Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 431, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 488, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agricultural Water Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.272
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 46  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0378-3774
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Agricultural water demands in Central Asia under 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C
           global warming
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Zhi Li, Gonghuan Fang, Yaning Chen, Weili Duan, Yerbolat MukanovAbstractIn the arid region of Central Asia, climate change leads not only to changes in water availability generated by glacier/snow melt in the alpine regions, but also to changes in water consumption. This paper evaluates agricultural water demand and water supply (represented by precipitation) for the five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) under global warming conditions of 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C. As Central Asia is more sensitive to climate change compared to the global average, the temperature is predicted to rise by 1.7 °C and 2.6 °C and precipitation to increase by 9 % and 12 % in global warming scenarios of 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C, respectively. The average crop water requirement (CWR) is expected to increase by 13 mm and 19 mm per year, respectively, under the global warming scenarios of 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C. A widening gap between water supply and water demand is expected compared to the historical period (1976–2005) under global warming scenario of 2.0 °C. Under global warming of 2.0 °C, the anticipated water gaps between precipitation and CWR are projected to increase by 2.8 × 108 m3 and 1.5 × 108 m3 for the rainfed north Kazakhstan region and the irrigated Fergana region while the increase of precipitation could able to meet the increase in CWR under global warming of 1.5 °C. Investigating the water balance for major planting areas in water-limited Central Asia could provide a scientific basis for sustainable development of the entire region.
       
  • Operational soil moisture modeling using a multi-stage approach based on
           the generalized complementary principle
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Nastiti Andini, Daeha Kim, Jong Ahn ChunAbstractA higher drought risk in Java Island is generally known than the other regions in Indonesia. Tracking soil moisture can be an alternative way to monitor drought rather than precipitation-based drought indices. The objective of this study was to assess root-zone water storage (defined by root-zone soil moisture contents) based on a linked approach between the generalized complementary relationship (GCR) and a single bucket model in Java Island. Since it does not require precipitation for estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa), the GCR allowed implementation of a simple single bucket model. The ETa and root-zone soil moisture estimated in this study were compared against the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) and the root-zone water storage additionally compared with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA5 reanalysis data products. Overall, the GCR ETa estimates were higher than those from GLEAM, and similar patterns of the root-zone water storage were found in the comparisons of both GLEAM and ERA5. The comparative evaluation suggests a further study on the adjustment of Priestley-Taylor coefficient value in Java for better application of the GCR. The soil moisture estimated by the single bucket model and the root-zone soil moisture products of GLEAM were highly correlated (0.8 or greater Pearson correlation coefficients). Low root-zone water storage and high ETa rates were found in eastern Java relative to the other areas, indicating high water shortage risks in dry season. This study found that El Niño clearly contributed to the variability of the root-zone water storage in Java especially in wet seasons (December to February). It is also suggested that the proposed approach can be useful to operationally provide soil water availability in Java from readily available meteorological observations.
       
  • Do crop price expectations matter' An analysis of groundwater pumping
           decisions in Western Kansas
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Kunlapath Sukcharoen, Bill Golden, Mallory Vestal, Bridget GuerreroAbstractThe Ogallala Aquifer is the main water resource for irrigated agricultural production in much of Western Kansas. It is hypothesized that as crop price expectations increase, producers will apply more water to increase yields in order to maximize profit. Using field-level panel data on groundwater pumped for irrigation in Western Kansas, this paper examines whether irrigated producers’ groundwater pumping decisions are consistent with the profit maximization framework by empirically testing if crop price expectations have a positive impact on the quantity of groundwater pumped. In general, the empirical results indicate that crop price expectations have no statistically significant impact on the quantity of groundwater pumped per acre. This suggests that groundwater pumping decisions are not consistent with the profit maximization framework and that irrigated producers consider groundwater as a fixed input possibly due to limited availability of groundwater in the area. Our econometric analysis also suggests that only a small portion of rainfall is effective.
       
  • Seed priming alleviated salinity stress during germination and emergence
           of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Faride Feghhenabi, Hashem Hadi, Habib Khodaverdiloo, Martinus Th. van GenuchtenAbstractSeed priming is known to often alleviate salinity stress during seed emergence and subsequent crop growth. This study compares the effects of salinity stress on the germination and emergence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds untreated (control) and primed with ascorbic acid (Asc), potassium silicate (K2SiO3), proline (Pro), spermidine (Spd) and Lake Urmia saline water (LUsw). Saline water from Lake Urmia (Iran) was diluted to produce salinities with electrical conductivities (EC) of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 20 dS m−1, while distilled water (EC ≈ 0 dS m−1) was used for the control. Two independent sets of experiments were conducted. The first experiments were used to select the most effective concentration of each priming agent based on the final germination percentage (GP) and germination rate (GR). The second set of experiments aimed to analyze the measured data in terms of salinity response functions in order to quantitatively determine the most effective priming agent(s). The first experiments showed that the most effective concentrations of Spd (0.5 mM), Pro (25 mM), K2SiO3 (1.5 mM) and LUsw (100 mg L−1) mitigated the negative impacts of salinity on GR by 32, 18, 17 and 22 %, respectively. The second experiment showed that the Maas and Hoffman (1977) and van Genuchten and Hoffman (1984) salinity response functions provided effective descriptions of seedling and early growth response to salinity stress. Mean values of the salinity threshold (EC*) and the salinity at which a given trait was reduced by 50 percent (EC50) in these functions were 3.4 and 10.8 dS m−1 for the control, respectively. By comparison, the EC* values for the K2SiO3, Pro, Spd and LUsw primed seeds were 5.3, 4.5, 4.7, and 4.2 dS m−1, respectively, and the EC50 values were 12.4, 11.4, 11.9, and 9.4 dS m−1, respectively. The beneficial effects of K2SiO3 on seedling growth were more evident than those of the other priming agents. K2SiO3 had the highest effect on EC* and EC50 of the vitality index (VI), showing increases of 151 and 34 %, respectively. The highest increases of EC* and EC50 for seedling dry weight (72 and 24 %, respectively) were obtained with Spd and K2SiO3. The findings provide much insight on relieving the negative effects of salinity through cost-effective seed priming operations so as to improve the production of wheat under saline conditions.
       
  • Water stress alters physical and chemical quality in grains of common
           bean, triticale and wheat
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Alberto do Nascimento Silva, Maria Lucrecia Gerosa Ramos, Walter Quadros Ribeiro, Ernandes Rodrigues de Alencar, Patrícia Carvalho da Silva, Cristiane Andrea de Lima, Christina Cleo Vinson, Marcos Antonio Vanderlei SilvaAbstractWheat, triticale and common bean are planted in both irrigated and rainfed conditions and may suffer the effects of water stress in both situations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of water stress on the physical and chemical qualities of wheat (Triticum aestivum), triticale (Triticosecale wittmack) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grains. The experiment was conducted at the Embrapa Cerrados experimental station, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four replications. The treatments were composed of four water regimes (187 mm, 304 mm, 410 mm, 535 mm) applied to common bean (BRS Realce), two wheat genotypes (CPAC 0544 and BRS 404) and triticale (BRS Ulisses). The physical quality of grains was evaluated by the weight of a thousand grains (WTG) and color of the grains (represented by the luminosity (L*), chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*); the chemical quality was determined by protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, macro and microminerals contents. Water stress reduced grain yield of all species, however it did not reduce the weight of one thousand grains of the wheat genotype BRS 404, showing the potential of this cultivar, though it did lead to reduced WTG in common bean, triticale and the wheat genotype CPAC 0544. There was also a reduction of luminosity (L*) in the grains for both studied wheat genotypes, and chroma (C*) and hue angle (h*) for triticale. Water deficit also affected protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash contents, with an increase in the protein content and a reduction in the carbohydrate and ash contents in common bean. In general, water stress reduced macro and micromineral contents in the grains, caused an undesirable change in the physical quality of the grains, and affected the chemical quality of the grains.
       
