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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3183 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3183 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 102, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 436, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 475, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agricultural Water Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.272
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 44  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0378-3774
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with
           groundwater and wastewater: The particular case of Sahiwal district in
           Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Khalil ur Rehman, Syed Mohsin Bukhari, Shahla Andleeb, Adeel Mahmood, Kehinde O. Erinle, Mian Muhammad Naeem, Qaiser Imran The use of wastewater for irrigation is a common practice in the developing world. It is a major route of heavy metal contamination in vegetables. The groundwater, an alternative source for irrigation, is under threat of heavy metal contamination due to long-term use of wastewater. The present study investigated heavy metals contamination from irrigation with wastewater compared to groundwater in District Sahiwal situated in the vicinity of Lahore, Pakistan. Irrigated water, soil and vegetables were analyzed for Iron, Nickel, Lead, copper, Cadmium, Manganese and Zinc; Metal transfer factor (MTF); daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were calculated. Manganese (Mn) and Cd in wastewater irrigated soil, Pb, Cd, Mn and Fe in wastewater-irrigated vegetables and Pb, Mn and Fe in groundwater-irrigated vegetables exceeded the permissible limits (WHO, 1996), particularly in Mustard and Spinach. Generally, MTF was higher in wastewater than groundwater-irrigated vegetables, particularly with Fe followed by Ni. HRI was higher for wastewater-irrigated than groundwater-irrigated vegetables. Wastewater-irrigated Mustard and Spinach showed a HRI > 1 only for Mn. Quality control mechanisms need to be applied for long-term use of groundwater. Also, treatment of wastewater prior to application to plants must be considered to save crops from contamination.
       
  • Retrieval of photosynthetic capability for yield gap attribution in maize
           via model-data fusion
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Shi Hu, Xingguo Mo, Farong Huang Identifying the factors driving yield gaps between the attainable and actual yields achieved by farmers is essential for agricultural improvement and water resource management. In this study, the process-based VIP (Vegetation Interface Processes) eco-hydrological model was used to estimate the yield gap of spring maize in the Hutuo River Basin (HRB), North China. To describe the realistic crop growth and attainable yield pattern, the field-sampled grain yield and aboveground biomass were used to design a scheme to retrieve the intrinsic quantum efficiency (εact) for leaf photosynthesis of C4 crop, including the statistical relationships between the intrinsic quantum efficiency, vegetation index and grain yield. The actual yields were predicted with the retrieved intrinsic quantum efficiency pattern, while the attainable yields were predicted with the average of the top 5% intrinsic quantum efficiencies. The simulated actual yields are consistent with the census data at the county level (R2 of 0.37 to 0.74 and relative RMSE of 16–29%). The average yield gap in the basin is 5246 kg ha−1, being 55% of the attainable yield. It is revealed that soil organic matter (SOM) content and depth of soil layer are the principal limiting factors in more than 80% of farmland and results in 70% of the yield gap, while the effects of SOM content is dominant in flat piedmont. Water stress is also a critical factor limiting crop yield, especially for hilly farmlands with slopes greater than 8°. Improving fertilizer management and irrigation techniques in the HRB is therefore the primary task to narrow yield gaps attributable to basin management.
       
  • The influence of pH on the sodium removal rates of three crops grown in a
           brewery effluent treatment system
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Richard P. Taylor, Clifford L.W. Jones, Mark Laing Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) and Japanese millet (Echinochloa esculenta) were grown in recirculating hydroponic systems to determine their capacity to remove sodium from brewery effluent (BE). Each treatment was irrigated with post-anaerobically digested effluent, where the pH was either adjusted to 6.5 or unadjusted. The irrigation solutions from the hydroponic systems planted with saltbush had the lowest concentration of sodium (708.54 ± 6.18 mg/l), whereas the systems planted with millet and cabbage had a similar sodium concentration (729.01 ± 5.17 mg/l). The pH adjustment of BE significantly decreased the sodium leaf content of cabbages, saltbush and millet plants by an average of 633.33 mg/kg. This could have been due to two reasons; firstly the addition of H + would decrease the ratio of Na/positively charged ions thus, decreasing the sodium electrochemical gradient between the root plasma and rhizosphere; and secondly, the addition of H + may enhance sodium efflux. Halophytes such as saltbush have been shown to assimilate sodium from soil water complexes. Saltbush planted hydroponic systems resulted in the lowest increase in effluent sodium concentration which corresponded to saltbush leaf tissue having the highest sodium concentration. However, the sodium concentration in all hydroponic systems increased during each cycle. The rate of sodium assimilation into the halophyte plant tissue was slower than the concentrating effect caused by evapotranspiration, which accounted for the increase in sodium in all the treatments. Hydroponic systems, which aim to remove sodium from effluent, need to be designed to minimize evaporation.
       
