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Showing 1 - 200 of 3120 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 370, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)

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Journal Cover Agricultural Water Management
  [SJR: 1.546]   [H-I: 79]   [42 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-3774
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • The physiological processes and mechanisms for superior water productivity
           of a popular ground cover rice production system
    • Authors: Sen Li; Qiang Zuo; Xinxin Jin; Wenwen Ma; Jianchu Shi; Alon Ben-Gal
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 201
      Author(s): Sen Li, Qiang Zuo, Xinxin Jin, Wenwen Ma, Jianchu Shi, Alon Ben-Gal
      Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPS) have been shown to both save water and increase yields compared to traditional paddy rice production systems (TPRPS). Physiological processes and mechanisms explaining the superiority of a popular GCRPS were investigated in a series of hydroponic, soil column and field experiments. Soil water, temperature and nitrogen, leaf gas exchange, plant water and nitrogen, growth and yield, transpiration, and water productivity were analyzed. Compared to TPRPS, plant available soil inorganic nitrogen was generally improved under GCRPS due to a combination of higher soil temperature and less nitrogen loss through non-physiological water consumption, especially during the early growing season. Consequently, more nitrogen was absorbed by plants under GCRPS except serious drought conditions, accompanied by higher nitrogen contents in plant tissues. Preferable specific leaf nitrogen might lead to higher leaf photosynthetic rate under optimal water conditions and less decrease relative to leaf transpiration rate under water stress. Therefore, rice under GCRPS grew faster with much more biomass and grain yield while transpiration consumption was limited in spite of the fact that the number of tillers and therefore leaf area were increased relative to TPRPS, resulting in superior water productivity. Compared to TPRPS, the root system under GCRPS was limited, but it could absorb enough water and nutrients (especially nitrogen) to support a relatively large canopy even when under water stress, which might be attributed to its higher nitrogen content and thus stronger activity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2018)
  • Potato growth, yield and water productivity response to different
           irrigation and fertilization regimes
    • Authors: Anita Ierna; Giovanni Mauromicale
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 201
      Author(s): Anita Ierna, Giovanni Mauromicale
      To achieve improvement in irrigation management and maximize water productivity (WP), knowledge on potato crop growth and seasonal crop evapotranspiration (ETc) in relation to combined irrigation and fertilization, are needed. In a two-year experiment conducted in Sicily (South Italy), the combined effects of 3 irrigation levels [irrigation only at plant emergence, irrigation at 50% of maximum evapotranspiration (ETm) and irrigation at 100% ETm] and 3 N-P-K fertilization rates (low: 50, 25 and 75 kg ha−1, medium: 100, 50 and 150 kg ha−1 and high: 300, 100 and 450 kg ha−1 of N, P2O5 and K2O) on ETc, crop growth rate, aboveground dry biomass and tuber dry yield, sink/source (tuber yield/aboveground biomass yield) ratio, water productivity and crop drought response factor, were studied. Irrigation water amounts were 25 mm in plots irrigated only at plant emergence in both years, 87 and 96 mm in plots irrigated at 50% of ETm, 174 and 192 mm in plots irrigated at 100% of ETm, respectively in the two years. Irrigation based on 100% of ETm + high rate of N-P-K fertilization proved the best combination to promote ETc, crop growth, and improve aboveground biomass, tuber yield, and sink/source ratio but not WP. Fertilization played a crucial role in enhancing WP of this crop especially in plots irrigated only at plant emergence, where both low and medium fertilization rates allowed maximizing WP (2.3 kg m−3 dry weight) ensuring an acceptable tuber yield (about 3.7 t ha−1 dry weight). These results are of considerable importance to farmers to achieve more efficient and rational use of water by potato grown in very limited water availability environments.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2018)
  • Border irrigation performance with distance-based cut-off
    • Authors: Mohamed Khaled Salahou; Xiyun Jiao; Haishen Lü
      Pages: 27 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 201
      Author(s): Mohamed Khaled Salahou, Xiyun Jiao, Haishen Lü
      Border irrigation is widely practised for winter wheat production on the North China Plain. Winter wheat is mainly irrigated with groundwater as a supplement to insufficient precipitation to maintain high agricultural production. As a result of the increased demands for water, groundwater levels have declined. Therefore, improvements to border irrigation performance and water use efficiency are urgently needed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal distance at which to cut off inflow under different inflow rate conditions in closed-ended border systems. The experimental treatments included three inflow rates (high, moderate, and low, with average rates of 6.91 l s−1 m−1, 4.95 l s−1 m−1, and 2.81 l s−1 m−1, respectively) and three cut-off ratios (CRs) arranged in three replications at the CAS Ecological Agricultural Experiment Station in Nanpi, Hebei