  • Assessment of agricultural land suitability for irrigation with reclaimed
           water using geospatial multi-criteria decision analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Manashi Paul, Masoud Negahban-Azar, Adel Shirmohammadi, Hubert MontasAbstractWater scarcity, climate variability and continuing growth in water demand have put severe pressure on high‐quality freshwater sources. This challenge exacts the necessity to explore alternative water sources for agricultural irrigation. The objective of this study was to implement the integrated geospatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the potentiality of reclaimed water use for agricultural irrigation in California. Five evaluation criteria included in this study were agricultural land (crop type), climate conditions, water policies, irrigation status, and proximity to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) respectively. The suitability maps for reclaimed water use were generated for three cases in terms of accessibility to WWTPs, their discharge volume and appropriate treatment processes respectively. In addition, a composite suitability map was produced using the hybrid model considering all three cases together. Results from this study led to a better understanding of sustainable reclaimed water use for crop irrigation at a regional level. It provided supporting evidence of the applicability of the GIS-MCDA method integrated with AHP technique for a larger geographical scale with a diverse crop pattern. This study established the importance of using both knowledge-based and data-driven criteria and sub-criteria in the decision framework. The results also highlighted how the spatial distribution of suitable areas for reclaimed water reuse is closely linked to the agricultural areas.
       
  • Cover crops reduce drainage but not always soil water content due to
           interactions between rainfall distribution and management
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Nicolas Meyer, Jacques-Eric Bergez, Julie Constantin, Paul Belleville, Eric JustesAbstractCover crops are a potential component of agroecological cropping systems, since they may render crop rotations more sustainable. They simultaneously provide multiple ecosystem services, such as decreasing nitrate leaching, decreasing erosion, and increasing soil organic matter. However, cover crops increase evapotranspiration and reduce drainage, which results in a potential disservice for groundwater recharge. Little attention has focused on management of cover crop residues after destruction or their influence on water flux dynamics, particularly in dry and temperate climates. The objective of our study was to analyze and quantify the impact of cover crop management on soil water content and water flux dynamics to understand the main mechanisms of system functioning. We combined a two-year field experiment with crop-model simulations. We performed the field experiment in southwestern France that compared three cover crop treatments, with bare soil as the control. The treatments included (1) living cover crops lasting ca. 9 months from August-April, (2) crushing cover crops in November and leaving them as mulch on the soil, and (3) plowing up cover crops in November to promote residue decomposition and the green manure effect. The STICS soil-crop model was used to predict water fluxes that were not measured and to perform a 20-year independent simulation study based on recent climate series for the experimental site. Our main results indicated that cover crops (1) always reduce water drainage by 20-60 mm compared to that under bare soil; and (2) could significantly reduce soil water content (0-120 cm deep) for the next cash crop by a mean of 20-50 mm, and up to 80 mm in dry spring conditions, but early destruction could decrease this negative impact. The simulations clearly showed that the interaction between climate variability, i.e., rainfall distribution during the fallow period, and cover crop management should be considered to explain the impact of inter-annual variability on the water balance. Thus, destroying cover crops mechanically in late autumn and retaining the residues as mulch could be a good compromise between the multiple services the cover crop provides during the fallow period and avoiding the negative impact on soil water availability for the next cash crop.
       
  • Irrigation performance under alternative field designs in a spate
           irrigation system with large field dimensions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): E. Fadul, I. Masih, C. De Fraiture, F.X. SuryadiAbstractThe sustainability of spate-irrigated agriculture in a semi-arid climate depends on efficient use of irrigation water. Thus, efficient capture and storage of soil moisture in the field are crucial for sustained productivity. The main objective of this study is to examine the performance of improved field design strategies to manage variable irrigation water supply and application time in the Gash agricultural scheme (GAS) in eastern Sudan where open-end border irrigation is practiced to irrigate large fields with variable sizes that range from 250 to 1250 ha. Irrigation performance was examined using the WinSRFR model for a large-sized field (8400 m × 500 m), continuously irrigated for 25 days but also under alternative designs and irrigation times. The performance was evaluated using efficiency, adequacy and uniformity criteria. The results demonstrate that the current irrigation practices are quite inefficient but could be substantially improved by adopting alternative design and operational strategies. A vertical division of the field (8400 m × 250 m) under the average inflow condition could result in a substantial increase in application efficiency (from less than 50% to over 70%), distribution uniformity (from 0.34 to 0.87), and irrigation adequacy (from 0.68 to 1). Additionally, the fields could be irrigated in considerably less time when an alternate irrigation schedule between two equally divided fields is followed, which indicated time savings of 40 % under a high inflow rate scenario (occurring during a large flood season), and a 20% reduction in time under an average inflow rate scenario (occurring during a medium flood season). Therefore, this modelling study has demonstrated a great potential to significantly improve irrigation performance by applying alternative field designs and operation strategies in the GAS. The modelling outcomes confirmed that the farmers’ indigenous experiment, though without a scientific study, on the vertical division of a large-sized field is indeed successful in improving irrigation performance, and could be adopted in other similar conditions.
       
  • Field assessment of interreplicate variability from eight electromagnetic
           soil moisture sensors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Tsz Him Lo, Daran R. Rudnick, Jasreman Singh, Hope Njuki Nakabuye, Abia Katimbo, Derek M. Heeren, Yufeng GeAbstractInterreplicate variability—the spread in output values among units of the same sensor subjected to essentially the same condition—can be a major source of uncertainty in sensor data. To investigate the interreplicate variability among eight electromagnetic soil moisture sensors through a field study, eight units of TDR315, CS616, CS655, HydraProbe2, EC5, 5TE, and Teros12 were installed at a depth of 0.30 m within 3 m of each other, whereas three units of AquaSpy Vector Probe were installed within 3 m of each other. The magnitude of interreplicate variability in volumetric water content (θv) was generally similar between a static period near field capacity and a dynamic period of 85 consecutive days in the growing season. However, a wider range of variability was observed during the dynamic period primarily because interreplicate variability in θv increased sharply whenever infiltrated rainfall reached the sensor depth. Interreplicate variability for most sensors was thus smaller if comparing θv changes over several days that excluded this phenomenon than if comparing θv directly. Among the sensors that also reported temperature and/or apparent electrical conductivity, the sensors exhibiting the largest interreplicate variability in these outputs were characterized by units with consistently above or below average readings. Although manufacturers may continue to improve the technology in and the quality control of soil moisture sensors, users would still benefit from paying greater attention to interreplicate variability and adopting strategies to mitigate the consequences of interreplicate variability.
       
  • Mitigating drought stress in sesame by foliar application of salicylic
           acid, beeswax waste and licorice extract
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Nasibeh Pourghasemian, Rooholla Moradi, Mehdi Naghizadeh, Tommy LandbergAbstractThis study evaluated the effects of salicylic acid (SA), beeswax waste extract (BWE) and licorice extract (LE) as novel biostimulants, on drought-induced oxidative stress on sesame. The treatments consisted of three drought stress conditions (full irrigation, 90 % field capacity (FC); moderate stress, 60 % FC; and severe stress, 30 % FC) together with four exogenous foliar applications (control, water; LE, 5000 ppm; BWE, 2000 ppm; and SA, 1.5 mM). Plants subjected to drought stress displayed significant reduction in plant height, leaf area index, biological and seed yield, chlorophyll a and b content, quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (Tr) and water use efficiency (WUE). Drought stress stimulated Malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, protein and carotenoid contents, and catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity, while the exogenous foliar application of substances mitigated the oxidative damages. The alleviated effect of BWE on drought stress was more effective than those of LE and SA. In conclusion, it could be recommended that the application of the natural substances may lead to overcoming the negative effects of drought stress by regulating osmoprotectants content and antioxidant defense system, increasing mineral nutrients in plant organs and adjusting photosynthesis systems; consequently, contributing to improving the sesame productivity.
       