  • Effect of wastewater from a pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.) recirculated
           aquaculture system on hydroponic tomato production and quality
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Boris Delaide, Stefan Teerlinck, An Decombel, Peter Bleyaert Decoupled aquaponic systems (DAPS) use the wastewater of recirculated aquaculture systems (RAS) as water source for plant production in recirculated hydroponic systems. RAS wastewater is complemented with macro- and micronutrients to obtain equivalent concentrations and pH as in standard hydroponic nutrient solutions (NS). Unlike in single recirculating aquaponic systems, optimal growth conditions can be established in each production part of a DAPS (i.e. fish and plant parts) avoiding compromises. DAPS design seems more adapted for commercial farming operations but feasibility studies on large-scale systems are lacking. Therefore, the production of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. Foundation) grown in a NS based on complemented pikeperch RAS wastewater (i.e. AP treatment) has been compared to that of tomatoes grown in conventional hydroponic NS (i.e. HP treatment), in semi-practice conditions. During 3 consecutive years, tomatoes were grown on rockwool slabs, in a large-scale Venlo-type climate-controlled greenhouse, using a recirculated drip irrigation system identical to the ones used by the professionals of the hydroponic tomato sector.While the electroconductivity was significantly higher in the AP treatment due to the presence of NaCl in the RAS wastewater, no significant differences for the total and marketable fruit yields, fruit number, and size were found between the AP and HP treatments. However, while the level of blossom-end rot (BER) varied substantially (0.9–18.6 %) in the HP treatment, it was remarkably constant and low (0.2-0.4%) over the years in the AP treatment, suggesting a beneficial effect of RAS wastewater. Our results clearly indicate the suitability of complemented pikeperch RAS wastewater as feeding water for professional HP tomato production using drip irrigation for DAPS. As RAS water contains a diversity of microorganisms and dissolved organic matter, it is assumed that some of these acted as plant biostimulants and mitigated the salinity stress and the BER symptoms.
       
  • Disk-till vs. no-till maize grass- and alfalfa-reference single (average)
           and basal (dual) crop coefficients
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Suat Irmak, Meetpal S. Kukal Disk-till (DT) and no-till (NT) maize (Zea mays L.) water use, crop growth characteristics, and microclimatic differences have been shown to differ. With these differences, it becomes essential that maize be managed differently under these tillage practices in terms of irrigation, and hence, it is indispensable that tools to effectively implement irrigation management be developed. However, water management tools such as crop coefficients that account for tillage practices are extremely rare. To investigate and develop better management tools, this research aimed to develop single (average) (Kc) and basal (dual) (Kcb) daily grass- and alfalfa reference crop coefficients (Kco and Kcr, respectively) using measured crop evapotranspiration at two carefully and cautiously -managed producer fields (disk-till and no-till fields) at Holdrege, Nebraska for 2011, 2012, and 2013 growing seasons. Both Kc and Kcb differed among DT and NT maize in that NT maize showed lower Kc and Kcb during pre-anthesis and higher Kc and Kcb during post-anthesis, and the period of maximum Kc and Kcb occurred later in the crop growing season. Specifically, the magnitude of these differences in Kc values were 56%, 29%, 1%, 8%, 47%, and 41% for May, June, July, August, September, and October, respectively, i.e., greater in early and late season, but smaller in mid-season. Kcb presented similar trends within the season. Kcb exhibited 70% lower magnitudes than Kc, due to minimized evaporation effects on or around precipitation events and hence had reasonably strong relationship with leaf area index. Daily crop coefficients were correlated with two types of base scales: days after planting (DAP) and cumulative growing degree days (CGDD). It is demonstrated with evidence that CGDD was a better predictor of seasonal variation in Kc and Kcb. The relationships between Kc (both Kcr and Kco) and Kcb (both Kcbr and Kcbo) vs. DAP and CGDD for both DT and NT maize during the three growing seasons in the form of transferable polynomial equations were also presented. The crop coefficients for DT and NT maize and their estimation equations presented in this research are novel and have immense application in the task of accurate quantification of maize evapotranspiration and manage irrigation under these two contrasting tillage systems.
       