Province, China. The surface irrigation hydraulic simulation model WinSRFR was used to examine the sensitivity of the existing design to a range of bottom slopes, surface roughness values, and inflow rates to demonstrate the robustness of the solutions in terms of their application efficiency and low-quarter distribution uniformity. The results present the optimum CR values for different inflow rate conditions to maximize irrigation performance. The results indicate that irrigation performance above the optimum CR values for high, moderate, and low inflow rates is not very sensitive to bottom slope, and no substantial changes in performance were noted when Manning’s roughness coefficient was between 0.04 and 0.09. A set of inflow rate ranges that corresponds to the recommended CRs that could achieve high irrigation performance is presented.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2018)
  • Comparison of methods to determine the microbial quality of alternative
           irrigation waters
    • Authors: Hsin-Bai Yin; Jitendra Patel
      Pages: 38 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 201
      Author(s): Hsin-Bai Yin, Jitendra Patel
      The availability of water for crop irrigation is decreasing due to droughts, population growth, and pollution. Implementation of the Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) for irrigation water standards will discourage growers to use poor microbial quality water for produce crop irrigation. We evaluated the applicability of a novel concentrator method for assessment of microbiological quality of alternative waters including secondary-treated wastewater (STWW), roof-harvest rainwater (RHW), and creek water (CW) in comparison to the standard membrane filtration method. Water samples of 100 ml were filtered through a 0.45 μm membrane filter using a vacuum manifold or concentrated to ∼250 μl using the innovative concentrator. Then they were directly enumerated on specific agars, or enriched to monitor the populations of fecal bacterial indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci, total and fecal coliforms) and bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and E. coli O157:H7). Presumptive pathogens were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In total, 25 samples of alternative water were analyzed including 7 STWW, 9 RHW, and 9 CW. No significant differences between both detection methods were observed when enumerating indicator bacterial populations and detecting the presence of pathogens in RHW and CW samples. Recovery of fecal coliforms in STWW samples by concentrator analysis was significantly lower than the membrane filtration technique. Results suggest that performance of the concentrator method is equivalent to membrane filtration method in determining the microbiological quality of CW and RHW waters; the type of the water sources may influence the accuracy and sensitivity of the concentrator analysis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2018)
  • Surface irrigation simulation-optimization model based on meta-heuristic
    • Authors: Mahmood Akbari; Mahdi Gheysari; Behrouz Mostafazadeh-Fard; Mohammad Shayannejad
      Pages: 46 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 201
      Author(s): Mahmood Akbari, Mahdi Gheysari, Behrouz Mostafazadeh-Fard, Mohammad Shayannejad
      Simulation-optimization models are valuable tools for determining the optimal performance of systems. The main objective of this research was to develop and validate EDOSIM (Evaluation, Design, and Optimization of Surface Irrigation Model) as a simulation-optimization model for surface irrigation systems. For simulation, which consisted of the design or evaluation of basin, border and furrow irrigation, the Volume Balance model was used. For optimization, twenty meta-heuristic algorithms were applied. In this model, based on irrigation, the volume of infiltrated water to soil was calculated without having advance and recession data. The hydraulic objective function was used to minimize the linear combination of seven performance indicators. Regarding the optimization of the objective function, the functional, multi-dimensional, static, constraint, continuous, single-objective, and meta-heuristic optimizations were applied. Data obtained from fifteen experimental fields were used for the validation of simulation, algorithms parameters setting, and validation of optimization. Comparison of the simulation results of the EDOSIM model with those of the Hydrodynamic model of SIRMOD software showed the good performance of EDOSIM model and the proposed method for estimating the volume of infiltration with RMSE = 0.068, R2 = 0.988, CRM = 0.005 and NRMSE = 4.2%. The Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) algorithm was found to be the best algorithm for the optimization of fields; in all fields, the objective function was decreased (improved). Comparison of the objective function of the EDOSIM model with eight solvers of Optimization and Global Optimization Toolboxes of MATLAB software also revealed the superiority of the EDOSIM model for optimization.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2018)
  • Repellency-induced runoff from New Zealand hill country under pasture: A
           plot study
    • Authors: Michael Bretherton; David Horne; H.A. Sumanasena; Paramsothy Jeyakumar; David Scotter
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 201
      Author(s): Michael Bretherton, David Horne, H.A. Sumanasena, Paramsothy Jeyakumar, David Scotter
