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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 375, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 429, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
  [SJR: 1.879]   [H-I: 120]   [56 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0167-8809 - ISSN (Online) 1873-2305
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Immediate and long-term facilitative effects of cattle grazing on a
           polyphagous caterpillar
    • Authors: Tali S. Berman; Matan Ben-Ari; Zalmen Henkin; Moshe Inbar
      Pages: 45 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 261
      Author(s): Tali S. Berman, Matan Ben-Ari, Zalmen Henkin, Moshe Inbar
      Mammalian herbivores induce changes in the composition, abundance, architecture and chemistry of vegetation which can affect insects in their habitat. Many studies addressed the long-term effects of mammalian grazing on insect herbivores, yet few examined the effects during grazing (or right after it takes place). We investigated the immediate and long-term effects of cattle grazing on the abundance and distribution of the herbivorous spring webworm caterpillar (Ocnogyna loewii), via excluding cattle (by fencing) within a grazed paddock. In addition, we estimated the caterpillar density in replicated grazed and non-grazed paddocks (maintained as so for dozens of years), in moderate and heavy grazing intensities. Since the caterpillars develop during the cold winter months, we predicted that cattle grazing would positively affect them by reducing plant height and increasing their exposure to direct warm sunlight. Therefore, we examined caterpillar preference for sun-exposed areas using shade-manipulation experiments. Overall, cattle grazing positively affected the caterpillars, increasing their numbers two-fold on average, regardless of grazing intensity. This effect was immediate, as the caterpillars rapidly responded to exclusion of cattle by moving away from non-grazed areas. Caterpillar growth rate was similar when feeding on grazed and non-grazed vegetation. Most caterpillars (over 80%) preferred sun over manipulated shaded microhabitats. Furthermore, we found that cattle usually do not ingest caterpillars while feeding. Cattle grazing likely benefited the caterpillars that develop under low temperatures by reducing plant cover, thus creating a warmer habitat. This study demonstrates how changes in vegetation structure caused by mammalian herbivores can rapidly and positively affect the abundance and distribution of herbivorous insects.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 261 (2018)
  • Long-term crop rotation and tillage effects on soil greenhouse gas
           emissions and crop production in Illinois, USA
    • Authors: Gevan D. Behnke; Stacy M. Zuber; Cameron M. Pittelkow; Emerson D. Nafziger; María B. Villamil
      Pages: 62 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 261
      Author(s): Gevan D. Behnke, Stacy M. Zuber, Cameron M. Pittelkow, Emerson D. Nafziger, María B. Villamil
      Two of the most important agricultural practices aimed at improving soil properties are crop rotations and no-tillage, yet relatively few studies have assessed their long-term impacts on crop yields and soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of tillage and crop rotation on soil GHG emissions and yields following 15 years of treatment implementation in a long-term cropping systems experiment in Illinois, USA. The experimental design was a split-plot RCBD with crop rotation as the main plot: (continuous corn [Zea mays L.] (CCC), corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (CS), continuous soybean (SSS), and corn-soybean-wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] (CSW); with each phase of each crop rotation present every year) and tillage as the subplot: chisel tillage (T) and no-tillage (NT). Tillage increased the yields of corn and soybean. Tillage and crop rotation had no effect on methane (CH4) emissions (p = 0.4738 and p = 0.8494 respectively) and only rotation had an effect on cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) (p = 0.0137). However, their interaction affected cumulative nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions significantly (p = 0.0960); N2O emissions from tilled CCC were the greatest at 6.9 kg-N ha−1-yr−1; while emissions from NT CCC (4.0 kg-N ha−1-yr−1) were not different than both T CS or NT CS (3.6 and 3.3 kg-N ha−1−yr−1, respectively). Utilizing just a CS crop rotation increased corn yields by around 20% while reducing N2O emissions by around 35%; soybean yields were 7% greater and N2O emissions were not affected. Therefore results from this long-term study indicate that a CS rotation has the ability to increase yields and reduce GHG emissions compared to either CCC or SSS alone, yet moving to a CSW rotation did not further increase yields or reduce N2O emissions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 261 (2018)
  • Mitigating agricultural nitrogen load with constructed ponds in northern
           latitudes: A field study on sedimental denitrification rates
    • Authors: Sari Uusheimo; Tiina Tulonen; Sanni L. Aalto; Lauri Arvola
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 261
      Author(s): Sari Uusheimo, Tiina Tulonen, Sanni L. Aalto, Lauri Arvola
      Constructed agricultural ponds and wetlands can reduce nitrogen loading from agriculture especially in areas where warm climate predominates. However, in cold climate temperature-dependency of microbiological processes have raised the question about the applicability of constructed wetlands in N removal. We measured in situ denitrification rates in a constructed agricultural pond using 15N-isotope pairing technique at ambient light and temperature throughout a year as well as diurnally. The field IPT measurements were combined with a wide set of potentially important explanatory data, including air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, precipitation, discharge, nitrate plus other water quality variables, sediment temperature, oxygen concentration and penetration depth, diffusive oxygen uptake and sediment organic carbon. Denitrification varied, on average, diurnally between 12 and 314 μmol N m−2 h−1 and seasonally between 0 and 12409 μmol N m−2 d−1. Light and oxygen regulated the diel variation of denitrification, but seasonally denitrification was governed by a combination of temperature, oxygen and turbidity. The results indicated that the real N removal rate might be 30–35% higher than the measured daytime rates, suggesting that neglecting the diel variation of denitrification we may underestimate N removal capacity of shallow sediments. We conclude, that by following recommended wetland:catchment – size ratios, boreal agricultural ponds can efficiently remove nitrogen by denitrification in summer and in autumn, while in winter and in spring the contribution of denitrification might be negligible relative to the loading, especially with short residence time.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 261 (2018)
  • Assessment of woodland grazing in southwest wisconsin
    • Authors: Nicolas Galleguillos; Keefe Keeley; Stephen Ventura
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 260
      Author(s): Nicolas Galleguillos, Keefe Keeley, Stephen Ventura
      Grazing of farm woodlots in the upper Midwest is generally thought to degrade timber value and damage soil health. Nonetheless, Wisconsin property tax law creates an incentive for this practice. Therefore, this project sought to determine the effects of cattle grazing on vegetation and soil conditions in woodlands under different grazing management. We compared eleven grazed woodlots under various livestock management regimes with five woodlots that have not been grazed for at least 30 years in the Kickapoo Watershed in Crawford County, WI. We conducted vegetation surveys in all the woodlands and measured soil properties in a subset. We talked to farmers about their cattle management practices and beliefs about farm woodlots. Grazed woodlands had higher frequencies of introduced shrubs, less litter depth, fewer seedlings and saplings, more grass cover, and higher soil bulk density compared with un-grazed woodlands. Grazing negatively impacted regeneration and condition of seedlings, saplings, and saplings of commercial value. In grazed woods, we noted a relation between the cattle stocking rate and edaphic variables including amount of bare soil, litter depth, and canopy cover, and a difference between dairy and beef cattle in shrub density. We validated a set of simple indicators and metrics for on-going comparison of grazed and un-grazed farm woodlots in this area. Introduced shrub species was the clearest indicator of change, followed by litter depth, regeneration status of trees, and soil bulk density. The study points to potential opportunities for silvopasture techniques that could mitigate vegetation and soil degradation such as careful management of livestock stocking rate and timing of grazing.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 260 (2018)
  • Pollination limitation despite managed honeybees in South African
           macadamia orchards
    • Authors: Ingo Grass; Svenja Meyer; Peter J. Taylor; Stefan H. Foord; Peter Hajek; Teja Tscharntke
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 260
      Author(s): Ingo Grass, Svenja Meyer, Peter J. Taylor, Stefan H. Foord, Peter Hajek, Teja Tscharntke