  • Effects of three irrigation systems on ‘Piel de sapo’ melon yield and
           quality under salinity conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Fernando Visconti, Alejandra Salvador, Pilar Navarro, José Miguel de Paz The melon crop is moderately sensitive to soil salinity and, as a consequence, its yield decreases under saline conditions. Nevertheless, the exposure to moderate salinity also influences the melon quality by improving it, which offers compensation to the farmer. As a consequence, in moderately salt-affected lands, like the traditional irrigation area of the ‘Vega Baja del Segura’ (Alicante, Spain), melons are being grown. In this area the modernization of the secular irrigation system through the replacement of flood by drip systems, is currently being fostered. This fact, however, is generating some controversy, due to the known salt leaching effect that flood irrigation followed by drainage makes in the soil. In this study, the effects of three irrigation systems, namely, drip (DI), subsurface drip (SDI) and flood (FI), on soil salinity and thus, on the yield and quality of the melon, were compared. According to the results, the FI system kept the soil salt levels during the growth period at 4.1 ± 0.3 dS/m, that is, significantly lower than the 4.7 ± 0.2 dS/m attained with the DI and SDI systems. Nevertheless, the DI and, overall, SDI, provided higher and more homogenous soil moisture completely counteracting the effect of salinity as revealed by the soil water potential calculations. As a result, the SDI gave 27 ± 5 Mg/ha of total yield in comparison to 23 ± 2 Mg/ha (DI) and 20 ± 6 Mg/ha (FI). Besides, the SDI system reduced the number of damaged melons, thus additionally contributing to the significant higher marketable yield of the SDI (25 ± 4 Mg/ha) in comparison to the DI (20 ± 1 Mg/ha) and the FI (19 ± 7 Mg/ha). On the contrary, in the SDI treatment the fruit soluble solids content, tritatable acidity and pulp firmness decreased a bit, however, in the sensory evaluation no differences among irrigation treatments were observed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Determining hydraulic characteristics in laterals and drip irrigation
           systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Diego Chamba, Sergio Zubelzu, Luis Juana Evaluation methods for functioning drip irrigation units are proposed to determine the hydraulic characteristics of emitters and pipelines. The aim of the study was to characterize the discharge curve of the emitters, their coefficient of variation, and the head losses in laterals and submains. In the laboratory, four laterals were tested under a wider range of pressure heads than the typical values of field installations. In additional, a field irrigation unit was evaluated. The discharge curve and coefficient of variation were determined in the unit with an accuracy similar to that obtained from laboratory experiments. For self-compensating emitters, a constant flow rate above the lower limit of the compensating range and an orifice-type discharge curve below that limit are proposed. For non-compensating emitters, an orifice-type discharge curve, with exponent x = 0.5, except for specific cases, is proposed. The manufacturing coefficient of variation was independent of pressure and relatively low for all the analysed emitters. Regarding the parameters of the local head losses, the equivalent length le presented values more independent of the flow than coefficient K. For the characterisation of laterals with self-compensating emitters, it is recommended to measure with the downstream end open to reduce the uncertainty in the experiments. The results show that the unit can be operated so that the average discharged flow and the uniformity can be matched just controlling the pressure head at upstream end point of the unit.
       