  • Ridge-furrow planting promotes wheat grain yield and water productivity in
           the irrigated sub-humid region of China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2020Source: Agricultural Water ManagementAuthor(s): Yang Liu, Xueling Zhang, Luoyan Xi, Yuncheng Liao, Juan HanAbstractDetermining methods for increasing irrigation water productivity is important for sustaining high wheat grain yields in the irrigated region of the Loess Plateau in China. Plastic-covered ridge and furrow planting has been widely applied in dryland farming, as it markedly increases precipitation productivity and crop yields. However, whether this planting system can significantly increase irrigation water productivity and whether it can reduce the irrigation volume for high-yielding wheat production in irrigated regions of the Loess Plateau are unclear. In the present study, plastic-covered ridge and furrow planting and traditional flatbed planting were performed at four irrigation levels. The objective was to investigate whether applying plastic-covered ridge and furrow planting to an irrigated farmland system could reduce the irrigation water requirements and increase water productivity for high-yielding wheat production. The results suggested that plastic-covered ridge and furrow planting significantly increased soil moisture content and increased both grain yield and water productivity of wheat. At the 0, 400, 1200, and 2000 m3 ha−1 irrigation levels, compared with that resulting from traditional flatbed planting, the grain yield resulting from plastic-covered ridge and furrow planting was 51.7 %, 64.8 %, 25.5 %, and 5.84 % greater, respectively. At the high-grain-yield level (6–7 t ha−1), the plastic-covered ridge and furrow planting system at 1200 m3 ha−1 irrigation conserved 40 % of irrigation water during wheat production. And it coordinated the relationships among grain yield, quality, water protuctivity and for wheat production. These findings show that the plastic-covered ridge and furrow planting system with 1200 m3 ha-1 irrigation is suitable for sustainable high-yielding wheat production in the irrigated regions of the Loess Plateau of China.
       
  • A sustainable irrigation water management framework coupling water-salt
           processes simulation and uncertain optimization in an arid area
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Xuemin Li, Chenglong Zhang, Zailin Huo, Adebayo J. AdeloyeAbstractField irrigation water management depends on interactions among crop yield, soil water/salt and groundwater/salt in arid irrigation area with shallow-saline groundwater. This paper presents a novel uncertainty simulation-optimization framework for irrigation water allocation and sustainable agricultural environment, which integrates simulation of physical processes of soil-groundwater water and salt balance into an uncertainty-based optimization model. The impacts of crop evapotranspiration, soil water and salt and groundwater levels are interactively involved in the simulation model. Uncertainties (economic and crop parameters, available water amount) presented as fuzzy boundary intervals and probability distribution functions are considered in the optimization model. This field irrigation water allocation framework emphasizes the role of field soil water and salt movement processes to decision-making of irrigation water allocation. Then, the proposed simulation-optimization framework was applied to a case study in the Hetao Irrigation District, an arid area of northwest China where soil salinity is a serious environmental problem induced by irrigation and shallow groundwater. Therefore, optimal irrigation water allocation solutions can be generated for providing decision makers with reliable decision options where the maximum system benefits resulting from sustainable agricultural production are desired. Furthermore, the results can support analysis of interrelationships among system benefits, water allocation planning and groundwater depth, soil salt content constraints. Scenario analysis (groundwater table depth (GTD) = 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 m and no groundwater exchange consideration) showed that the maximum net benefit could be [27469, 44818] Yuan with the groundwater table depth of 1.5 m. Also, the irrigation water allocation changed when the salt constraint was considered, which indicates that the results obtained by the developed framework can alleviate soil salinization to a certain degree. Therefore, this framework can provide more effective information for the irrigation water management and soil salinization control, which is meaningful for the sustainable development of irrigation agriculture.
       
  • Direct root-zone irrigation outperforms surface drip irrigation for grape
           yield and crop water use efficiency while restricting root growth
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Xiaochi Ma, Karen A. Sanguinet, Pete W. JacobyAbstractDirect root-zone irrigation is a novel subsurface drip irrigation strategy for water conservation. However, a comparison with traditional irrigation methods is lacking to better define the potential advantages of direct root-zone irrigation. A two-year study was conducted to evaluate the performance of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon under direct root-zone irrigation and surface drip irrigation in a commercial vineyard with loamy sand soil in a semi-arid region of southcentral Washington State, USA. Plant water status, root traits, grape yield, berry morphology and composition, and crop water use efficiency were compared between irrigation methods under three irrigation rates. Compared to surface drip irrigation, direct root-zone irrigation improved grape yield by 9–12% and crop water use efficiency by 9–11% under varied climate conditions with minor effects on berry composition, which could be potentially adjusted by irrigation rate. Moreover, grapevines irrigated through direct root-zone irrigation had 48–67% and 50–54% decrease in root number, respectively, at high and moderate irrigation rates in the upper soil profile (0–60 cm) with a decrease in water stress as revealed by higher midday stem water potential. Irrigation rate was the major factor influencing berry morphology. In fact, reduced irrigation resulted in a decrease in weight, size and number of berries. We conclude that direct root-zone irrigation could be a successful tool for improving yield and crop water use efficiency, potentially encouraging deep rooting to alleviate the water stress in grapevine under seasonal drought, and offering the ability to modify berry morphology and composition by adjusting the amount of water use.
       
  • Insights from socio-hydrological modeling to design sustainable wastewater
           reuse strategies for agriculture at the watershed scale
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Hanseok Jeong, Rabin Bhattarai, Jan Adamowski, David J. YuAbstractWastewater reuse in agriculture can be a viable option to solve future freshwater shortages but may need an additional treatment process (Stage-II) to become a safe option. As wastewater reuse interacts with many facets of coupled human and water systems, the introduction of Stage-II treatment systems in wastewater reuse in agriculture must be understood in terms of socio-hydrology. This paper builds on a place-based socio-hydrological model of a wastewater-reused watershed in South Korea and uses it to: (1) identify key parameters in human and water systems that have a significant impact on wastewater reuse in agriculture; (2) explore the impacts of changing agricultural environments by altering the key parameters; and (3) develop the possibility space of future changes from current decision-making. Key parameters concern the characteristics of urbanization, domestic water use, and greenhouse cultivation. Urbanization can reduce the demand for Stage-II irrigation within an urbanizing watershed by reducing irrigation areas and increasing water availability. Domestic water use has a large impact on the economics of indirect wastewater reuse. Greenhouse cultivation influences the demand for Stage-II irrigation, mainly by reducing water availability. Moreover, it could further affect the demand if the communities evolved to have a greater concern for the use of groundwater resources. The possibility space shows that wastewater reuse has a strong influence on groundwater and could relieve agricultural water deficits through the diversification of irrigation sources, and could be a more economical irrigation practice than groundwater irrigation under changing agricultural environments.
       