      There is growing demand for pollination services in agricultural production, which contrasts with declines of wild and managed pollinator populations. Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) is a mass-flowering crop that depends on pollination services and is increasingly cultivated in South Africa. We studied the crop’s pollination in South African orchards considering variation in landscape context and the spatial arrangement of managed honeybees (Apis mellifera). We conducted pollination experiments and pollinator observations on macadamia trees along a distance gradient from orchard edges that bordered either near-natural or human-modified habitats. In addition, we mapped position and density of honeybee apiaries at orchard-level. Nut set of macadamia trees strongly relied on animal-mediated pollination: pollinator exclusion reduced the initial nut set (3 weeks after pollination) by 80% and the final nut set (15 weeks after pollination) by 54%. Supplemental hand-pollination of otherwise untreated flowers increased initial and final nut set by 66% and 44%, respectively, indicating substantial pollination limitation. The landscape context only weakly affected pollinator visitation to macadamia trees, with reduced visitation closer to orchard edges bordering human-modified habitats. Furthermore, we observed almost no wild pollinator species. Instead, honeybees constituted 99% of all visits, whereby honeybee visitation rates increased with a tree’s connectivity to apiaries. However, neither initial nor final nut was related to visitation rates, and the final nut set was actually reduced where honeybee colony density was high, with a predicted 50% reduction in final nut set between the lowest and highest colony densities. Our study demonstrates a strong pollination limitation in South African macadamia orchards, where managed honeybees fail at delivering the increasing need for pollination services. Indeed, increasing their colony densities may further limit their pollination efficiency. A pollination management that also includes non-Apis managed pollinators and wild pollinators is possibly needed to increase nut set and provide solutions for increasing pollination service demands. In intensive macadamia orchards, this can also necessitate the need for more pollinator-friendly management practices, including habitat restoration and reduced pesticide application.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 260 (2018)
  • Alley-cropping system can boost arthropod biodiversity and ecosystem
           functions in oil palm plantations
    • Authors: Mohamad Ashraf; Raja Zulkifli; Ruzana Sanusi; Kamil A. Tohiran; Razak Terhem; Ramle Moslim; Ahmad R. Norhisham; Adham Ashton-Butt; Badrul Azhar
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 260
      Author(s): Mohamad Ashraf, Raja Zulkifli, Ruzana Sanusi, Kamil A. Tohiran, Razak Terhem, Ramle Moslim, Ahmad R. Norhisham, Adham Ashton-Butt, Badrul Azhar
      Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is among the fastest expanding crops, due to high global demand for vegetable oils. Large areas of forest are converted into oil palm plantation to meet the market demand in producing countries which causes rapid decline in tropical biodiversity, including arthropods. The alley-cropping system has the potential to promote faunal biodiversity, related ecosystem services and food security in agricultural landscapes. In alley-cropping, a main crop is intercropped with a secondary crop (often a food crop), secondary crops are cultivated in the alleys in between the main crop. We compared arthropod taxonomic richness, arthropod predators and decomposers between five alley-cropping treatments (pineapple, bamboo, black pepper, cacao, bactris), where oil palm is intercropped with another species. In addition, we sampled two control treatments: monoculture oil palm, aged seven and 15 years old. A total of 50,155 arthropod individuals were recorded using pitfall trap sampling, representing 19 orders and 28 families. Fourteen orders belonging to sub-phylum Insecta, three orders from Arachnida (Araneae; Acarinae; Scorpiones) and two orders from Myriapoda (Chordeumatida; Geophilomorpha). We detected an increase in beta-diversity of oil palm production landscape. Specifically, we found that the number of arthropod orders, families and abundance were significantly greater in alley-cropping farming plots than those in monoculture plots. In addition, alley-cropping treatments contained larger numbers of predators and decomposers. Our findings suggest that the alley-cropping system can become a key management strategy to improve biodiversity and ecosystem functions within oil palm production landscapes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 260 (2018)
  • Crop vs. tree: Can agronomic management reduce trade-offs in tree-crop
    • Authors: Tesfaye Shiferaw Sida; Frédéric Baudron; Kiros Hadgu; Abayneh Derero; Ken E. Giller
      Pages: 36 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 260
      Author(s): Tesfaye Shiferaw Sida, Frédéric Baudron, Kiros Hadgu, Abayneh Derero, Ken E. Giller
      Scattered trees dominate smallholder agricultural landscapes in Ethiopia, as in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). While the inclusion of scattered trees could provide a viable pathway for sustainable intensification of these farming systems, they also lead to trade-offs. We carried out a study to: 1) explore the rationale of farmers to maintain on-farm trees beyond crop yield; 2) quantify the impact of agronomic practices on the outcome of tree-crop interactions; and 3) analyse partial economic trade-offs for selected on-farm tree species at farm scale. We recorded agronomic practices within the fields of 135 randomly selected farms from seedbed preparation to harvesting. A multivariate analysis showed that farmers maintained on-farm trees because of their direct timber, fencing, fuelwood, and charcoal production values. Trees generally had a significant negative effect on maize yield. Mean grain yields of 1683, 1994 and 1752 kg ha−1 under the canopies of Cordia, Croton and Acacia, respectively, were significantly lower than in their paired open field with mean yields of 4063, 3415 and 2418 kg ha−1. Besides, more income from trees was accompanied by less income from maize, highlighting trade-offs. However, agronomic practices such as early planting, variety used, improved weed management, fine seedbed preparation and higher rates of nitrogen fertilizer significantly reduced yield penalties associated with trees. We found an inverse relationship between land size and on-farm tree density, implying that the importance of trees increases for land-constrained farms. Given the expected decline in per capita land size, scattered trees will likely remain an integral part of these systems. Thus, utilizing ‘good agronomic practices’ will be vital to minimize tree-crop trade-offs in the future.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 260 (2018)
  • Liquid manure storage temperature is affected by storage design and
           management practices—A modelling assessment
    • Authors: Timothy J. Rennie; Robert J. Gordon; Ward N. Smith; Andrew C. VanderZaag
      Pages: 47 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 260
      Author(s): Timothy J. Rennie, Robert J. Gordon, Ward N. Smith, Andrew C. VanderZaag
      A numerical model was used to predict effects of different liquid manure storage designs and management practices on manure temperature (Tm ). Manure storage designs included various tank diameters, proportion of the storage above-ground, addition of a roof, and floating covers (synthetic or straw). Manure management practices included the frequency of manure removal, manure agitation, and the depth of manure remaining after removal. Results showed that smaller diameter tanks with a greater depth had lower peak Tm . There was no appreciable effect on Tm from constructing a storage tank above-ground vs in-ground. Adding a roof decreased peak Tm for spring manure removal, but not autumn removal. Floating synthetic covers with high solar absorptivity (i.e. dark colour) greatly increased peak Tm , whereas straw covers had the opposite effect—decreasing peak Tm . Removing manure twice per year (spring and autumn) or once annually in spring led to shallower manure depth in summer and greater peak Tm ; in contrast, once annual autumn removal had greater depth and lower peak Tm in summer. Manure agitation during the warm season increased peak Tm substantially for autumn manure removal, and slightly for spring removal. Leaving less manure in storage after spring removal led to a more rapid increase in Tm and a higher peak Tm in summer. Overall, the study highlights that manure storage design and management practices can greatly affect Tm , with peak Tm being increased or decreased up to 8°C in some scenarios. These findings emphasize that Tm is dynamic and that air temperature is an overly simplistic surrogate for Tm . Thus, it is important that studies examining greenhouse gas emissions from liquid manure also measure manure temperature. Insights from the study may guide future research linking liquid manure storage design and management to Tm and related effects on greenhouse gases such as methane.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 260 (2018)
  • Response of the soil microbial community to different fertilizer inputs in
           a wheat-maize rotation on a calcareous soil
    • Authors: Shuikuan Bei; Yunlong Zhang; Tengteng Li; Peter Christie; Xiaolin Li; Junling Zhang
      Pages: 58 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 260
      Author(s): Shuikuan Bei, Yunlong Zhang, Tengteng Li, Peter Christie, Xiaolin Li, Junling Zhang
      The combined use of inorganic fertilizers with organic manures has recently attracted increasing interest in China in attempts to mitigate the deleterious environmental impacts of excessive rates of chemical fertilizers in agroecosystems. However, questions remain concerning temporal change and how the soil microbiome responds to different fertilizer inputs in intensively managed crop rotations. Here, we collected soil samples from a wheat–maize system to investigate the response of the soil microbiome to four years of application of inorganic fertilizer only (NPK), NPK plus either cattle manure or straw, NPK plus both manure and straw, or a zero fertilizer control. The soil bacterial and fungal populations and community composition, nitrogen functional genes (amoA) and carbon utilization patterns were assessed. Sampling time had a much greater influence on the soil microbiome than did fertilizer regime, and the effect of fertilization was mostly significant at the wheat harvest. Fertilization increased amoA gene copy numbers but only AOB abundance showed differences among fertilizer treatments. In June the community composition of both bacteria and fungi was clearly separated between the organic matter additions and the zero organic matter treatments. Microbial carbon source utilization was significantly affected by fertilization regime and sampling time. By contrast, at the maize harvest neither microbial populations nor microbial community composition were altered. Our results suggest that the entire soil microbiome is more responsive to organic inputs than to chemical fertilizers in the short term. Temporal shifts in microbial community composition in the crop rotation imply that crop species and environmental conditions need to be carefully integrated into nutrient management strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 260 (2018)