  • Effects of soil moisture on water transport, photosynthetic carbon gain
           and water use efficiency in tomato are influenced by evaporative demand
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Qingming Li, Min Wei, Yiman Li, Gaili Feng, Yaping Wang, Shuhao Li, Dalong Zhang Although deficit irrigation has long been recognized as a water-saving practice, the beneficial effects on crop production and on water use efficiency under varying atmospheric evaporative demands has rarely been examined. In the present study, the coordinated effects of soil moisture and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on photosynthetic carbon gain versus water transport and water use efficiency in tomato were addressed. Experiments were designed with factorial combinations of two levels of VPD and two gradients of soil moisture. Low VPD (VPD 
       
  • Effect of foliar seawater application on berry quality and ion
           distribution of ‘Kyoho’ grapevine yards
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): W.W. Zheng, H.Y. Xu, S.B. Hong, Y.B. Gao, K. Xu, Y.X. Zang Extensive research has been conducted over the years to investigate the diverse effects of seawater on many crop plants either by irrigation or foliar spray in an attempt to enhance the yield and quality. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the effects of foliar seawater application on berry quality and ion distribution of ‘Kyoho’ grape vineyards. A field experiment was conducted using diluted seawater starting at veraison followed by seven-day intervals between the treatments. While leaf contained K+ as much as Ca2+, which was at least eight times higher than Mg2+ and Na+, berry displayed different profiles as shown by significant decreases in K+ (22.4%) and Mg2+ (30.8%) with almost no changes in Ca2+ and Na+. Concentrations of cations were much higher than those of anions in control vineyard soil under this study. Foliar seawater treatment did not change the amounts of K+, Na+, HCO3−, and NO3− but significantly increased the amounts of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl− in vineyard soil. Declined ratios of K+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ were observed in both leaf and berry after foliar seawater application, but percentages in the declined ratios were significantly higher in leaf. In contrast to berry and leaf, vineyard soil had significantly increased ratios of Mg2+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ along with an unchanged ratio of K+/Na+ after foliar seawater application. Substantially decreased activities of antioxidant defensive enzymes (CAT, POD and APX) were observed in the post-seawater treatment leaves. Foliar seawater application resulted in high accumulation of proline, soluble proteins, and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as an improved soluble solid content (SSC), redness, and color index for red grapes (CIRG) in berries without losing weight, firmness and yield. Leaf SPAD (chlorophyll value of leaf), soluble sugar and starch in branch were not affected despite the elevated level of Cl- in soil by foliar seawater treatment. Taken all the results together, foliar seawater treatment starting at veraison could be useful for improving ‘Kyoho’ grape berry quality without affecting the vegetative growth under the soil conditions used in this study.
       
  • Developing a nitrogen load apportionment tool: Theory and application
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Anna Maria De Girolamo, Marinella Spanò, Ersilia D’Ambrosio, Giovanni Francesco Ricci, Francesco Gentile In this work, a new nitrogen load apportionment tool was developed to quantify the anthropogenic pressures from point sources and diffuse sources (DSs) on the water in a basin, and to identify the areas contributing most of the total nitrogen (TN). The model, which is an alternative approach to complex conceptual models, was tested in the Canale d’Aiedda Basin (SE Italy). It integrates the TN soil system budget (SSB), TN riverine export (NRE) and TN export coefficient modelling. The results of the SSB showed a TN surplus for productive land (∼60 kg ha−1 yr−1). Major TN inputs were derived from fertilisers (∼89 kg ha−1 yr−1, 77% of the total input) and animal manure (∼13 kg ha−1 yr−1, 11% of the total input). Crop uptake was the main output (∼39 kg ha−1 yr−1, 70% of the total output). NRE was estimated through the measurement of streamflow and TN concentrations in two stream sections. The average NRE per unit area of productive land was 5.22 kg ha−1 yr−1. Groundwater was the major receptor of the TN from DSs. The TN runoff export coefficients, estimated on the basis of environmental factors and calibrated with riverine load measurements, were lower than the TN leaching fractions. The results show that setting export coefficients based only on environmental factors, without any calibration, leads to an overestimation of TN load in runoff, and to an underestimation of TN load in leaching.
       