  • Agricultural utilization and vegetation establishment on saline-sodic
           soils using a water–salt regulation method for scheduled drip irrigation
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Xiaobin Li, Yaohu KangAbstractReclamation of saline-sodic soils for agricultural and vegetation ecological establishment is an important way to solve food and environmental problems, especially in developing countries. A water–salt regulation method using scheduled drip irrigation to control the soil matric potential (SMP) at a depth of 0.2 m immediately under drip emitters was proposed and the application effect of the method applied in field experiments was evaluated for reclamation of saline-sodic wasteland at five sites with different climates, land-use objectives, and planting patterns. A low-salinity environment was created in the whole soil profile, especially in the root zone, and the salt leaching process was divided into three stages: rapid desalination, slow desalination, and salt stabilization. The soil environment was improved with reclamation time, resulting in improved land productivity, crop yields at levels close to those in local farmland after 2–3 years, and good landscape vegetation ecosystems were created by establishment of artificial vegetation and natural germination of seeds in the soil seed bank. Soil alkalization should receive some attention during the salt leaching process because it may affect the growth of acid-loving plants. In addition, the low survival rates for salt-sensitive/non-salt tolerant landscape plants in the early reclamation period led to the creating a non-saline soil environment by adding non-saline soils into planting holes. Overall, the water–salt regulation method to control SMP immediately under scheduled drip irrigation emitters is suited for saline-sodic soils restoration, and some suggestions were proposed for its better application according to the field experiments.
       
  • Analytical approach extending the Granier method to radial sap flow
           patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Giorgio Baiamonte, Antonio MotisiAbstractThe Granier thermal dissipation (TD) method is probably the most applied method to compute the transpiration flux of trees, due to its simplicity and effective compromise between theory and data availability. Starting from the heat transfer equations at the basis of Granier’s method, the objective of this paper is to derive an analytical solution for the transpiration flux to extend the sap flow equations to the radial domain. We adopted a flexible approach to cope with the differences in radial sapflow density (SFD) profile shapes that are known to occur in relation to wood anatomy (diffuse porous vs. ring- or non-porous xylem). With this purpose, we investigated the robustness of the equations developed on some experimental and reliable radial SFD measurements available in literature to test the influence of considering or not considering the active zone close to the cambium, where most of the species-specific differences are likely to be observed. Moreover, the parameters derived by the extended formulation, are interpreted as descriptive of species-specific radial sap flow patterns. The reliability of the suggested procedure was checked against several experimental SFD profiles from literature: i) monotonically increasing SFD from the centre of the stem towards the cambium, ii) increasing SFD from the centre of the stem and then constant SFD towards the cambium, and iii) increasing SFD from the centre of the stem to a maximum SFD and then decreasing towards the cambium. Results show that according to the suggested procedure, an increasing number of parameters depending on the SFD profile complexity are required to synthetically describe the transpiration flux of different tree species. For the simplest case of monotonically increasing SFD, which could be assumed as standard under conditions of a diffuse porous tree structure, only two parameters with a clear physical meaning are required.
       
  • Climate-driven constraints in sustaining future wheat yield and water
           productivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 231Author(s): Mirza Junaid Ahmad, Muhammad Anjum Iqbal, Kyung Sook ChoiAbstractConceptualising wheat growth, yield and water productivity (WP) relationships with future climate change is necessary for sustainable agriculture and food security. This study assessed the climate change influences on wheat yield and WP with and without CO2 enrichment under semi-arid conditions. Statically bias-corrected climate change projections were coupled with AquaCrop model v5.0 to predict the wheat growth-span, yield and WP variations in Punjab, Pakistan. Acute wheat seasonal warming, characterised by sharp Tmin increase than Tmax, and substantial rainfall drops lead to short growth-spans and prompt ample yield reductions. However, CO2 enrichment promises to offset the negative wheat yield trends. Higher wheat yield vulnerability was detected for the late-season climate warming during the grain-filling stage. Wheat yield reduction and the limited influence of beneficial CO2-enrichment caused the future WP to decline consistently. CO2 enrichment featured a noteworthy mitigation role in sustaining and improving future wheat yield and WP. In conclusion, CO2 enrichment could impart some beneficial influences to wheat yield and WP, but would not fully eliminate the negative impacts of future climate warming under semi-arid conditions of Punjab, Pakistan. The reliability of such estimates demands a further in-depth examination of crop yield responses to carbon–temperature–water interactions under various field management conditions.
       
  • Replacing summer fallow with annual forage improves crude protein
           productivity and water use efficiency of the summer fallow-winter wheat
           cropping system
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Jianqiang Deng, Zhixin Zhang, Zhiting Liang, Zhou Li, Xianlong Yang, Zikui Wang, Jeffrey A. Coulter, Yuying ShenAbstractDiversifying the summer fallow (F)-winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (W) cropping system by replacing summer fallow with forage crops could increase forage yield and precipitation use efficiency in the Loess Plateau region of China. However, its influence on protein productivity is unclear and it is unknown whether improvement in protein productivity will increase soil water extraction and economic input. A three-year (2011–2013) field experiment was conducted to investigate the rotational effect on system productivity, economic benefit, and sustainability when summer fallow was replaced with forage rape (Brassica napus L.) (R) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) (V). Results showed that the rotation system with forage crops did not alter soil water storage of subsequent winter wheat. Compared with the FWFW rotation system, the rotation system with forage crops improved precipitation use efficiency of crude protein yield (PUECP) and system water use efficiency of crude protein yield (WUECP) by 20 and 28% respectively. The greatest crude protein productivity (CPyield) was achieved with the RWRW rotation system, followed by the FWRW and RWVW systems, and CPyield with these systems was 51, 21, and 36% greater than that with the FWFW system, respectively (P 
       
  • Irrigation, crop stress and drainage reduction under uncertainty: A
           scenario study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): F.D. Mondaca-Duarte, S. van Mourik, J. Balendonck, W. Voogt, M. Heinen, E.J. van HentenAbstractTwo thirds of human water use is linked to agricultural practices including crop irrigation. Furthermore, excess irrigation leads to drainage problems. For this reason, reduced irrigation strategies need to be implemented to protect water resources. However, low irrigation may lead to crop water stress. A fast and inexpensive way to predict the necessary amount of irrigation required is by a model-based approach. With this approach, it is possible to explore the relation between irrigation, crop water stress and drainage. However, parameter uncertainty can reduce prediction accuracy. Therefore, the aims of this research were: (1) to develop and test a methodology that allows the analysis of uncertainty sources in irrigation strategies (2) to identify how much irrigation can be reduced while maintaining a low risk of crop stress, and (3) to explore the influence of uncertainty in soil parameters and evapotranspiration on model predictions. Results from a realistic case considered in this study indicated that, while maintaining a low risk of crop stress (
       
  • State-based open-loop control of plant growth by means of water stress
           training
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Friederike Kögler, Dirk SöffkerAbstractIn this paper a first evidence is provided that the targeted control of adaptive plant behavior for irrigation purposes is possible. The objective is aligning plant growth to water availability (and not vice versa) and utilizing training mechanisms to affect the relation between water use and plant growth. The approach is based on the experimental specification of two water deficit-related behavioral patterns: memory of stress and point of no return (damage). Mild stress duration has to be shorter than 2.7 days to avoid irreversible growth rate reduction (maximum stress duration time). Water stress information is stored (memorized) by the plant for three days at most (maximum water stress memory time). Therefore, adequate stress stimuli have to be repeated within this period to maintain training effect. Exceeding maximum memory time without stimulus results in a drop of water-based growth performance (growth [cm]water [g]) back to the level of untrained plants. In control experiments two different plant growth performance ranges were identified: ‘Hydrological time’ performance range without activated memory, and ‘usage-bound’ performance range in memorized states. ‘Usage-bound’ growth performance range shows 47 % higher water-based growth performance than ‘hydrological time’-based. An open-loop control approach is developed to control growth and water consumption using the intended alternation between the two performance ranges. The plant behavior due to water stress is modelled as a state machine (method of a conditioned automaton (control engineering)) representing directly the control algorithm. Based on the statistical validation results it can be concluded that training plants with intended stress sequences allows the control of plant growth and water use.
       