  • Morphological and biochemical responses of broccoli florets to
           supplemental ultraviolet-B illumination
    • Authors: Yasin Topcu; Adem Dogan; Hilal Sahin-Nadeem; Ersin Polat; Zehra Kasimoglu; Mustafa Erkan
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Yasin Topcu, Adem Dogan, Hilal Sahin-Nadeem, Ersin Polat, Zehra Kasimoglu, Mustafa Erkan
      The effect of different doses of supplemental ultraviolet-B (UV-B) illumination on yield, plant growth, biochemical changes and antioxidant activity of broccoli florets was evaluated. The broccoli plants were grown under three different supplemental UV-B illumination doses (2.2, 8.8 and 16.4 kJ m−2 d−1) in the glasshouse. Plant height decreased with increasing supplementary UV-B illumination dose. However, leaf thickness increased with increasing UV-B dose. Chlorophyll content in the leaves also increased during the growing period. The lowest chlorophyll content was found at 16.4 kJ m−2 d−1 UV-B dose. Total yield decreased with supplemental illumination, especially at 16.4 kJ m−2 d−1 illuminated dose. Total dry matter, total soluble solids, carotenoids, chlorophyll a and b content in broccoli florets decreased with increasing UV-B illumination dose. Conversley, ascorbic acid, sinigrin, total phenolic, and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity increased in UV-B illuminated florets. Surprisingly, glucotropaeolin content, one of the forms of glucosinolate in broccoli, was not affected significantly by UV-B illumination or enhanced by UV-B illumination doses.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Assessment of impacts on basin stream flow derived from medium-term
           sugarcane expansion scenarios in Brazil
    • Authors: Thayse Aparecida Dourado Hernandes; Fabio Vale Scarpare; Joaquim Eugênio Abel Seabra
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Thayse Aparecida Dourado Hernandes, Fabio Vale Scarpare, Joaquim Eugênio Abel Seabra
      This study assessed the effects of land use changes driven by sugarcane expansion on the stream flow for two selected basins: Monte Mor (MM), where a stagnation in sugarcane area is expected, and Fazenda Monte Alegre (FMA), which is under intense expansion towards the Cerrado biome. The evaluation was made using a previously calibrated and validated SWAT model. Scenarios of land use changes were made based on a more realistic sugarcane expansion related to future ethanol demand and also regarding more intense expansion and other land use change trends, always considering the maintenance of natural vegetation. Modelling results show that the expected sugarcane expansion for 2030 would not bring substantial impacts on stream flow, nor on the reference flow (Q90) in flow duration curves for MM basin. For FMA basin, the expansion is expected to increase stream flow and reference flow during the dry season and decrease during the rainy season. The results suggest that the replacement of annual crops and pasture lands by sugarcane regulates the stream flow regime by decreasing stream flow peaks and, consequently, the flood risk, while also increasing water availability during the dry season.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Teosinte and maize × teosinte hybrid plants in Europe−Environmental
           risk assessment and management implications for genetically modified maize
    • Authors: Yann Devos; Sol Ortiz-García; Karen E. Hokanson; Alan Raybould
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Yann Devos, Sol Ortiz-García, Karen E. Hokanson, Alan Raybould
      The reporting of teosinte and maize × teosinte hybrid plants in maize fields in Spain and France has fuelled the continuing debate on the environmental risks and benefits of genetically modified (GM) crops in Europe. Concern has been expressed that GM maize may hybridise with teosinte or maize × teosinte hybrids, leading to the development of invasive weeds that pose unconsidered risks to the environment. In order to assess these risks, we hypothesised plausible pathways to harm from the cultivation and import of GM maize events MON810, Bt11, 1507 and GA21 for situations where GM maize plants and teosinte/maize × teosinte hybrids are sympatric. This enabled identification of events that must occur for harm to occur, and derivation of risk hypotheses about the likelihood and severity of these events. We tested these risk hypotheses using relevant available information. Overall, we conclude that the envisaged harmful effects to the environment arising from gene flow from GM maize to teosinte/maize × teosinte hybrids when cultivating or importing current commercial varieties of GM insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant maize would be no greater than those from conventional maize: neither trait is likely to increase the abundance of teosinte or maize × teosinte progeny. Regardless of the likelihood of gene flow to teosinte or maize × teosinte hybrids, continuous cultivation of herbicide-tolerant maize, along with the repeated and exclusive application of the relevant herbicide, should be avoided in order to maintain the effectiveness of weed management. While scientific uncertainties about certain steps in the pathways remain, the risk assessment can be completed, using worst-case assumptions to handle these uncertainties.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.032
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • How a 10-day heatwave impacts barley grain yield when superimposed onto
           future levels of temperature and CO2 as single and combined factors
    • Authors: Cathrine H. Ingvordsen; Michael F. Lyngkjær; Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio; Teis N. Mikkelsen; Anders Stockmarr; Rikke B. Jørgensen
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Cathrine H. Ingvordsen, Michael F. Lyngkjær, Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio, Teis N. Mikkelsen, Anders Stockmarr, Rikke B. Jørgensen
      Heatwaves pose a threat to crop production and are predicted to increase in frequency, length and intensity as a consequence of global warming. Future heatwaves will occur in addition to the ongoing increase of mean temperature and CO2. To test effects of heatwaves superimposed to future climate scenarios, 22 barley accessions were cultivated with elevated temperature (+5 °C) and CO2 (700 ppm) as single factors and in combination. The control treatment mimicked ambient Scandinavian early summer conditions (19/12 °C, day/night; 400 ppm CO2). Around flowering a 10-day heatwave of 33/28 °C (day/night) was superimposed to all treatments. The lowest average grain yield was observed when the heatwave was superimposed onto the combined elevated temperature and CO2 treatment. Here the yield decreased by 42% compared to no heatwave and 52% compared to ambient conditions. When the heatwave was superimposed onto ambient conditions the average grain yield decreased by 37% compared to no heatwave. There was no significant difference between the relative grain yield decrease caused by the heatwave in the ambient and future climate scenarios. In contrast, the vegetative aboveground biomass increased upon heatwave exposure, leading to a strong decline in the harvest index. Our results strongly emphasize the need to produce heatwave resilient cultivars.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Applying trait-based community metrics of relevance to conservation for
           understanding community patterns of farmland birds in Northwest Russia
    • Authors: Irina Herzon; Riho Marja; Isabelle Le Viol; Svetlana Menshikova; Aleksander Kondratyev
      Pages: 53 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Irina Herzon, Riho Marja, Isabelle Le Viol, Svetlana Menshikova, Aleksander Kondratyev
      Use of community trait-based metrics has been increasingly implemented for achieving an integrated view of biodiversity in conservation planning. We examined the extent, to which the use of community metrics based on species traits reflecting plausible sensitivity to change would contribute to our understanding of landscape characteristics of importance to the conservation of farmland birds in a poorly studied region of Northwest Russia. We collected species data on farmland from 230 transects covering a total 215 km for each year of 2008, 2010 and 2011 and analysed them using generalised linear mixed modelling. We derived community indices from species traits of habitat specialisation, trophic position, relative brain size and body mass. By relating these indices to the numbers of all species regarded farmland and Species of European Conservation Concern (SPEC), and by analysing them against the type of field and occurrence in typical non-cropped landscape elements, we showed consistent, albeit weak, congruence among the taxonomic and trait-based community descriptors. All community descriptors had their lowest estimates in arable fields. Community specialisation was the highest in open abandoned fields, which confirms the importance of such fields as refuges for regionally specialised species. Pastures were characterised by the highest community biomass, which indicates a particularly good resource base. Presence of ditches, of all non-cropped elements, had the strongest positive relationship with the community descriptors. The SPEC number strongly correlated with the overall species richness of farmland birds. A relatively weak congruence between taxonomic and trait-based community descriptors highlights their complementarity in understanding the underlying mechanisms of community changes. However, similarity in patterns among field types means that, under the current level of production in the region, accounting for the species richness of farmland birds seems to be sufficient to rapidly assess community sensitivity to agricultural change.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.01.024
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Maize stubble as foraging habitat for wintering geese and swans in
           northern Europe
    • Authors: Kevin K. Clausen; Jesper Madsen; Bart A. Nolet; Lars Haugaard
      Pages: 72 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Kevin K. Clausen, Jesper Madsen, Bart A. Nolet, Lars Haugaard
      Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging in this region, little is known about the abundance and energetic value of this resource to foraging birds. In this study we quantify food availability, intake rates and energetic profitability of the maize stubble habitat, and describe the value of this increasingly cultivated crop to wintering geese and swans in the region. Our results indicate that the maize resource varies considerably among fields and years, but also that the energetic returns from maize foraging is substantial. As such, fields with extensive spill allow foraging birds to fulfill their daily energetic demands in 4 h of active foraging. Both the area of cultivated maize fields and the importance of this habitat to foraging birds are expected to increase in years to come. This may alleviate conflicts with other more vulnerable crops such as winter cereals, and have the potential to affect migratory decisions, site use and population dynamics of geese and swans wintering in northern Europe.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Management of pomegranate (Punica granatum) orchards alters the supply and
           pathway of rain water reaching soils in an arid agricultural landscape
    • Authors: Leila Hakimi; Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi; John Toland Van Stan; Thomas Grant Pypker; Esmaeil Khosropour
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Leila Hakimi, Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi, John Toland Van Stan, Thomas Grant Pypker, Esmaeil Khosropour
      Arid pomegranate (Punica granatum) orchards are frequently rainfed. In these systems, orchard managers might be able to manipulate a stand’s canopy structure (e.g., thinning, pruning) to improve rainfall water input to the soil. The aim of this research was to determine how changes in management activities in rainfed pomegranate orchards in arid regions of Central Iran affects rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow, and rainfall interception loss. We monitored gross rainfall, throughfall, stemflow and rainfall interception loss in three stands with varying levels of thinning and pruning. Management practices sufficiently altered the stand and canopy structure of pomegranate orchards to impact the quantity and pathway (throughfall v. stemflow) of rainfall reaching the ground. Decreases in tree height, canopy cover, crown length and LAI were correlated to a significant increase in rainfall reaching the forest floor. Results indicate that orchard managers may be able to prune 40% of the live crown and thin 70% of the stand if the objective it to significantly increase water inputs into the soil. Future research should focus on the impact of canopy management on soil moisture content and soil evaporation and transpiration.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Evaluation of two different methods to measure the effects of the
           management regime on the olive-canopy arthropod community
    • Authors: Marina Morente; Mercedes Campos; Francisca Ruano
      Pages: 111 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Marina Morente, Mercedes Campos, Francisca Ruano
      The effects of the management regime, mostly differentiated for using or not insecticides, on biodiversity have frequently been difficult to analyze and understand because of the rapid re-colonization by good-dispersers, the quick recuperation of generalists and the continuity of insecticide-resistant arthropod species. The presence of these different communities may produce values of abundance, diversity indices and species richness which do not reflect the changes caused by the impact of the insecticides in the sprayed area. In this study we assess the impact of the olive tree management on the arthropod community and the changes in this community according to the blooming season. This study has been developed in olive groves subjected to conventional and organic management regimes by two different approaches: (a) the abundance-diversity approach, measuring and comparing abundance, richness and the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H’) of total arthropods and per guild and (b) the food-web approach, building food-webs and comparing their unweighted quantitative descriptors. We sampled the arthropods in the tree canopy in six conventional and six organic olive groves (12 plots), and in two of the periods of greatest diversity and abundance: pre-blooming and post-blooming seasons. The abundance of total arthropods, but only those within the guild of phytophagous, diminished significantly when insecticides were used. The species richness of total arthropods and specifically predators were also reduced in the conventional plots. These variables were always greater in organic olive groves. Conversely, the total and per guild Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H’) did not detect any management effect on the olive-canopy arthropod community. Furthermore, all the food-web unweighted quantitative descriptors such as size, complexity and prey-predator asymmetries showed the significant effect of the management on the olive-canopy arthropod community and also presented greater values in organic olive groves. We also found that the blooming season did not significantly change the food-web structure, contrary to what we predicted. However, predator, parasitoid and phytophagous abundance, total and predator richness were greater in the post-blooming season. This study shows that the abundance-diversity approach, and especially H’ diversity index, was not useful for describing the effect of different management systems on the canopy arthropod community. On the contrary, the food-web approach emerges as a useful tool for understanding and evaluating the ecological effect of the application of insecticides (and probably other disturbances during the management) affecting the agro-ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Species diversity, pollinator resource value and edibility potential of
           woody networks in the countryside in northern Belgium
    • Authors: S. Van Den Berge; L. Baeten; M. Vanhellemont; E. Ampoorter; W. Proesmans; M. Eeraerts; M. Hermy; G. Smagghe; I. Vermeulen; K. Verheyen
      Pages: 119 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): S. Van Den Berge, L. Baeten, M. Vanhellemont, E. Ampoorter, W. Proesmans, M. Eeraerts, M. Hermy, G. Smagghe, I. Vermeulen, K. Verheyen
      Woody networks of hedgerows, tree lines and forest patches can harbour a high biodiversity and may serve as an important species refuge in agricultural landscapes. In order to protect the biodiversity and associated potential ecosystem services of woody networks, we need to understand their drivers. We surveyed the plant diversity and calculated the pollinator resource value and edibility value of 831 woody elements in 47 landscape windows of 1 km2 in the countryside in northern Belgium. The woody network hosted approximately 45% of the plant diversity in the studied countryside, and forest species, grassland species, tall herbs as well as pioneer species coexisted successfully within the woody elements. The pollination resource value showed the highest correlation with the species richness and abundance of the forest species, whereas for edibility the species richness and abundance of the tall herbs were determinative. The number of forest species mainly depended on the presence of forests in the surrounding landscape and the link was even stronger in historical woody elements. For grassland species, tall herbs and pioneers, we found that structural variables of the woody element itself were the most important driver. We argue that by protecting existing woody elements and thoughtfully designing and locating new ones, intrinsic and functional diversity in the countryside can benefit well.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • The impact of sown flower strips on plant reproductive success in Southern
           Sweden varies with landscape context
    • Authors: Lina Herbertsson; Annelie M. Jönsson; Georg K.S. Andersson; Kathrin Seibel; Maj Rundlöf; Johan Ekroos; Martin Stjernman; Ola Olsson; Henrik G. Smith
      Pages: 127 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Lina Herbertsson, Annelie M. Jönsson, Georg K.S. Andersson, Kathrin Seibel, Maj Rundlöf, Johan Ekroos, Martin Stjernman, Ola Olsson, Henrik G. Smith
      In agricultural landscapes, sown flower strips can benefit pollinators and pollination of nearby plants, but their impact on pollination in the wider landscape is poorly studied. We evaluated effects on reproductive success of field bean (Vicia faba) and woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using data from two study systems, both including study sites (1 km radius) with (flower strip sites) or without flower strips (control sites). To assess whether flower strips enhance pollination in the wider landscape, we compared the reproductive success between plants growing in field borders (> 160 m to nearest flower strip) at flower strips sites and control sites. We also tested if flower strips reallocate pollination functions in the landscape. We did this by comparing the reproductive success of plants at flower strip sites, growing adjacent to the flower strips with plants growing in a more distant field border at the same site (> 160 m). Finally, we tested if these potential effects depended on the heterogeneity of the landscape. In field borders without an adjacent flower strip, plant reproductive success was unaffected by the presence of a flower strip at the site, and increased with increasing landscape heterogeneity independently of site type (flower strip vs. control). In contrast, adjacent to the flower strips, reproductive success declined with increasing landscape heterogeneity, resulting in a positive net effect of adjacent flower strips in homogeneous landscapes and a negative effect in heterogeneous landscapes. Our results show that while decreasing landscape heterogeneity may impair pollination in homogeneous landscapes, this can be locally mitigated by sowing flower strips. However, in heterogeneous landscapes, flower strips may instead reduce pollination of adjacent plants.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Levels of predator movement between crop and neighboring habitats explain