      Soil water repellency is a common phenomenon which develops when surface soils become dry in summer and autumn. It is claimed that repellency is likely to result in a lower infiltration rate and a concomitant increase in surface runoff, particularly on slopes. This study quantifies the effect of water repellency on runoff from a series of small plots on a range of slopes (20° and 30°) and aspects (N, S and E) in a hilly landscape in the south-east of the North Island of New Zealand. The plots (1 m wide and 2 m long) were set up to capture runoff via a slotted PVC pipe and measure it using tipping bucket apparatus: at each of the slope/aspect locations there were duplicate plots. A meteorological station was also established at the site along with TDR probes to measure soil moisture down to 300 mm depth. When moist, the soil at the site had a very high infiltrability (>1.5 mm/min). On nine occasions, runoff was measured (ranging from 1 to 59% of rainfall) when the soil surface was dry and rainfall was intense (greater than 0.1 mm/min). However, during the two-year study period, this repellency-induced runoff equated to only 5% of the total rainfall. Furthermore, the infiltration rate of initially dry, repellent soil (ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 mm/min) partly recovered over a ten-minute period (0.6–1.0 mm/min) and, with sufficient rainfall, repellency completely disappeared within two days. The transitory nature of water repellency was confirmed in an experiment on large soil slabs conducted in the laboratory where repellency-induced runoff was observed to largely disappear over a period of 30 min. Overall, it is concluded that soil water repellency does not play a major role in the soil water balance of the hill country at the study site.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2018)
  • Assessing of an irrigation and fertilization practice for improving rice
           production in the Taihu Lake region (China)
    • Authors: Jiaguo Jiao; Kun Shi; Peng Li; Zhen Sun; Dali Chang; Xueshan Shen; Di Wu; Xiuchao Song; Manqiang Liu; Huixin Li; Feng Hu; Li Xu
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 201
      Author(s): Jiaguo Jiao, Kun Shi, Peng Li, Zhen Sun, Dali Chang, Xueshan Shen, Di Wu, Xiuchao Song, Manqiang Liu, Huixin Li, Feng Hu, Li Xu
      To address the global environmental and resource crisis, integrated, efficient, and sustainable agricultural practices need to be developed. We examined the effects of combining one of two irrigation methods (i.e., controlled irrigation and conventional flooding irrigation) with one of four different levels of nitrogen fertilizer applications (N; 300 (N0), 270 (N1), 240 (N2), and 180 kg N ha−1 (N3)) on grain yield, water use efficiency, and N production efficiency in rice. Additionally, we analyzed nitrogen leaching at different soil depths (20 cm and 80 cm) using lysimeters and N2O emission using a polyvinyl chloride chamber for each of the combinations examined. We found that the irrigation regime and level of N application significantly affected rice yield, and the rice yield in the controlled irrigation treatment was higher than that in the conventional flooding irrigation treatment by 2.12%–12.30%. Of all the treatments, combining controlled irrigation with the N1 fertilizer application resulted in the greatest grain yield. Loss of N was mainly caused by nitrate leaching. Controlled irrigation and reducing the amount of N fertilizer applied in the soil reduced N leaching, and increased the N production efficiency, while increasing N2O emission. Furthermore, water use efficiency was increased under controlled irrigation conditions, but reduced when less N fertilizer was applied. Thus, an agricultural regime that uses less water and lower amounts of N fertilizer than are currently being used in standard practices would likely increase yield and N production efficiency in soils, while reducing potential N leaching; however, the N2O emissions would also increase.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2018)
  • Understanding surface water–groundwater interactions for managing large
           irrigation schemes in the multi-country Fergana valley, Central Asia
    • Authors: Mirzakhayot Ibrakhimov; Usman Khalid Awan; Biju George; Umar Waqas Liaqat
      Pages: 99 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 201
      Author(s): Mirzakhayot Ibrakhimov, Usman Khalid Awan, Biju George, Umar Waqas Liaqat
      Traditionally, surface water supplies are the sole sources to satisfy crop water requirements in large irrigation schemes such as those in the Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Recent studies indicate that 23–30% of these requirements are met from shallow groundwater, but this is not usually quantified. To manage favorable groundwater levels – i.e., without increasing soil salinity and nutrient leaching and reducing crop yields – information on, and quantification of, groundwater recharge and discharge rates at large spatial and temporal scales, as well as understanding their mechanisms of interaction, is indispensable. With the aim to quantify groundwater recharge, discharge and their interaction, a conceptual water balance model at a scale of a Water Consumers’ Association was established on a monthly basis for a 10-year period. Average groundwater recharge was estimated as 780 ± 75.7 mm, representing 62% of surface water supplies. The highest average annual recharge (930 mm) driven by excessive precipitation and water supply was in 2010 and the lowest (667–726 mm) was in years of lower water availability: 2006–2008 and 2012. The net groundwater recharge was 82.4 ± 79 mm, and determined the groundwater level fluctuations. The highest positive net groundwater recharge rate (247 mm) and the shallowest groundwater level (123 cm) also occurred in 2010. The negative net recharge in 2006 (–11 mm), 2008 (–41 mm) and 2012 (–5 mm) indicated deeper groundwater levels during these periods. The groundwater recharge values were excessively high even for this large irrigation scheme. To save limited freshwater resources, groundwater discharge should be reduced, with one option being to reduce excessive drainage outflow.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2018)
