–63.2 mg K kg−1 in the 0–80 cm and 0–40 cm soil profiles, respectively. The significantly positive linear relationships were found among apparent accumulated balances of N, P and K and soil total N, Olsen P and exchangeable K, respectively. The pH in 0–20 cm soil significantly reduced. However, the EC in 0–100 cm soil significantly increased. In conclusion, excessive nutrient balance surpluses result in rapid nutrient accumulations in soil of newly built greenhouses, and attention should be paid to its negative effects on the environment in near future.
  • Conversion of Cerrado savannas into exotic pastures: The relative
           importance of vegetation and food resources for dung beetle assemblages
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 288Author(s): Renan Macedo, Livia Dorneles Audino, Vanesca Korasaki, Julio Louzada Replacing native savannas with exotic pastures not only alters vegetation structure, but it also increases herbivorous cattle dung quantity consequently changing the food resource available for dung beetles. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the relative importance of vegetation structure regarding food resource types to determine dung beetle assemblage in Cerrado savannas and exotic pastures. We carried out a sampling of dung beetles in 30 areas of Cerrado sensu stricto and 30 in areas of exotic pastures across nine municipalities of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by using pitfall traps baited with cattle dung and human feces. We also characterized these areas according to their herbaceous density, complexity (fractal dimension) and canopy cover. Our study demonstrates that the complete conversion of Cerrado sensu stricto into exotic pasture has a negative effect on dung beetle assemblages. The same dung types differed completely in dung beetle assemblages in native savannas and exotic pasture regarding richness, abundance, species composition and dominance patterns. These findings suggest that environmental filters in exotic pastures, as low cover canopy and herbaceous complexity simplification, probably restrict the establishment of species from Cerrado. We also found different dung beetle communities by comparing pitfall traps baited with cow dung and human feces within the same land use. Thus, alterations in food resources played a secondary role, but were also important. We suggest that increasing herbaceous complexity and canopy cover along with diversifying livestock in exotic pastures could potentially avoid the loss of dung beetles species and their associated ecosystem services.
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