  • Effects of rainfall intensity and slope on sediment, nitrogen and
           phosphorous losses in soils with different use and soil hydrological
           properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): María Concepción Ramos, Ivan Lizaga, Leticia Gaspar, Laura Quijano, Ana Navas The aim of this research was to analyse the effect of rainfall intensity and slope on soil and nutrient losses by hydric erosion in soils with different hydrological characteristics. This research was carried out on soils collected from slopes with different land uses/covers (LU/LC) -forest, scrub, agricultural, afforested and barren land-, from a mountain area (Sierra de Santo Domingo in the South Pyrenean region), where intensive farming and land use changes including land abandonment and changes in soil cover have occurred.Soils were placed on erosion boxes (30 cm × 20 cm) and compacted to a bulk density similar to that measured in the field (slope values ranged between 10 and 20%). Soil properties such as organic matter content, soil texture and N and P contents were analysed (values used as concentration in the original soil). Soils were subjected to simulated rainfall with intensity values usually recorded in the area during storms. Runoff volumes were collected at 10 min intervals from the time that runoff was generated. The steady infiltration rate as well as the average runoff rates and soil losses were evaluated for each land use. In the runoff samples, sediment concentration and nutrients (N and P) were analysed using different aliquots. The comparative analysis of the results obtained under simulated rainfall in plots with soils from different land uses allowed determining the differences in contribution of each land use to soil and nutrient losses when they are subjected to similar rainfall intensities. The results showed that the maximum runoff rates were reached in agricultural soil and barren land after 40 min at low intensity and after about 20 min at high intensity. However, in soils under forest, scrub and afforestation, runoff rates were much lower for the same rainfall intensity and duration period. Soil sealing was the main factor reducing infiltration in the agricultural and in barren LU/LC soils, while in the other cases runoff was mainly produced after saturation. Soil losses were more than 10xtimes higher in barren land and in agricultural soils than in the other land uses. Nitrogen losses in agricultural soils were about 3 times higher than in forest, and scrub or in afforested LU/LC. Under high intensity rainfall, there was an enrichment ratio (ER) of nitrogen in the sediment in relation to the original soil, which was higher in scrub and agricultural lands (up to 1.33 and 1.32, respectively) than in the rest of land uses (1.1 on average). Phosphorous losses were mainly associated with soil particles and the land uses that gave rise to higher P losses was agricultural under any intensity, while P losses increased significantly in forest and afforested LU/LC at high intensity. The enrichment ratio (ER) was higher in agricultural soils (up to 1.82, increasing with intensity), forest and afforested LU/LC (1.33 and 1.16, respectively under high intensity) than in scrub (1.22) and barren lands (near 1). Information gained in this research can be of interest to manage mountain agroecosystems to limit N and P supply from headwaters to hydrological systems.
       
  • Impact of sum-of-hourly and daily timesteps in the computations of
           reference evapotranspiration across the Brazilian territory
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Daniel Althoff, Roberto Filgueiras, Santos Henrique Brant Dias, Lineu Neiva Rodrigues Estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo) in 24 h timesteps has been considered sufficiently accurate for a long time. However, recent advances in weather data acquisition has made it feasible to apply the hourly procedures in ETo computation. Hourly timesteps can improve ETo estimates accuracy, for data averaged daily may misrepresent evaporative power during parts of the day. Only a few studies have assessed vast databases, yet, studies considering tropical regions are basically inexistent. The objective of the present study was to assess the differences between daily ETo computations performed on 24 h (ETod) and hourly (EToh) timesteps for the Brazilian territory. Daily and hourly ETo computations were performed according to the standardized ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) Penman-Monteith equation. Large daily weather variations of meteorological parameters resulted in ETod generally underestimating EToh, while lower variations resulted in ETod overestimating. Overall, ETod overestimated EToh in 0.7%, with monthly percentage bias ranging from -3.9% to 2.9%. This study considered one year of data from 567 automatic weather stations and, despite acknowledging the existence of interannual climate variability, findings strongly agreed with relevant literature. ETod predominantly overestimated EToh during wet periods in warm regions. Thus, this behavior is observed almost year-round for the tropical monsoon and rainforest climate, in the Amazon and Pantanal biome. For the tropical savannah and semi-arid climate, ETod overestimated EToh during wetter periods (main crop harvest) but underestimated along the dry season (second harvest). On the other hand, ETod predominately underestimated EToh for colder regions, such as the Pampa (humid sub-tropical climate), regardless of rainfall. The Cerrado and Caatinga are likely to be affected most, for EToh is underestimated in periods of lower water availability, making adequate irrigation techniques fundamental.
       