  • Analysis of kinetic energy distribution of big gun sprinkler applied to
           continuous moving hose-drawn traveler
    • Authors: Maosheng Ge; Pute Wu; Delan Zhu; Lin Zhang
      Pages: 118 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 201
      Author(s): Maosheng Ge, Pute Wu, Delan Zhu, Lin Zhang
      Kinetic energy of droplets from big gun sprinklers relates closely to the infiltration process and soil erosion, as well as severely affects the energy consumption of hose-drawn travelers. However, research work related to the kinetic energy distribution of big gun sprinklers is seldom performed. In this study, The radial water application distribution, droplet size distribution, and droplet velocity distribution of a big gun sprinkler were measured. Based on the experimental data, a calculation method was developed to determine the kinetic energy of big gun sprinkler under stationary and moving states. Volume weighted mean particle size and the corresponding equivalent landing velocity were adopted as the feature size and velocity of the point located at any distance from the sprinkler. The droplets’ landing velocities present a logarithmic relationship with droplet size and velocities rise with the increase of droplet size. The operating pressure should not be lower than 0.2 MPa since the peak value of specific power will rise rapidly below this operating pressure. For positions receiving the same kinetic energy, obvious difference may exist in the amount of water and the dynamic process curves of specific power. With the increase in travel speed of the hose-drawn traveler, both the cumulative kinetic energy and the irrigation duration decrease proportionally. Compared to the spray plate sprinklers applied to center pivots, the big gun sprinkler shows a milder precipitation process, but the water application lasts longer and carries more kinetic energy, reaching 2- 4 times for the same amount of water. The infiltration rate of each location decreases linearly along with an increase in distance to the travel lane, and the infiltration rate decreases to approximately 20 mm/h at the end of the spraying area.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 201 (2018)
  • Tempo-spatial controls of total coliform and E. coli contamination in a
           subtropical hilly agricultural catchment
    • Authors: Fei Xue; Jialiang Tang; Zhixin Dong; Dong Shen; Haowen Liu; Xifeng Zhang; Nicholas M. Holden
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 200
      Author(s): Fei Xue, Jialiang Tang, Zhixin Dong, Dong Shen, Haowen Liu, Xifeng Zhang, Nicholas M. Holden
      Waterborne microbial pollution remains poorly understood in developing countries, especially in rural areas. The transport of point (e.g. untreated domestic wastewater) and non-point sources of fecal bacteria such as Total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) and their spatial and temporal patterns were identified in a typical small agricultural catchment in a hilly area of subtropical China. Over the sampling area, 460 water samples from 24 sites were collected during a period of 12 months, and a remediation option using an existing ecological ditch was evaluated. The results showed that 70% surface water samples exceeded the guideline of 1000 TC MPN 100 ml−1 in the catchment. Also, 90% of groundwater samples exceeded the guideline of 10 MPN E. coli 100 ml−1 for safe drinking water. Higher concentrations of TC and E. coli occurred both in the warm and rainy season in surface water and groundwater. TC and E. coli concentrations in surface water tributaries and groundwater near residential areas were greater than those in downstream water bodies. A 300 m long vegetated ecological ditch greatly reduced average concentrations TC of 97.7% and E.coli of 99.5%. TC and E. coli concentrations were significantly correlated with electrical conductivity and turbidity, both in surface water and groundwater, indicating that mixtures of organic colloids and sediment were the most important transport vector for pathogens. However, temperature only showed a controlling effect on bacteria concentration in groundwater in this particular catchment. The current research could help predict microbial risks and establish integrated management strategy to improve water quality in the hilly agricultural catchments in the subtropical region.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.034
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2018)
  • Calibration of compensation heat pulse velocity technique for measuring
           transpiration of selected indigenous trees using weighing lysimeters
    • Authors: C.M. Tfwala; L.D. van Rensburg; Z.A. Bello; S.R. Green
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 200
      Author(s): C.M. Tfwala, L.D. van Rensburg, Z.A. Bello, S.R. Green