  • Biomass accumulation and distribution, yield formation and water use
           efficiency responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to nitrogen supply methods
           under partial root-zone irrigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Dongliang Qi, Tiantian Hu, Tingting LiuAbstractFacing with the scarcity of water resource and irrational fertilizer use, it is highly important to supply plants with water and fertilizer in a coordination pattern to improve yield with high water use efficiency (WUE). A field experiment was conducted in 2012 and 2014 to investigate the effect of N supply methods on biomass accumulation and distribution, yield components and WUE of maize (Zea mays L.) under different partial root-zone irrigations in the Hexi corridor of Northwest China. Three irrigation methods included alternate furrow irrigation (AI), fixed furrow irrigation (FI) and conventional furrow irrigation (CI). Three N supply methods included alternate N supply (AN), fixed N supply (FN) and conventional N supply (CN), were applied in combination with each irrigation method. Leaf area index (LAI), shoot biomass and root length density at different growth stages, yield components, biomass distribution in different shoot organs and WUE of maize were determined. Results showed that, LAI at the R1, R2 and R4 stages, shoot biomass at the R6 stage, grain yield, harvest index (HI) and WUE of maize were significantly increased by AN or CN compared to FN in each irrigation method as well as by AI compared to CI and FI in each N supply method. Compared to CI coupled with CN (CICN), AI coupled with AN or CN (AIAN or AICN) significantly increased the LAI, shoot biomass, grain yield and WUE of maize. The biomass distribution proportion in kernel and contribution rate of the biomass transfer from other shoot organ to grain were also increased by AIAN and AICN, resulting in significantly higher HI. These increased shoot biomass accumulation and WUE were related to the enhanced LAI and root growth. AIAN and AICN also achieved a greater kernels number per cob and 1000-kernel weight compared to CICN. Thus, AI coupled with CN or AN are proposed as a better pattern of irrigation and nitrogen application with positive regulative effects on shoot biomass accumulation and distribution and WUE in the Hexi Corridor area of Northwest China and other regions with similar environments. These results can also provide a basis for in-depth understanding of the mechanism of biomass accumulation and growth responses to nitrogen supply methods.
       
  • Deficit irrigation during the oil synthesis period affects olive oil
           quality in high-density orchards (cv. Arbequina)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): J.M. García, A. Hueso, M. Gómez-del- CampoAbstractThe effect of 4 irrigation doses during the oil synthesis (from the end of August until harvest) on virgin olive oil quality was evaluated in high-density orchards of the cv. Arbequina. The control treatment (T1) kept a humidity bulb close to the field capacity. Three deficit irrigation treatments (T2, T3 and T4) were applied during oil synthesis, providing 68, 40, and 17 % of T1, respectively. The olive fruits were harvested and their oil was extracted and analyzed. Plant water status (Ψstem), oil production, fruit characteristics and fruit temperature were measured. During 2012 mild water stress was produced in a less irrigated treatment T4 (mean Ψstem -2.39 MPa) and deficit irrigation did not affect most of the oil quality parameters. However, in 2013 a higher stress was observed in T4 (-4.76 MPa) and the oil showed higher values for K232, K270, carotenoids, chlorophylls, α-Tocopherols, β-Tocopherols, total tocopherols, palmitoleic acid, estearic acid, and linoleic acid, but lower oil stability than T1. In 2013 hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, acetoxypinoresinol, ferulic acid, luteolin and apigenin contents were higher under low stress treatment, producing oil fruitier and more pungent. The total phenol content was the most sensitive oil parameter to water stress and in both years it was significantly higher in the most irrigated treatments. Increasing stress conditions (lower Ψstem) coincided with lower values for oleic, phenols and oxidative stability. However, this stress induced higher vitamin contents (A, E and F). Considering that ‘Arbequina’ oil is characterized by low values for total phenol, oleic acid and oxidative stability, high tree hydration (>-2.21 MPa) should be maintained during oil synthesis for maximum oil production, oxidative stability, oleic acid and high phenol content.
       
  • Extensive comparison of various infiltration estimation methods for furrow
           irrigation under different field conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Hamed Ebrahimian, Parisa Ghaffari, Arezoo N. Ghameshlou, Sayyed-Hassan Tabatabaei, Amin Alizadeh DizajAbstractAccurate estimation of infiltration coefficients in surface irrigation is essential for proper design, reducing water losses, preventing erosion and increasing water use efficiency. This study was conducted to evaluate various methods for estimating the coefficients of infiltration equations. We have selected 17 different methods with better performance based on previous studies, out of many methods which have been introduced for infiltration estimation. In order to compare the methods, 50 furrow data sets were selected which are different based on field and irrigation conditions. The results indicated that the performance of the infiltration estimation methods is variable because of various field conditions and required data requirements. Amongst the two-point methods, the Elliott and Walker method, with an average Relative Error (RE) of 16 %, the Vatankhah et al. method (RE = 16 %) between one-point methods and the Multilevel Calibration method (RE = 18 %) as compared with other computer-based models were concluded as the most accurate methods for estimating infiltration coefficients. The sensitivity analyses indicated that variations in relative error for estimating infiltration parameters are a function of soil texture, furrow length, inflow discharge and field slope.
       
  • Effects of CO2 fertilization on tomato fruit quality under
           reduced irrigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Xin Yang, Peng Zhang, Zhenhua Wei, Jie Liu, Xiaotao Hu, Fulai LiuAbstractCO2 fertilization has been widely used in greenhouse cultivation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to enhance fruit yield; its effects on fruit quality remain largely elusive yet, particularly in combination with reduced irrigation regimes. To explore the response of tomato to the CO2 fertilization under reduced irrigation, tomato (cv. Zhou Si Dun) plants were grown under ambient CO2 (a[CO2], 400 ppm) and elevated CO2 (e[CO2], 800 ppm) environment, respectively and subjected to three irrigation levels since anthesis: I1 (irrigated to 90–95 % water holding capacity of the mixture in the pot, WHC), I2 (irrigated to 70–75 % WHC) and I3 (irrigated to 50–55 % WHC). The results showed that fruit yield was significantly higher in plants with I1 than those with I3. Moreover, the e[CO2] enhanced the number of fruit and decreased the percentage of small fruit (< 70 g), resulting in higher fruit yield as compared to a[CO2]. Leaf area (LA), fruit dry weight (FDW), water use efficiency (WUE), as well as harvest index (HI) were increased under e[CO2], whereas irrigation regime had no influence on FDW, WUE or HI. Both reduced irrigation and e[CO2] increased total soluble solid, vitamin C and lycopene content, while decreased nitrate content in fruit. The results of PCA (Principal Component Analysis) indicated that there was a significant improvement in the comprehensive performance of plants with reduced irrigation at e[CO2] environment. It can be concluded that reduced irrigation, combined with CO2 fertilization, could be a promising strategy to enhance fruit quality in greenhouse tomato production under water-limited conditions.
       