           pest suppression in soybean across a gradient of agricultural landscape
    • Authors: Kandanpita Galaddalage Lahiru Ishan Samaranayake; Alejandro C. Costamagna
      Pages: 135 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Kandanpita Galaddalage Lahiru Ishan Samaranayake, Alejandro C. Costamagna
      Landscape complexity has been shown to play an important role in determining the levels of pests and predators found in agricultural fields. Although movement of predators between landscape habitats and crop fields is a crucial mechanism mediating landscape effects on pest control services, this has rarely been quantified in agroecosystems. Here we evaluated the relationship among agricultural landscape complexity, levels of predator movement and the suppression of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumara, in 27 soybean fields in Manitoba. Over a two-year period, we quantified soybean aphid suppression using predator manipulation treatments, predator movement using bi-directional Malaise traps, and landscape complexity using digital maps of the area within a 2 km radius of the focal fields studied. When aphids were exposed to predation, population growth was reduced by 73.7% on average (range: 38.3%–95.6%) compared to aphid populations protected with predator exclusion cages. Bi-directional Malaise trap and sweep-net sampling indicated that hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), followed by minute pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were the numerically dominant predators. Focal fields were located in landscapes with a range of 0.3–40.3% of woodland, with soybean, cereals, and canola as the other major land-cover types present. Final aphid population size showed a negative association with the proportion of cereals and positive associations with the proportion of woodland and field border grass in the landscape. Levels of predator movement between soybean and neighboring habitats had negative associations with final aphid population size, and were the best predictors in the statistical models, either alone or combined with independent landscape complexity variables. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that landscape effects on pest suppression can be explained by the contribution of predators from extra-field habitats. From a management perspective, these results suggest that higher levels of pest suppression can be achieved by designing landscapes that facilitate predator movement to crops from extra-field habitats.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Soil carbon stock changes in tropical croplands are mainly driven by
           carbon inputs: A synthesis
    • Authors: Kenji Fujisaki; Tiphaine Chevallier; Lydie Chapuis-Lardy; Alain Albrecht; Tantely Razafimbelo; Dominique Masse; Yacine Badiane Ndour; Jean-Luc Chotte
      Pages: 147 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Kenji Fujisaki, Tiphaine Chevallier, Lydie Chapuis-Lardy, Alain Albrecht, Tantely Razafimbelo, Dominique Masse, Yacine Badiane Ndour, Jean-Luc Chotte
      Soil organic carbon (SOC) balance is an important component of the terrestrial carbon (C) budget. However, effect of cropland management changes on SOC dynamics has not been recently assessed in the tropics. Studies were compiled in the tropics where SOC stocks were measured in the topsoil (0–20 or 0–30 cm depth) after the adoption of management practices that are expected to enhance SOC stocks, including tillage reduction, crop rotation, exogenous organic amendments, restitution of crop residues, mineral amendments, and combinations of these practices. Random forest regression was used to identify the determinants of SOC accumulation rates (ΔSOC) depending on the climate, soil characteristics and changes in management practices. 214 cases were identified in 48 studies in 13 different countries. The average ΔSOC was 0.41 ± 0.03 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 (significantly greater than zero), for an average experiment duration of 13.6 ± 0.6 years. Although a large part of the variability remained unexplained due to methodological bias in the studies or a lack of relevant predictors. The strongest predictors of ΔSOC were C inputs, duration of the experiments, and the management practices, whereas neither soil characteristics (soil type, clay content, and initial SOC stock) nor climate variables (mean annual temperature and rainfall, aridity index) affected ΔSOC. The SOC accumulation rates increased linearly with C inputs, and the conversion rate of C inputs to SOC was 8.2 ± 0.8%. Given the competing uses of organic matter on many tropical farms, the benefits of using changes in management practices for climate change mitigation might be overrated. As ΔSOC decreased with the duration of the experiments, ΔSOC would probably be smaller if a period of 20 years were considered, as recommended by the IPCC guidelines. The management practice with the greatest ΔSOC was diversified crop rotation. Cropping systems where diverse practices were combined resulted in higher ΔSOC than individual practices such as reduced tillage and mineral fertilization on their own. The adoption of improved management practices that increase C inputs is still relevant for meeting the challenges of food security and adaptation to climate change.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Variation in the phylogenetic diversity of wild bees at produce farms and
    • Authors: Stephen D. Hendrix; Andrew A. Forbes; Caitlin E.D. MacDougall
      Pages: 168 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Stephen D. Hendrix, Andrew A. Forbes, Caitlin E.D. MacDougall
      Declines in pollinators, particularly wild bees, along with rising demands for their services has intensified efforts to examine bee communities in different types of habitats. In this study we use a phylogenetic approach to compare and contrast bee communities associated with six small produce farms, eight large prairies, and five naturally small hill prairies in Iowa. We compare the mean phylogenetic distance (MPD) and the mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) of bees in each community to expected mean MPD and MNTD values generated from 1000 random permutations of a tree composed of 144 species found across all sites. Standardized effect size scores for MPD using presence-absence data showed significant clustering of bee communities at five of six farms and two of the five hill prairies. Clustering at the farms and hill prairies was due primarily to the significantly lower number of species in the Andrenidae (0–5 species per site), especially species of Andrena, as well as significantly greater number of species in the Halictidae (9–22 species/site), particularly Lasioglossum (Dialictus). Lack of Andrenidae spp. may be related to a lack of appropriate floral resources, indicating that enriched prairie plantings for pollinators at farms could enhance the abundance of Andrena species and hence pollinator services at these sites. The higher richness of the ground-nesting Lasioglossum likely results from soil disturbance regimes at produce farms and the naturally shallow, rocky soil with exposed surface at hill prairies, respectively. Analyses of MNTD using either abundance weighted or presence-absence data and analyses of MPD using abundance data did not indicate consistent differences between the three site types, but do point to important differences between sites in phylogenetic composition of bee communities. Our results show that phylogenetic analyses of wild bee community diversity may be a useful tool for measuring how bee communities differ in composition as a result of natural variation and human-related changes in landscapes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Theoretical implications of best management practices for reducing the
           risk of drinking water contamination with Cryptosporidium from grazing
    • Authors: Keith Duhaime; Deborah Roberts
      Pages: 184 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 259
      Author(s): Keith Duhaime, Deborah Roberts
      A synthesis of the literature on the incidence of Cryptosporidium parvum in cattle, the fate of both feces and C. parvum in the environment, and the implications for BMP to alter both the incidence of exposure of surface water sources to C. parvum contaminated feces and its fate was conducted. The results reveal that cattle are a possible source of C. parvum contamination to surface water sources in mixed-use watersheds. In a worst case scenario, surface water sources could be exposed to a load of up to 300 × 1010 C. parvum oocysts per day in a herd of 300 cow-calf pairs. This would theoretically pose a threat to human health. Six proposed best management practices (BMPs) were examined to determine if they could theoretically reduce the magnitude of the risk that cattle grazing in multiuse water sheds might pose. The BMP of scheduling the access of cattle such that no calves younger than three months of age are permitted near sensitive riparian areas in community watersheds, provided global risk minimization regardless of the site specific BMPs used. Other BMPs including off-stream watering, stubble height management in key areas and silvopasture with off stream watering reduce the risk of C. parvum entering surface waters in amounts high enough to cause a risk to drinking water consumers. The BMP of fencing and nose holes to restrict access may be problematic as these create corridors and damage the riparian habitat if they are placed incorrectly. Overall, any risks that are inherent to allowing cattle to graze on the land in multiuse watersheds can be minimized with the use of several best management practices.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.030
      Issue No: Vol. 259 (2018)
  • Changes in soil organic and inorganic carbon stocks in deep profiles
           following cropland abandonment along a precipitation gradient across the
           Loess Plateau of China
    • Authors: Xiaoyang Han; Guangyao Gao; Ruiying Chang; Zongshan Li; Ying Ma; Shuai Wang; Cong Wang; Yihe Lü; Bojie Fu
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Xiaoyang Han, Guangyao Gao, Ruiying Chang, Zongshan Li, Ying Ma, Shuai Wang, Cong Wang, Yihe Lü, Bojie Fu