      The compensation heat pulse velocity (CHPV) is one of the most widely used methods to measure sap flow in woody plants. However, the accuracy of this method has not been fully explored especially for indigenous tree species of South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CHPV method in quantifying tree transpiration for selected tree species. Three indigenous trees sampled in a monolith form; black karee (Sersia lancea), buffalo thorn (Ziziphus mucronata) and wild olive (Olea africana) grown on weighing lysimeters (1 m × 1 m × 1.3 m) were installed with CHPV probes to measure sap flow on the stem half hourly, simultaneously with lysimeter measurements of transpiration. The surfaces of the lysimeters were covered with a 10 cm layer of Styrofoam, overlain by a 2 cm layer of gravel to minimize evaporation to a negligible level. Both the lysimeter and CHPV measurements were divided into two sets. The first set was used to develop tree specific calibration equations as well as an equation combining the three species used, here called a combination equation. The second set of data was used for validating the equations. Transpiration rates ranged from negligible at night to daily peaks of 3.5, 1.7 and 1.4 L h−1 for buffalo thorn, black karee and wild olive, respectively. Good agreement indices between CHPV and lysimeters were obtained when using both the tree specific equations and combination equation across species (D = 0.778–1.000, RMSE = 0.001–0.017 L h−1, MAE < 0.001 L h−1 and MBE = −0.0007 to 0.0008 L h−1). It was concluded that the CHPV method can accurately measure tree water use, and therefore can be useful for water resources management in forested areas.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2018)
  • Sharing a river: Potential performance of a water bank for reallocating
           irrigation water
    • Authors: Nazaret M. Montilla-López; José A. Gómez-Limón; Carlos Gutiérrez-Martín
      Pages: 47 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 200
      Author(s): Nazaret M. Montilla-López, José A. Gómez-Limón, Carlos Gutiérrez-Martín
      This paper presents an ex-ante policy analysis of the implementation of a publicly run active water bank operating at the basin level designed to temporarily reallocate water resources between farmers considering different scenarios of reduced water availability (cyclical scarcity due to droughts). For this purpose, the Guadalquivir River Basin, located in southern Spain, is used as a case study. Fifteen representative farm types were considered to simulate water trading through public tender for purchasing and selling temporary water rights. The model is built at the basin level to estimate the aggregate demand and supply curves to establish expected exchange prices, volumes of water traded, enhancement in economic efficiency and improvement in rural development as measured by employment generation. The simulation results show that the proposed water bank encourages water transfers from 19% of the total water used in the case of a moderate drought to almost 40% in the case of an extreme drought, significantly reducing the economic and labor demand losses due to water shortages. The public water agency can recover all of the incurred water bank operation costs by implementing a €0.01/m3 price differential between purchase and sale prices without meaningfully affecting the performance of the water bank. Thus, we conclude that the implementation of this kind of water bank during droughts would be useful in mitigating negative effects of droughts. Thus, policymakers are encouraged to create water banks as an effective instrument to cope with droughts.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.025
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2018)
  • Effect of manifold layout and fertilizer solution concentration on
           fertilization and flushing times and uniformity of drip irrigation systems
    • Authors: Pan Tang; Hong Li; Zakaria Issaka; Chao Chen
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 200
      Author(s): Pan Tang, Hong Li, Zakaria Issaka, Chao Chen
      Applying fertilizer through drip irrigation system is a very important method to save fertilizer and labour. Three manifold layouts (water supply in one end for transversal drip tapes (M1), water supply in both ends for transversal drip tapes (M2) and water supply in one end for longitudinal drip tapes (M3)) and four different fertilizer solution concentrations (50.00 g L−1 (C1), 66.67 g L−1 (C2), 100 g L−1 (C3) and 200 g L−1 (C4)) were selected to investigated the effect of the manifold and concentration on water fertigation uniformity. Results showed that the emitter at the extreme end of the manifold needed more time to clean the rudimental fertilizer in the drip tapes. The minimal flushing time increased from 8 to 13, 4 to 7 and 7 to 12 min with increasing the fertilizer concentration from C1 to C4 for M1, M2 and M3, respectively. The drip irrigation system needed more time for flushing to reduce the risk of emitter clogging when a higher fertilizer solution concentration was applied. In order of performance, M2 had the highest water and fertilizer uniformity, followed by M3 and lastly by M1. The fertilizer solution concentration had no significant effect on water distribution. However, it had a significant effect on fertilizer distribution. The mass of the applied fertilizer for the drip tapes close to the inlet increased with increasing fertilizer solution concentration from C1 to C4, which indicated that higher fertilizer solution concentration can result in lower fertilizer distribution uniformity. There was a significant effect of the manifold layout on water uniformity. The fertilizer concentration and the interaction between manifold layout and concentration had no significant effect on the water uniformity. Similarly, both the manifold layout and concentration had a significant effect on fertilizer uniformity. The interaction between manifold layout and concentration had a significant effect on the Christiansen’s uniformity (CU) and distribution uniformity (DU) for fertilizer, whilst, a significant effect on emission uniformity (EU) was not found. The manifold layout and fertilizer solution concentration should therefore be considered in the design and operation of fertigation system.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2018)