  • Comparing the classical permanent wilting point concept of soil
           (−15,000 hPa) to biological wilting of wheat and barley plants under
           contrasting soil textures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Lucia H. Wiecheteck, Neyde F.B. Giarola, Renato P. de Lima, Cassio A. Tormena, Lorena C. Torres, Ariane L. de PaulaAbstractRecent studies have shown that the permanent wilting point is influenced by soil properties and plant drought-tolerance mechanisms. This study was designed to evaluate the soil matric potential at which the biological wilting point (BWPplant) of wheat and barley cultivars occurs compared to the classic concept of the permanent wilting point at a matric potential of -15,000 hPa for soils (PWPsoil) with contrasting textures. The study was performed under greenhouse conditions with the experiment arranged in a completely randomised design in a double factorial scheme with three soil textures (sandy loam - SL, sandy clay loam - SCL and clay - C) and four plants (two crops (wheat and barley) and two cultivars for each crop). The 95 % confidence intervals were used to compare treatment means. The results revealed that BWPplant could occur at matric potential values> −15,000 hPa, i.e. wetter conditions than for the classical PWPsoil. Plants cultivated in clay soils withered at lower matric potentials than those in sandy soils, which could be related to a hydraulic cut-off that occurs at higher matric potentials in sandy soils. Barley plants were more sensitive to water deficits than wheat plants. The BWPplant for barley plants could occur at matric potentials values> −15,000 hPa, independently of soil texture, whereas wheat plants wilted at matric potentials> −15,000 hPa only in sandy soils (e.g. −1,637 to −2,417 hPa). Our results suggest that wilting depends on soil texture, with an occurrence of wilting at higher matric potentials (i.e. at wetter soil conditions) for sandy soils than for clay soils. Furthermore, plants/cultivars exhibit various tolerance mechanisms to drought, and wheat is able to take up water at considerably lower matric potentials (at dryer soil conditions) than barley. Thus, the wilting matric potential threshold across various species and cultivars is not uniform.
       
  • A full fuzzy-interval credibility-constrained nonlinear programming
           approach for irrigation water allocation under uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Qiong Yue, Fan Zhang, Chenglong Zhang, Hua Zhu, Yikuan Tang, Ping GuoAbstractTo address the water shortage caused by various natural conditions and ineffective irrigation water management in the Zhanghe Irrigation District (ZID) of the Yangtze River basin in China, a full fuzzy-interval credibility-constrained nonlinear programming (FFICNP) model is developed under uncertainty. Derived through incorporating fuzzy credibility constrained programming into the Jensen model optimization framework, FFICNP can not only address intervals (single uncertainty) and fuzzy-interval sets (dual uncertainties) in the model objectives and double-sided constraints, but also reflect nonlinear responsive relationships between the crop yields and irrigation levels by introducing the crop water production functions (CWPFs) under different growth stages. Moreover, an expected-value-based (EVB) approach is introduced to solve the FFICNP model. The FFICNP model is then applied to the case study of irrigation water allocation in the ZID for demonstrating its applicability. Optimal solutions can be generated from the FFICNP model for solving the irrigation water allocation problem under uncertainty. The results indicate that a lower credibility level corresponds to a higher level of system benefits and system efficiency. The system benefits of ZID in a wet year are [17.72, 24.23] × 109 CNY when λ = 1.0 and [17.79, 25.03] × 109 CNY when λ = 0.6. These findings from the FFICNP model can support in-depth analysis of interrelationships among irrigation water allocation schemes, system benefits, and credibility levels, and thus contribute to the effectiveness of irrigation water management under various inflow levels and complex uncertainties.
       
  • Determining threshold values for root-soil water weighted plant water
           deficit index based smart irrigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Jianchu Shi, Xun Wu, Xiaoyu Wang, Mo Zhang, Le Han, Wenjing Zhang, Wen Liu, Qiang Zuo, Xiaoguang Wu, Hongfei Zhang, Alon Ben-GalAbstractPlant water deficit index (PWDI) represents the extent of water stress by relating soil moisture to the ability of a plant to take up water including consideration of the relative distribution of soil water to roots. However, for a smart irrigation decision support system, we are challenged in determining reliable thresholds of PWDI to initiate irrigation events to achieve predetermined yield and/or water use efficiency (WUE) targets. Taking drip irrigated maize and sprinkler irrigated alfalfa as examples, field experiments were conducted to investigate the choice and effects of PWDI thresholds. The results indicated that, with increasing PWDI thresholds, irrigation times and quantity of water, as well as crop transpiration, growth, and yield, were all significantly limited while WUE was enhanced except under extremely stressed conditions. To disconnect the unpredictable effects of other factors, yield and WUE were normalized to their corresponding potential values. Within the experimentally determined range of PWDI, relative yield and WUE were described with linear functions for maize, and linear and quadratic functions for alfalfa, allowing identification of the most efficient threshold value according to the objective parameter of choice. The method described can be adopted in smart irrigation decision support systems with consideration of spatial variability and after further verification and improvement under more complicated situations with various crop types and varieties, environmental conditions, cultivation modes, and wider or dynamic PWDI thresholds allowing regulated deficit irrigation.
       
  • Potential assessment of non-automatic and automatic modernization
           alternatives for the improvement of water distribution supplied by
           surface-water resources: A case study in Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): M. Yaltaghian Khiabani, S.M. Hashamy Shahadany, J.M. Maestre, R. Stepanian, I. MallakpourWater shortages have led farmers within irrigation districts to resort to groundwater resources. In this scenario, a decrease in those water losses due to improper operational management within the districts may halt the increasing trend of groundwater overexploitation. This study aims to examine the impact of improving operational management in irrigation districts both to provide reliable surface water distribution and to reduce groundwater demands therein. To this end, a set of operational alternatives were investigated, including nonstructural approaches, structural modification, and automatic control systems. The potential amount of the reduction in the groundwater demands can be measured under each of the alternative operations for the delivery of water to farmers. The study is conducted on the hydrodynamic model of an irrigation canal affected by 20–70 % inflow fluctuations, which occur due to water shortages at the head source. The results of the operational simulation indicate that appropriate management of the water delivery systems within non-structural alternatives can lead to a 2–13 % improvement in operational performance indicators in comparison with the structural modification. Accordingly, the application of non-structural approaches can potentially decrease the groundwater demand by 5.352 and 8.428 Million Cubic Metres (MCM) from deep tube-wells and 2.817 and 2.007 MCM from the semi-deep tube-wells over the period of one water year. However, when employing automatic control systems, operational services to the users undergo a 15–62 % enhancement such that groundwater demand drops by 11.561 and 20.39 MCM per year, respectively.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A Sprayable Biodegradable Polymer Membrane (SBPM) technology: Effect of
           band width and application rate on water conservation and seedling
           emergence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Michael V. Braunack, Adriana Zaja, Kang Tam, Lana Filipović, Vilim Filipović, Yusong Wang, Keith L. BristowAbstractWith a rapidly growing global population, increased agricultural productivity is required to achieve future food security. Efficient use of water and other agricultural inputs such as nutrients and pesticides must underpin agronomic practices to improve crop establishment and increase crop yields. A glasshouse study was conducted to explore the potential of a newly developed sprayable biodegradable polymer membrane (SBPM) applied in bands to reduce soil evaporation and increase soil temperature, thus improving germination, emergence and crop establishment. The aims were two-fold: (i) to evaluate the effectiveness of the SBPM in reducing seedbed water loss and its effect on seedling emergence; and (ii) to determine an effective band width (100 vs 150 mm) and application rate of SBPM to conserve seedbed water. Our study demonstrated that a high application rate (1 kg m-2) is effective at reducing soil water loss, but it reduces crop emergence (cotton, sunflower, sorghum, mung bean, carrot, capsicum and rockmelon). All three SBPM application rates (1, 0.5 and 0.25 kg m-2) showed increased soil water content compared to the control plot (bare soil surface). The applied bands, 100 and 150 mm width, limit evaporation and increased soil water potential and temperature compared to the control, however with no significant differences between the two treatments. Crop emergence was proportional to the application rate and decreased with increasing application rate (i.e., control < 0.25 kg m-2 < 0.5 kg m-2 < 1 kg m-2). The SBPM suppressed weed growth similar to conventional mulch film and was most effective at 0.5 kg m-2 and 150 mm width. Future research should focus on the field SBPM application management with an emphasis on crop emergence zones, biodegradability and comparing its effectiveness with other conventional mulches.
       