      Determining changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks following ecological restoration is important for estimating the regional carbon budget and evaluating ecological effects. However, there is limited understanding on the interacting effects of vegetation restoration and climate gradients on SOC and SIC stocks in shallow and deep soil layers over large scales. This study selected seven sites along a climate transect from the east to the west of the Chinese Loess Plateau, and the SOC and SIC stocks were measured to a depth of 300 cm in sites covered by cropland and three vegetation restoration types (grassland, shrubland and woodland). The spatial variations and controlling factors of the SOC and SIC stocks at different depths following vegetation restoration along the precipitation gradient were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the SOC and SIC stocks in the 100–300 cm layers accounted for more than 50% of the total values in the 0–300 cm profile. The total SOC stock in the 0–300 cm profiles significantly increased along precipitation gradient (p < 0.01) in all vegetation types except woodland. The total SIC stock decreased, but the change was not significant, which caused little variation in the total carbon stocks along the precipitation gradient (p > 0.05). Shrubland and woodland plantation following cropland abandonment resulted in soil carbon accumulation, whereas grassland represented carbon loss in sites with mean annual precipitation (MAP) greater than 470 mm. The changes in the SOC stock (ΔSOC) in the surface layer (0–20 cm) and those in the SIC stock (ΔSIC) in the deep layers (100–300) following revegetation significantly decreased along precipitation gradient (p < 0.05). The interactions between ΔSOC and ΔSIC stocks were evident, especially in the upper soil layers. An accumulation of 1 kg SOC was accompanied by 0.73 kg loss of SIC in the 0–40 cm layer and 1.26 kg increase of SIC in the 40–300 cm layer per square meter following revegetation. MAP and mean annual temperature (MAT) mainly affected the spatial patterns of SOC and SIC in the upper layers, while land use and soil texture mainly affected soil carbon in the deep layers. This study indicates that vegetation restoration does not always result in soil carbon sequestration at every depth after cropland abandonment, which depends on climatic conditions and varies among different vegetation types.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Intensifying rotations increases soil carbon, fungi, and aggregation in
           semi-arid agroecosystems
    • Authors: Steven T. Rosenzweig; Steven J. Fonte; Meagan E. Schipanski
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Steven T. Rosenzweig, Steven J. Fonte, Meagan E. Schipanski
      Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical but daunting challenge in semi-arid agroecosystems. For dryland farmers, low levels of SOC and aggregation exacerbate the risks of farming in a water-limited environment − risks that will compound with climate change. Many dryland farmers in semi-arid climates use year long periods called summer fallow, where no crops are grown and weeds are controlled, to store rainwater and increase the yield of the following crop. In semi-arid climates around the world, dryland farmers are increasingly replacing summer fallow with a crop, a form of cropping system intensification. Cropping system intensification has the potential to increase SOC, but the drivers of this effect are unclear, and may change based on environmental conditions and management strategy. We quantified SOC, water-stable aggregates, and fungal and microbial biomass on 96 dryland, no-till fields in the semi-arid Great Plains, USA, representing three levels of cropping system intensity from wheat-fallow to continuous (no summer fallow) rotations along a potential evapotranspiration gradient. Cropping system intensity was positively associated with SOC, aggregation, and fungal biomass, and these effects were robust amidst variability in environmental and management factors. Continuous rotations averaged 1.28% SOC at 0–10 cm and had 17% and 12% higher SOC concentrations than wheat-fallow in 0–10 cm and 0–20 cm depths, respectively. Aggregate stability in continuous rotations was about twice that in wheat-fallow rotations. Fungal biomass was three times greater in continuous rotations than wheat-fallow, but was not significantly different from mid-intensity rotations. Using structural equation modeling, we observed that continuous cropping, potential evapotranspiration, % clay content, and fungal biomass together explained 50% of the variability in SOC, and that SOC appears to enhance aggregation directly and as mediated through increases in fungal biomass. Overall, the model suggests that cropping system intensity increases SOC both directly, through greater C inputs to soil, and indirectly, by increasing fungal biomass and aggregation. Our findings suggest that continuous cropping has the potential to provide gains in SOC and soil structure that will help offset C emissions and enhance the resilience of dryland agroecosystems.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Optimizing sowing window for wheat cultivation in Bangladesh using
           CERES-wheat crop simulation model
    • Authors: M.A.H.S. Jahan; R. Sen; S. Ishtiaque; Apurba K. Choudhury; S. Akhter; F. Ahmed; Jatish C. Biswas; M. Manirruzaman; M. Muinnuddin Miah; M.M. Rahman; Naveen Kalra
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): M.A.H.S. Jahan, R. Sen, S. Ishtiaque, Apurba K. Choudhury, S. Akhter, F. Ahmed, Jatish C. Biswas, M. Manirruzaman, M. Muinnuddin Miah, M.M. Rahman, Naveen Kalra
      Sowing date is a crucial factor for wheat (Triticum estivum L.) production. From traditional field experiments, optimum sowing date for wheat cultivation could be found out based on existing weather and soil conditions but not possible for futuristic sowing window to address climate change impacts. Crop simulation model can play an important role in this regards. So, a study was conducted at Regional Wheat Research Centre (RWRC), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur, Bangladesh to evaluate the CERES-wheat crop model in simulating optimum sowing window for wheat. Thirteen sowing dates starting from 21 October to 20 December at five days interval were tested with wheat cultivar BARI Gom-26. The model was calibrated and validated with one field experimental data followed by 30 years seasonal runs. Optimum sowing window for wheat is 15 November–30 November in Bangladesh. On an average, grain yield of wheat was reduced by 30–40 kg day−1 ha−1 when sown from 1 December to 20 December. Similarly, grain yield reduction was about 148–102 kg day−1 ha−1 with early sown wheat (21 October–14 November).

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Secondary crops and non-crop habitats within landscapes enhance the
           abundance and diversity of generalist predators
    • Authors: Bing Liu; Long Yang; Yingda Zeng; Fan Yang; Yizhong Yang; Yanhui Lu
      Pages: 30 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Bing Liu, Long Yang, Yingda Zeng, Fan Yang, Yizhong Yang, Yanhui Lu
      An agricultural landscape is usually composed of multiple crops and non-crop habitats, and many studies have examined the effects of main crops and non-crop habitats on arthropod communities. However, secondary crops are also important features in argoecosystems, but how they affect generalist arthropod predators in an agricultural landscape has rarely been considered, especially in landscape dominated by small-scale farming. In this study, we applied a principal component analysis to interpret the landscape composition, and we performed a multiple regression analysis basing on Akaike’s information-theoretic selection criterion to assess the effects of secondary crops (other crops besides maize and cotton) as well other landscape component factors (e.g., landscape diversity, non-crop habitats) on the abundance and diversity of generalist predators in Bt cotton fields, across multiple spatial scales in 49 study sites covering at least 600 km2 in northern China. We found that a high proportion of secondary crops significantly enhanced the abundances of lacewings and vegetation-dwelling spiders within a 0.5 km radius, and an increasing proportion of urban habitats supported a high abundance of these spiders, in contrast to the negative effect that high landscape diversity had on spider abundance. However, we failed to find a significant landscape variable response on the abundances of lady beetles and Orius spp. Furthermore, high proportions of both non-crop habitats and urban areas enhanced hoverfly abundance at a 1.5 km radius, while a high proportion of urban areas also supported high diversity but a low dominant species concentration of the predator community at the 2 km scale. Our results suggest that predator abundance and community structure diversity may benefit from secondary crops, non-crop habitats and urban areas in agricultural landscapes, and these habitats and areas will improve the potential ecosystem services of these predators in a pest management program.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Indirect effects of agricultural pesticide use on parasite prevalence in
           wild pollinators
    • Authors: Alexander N. Evans; Joseph E.M. Llanos; William E. Kunin; Sophie E.F. Evison
      Pages: 40 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Alexander N. Evans, Joseph E.M. Llanos, William E. Kunin, Sophie E.F. Evison
      Insect pollinators appear to be experiencing worldwide declines, a phenomenon that has been correlated both with exposure to chemical pesticides and disease prevalence. These factors have been found to have strong and often interacting negative effects on multiple pollinator species in laboratory based studies, however their interactions in the field are less clear. To try and understand the link between pesticide use on pollinator communities, and how this might impact on disease transmission, we took two complementary approaches. First, we undertook a series of pollinator surveys to assess the abundance and diversity of pollinator groups across British agricultural field sites subject to varying levels of pesticide use. We then screened the offspring of two taxa of tube nesting solitary bees (Osmia bicornis and Megachile spp.) for three parasite groups commonly associated with pollinators. We found lower pollinator abundance, group richness and diversity across agricultural sites associated with higher pesticide use. Specifically, there were fewer honey bees, hoverflies, solitary bees and wasps. Surprisingly, we found a lower prevalence of all three parasite groups in O. bicornis offspring reared in sites associated with higher pesticide use compared to lower pesticide use. We also found a lower prevalence of Ascosphaera but a higher prevalence of Microsporidia in Megachile offspring reared in sites associated with higher pesticide use compared to lower pesticide use. Together, our results suggest that agricultural sites associated with higher pesticide use may be affecting pollinators indirectly by disrupting community structure and influencing disease epidemiology and vectoring opportunities. This highlights the importance of understanding the interactions between pesticide use and disease in both managed and wild bee populations for the future mitigation of pollinator declines.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Hydrological and erosional impact and farmer’s perception on catch crops