  • Mekong River Delta farm-household willingness to pay for salinity
           intrusion risk reduction
    • Authors: Tien Dung Khong; Michael D. Young; Adam Loch; Jayanthi Thennakoon
      Pages: 80 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 200
      Author(s): Tien Dung Khong, Michael D. Young, Adam Loch, Jayanthi Thennakoon
      Sea level rise and upstream development is causing salinity intrusion in Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta (MRD) and, as a consequence, agricultural productivity is declining. As the Vietnamese government and local communities search for a solution, it has become apparent that there are insufficient public resources to build the dykes necessary to control this problem. So, we employ a referendum contingent valuation methodology (CVM) to determine whether or not farm households might be willing to pay for part of the cost of a salinity intrusion risk reduction program. We find that farm households are willing to contribute funds to such a program. In areas where salinity intrusion is already reducing productivity, farm households are willing to contribute US$2.58 per month. In areas where salinity intrusion is expected to be reducing productivity by 2030, willingness to contribute is US$1.99 per month. Surprisingly, in MRD areas where salinity intrusion is not expected within the next 15 years, willingness to contribute remains positive at US$1.32 per month. These findings have local, national and international implications that require careful consideration. In passing, we make a methodological observation that a treatment model including ‘do not know’ responses provides consistent results with conventional referendum elicitation procedures.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 200 (2018)
  • A hybrid TOPSIS-agent-based framework for reducing the water demand
           requested by stakeholders with considering the agents’ characteristics
           and optimization of cropping pattern
    • Authors: Mahboubeh Ghazali; Tooraj Honar; Mohammad Reza Nikoo
      Pages: 71 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Mahboubeh Ghazali, Tooraj Honar, Mohammad Reza Nikoo
      According to the research performed, the agricultural sector is the major water consumer. Therefore, reducing the demand and the use of water in this sector has an effective role in solving the problems related to water scarcity. In this study, a hybrid TOPSIS-agent-based model has been developed to find a solution for this problem in the six management regions of Doroudzan irrigation and drainage network, in Fars province, Iran. Two main groups of agents consisting of the government and stakeholders were considered. All farmers who lived in the same village assumed as an agricultural agent. Some influential parameters such as neighbors’ impacts, training, penalties and incentives were considered in the agent-based model (ABM). In some previous ABM models, the same coefficients applied for all agents. However, without considering the stakeholders’ characteristics and conditions of each agent and region, there might be the threat of making unfeasible theoretical decisions. Therefore, in this study, the TOPSIS method was linked to ABM to determine the uniqueness of these coefficients for each agent. The ABM coefficients were determined by TOPSIS method through the use of the demographic, social, economic and cultural variables and expert’s viewpoints. Water demand requested by farmers was calculated based on the existing cropping pattern and the reduction of that was determined by the developed model in different climatic conditions (wet, normal and drought). The results showed that the water requested by the farmers, before applying the ABM, were 7.6, 18.2 and 45%, and after that they were 1.37, 3.5 and 1.09% more than the allocatable water in wet, normal and drought conditions, respectively. In order to reduce the water demand requested by farmers and maintain the effect of management tools (training, penalties and incentives), a cropping pattern optimization model with regard to deficit irrigation was developed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2018)
  • Optimal strategies for monitoring irrigation water quality
    • Authors: Nathan Lothrop; Kelly R. Bright; Jonathan Sexton; Jennifer Pearce-Walker; Kelly A. Reynolds; Marc P. Verhougstraete
      Pages: 86 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Nathan Lothrop, Kelly R. Bright, Jonathan Sexton, Jennifer Pearce-Walker, Kelly A. Reynolds, Marc P. Verhougstraete