  • Intelligent urban irrigation systems: Saving water and maintaining crop
           yields
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Brooke Mason, Martí Rufí-Salís, Felipe Parada, Xavier Gabarrell, Cyndee Gruden Intelligent irrigation is one sustainable solution to reduce demands on water resources and adverse environmental impacts from irrigation. Specific case studies have quantified water savings with intelligent irrigation, however, water savings have not yet been quantified for urban agriculture or compared across climates. Before urban agriculture implements intelligent irrigation, requiring an added cost and knowledge requirements of the control system, the effects of the system must first be estimated for a broad range of climatic conditions. We hypothesized that an intelligent irrigation system will decrease water use without reducing crop yield. With CROPWAT, we modeled an urban tomato garden irrigated conventionally to one irrigated intelligently in each of the nine climatic regions of the United States. Tomatoes were selected because they are sensitive to water stress. The intelligent irrigation system included a wireless sensor network and controllable valves. In addition, we created the Conventional-Scenario Intelligent-Scenario Index to compare the overall performance of an intelligent irrigation strategy to a conventional one. Our simulations showed that the intelligent irrigation scenario decreased water use on average by 59% in all sub-humid climates while maintaining yield (0% reduction). All sub-humid climates (7 of 9 total zones) fell within the “fair” to “good” index categories. Based on these results, urban agricultural sites should consider installing intelligent irrigation systems if they are in sub-humid climates. In the two semi-arid climates, our intelligent irrigation scenario eliminated the 6–10% crop yield reductions of the conventional scenario but did not reduce water consumption. Both locations fell within the “fair” index category. The minor improvements in the semi-arid climates may not outweigh the added system costs.
       
  • Corrigendum to “DRAINMOD-based tools for quantifying reductions in
           annual drainage flow and nitrate losses resulting from drainage water
           management on croplands in eastern North Carolina” [J. Agric. Water
           Manage. 166 (2016) 86–100]
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): L.M. Negm, M.A. Youssef, G.M. Chescheir, R.W. Skaggs
       
  • Water resource assessment, gaps, and constraints of vegetable production
           in Robit and Dangishta watersheds, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Abeyou W. Worqlul, Yihun T. Dile, Petra Schmitter, Jaehak Jeong, Manyowa N. Meki, Thomas J. Gerik, Raghavan Srinivasan, Nicole Lefore, Neville Clarke The vast majority of farmers in sub-Saharan Africa depend on rainfed agriculture for food production and livelihood. Various factors including but not limited to rainfall variability, land degradation, and low soil fertility constrain agricultural productivity in the region. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate the water resources potential to sustain small-scale irrigation (SSI) in Ethiopia during the dry season so as to expand food supply by growing vegetables, and 2) understand the gaps and constraints of vegetable production. The case studies were conducted in the Robit and Dangishta watersheds of the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. To document farmers’ cropping practices, field-level data were collected from 36 households who had been cultivating tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) during the dry season (November – April). Two components of the Integrated Decision Support System (IDSS) - the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) – were respectively used to assess impacts of SSI at the watershed and field-scale levels. Results suggest that there is a substantial amount of surface runoff and shallow groundwater recharge at the watershed scale. The field-scale analysis in the Robit watershed indicated that optimal tomato yield could be obtained with 500 mm of water and 200 to 250 kg/ha of urea applied with 50 kg/ha of diammonium phosphate (DAP). In Dangishta, optimum onion yield can be obtained with 400 mm of water and 120 to 180 kg/ha of urea applied with 50 kg/ha of DAP. The field-scale simulation indicated that the average shallow groundwater recharge (after accounting for other groundwater users such as household and livestock use) was not sufficient to meet tomato and onion water demand in the dry season (October to April). The field-scale analysis also indicated that soil evaporation attributed a significant proportion of evapotranspiration (60% for onion and 40% for tomato). Use of mulching or other soil and water conservation interventions could optimize irrigation water for vegetable production by reducing soil evaporation and thereby increasing water availability in the crop root zone.
       