           and weeds in citrus organic farming in Canyoles river watershed, Eastern
    • Authors: Artemi Cerdà; Jesús Rodrigo-Comino; Antonio Giménez-Morera; Saskia D. Keesstra
      Pages: 49 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Artemi Cerdà, Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Antonio Giménez-Morera, Saskia D. Keesstra
      It is needed to find the proper management from a biophysical point of view to promote sustainable agriculture. However, it is also necessary that farmers accept new strategies that propose cultural and technical shifts. A survey of the farmerś perception, and an assessment of the biophysical impact of catch crops (CC) and weeds (W) on soil organic matter, bulk density, infiltration capacity, runoff initiation, runoff discharge and soil detachment at the pedon scale were carried out. The field measurements in the Alcoleja experimental station demonstrated that organic matter and bulk density after 10 years of Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. catch crops and weeds managed plots are similar. Both CC and W plots enhanced high infiltration rates under single ring ponding conditions, the runoff discharge was delayed and decreased; and soil erosion rates were lower in comparison to soil erosion rates measured in chemically managed farms. Soil quality was high for both management strategies and soil erosion rates much sustainable due to the live mulch that catch crops and weeds developed. However, an assessment of the farmerś perception in the Cànyoles river watershed citrus production area in Eastern Spain demonstrated that the farmer’s community did not accept the use of catch crops or weeds. The survey proved that the farmers would accept the use of CC and W if subsidies were paid. The farmers claimed for the payment of the seeds and sowing expenses plus a 57 € ha−1 for the CC and 75 € ha−1 for W on average. The farmers considered the use of CC and W as benefit for the society, but not for them.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Improvement of growth and yield of maize under water stress by
           co-inoculating an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and a plant growth
           promoting rhizobacterium together with phosphate fertilizers
    • Authors: Mehdi Ghorchiani; Hassan Etesami; Hossein Ali Alikhani
      Pages: 59 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Mehdi Ghorchiani, Hassan Etesami, Hossein Ali Alikhani
      There is little information about the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on maize productivity in the presence of sparingly soluble forms of phosphorus (P) under water stress in natural conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Funneliformis mosseae and Pseudomonas fluorescens, triple superphosphate (TSP) (as an easily available form of P) and rock phosphate (RP) (as a poorly soluble form of P) on vegetative and reproductive parts of maize, root colonization, content of P and N in the plant tissue, and grain yield of maize plant under conditions of water deficit stress. For this purpose, a field experiment was carried out as split–split plot arrangement based on completely randomized block experimental design with three replications for 100 days. The results demonstrated that water deficit stress inhibited the growth and biomass of vegetative and reproductive parts and grain yield of maize; however, co-inoculation of maize with F. mosseae and P. fluorescens resulted in a significant increase in the vegetative and reproductive traits, root colonization, the grain yield of maize, content of P and N nutrients in plant tissue under water deficit and normal conditions compared with non-inoculated controls and single inoculation treatments, indicating AMF and P. fluorescens could make the plants more tolerant to water stress. Efficiency of TSP in combination with microbial inoculants on all measured traits was higher than that of RP. The results indicated that interactions of inoculants depend upon high or low solubility of the used P source (P availability). In general, the results of this study showed that the plants inoculated with a combination of P. fluorescens and F. mosseae expressed synergistic effect to increase maize yield under water deficit stress, while keeping safe natural resources such as P stocks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Grazing of crop residues: Impacts on soils and crop production
    • Authors: Manbir K. Rakkar; Humberto Blanco-Canqui
      Pages: 71 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Manbir K. Rakkar, Humberto Blanco-Canqui
      Integration of crops with livestock is receiving increased attention to improve soil productivity and environmental quality. Grazing of crop residues is an important practice, particularly under the current scenarios of decreasing grassland areas and increasing feed costs. While many have discussed the implications of grazing grasslands on soil properties and productivity, impacts of grazing crop residues on soil and crop productivity have not been widely discussed. We reviewed and synthesized published research information on the impacts of crop residue grazing on soil properties and crop yields, discussed factors influencing grazing effects, and identified research gaps. Our review indicates that residue grazing can increase penetration resistance (compaction parameter) by 0.27–0.84 MPa in the upper 25 cm soil depth, but this increase in compaction does not generally result in reduced crop yields. Residue grazing has small or no effect on soil bulk density, wind and water erosion, and hydraulic properties. Residue grazing generally has a positive impact on soil nutrients. Indeed, moderate grazing may increase soil organic matter concentration, in some cases, compared to no grazing. Overgrazing can, however, reduce organic matter concentration in the long term. Crop residue grazing, in general, does not affect crop yields unless grazing occurs when the soil is wet. Information is limited on the impact of residue grazing on water and wind erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, and soil biological properties. Further studies should compare grazing effects on soils and crop production under different cropping systems, animal stocking rates, soil types, residue production levels, and climatic zones. Overall, grazing of crop residues appears to have small or no negative effects on soil and crop production, which suggests that crop residue grazing can be a viable component of integrated crop-livestock systems to sustain overall agricultural production.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Changes in snow cover alter nitrogen cycling and gaseous emissions in
           agricultural soils
    • Authors: Lindsay D. Brin; Claudia Goyer; Bernie J. Zebarth; David L. Burton; Martin H. Chantigny
      Pages: 91 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Lindsay D. Brin, Claudia Goyer, Bernie J. Zebarth, David L. Burton, Martin H. Chantigny
      Climate change-related increases in winter temperatures and precipitation, as predicted for eastern Canada, may alter snow cover, with consequences for soil temperature and moisture, nitrogen cycling, and greenhouse gas fluxes. To assess the effects of snow depth in a humid temperate agricultural ecosystem, we conducted a two-year field study with (1) snow removal, (2) passive snow accumulation (via snow fence), and (3) ambient snow treatments. We measured in situ N2O and CO2 fluxes and belowground soil gas concentration, and conducted denitrification and potential nitrification laboratory assays, from November through May. Snow manipulation significantly affected winter N2O dynamics. In the first winter, spring thaw N2O fluxes in snow removal plots were 31 and 48 times greater than from ambient snow and snow accumulation plots respectively. Mid-winter soil N2O concentration was also highest in snow removal plots. These effects may have been due to increased substrate availability due to greater soil frost, along with moderate gas diffusivities facilitating N2O production, in snow removal plots. In the second winter, spring thaw N2O fluxes and soil N2O concentration were greatest for ambient snow plots. Peak fluxes in ambient snow plots were 19 and 24 times greater than in snow accumulation and snow removal plots, respectively. Greater soil moisture in ambient snow plots overwinter could have facilitated denitrification both through decreased O2 availability and increased disruption of soil aggregates during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, results suggest that effects of changing snow cover on N cycling and N2O fluxes were not solely a direct effect of snow depth; rather, effects were mediated by both soil water content and temperature. Furthermore, the fact that treatments with greatest mid-winter belowground N2O accumulation also had greatest spring thaw N2O fluxes in both years suggests the hypothesis that high spring thaw fluxes were due not only to spring soil conditions, but also to an effect of soil conditions in frozen soils that had facilitated N2O production throughout winter.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.01.033
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Roles of rhizospheric organic acids and microorganisms in mercury
           accumulation and translocation to different winter wheat cultivars
    • Authors: Na Liu; Yongjun Miao; Xiaoxuan Zhou; Yandong Gan; Shuwei Liu; Wenxing Wang; Jiulan Dai