      The quality of irrigation water drawn from surface water sources varies greatly. This is particularly true for waters that are subject to intermittent contamination events such as runoff from rainfall or direct entry of livestock upstream of use. Such pollution in irrigation systems increases the risk of food crop contamination and require adoption of best monitoring practices. Therefore, this study aimed to define optimal strategies for monitoring irrigation water quality. Following the analysis of 1357 irrigation water samples for Escherichia coli, total coliforms, and physical and chemical parameters, the following key irrigation water collection approaches are suggested: 1) explore up to 950 m upstream to ensure no major contamination or outfalls exists; 2) collect samples before 12:00 p.m. local time; 3) collect samples at the surface of the water at any point across the canal where safe access is available; and 4) composite five samples and perform a single E. coli assay. These recommendations comprehensively consider the results as well as sampling costs, personnel effort, and current scientific knowledge of water quality characterization. These strategies will help to better characterize risks from microbial pathogen contamination in irrigation waters in the Southwest United States and aid in risk reduction practices for agricultural water use in regions with similar water quality, climate, and canal construction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2018)
  • FLFP: A fuzzy linear fractional programming approach with double-sided
           fuzziness for optimal irrigation water allocation
    • Authors: Chenglong Zhang; Ping Guo
      Pages: 105 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Chenglong Zhang, Ping Guo
      In this study, a fuzzy linear fractional programming (FLFP) approach with double-sided fuzziness is developed for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. The FLFP model can be derived from incorporating double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained programming (DFCCP) into linear fractional programming (LFP) optimization framework. The developed model can deal with uncertainty presented as fuzziness in both right-hand and left-hand sides of constraints. Moreover, it has advantages in: (1) addressing two objectives directly without considering subjective factors, (2) effectively reflecting economic water productivity between total system economic benefit and total irrigation water use, (3) introducing the concept of confidence levels of fuzzy constraints-satisfaction under both the minimum and maximum reliabilities to generate more flexible solutions and (4) facilitating in-depth analysis of interrelationships among economic water productivity, system benefits and varying confidence levels. The model is applied to a case study of irrigation water allocation in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. The optimal irrigation water allocation solutions from the FLFP model can be obtained. These results can provide decision-support when deciding on selecting reasonable irrigation water resources management and agricultural production.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2018)
  • Influence of irrigation and fertilisation management on the seasonal
           distribution of water and nitrogen in a semi-arid loamy sandy soil
    • Authors: Mario Chilundo; Abraham Joel; Ingrid Wesström; Rui Brito; Ingmar Messing
      Pages: 120 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Mario Chilundo, Abraham Joel, Ingrid Wesström, Rui Brito, Ingmar Messing
      Increased use of irrigation on semi-arid sandy soils requires optimisation of irrigation and fertilisation practices to reduce water and nitrogen (N) losses. Field experiments were conducted on a semi-arid loamy sandy soil in two consecutive cropping periods, one in a cold-dry season (CP-cd) and one in a hot-wet season (CP-hw). The effects of individual treatment factors and their interactions, including two different irrigation methods (furrow – F or drip – D), two irrigation levels (full – If or reduced – Ir) and two top dressing N fertiliser types (quick – Nq or slow – Ns release), on water and N distribution in the soil profile, potential water fluxes to the zone below the roots and N losses from the 0–90 cm soil profile were studied. The concentrations of NO3-N and NH4-N in soil water (from suction cups) and soil (from bulk soil samples) tended to be higher at greater depth in the treatments with lower soil water tension, resulting from the interactions between the factors F or D with If and Nq, most probably resulting from net downward redistribution of N. The IrNs treatments resulted in longer soil water NO3-N and NH4-N residence time at 30 and 60 cm depth, and throughout the two cropping periods NO3-N was higher in Ns than in Nq treatments. Potential faster downward water flux, and thus water losses and the N leaching risk, was concentrated to the first 50–75 days after sowing in FIr and DIr treatments, while it was spread throughout the cropping periods in FIf and DIf. Hence, treatments FIfNq and DIfNq in both CP-cd and CP-hw resulted in the highest estimated N losses from the 0–90 cm soil profile. Based on these results, a combination of D irrigation, Ir irrigation level and Ns fertiliser type should preferably be applied, to avoid the risk of excessive water losses, downward N redistribution and subsequent leaching.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2018)
  • Recovering the costs of irrigation water with different pricing methods:
           Insights from a Mediterranean case study
    • Authors: Raffaele Cortignani; Davide Dell’Unto; Gabriele Dono
      Pages: 148 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Raffaele Cortignani, Davide Dell’Unto, Gabriele Dono