  • Water stress affects the frequency of Firmicutes, Clostridiales and
           Lysobacter in rhizosphere soils of greenhouse grape
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Rui Zhang, Lijuan Chen, Zuirong Niu, Shuzhen Song, Yan Zhao The objective of this study was to identify the microbial community structures in rhizosphere soils of grapevine in protected cultivation and to assess the effects of soil water regulation on the main bacteria. Based on a two-year field test, soil samples from mild water stress and control (CK)treatments were collected during the flowering (FS) and early fruit development stages (ES) of grapes. Soil microbial community structures were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. The species composition (Observed species), species diversity index (Shannon, Simpson and PD_whole_tree), and community richness values (Chao1, ACE) under the mild water stress treatments at FS and ES were all significantly higher than under the CK treatment (P 
       
  • Optimizing irrigation frequency and amount to balance yield, fruit quality
           and water use efficiency of greenhouse tomato
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Hao Liu, Huanhuan Li, Huifeng Ning, Xiaoxian Zhang, Shuang Li, Jie Pang, Guangshuai Wang, Jingsheng Sun Vegetable production in many countries relies on irrigation. While increasing irrigation amount normally improves yield, too much water could jeopardize fruit quality and comprise profit. Optimizing irrigation frequency and amount is thus essential to ensuring yield increase without compromising fruit quality. This paper presents a three-year (2011–2013) experimental study on responsive changes in yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency (WUE) of tomato grown in greenhouse to different irrigation frequency and amount under drip irrigation. The irrigation scheduling was based on accumulative evaporation (AE) measured from a standard 20 cm pan. Three irrigation frequencies were considered in which irrigation was resumed when AE was 10 mm (I1), 20 mm (I2) and 30 mm (I3) respectively. Each frequency was associated with four irrigation amounts, which were 50% (Kcp1), 70% (Kcp2), 90% (Kcp3) and 110% (Kcp4) of AE respectively. Water consumption, yield characteristics and fruit quality of the plants in each treatment were measured. The three-year results show that for each irrigation amount, increasing irrigation frequency led to an increase in yield and WUE. Visual fruit-quality traits, including average weight, longitudinal and transverse diameter, increased with irrigation amount but not with irrigation frequency. It was found that a reduction in irrigation amount increased all other fruit quality characteristics except the sugar-organic acid ratio in 2013. Both yield and WUE increased asymptotically with irrigation amount before approaching their plateau when the irrigation amount reached 90% and 70% of AE respectively. While the yield was positively related to fruit size and negatively to soluble solid content, it was independent of WUE. The results from technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution analysis revealed that among all treatments, I1+Kcp2 was the optimal in terms of best balancing yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency. Principal component analysis found that the comprehensive fruit quality score was closely related to the total soluble solids content.
       
  • Photoselective nets impact apple sap flow and fruit growth
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): A. Boini, K. Bresilla, G.D. Perulli, L. Manfrini, L. Corelli Grappadelli, B. Morandi
       