  • Vegetation indices derived from digital images and stable carbon and
           nitrogen isotope signatures as indicators of date palm performance under
           salinity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Maria D. Serret, Abdullah J. Al-Dakheel, Salima Yousfi, Jose A. Fernáandez-Gallego, Ismahane A. Elouafi, José L. ArausAbstractDate palm is frequently irrigated with brackish water. Developing tools to monitor salinity effects at the single-tree level may assist agronomy and phenotyping. Sixteen elite varieties were grown for 15 years under irrigation with three levels of saline water (5, 10 and 15 dS m−1) at the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (UAE). Trunk length and diameter, number of branches, and fruit yield per tree were recorded. Different vegetation indices were calculated from single tree-top images taken from the ground with an RGB (Red/Green/Blue) camera. These included indices derived from CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) color space models; lightness, together with a* and b* dimensions (CIELab) and u* and v* coordinates (CIELuv); and the HSI color space, referring to the components Hue, Saturation and Intensity. Moreover, Green Area (GA) and the Greener Area (GGA) were also formulated. Also canopy temperature (CT) was measured as an indicator of canopy water status with an infrared thermometer. The carbon isotope composition (δ13C), as a time-integrated indicator of water status, and the nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N) and total nitrogen concentration (N), as nitrogen metabolism indicators, were analyzed in leaflet dry matter. Irrigation conditions and genotypes exhibited significant effects for biomass, fruit yield and all the remote sensing and stable isotope traits evaluated. Hue correlated positively, whereas most of the other RGB vegetation indices along with δ13C and CT correlated negatively with biomass and fruit yield across salinities. Leaf N concentration and δ15N did not correlate with biomass and fruit yield across salinities, but were the only traits correlated with genotypic variability in fruit yield within a given salinity level. Traits that describe canopy color characteristics represent affordable tools for monitoring palm growth and productivity under saline irrigation. However, the results do not support the direct use of RGB indices to phenotype genotypic variability.
       
  • Parameterization and comparison of the AquaCrop and MOPECO models for a
           high-yielding barley cultivar under different irrigation levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): R. López-Urrea, A. Domínguez, J.J. Pardo, F. Montoya, M. García-Vila, A. Martínez-RomeroAbstractThis study describes the processes of calibration and validation of AquaCrop (the FAO water productivity model) and MOPECO (economic optimization model of irrigation water) for the simulation of a barley crop (cv. Cierzo). We compare the complexity of implementing this process in the two models and the accuracy of the results. A 3-year field experiment conducted during the period from 2011 to 2013 in a semi-arid region located in southeast Spain was used for this purpose. Six irrigation treatments were applied combining different levels of water deficit depending on the phenological stage. Both models were suitable for the simulation of yield and soil moisture evolution. In addition, AquaCrop correctly simulated the harvest index, the evolution of canopy cover and aboveground biomass. The comparison between the two models showed that AquaCrop is a better model for assessing the effect of a particular irrigation schedule on a crop (i.e. biomass and canopy cover development, soil water balance…) than MOPECO. Nevertheless, if the objective is to estimate yield depending on the irrigation schedule applied, MOPECO is easier to calibrate and furnishes results as valid as those provided by AquaCrop.
       
  • Modeling corn growth and root zone salinity dynamics to improve irrigation
           and fertigation management under semi-arid conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Junaid Nawaz Chauhdary, Allah Bakhsh, Ragab Ragab, Abdul Khaliq, Bernard A. Engel, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Adnan Shahid, Qamar NawazAbstractModeling is an advanced technique to study the effects of crop management practices as management scenario simulations in a convenient and economical way. A multi seasonal study was conducted on corn, sown under drip irrigation, to assess its growth under three irrigation intervals (I1: irrigation on daily basis, I2: irrigation on 3rd day and I3: irrigation on 5th day) and three fertigation levels [F1:100 % RFA (recommended fertigation applications), F2:75 % RFA and F3:50 % RFA)] of two types of fertilizers (M1: Imported and M2: Indigenous). The SALTMED model was calibrated and validated, using data collected from experiments, to explore different management scenarios of corn production. The accuracy of the validation process was examined by root mean square error (RMSE), percentage of difference (%D), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and coefficient of determination (R2). The results showed that corn produced statistically highest plant height (183.7 cm), dry matter (16.9 t/ha), grain yield (8.57 t/ha) and water productivity (1.52 kg/m3) under I1 in comparison to that under other irrigation intervals. Similarly, M1 and F1 produced statistically highest plant height, dry matter, grain yield and water productivity as compared to M2 and other fertigation levels, respectively. SALTMED simulated soil moisture and soil salinity accurately with average values of RMSE, R2 and CRM as 0.013, 0.850 and -0.002, respectively for soil moisture and 0.479, 0.864 and 0.130, respectively for soil salinity. The SALTMED simulations showed good results also for grain yield (RMSE = 0.475, R2 = 0.873, CRM = -0.0013 and highest %D = -4.9 %) and dry matter (RMSE = 0.596, R2 = 0.909, CRM = -0.027 and highest %D = 4.2 %). Overall, it was concluded that corn should be irrigated on daily basis under drip irrigation and fertilized with 100 % RFA. Moreover, the SALTMED model proved to be a useful tool for simulations of different management scenarios regarding corn growth and root zone salinity dynamics with reliable results under semi-arid conditions.
       
  • Long-term productivity of early season peach trees under different
           irrigation methods and postharvest deficit irrigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Dong Wang, Huihui Zhang, Jim GartungAbstractDeficit irrigation can be used as a potential means of dealing with lack of irrigation water, however, the long-term impact of deficit irrigation on productivity is not fully understood. A 10-year long field study was carried out to compare effects of furrow, drip, and micro sprinkler irrigation under either full irrigation or postharvest deficit irrigation treatments on peach tree health and fruit yield and quality. In the first three years of the experiment, trees under full irrigation grew faster which led to larger trunks than trees under deficit irrigation. At the end of the study, tree canopy size showed no difference among different methods of irrigation or between full and deficit irrigation. Deficit irrigation of up to 40% water savings did not lead to significant yield losses for 8–9 years. Deficit irrigation also did not cause a significant reduction in fruit quality except for an increase in percentage of double fruits, but the worst year case was still less than 1.5%. Fruit color showed lower lightness in furrow full irrigation than in furrow deficit treatment, but no difference was found in deficit drip or micro sprinkler treatment. Also, no difference was found for fruit firmness, total soluble solids, pH, malic acid, or total phenolics between the respective full and deficit irrigation treatments. The study demonstrated the feasibility of applying continued postharvest deficit irrigation for up to10 years for peach production which resulted in significant water savings during the summer peak water use period.
       