      Pages: 104 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Na Liu, Yongjun Miao, Xiaoxuan Zhou, Yandong Gan, Shuwei Liu, Wenxing Wang, Jiulan Dai
      Elevated mercury concentrations in wheat grains pose a potential health risk to human. In this study, we selected two low-mercury-accumulating wheat cultivars (Nongda-3163, Gaocheng-8901) and two high-mercury-accumulating wheat cultivars (Jimai-21, Taishan-21) to investigate the role of rhizospheric organic acids and microorganisms in mercury accumulation and translocation to different wheat plants. The wheat grew in greenhouse with three levels of mercury treatment: control (no added mercury), low treatment (1 mg kg−1 total mercury) and high treatment (5 mg kg−1 total mercury). Under low mercury treatment condition, Jimai-21 and Taishan 21 had significantly higher mercury concentrations in roots and secreted higher amounts of oxalic acid and citric acid in the rhizosphere soil than Nongda-3163 and Gaocheng-8901. Meanwhile, abundances of gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere soil of Jimai-21 were significantly higher than those of Nongda-3163 and Gaocheng-8901, while abundance of protozoa in the rhizosphere soil of Jimai-21 was significantly lower than those of Gaocheng-8901. These facts may lead to higher mercury concentrations in grains of Jimai-21 and Taishan-21 than those of Nongda-3163 and Gaocheng-8901. In the current study, the oxalic acid had the largest contribution on mercury accumulation and translocation (p = .002), followed by citric acid (p = .002) and protozoa (p = .038) under low mercury treatment condition. Under high mercury treatment condition, Jimai-21 and Taishan-21 had significantly higher translocation factors from roots to leaves, glumes and grains than Nongda-3163 and Gaocheng-8901, and the significant contribution sequentially were citric acid (p = .002), fungi (p = .02) and gram positive bacteria (p = .018). Improving the beneficial relationship among rhizospheric organic acids, microorganisms and wheat cultivars was a realizable strategy to ensure wheat safety for mercury.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Landscape features determining the occurrence of Rhagoletis mendax
           (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies in blueberries
    • Authors: Cesar R. Rodriguez-Saona; Dean Polk; Peter V. Oudemans; Robert Holdcraft; Faruque U. Zaman; Rufus Isaacs; Daniel P. Cariveau
      Pages: 113 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Cesar R. Rodriguez-Saona, Dean Polk, Peter V. Oudemans, Robert Holdcraft, Faruque U. Zaman, Rufus Isaacs, Daniel P. Cariveau
      Non-crop areas surrounding farms can support pest populations if they provide overwintering habitats or alternative hosts for them to feed and/or mate. Here we tested the hypothesis that a native North American pest of highbush blueberry, the blueberry maggot fly (Rhagoletis mendax Curran) is more abundant near forest habitats. For this, we monitored R. mendax adult occurrence using a trapping network across multiple farms and years (2009–2012) in New Jersey (USA), and then performed geospatial analysis on these data to determine whether traps in blueberry fields near forest habitats experience higher R. mendax adult captures than others. In addition, we conducted mark-release-recapture studies to determine the distance R. mendax flies can move into blueberry fields. Our results reveal that proximity to forest habitats positively affects R. mendax adult occurrence on traps. However, the type of forest was critical such that presence of flies on traps declined with increasing distance from upland forest while distance from wetland forest had no effect. We also showed that R. mendax flies can disperse up to 76 m into a blueberry field from adjacent wooded habitat within 48 h. In sum, our study identified landscape features important for R. mendax occurrence in blueberry fields, which can improve sampling methods and the development of precision-based pest management programs. Based on our findings, monitoring efforts and insecticide applications for R. mendax should be targeted mainly to fields close to upland forest and directed to the field borders within distances of less than 80 m from field edges.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Effects of continuous manure application on methanogenic and
           methanotrophic communities and methane production potentials in rice paddy
    • Authors: Wenzhao Zhang; Rong Sheng; Miaomiao Zhang; Guiyun Xiong; Haijun Hou; Shuanglai Li; Wenxue Wei
      Pages: 121 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Wenzhao Zhang, Rong Sheng, Miaomiao Zhang, Guiyun Xiong, Haijun Hou, Shuanglai Li, Wenxue Wei
      Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil productivity; however, the impact of continuous manure application on the behaviors of methanogens (mcrA) and methanotrophs (pmoA) is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of continuous pig manure application on methanogenic and methanotrophic communities and the methane production potentials (MPPs) of rice paddy soil. The results show that adding manure induced significantly higher mcrA gene abundance than chemical fertilizer treatments, and that manure led to higher mcrA gene abundance when it was applied together with full NPK fertilizers than it did when applied with N or NP fertilizers. However, there were no obvious effects of continuous manure application on pmoA gene abundance. The community structures of mcrA and pmoA were distinctly altered by continuous manure application, and their variation was closely associated with fertilizer-induced changes in dissolved organic C, total P, and available P and K in the soil. We also observed that manure application along with full NPK fertilizers caused significantly higher MPPs compared to chemical fertilization alone, while manure application with N or NP fertilizers had no obvious effect on MPPs. Moreover, MPPs were positively correlated with mcrA gene abundance, suggesting that continuous manure application may enhance methane emissions by stimulating methane production. Therefore, long-term manure application can affect both the abundance and composition of methanogens, and thus, enhance methane production. This effect is largely dependent on soil nutritional status.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Uptake and toxicological effects of pharmaceutical active compounds on
    • Authors: Hafiz Mohkum Hammad; Farheen Zia; Hafiz Faiq Bakhat; Shah Fahad; Muhammad Rizwan Ashraf; Carol Jo Wilkerson; Ghulam Mustafa Shah; Wajid Nasim; Ikramulah Khosa; Muhammad Shahid
      Pages: 143 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Farheen Zia, Hafiz Faiq Bakhat, Shah Fahad, Muhammad Rizwan Ashraf, Carol Jo Wilkerson, Ghulam Mustafa Shah, Wajid Nasim, Ikramulah Khosa, Muhammad Shahid
      Contamination of the soil environment with pharmaceutical active compounds (PACs) is an emerging issue. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects and accumulation of PACs in maize (Zea mays L.). After screening a variety of maize hybrid seeds for tolerance and sensitivity to paracetamol, two maize hybrids, ICI 339 and Syngenta 7720 (PACs tolerant and sensitive, respectively) and were selected for this experiment. Five paracetamol solutions were applied in two splits with 500 ml of water containing 0, 0.31, 0.62, 0.93 and 1.24 g paracetamol l−1. The application of paracetamol significantly (P < 0.05) decreased grains yield by up to 50%. Hybrid Syngenta 7720 accumulated 0.063 ng g−1 paracetamol in the grain, which was 8% more (0.058 ng g−1) than the amount accumulated in hybrid ICI 339. Similarly, significant (P < 0.05) amounts of paracetamol (0.132 and 0.153 ng g−1 in ICI 339 and Syngenta 7720, respectively) were accumulated in the root. The accumulation of paracetamol in maize grain and root increased linearly when the dose of paracetamol was increased, but grain protein contents were not affected. The results indicate that under the current experimental conditions, edible parts of the crop plants are contaminated with paracetamol as a PAC and could have negative effects on consumers.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
  • Greater gains in annual yields from increased plant diversity than losses
           from experimental drought in two temperate grasslands
    • Authors: J.A. Finn; M. Suter; E. Haughey; D. Hofer; A. Lüscher
      Pages: 149 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 April 2018
      Source:Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 258
      Author(s): J.A. Finn, M. Suter, E. Haughey, D. Hofer, A. Lüscher
      Climate change is predicted to result in more severe weather events, including drought, which will affect forage production in agricultural grasslands. We evaluated the effects of an experimentally imposed drought on yields of monocultures and mixtures of intensively managed grassland communities comprising four species with contrasting functional traits (Lolium perenne L., Cichorium intybus L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L.). Complete exclusion of precipitation was implemented in a common field experiment at two sites, resulting in an experimental drought at Wexford (Ireland) and Zürich (Switzerland). In the individual harvest at the end of the drought event, very strong yield reductions (up to −87%) occurred across all communities. In contrast, drought effects on annual yields of averaged monocultures and the equi-proportional four-species mixture were only −9% and −12%, respectively. These losses were much smaller than the yield advantage due to mixtures, which were 31% under drought and 34% under rainfed conditions. The large effect of mixtures on annual yield is attributed to complementarity among species with contrasting functional traits, and to mixture effects being active over the whole growing season and under drought. We attribute these relatively small drought effects on annual yield to the immediate recovery in harvest yields when soil water supply increased after the drought (resilience), the buffering effect of soil water at the beginning of rain exclusion, and the relatively long growing season that diluted the short-term effect of the drought event.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 258 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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