  • Can intercropping with the Chinese medicinal herbs change the water use of
           the aged rubber trees'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Junen Wu, Huanhuan Zeng, Chunfeng Chen, Wenjie Liu Intercropping the medicine herbs (i.e., Amomum villosum and Clerodendranthus spicatus) with rubber tree in Xishuangbanna prefecture of southwestern China is regarded as a promising solution to reduce the negative hydrological effects which were caused by the monocultural cultivation of rubber tree and improve the sustainability of aged rubber plantation. However, the water-use characteristics of rubber tree in these agroforestry systems (AFSs) were still rarely reported, and our current understanding of the below-ground competition in such tree and herb AFSs is also insufficient. Therefore, we adopted the techniques of stable isotopes to study the water use efficiency (WUE; through leaf δ13C) and the water-absorbing patterns (through δ2H and δ18O) of the aged rubber trees and the intercropped herbs for the investigation of their water competition, and we also measured the contents of their leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to check the competition effects on the nutrient status of rubber tree. As the results of Bayesian mixing model (MixSIAR) suggested, the aged rubber trees in the rubber monoculture still absorbed the surface and shallow soil water (0–15 cm depths) mainly, same as the intercropped herbs in these AFSs, but rubber trees in the AFSs prefer to absorb the middle and deep soil water (below 15 cm depths). Such phenomenon verified that the water-absorbing patterns of these aged rubber trees were still flexible. However, the leaf δ13C of the rubber trees in these AFSs indicated their WUE was not improved through the intercropping, and thus the soil water content decreased in the AFSs. In short, intercropping the shallow roots medicine herbs (i.e., A. villosum and C. spicatus) can help the aged rubber trees use deeper soil water, and thus help the rubber tree and intercrops form complementary water-absorbing patterns in the pronounced dry season, but there is no improvement in their WUE and the soil water conditions. In addition, the decreased leaf N of rubber trees in the AFSs suggests that the N absorption of rubber trees was limited. Therefore, intercropping the medicine herbs with rubber tree still need more consideration on the design of such AFSs, especially in terms of the soil water conservation and management.
       
  • Enabling adaptation to water scarcity: Identifying and managing root
           disease risks associated with reducing irrigation inputs in greenhouse
           crop production – A case study in poinsettia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2019Source: Agricultural Water ManagementAuthor(s): Johanna Del Castillo Múnera, Bruk Belayneh, Andrew Ritsvey, Emmi E. Koivunen, John Lea-Cox, Cassandra L. Swett Greenhouse and nursery growers consume up to 19 thousand gallons of water per acre per day. Implementation of water conservation technologies to mitigate water resource depletion is imperative but recent studies indicate that associated drought stress may enhance losses from root diseases. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate and manage disease risks associated with reducing irrigation in commercial production of a containerized annual nursery crop (poinsettia), and to improve water-use efficiency without increasing losses from root disease. Results from a two-year commercial greenhouse trial of poinsettias indicate that minor reductions irrigation application vs. the standard practice (grower irrigation) resulted in 9.4% water savings without affecting Pythium root rot (Pythium aphanidermatum) (P = 0.13), although pathogen recovery from roots was 20% higher under reduced irrigation. When poinsettias were inoculated with P. aphanidermatum in controlled greenhouse experiments, plant health and pathogen infection incidence were unchanged when substrate volumetric water content (VWC) was reduced from 45% to 35%, with a 13.8% reduction in irrigation volume. However, incidence of plant decline increased by 50% under 25% VWC and shoot growth was significantly lower (P 
       
  • Seasonal basal crop coefficient pattern of young non-bearing olive trees
           grown in drainage lysimeters in a temperate sub-humid climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: 20 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 226Author(s): Lucía Puppo, Claudio García, Eduardo Bautista, Douglas J. Hunsaker, Andrés Beretta, Joan Girona Young non-bearing olive trees were grown in drainage lysimeters and their water consumption was measured over two consecutive yearly-experimental periods to analyze the effect ofseasonal variations on the basal crop coefficient (Kcb). Micro-lysimeter measurements were used to quantify soil evaporation (Es) and Es was subtracted from evapotranspiration (ETc) to determine transpiration. Monthly mean (Kcb) were determined as (ETc-Es)/ETo, where ETo is the FAO-PM grass-reference evapotranspiration, calculated from locally measured weather data. The observed Kcb value at mid-season, 0.38, was obtained in the fall months, with 41% of canopy cover. The mid-season Kcb when adjusted to the FAO-56 standard climate was 0.43. Seasonal patterns of Kcb are presented and the Kcb value during the mid-season growth-stage was found to be similar to those described in the literature for Mediterranean climates. Variation of the basal crop coefficient was satisfactorily explained by measured canopy light interception (FIR) and a linear regression model is presented for Kcb as a function of FIR.
       
 
 
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