  • Dynamic calibration for better SEBALI ET estimations: Validations and
           recommendations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Mario Mhawej, Georgie Elias, Ali Nasrallah, Ghaleb FaourAbstractThe widespread usage of the surface balance energy models coupled with remote sensing techniques proved their effectiveness in terms of accurately assessing evapotranspiration rates, crop water requirements as well as crop water usage/productivities. Still, such models require diverse inputs/elements, including climatic, topographic, soil, and remote sensing datasets. The availability of these inputs is questionable and outdated in many developing countries. Thus, an Improved Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), also known as SEBALI, was proposed and adapted for regions lacking soil-related datasets. Still, the usage of a standard calibration method in the surface energy balance models, yielding constant value throughout the cropping season, requires further revision and improvement. In this context, this study proposed a novel dynamic calibration approach to be included within SEBALI, related to the actual wind speed and relative humidity conditions. It was followed by the calibrations and validations of monthly evapotranspiration SEBALI values. Datasets were retrieved randomly from four countries (i.e. Belgium, Germany, Italy and United States) representing different climatic zones, between 2013 and 2014, and based on Eddy Covariance flux towers’ outputs. When calibrated, results showed a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 21.32 mm and an Average of Mean Error (AME) of 15.4 mm between monthly SEBALI outputs and flux towers’ datasets, with an R-squared value of 88.4%. When investigating SEBALI outputs on different buffered zones around the flux towers along a changing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), ET values were poorly correlated (i.e. R-squared lower than 60%) in any buffer zone outside the parcels’ boundary. RMSE showed values larger than 40 mm/month, even at a buffer zone of 250 m. This was related to the diverse Land Use Land Cover (LULC) classes, generating different evapotranspiration rates, found at the boundary of the selected parcels. With the proposed dynamic calibration, the enhanced SEBALI could be then implemented in any agricultural region missing soil-related datasets with high accuracy.
       
  • Approaches to scheduling water allocations to kikuyugrass grown on a water
           repellent soil in a drying-climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Louise Barton, Samuel J. Flottmann, Katia T. Stefanovia, Timothy D. ColmerAbstractWater allocation is a principal planning method for managing water supplies to agricultural and horticultural land in drying climates. Regulatory bodies often establish the water allocation amount, but its distribution during the irrigation season is left to the land manager’s discretion. We evaluated approaches to best manage water allocations to a warm-season turfgrass [Pennisetum clandestinum (Holst. Ex Chiov)] grown on a free-draining sand prone to surface (0–25 mm) soil water repellence in a Mediterranean climate in south-western Australia under ‘deficit irrigation’, in a two-year field study. The three factorial experiment consisted of three levels for each treatment applied to plots (10 m2) of kikuyugrass: water allocation (5000, 6250 or 7500 kL ha−1 yr−1), irrigation schedule, and soil wetting agent rate (nil, recommended ‘label’ rate, double recommended ‘label’ rate), and was replicated three times. The irrigation schedules were based on historical net evaporation at the site, and then refined monthly using in-season net evaporation data or measurements of soil water content. Kikuyugrass growth and color was adequate when irrigated using the current regional water allocation (7500 kL ha−1 yr−1) under a low wear situation and to a lesser extent when the water allocation was lowered to 6250 kL ha−1 yr−1. Application of a soil wetting agent diminished water repellence and improved kikuyugrass color for 7500 or 6250 kL ha−1 yr−1 water allocations. Distributing a water allocation based on historical monthly net evaporation rates was a simple and effective scheduling approach to maintaining a warm-season turfgrass.
       
  • A semi-distributed drainage model for monthly drainage water and salinity
           simulation in a large irrigation district in arid region
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Agricultural Water Management, Volume 230Author(s): Yeqiang Wen, Songhao Shang, Khalil Ur Rahman, Yuhong Xia, Dongyang RenThe complex and dense irrigation and drainage networks and diverse irrigation scheduling result in uncertainties and complexities in the simulation of drainage water and salinity at different regional scales. We propose a semi-distributed model to simulate monthly drainage water and salinity, considering both the surface return flow and groundwater drainage to drainage ditches. The model uses sub-drainage command areas (SDCAs) controlled by main irrigation canals and drainage ditches as simulation units and uses a conceptual model to estimate monthly drainage water and salinity from each SDCA. The proposed model is applied in the Hetao Irrigation District (HID) in North China with 19 SDCAs, and calibrated and validated using monitoring data during 2008–2010 and 2012–2013, respectively. The results reveal better model performance in estimating the drainage water and salinity at SDCA, sub-irrigation district and irrigation district scales. The average annual drainage is 47,021 * 104m3 in HID, accounting for 10.5 % of the annual irrigation water amount. The surface return flow and groundwater drainage account for 32.7 % and 67.3 % of total drainage, respectively. The ratio of surface return flow to groundwater drainage is higher in the upstream area and lower in the downstream area. Higher surface return flow ratio (>5 %) is observed in the western Wulanbuhe, middle and southern Jiefangzha, and northern Wulate sub-irrigation areas, indicating the necessity to improve irrigation water management in these areas. Lower groundwater drainage capability is observed in western and southern HID, while enhanced groundwater drainage capability is observed in northern HID. Average annual salt leaching through the drainage system is 126.5 * 104 t, which is only 43 % of the total salt introduced from irrigation. The Wulate sub-irrigation district performs best on salt leaching, while other sub-irrigation district should improve the drainage system and irrigation water use efficiency to control the salt accumulation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • High turbidity: Water valuation and accounting in the Murray-Darling Basin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water ManagementAuthor(s): Constantin Seidl, Sarah Ann Wheeler, Alec ZuoAbstractAustralia’s sophisticated and advanced water market legislation has allowed direct investment by non-landholder stakeholders in water ownership, which over time has increased the volume of water entitlements owned by government, non-governmental organisations and non-landholder investors (e.g. superannuation companies, trade speculators). The growing market value of Australian water entitlements, driven by increased water scarcity and international commodity prices, has meant that water is now one of the most valuable assets owned by many irrigators. However, to date, there is no standard practise of financial water valuation and accounting, nor is there an understanding of the most common methods used by various stakeholders. We report information from 63 in-depth expert interviews with bankers, environmental water holders, financial investors/agri-corporates, property evaluators and water brokers in the Murray-Darling Basin to establish the current practices employed. The most common valuation methods used current market prices based on water register and water broker data. Water entitlements were valued with historical cost or fair value water accounting, depending on the stakeholder. However, given the lack of standardised methodology, evaluator discretion and fast moving (or thin) markets can lead to considerable divergence in water valuation values. Recommendations are made for the need for greater transparency and standardised water valuation methods.
       
  • Alfalfa canopy water interception under low-pressure sprinklers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Agricultural Water ManagementAuthor(s): Yunling Wang, Maona Li, Xin Hui, Yangyang Meng, Haijun YanAbstractCanopy water interception is an important factor in water use efficiency analysis and sprinkler-based fertigation technique development. In the present study, alfalfa canopy water interception and its influence factors were assessed under low wind conditions. The canopy interception capacity for three growth stages of alfalfa (S1, early vegetative stage; S2, late vegetative stage; S3, bud stage) were measured under two types of low-pressure spray sprinklers. The dynamics of canopy interception and interception ratio with irrigation depth were also observed. The total irrigation depth for all measurements was around 8 mm. A weight-based canopy interception measurement device was installed outdoors and integrated with a 20-psi sprinkler at 1 m above the canopy. The alfalfa canopy interception first increased rapidly with irrigation depth, but then stabilized and reached canopy interception capacity (Im). The minimum irrigation depths to achieve the Im values were 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm at the S1, S2 and S3 stages, respectively. Im increased significantly across growth stages, and ranged from 0.46 mm to 1.49 mm. Interception ratio decreased gradually as irrigation depth increased. With an approximately 8-mm total irrigation depth, interception ratio ranged from 5.27 % to 17.59 % over all growth stages. Water application rate had no effect on Im, and Im decreased with droplet diameter. Generally, Im was higher and reached more quickly with the R3000 sprinkler compared to the D3000 sprinkler. Fresh weight, plant height, and LAI of alfalfa had significant positive correlations with canopy interception capacity, and a quadratic regression model was developed with using plant height as a factor. This study provides valuable and basic information for irrigation schedules and fertigation in alfalfa cultivation.
       
 
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