      A key guideline of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) asks to cover water costs in a way to encourage the efficient use of the resource, therefore its protection, but minimizing possible adverse environmental, social and economic impacts of cost recovery. We use a Mathematical Programming model of an Italian, Mediterranean agricultural area where a Reclamation and Irrigation Board (RIB) manages collective irrigation facilities, to simulate the impact of replacing the existing pricing system with several alternatives, at different degrees of water cost recovery. We estimate the water distribution cost (WDC) of the RIB with a Translog cost function, and consider the cost incurred by the Sardinian water agency (ENAS) for maintaining regional dams and primary water infrastructures. We also consider that a Regional subsidy pays part of the RIBs and ENAS energy cost for water lifting, and that ENAS rates are modulated among end-users to reduce agricultural fee by increasing the charge on industrial uses. We simulate the impact of alternative pricing under four scenarios of cost recovery: (i) current partial recovery of WDC, with no ENAS charge; (ii) current recovery of WDC, plus ENAS cost at modulated agricultural rates; (iii) full coverage of WDC, i.e. absence of the Regional aid, plus ENAS cost at modulated agricultural rates; (iv) full coverage of WDC, plus unmodulated ENAS rate. Solely changing the water pricing system, at current cost recovery level, generates limited total impacts, but substantial income redistributive effects among farm types whose magnitude grows increasing the level of recovery. The full cost recovery scenarios generate remarkable global impacts and drops of income in the single farm types, particularly when applying ENAS undiscounted rate. Major consequences also emerge for the use of water and other productive factors, and labour employment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2018)
  • Advances in designing drip irrigation laterals
    • Authors: Giorgio Baiamonte
      Pages: 157 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Giorgio Baiamonte
      It is known that using paired laterals, in which two distribution pipes extend in opposite directions from a common manifold, contribute to increasing water use efficiency (WUE). Recently, an analytical procedure to optimally design paired drip laterals on uniform slopes was proposed. More recently, this design procedure was simplified by deriving simple explicit relationships, as a function of 16 calibration constants, with relative errors that were less than 2%. In this paper, further simple design relationships are derived that require only 3 calibration constants, thus more readily obtainable results are produced and the influence of the flow rate and diameter exponents of resistance equation are made more evident. Simple monomial relationships were also extended for the cases in which the lateral is laid on flat fields, on upward fields, and also considering layouts in which the manifold is located at the boundary, instead of inside, of the irrigation unit. For the five considered layouts, evaluations of the effects of design choices in terms of energy saving and comparisons between optimal lateral lengths, are carried out. Finally, simple linear relationships linking lateral pressure head tolerance (δ), coefficient of variation of pressure heads (CV) and emission uniformity coefficient of Keller and Karmeli (EU) are presented. Results showed that for any design solutions associated with the considered layouts and for δ < 0.1, the proposed procedure allows optimal design of the lateral, optimizing WUE, assuring low values of pressure head variability (CV < 6.1%) and high values of emission uniformity coefficient (EU > 95%).

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2018)
  • Simulation of agronomic and nitrate pollution related parameters in
           vegetable cropping sequences in Mediterranean greenhouses using the
           EU-Rotate_N model
    • Authors: F. Soto; R.B. Thompson; M.R. Granados; C. Martínez-Gaitán; M. Gallardo
      Pages: 175 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): F. Soto, R.B. Thompson, M.R. Granados, C. Martínez-Gaitán, M. Gallardo
      The capacity of the EU-Rotate_N model to simulate agronomic parameters (dry matter production, yield, crop N uptake, evapotranspiration (ETc), soil water content dynamics) and parameters associated to nitrate (NO3 −) pollution (drainage, NO3 − leaching, accumulation of mineral N in soil) was evaluated in sequences of melon and pepper crops grown in plastic greenhouses. Simulated values of all output variables were compared to measured values. Two sequences with either conventional or improved management for water and N were examined during the 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons. Additionally, simulation of drainage and NO3 − leaching was evaluated during the period between crops following irrigations associated with soil disinfection and leaching of accumulated salts. Calibration of parameters related to crop growth, the critical N curve and ETc considerably improved simulation of drainage, NO3 − leaching and of soil water and soil mineral N dynamics. Following calibration, the EU-Rotate_N model accurately simulated dry matter production, crop N uptake and marketable fruit yield; the simulation errors being lower or similar to those reported elsewhere. ETc and drainage were accurately simulated in the 2006 melon and pepper crops and in the 2005 melon crop; they were respectively over- and under-estimated in the 2005 pepper crop probably on account of a virus infection. EU-Rotate_N accurately simulated soil water content for the 0−30 and 30−60 cm soil layers. Soil mineral N and NO3 − leaching were generally underestimated by EU-Rotate_N, the error being larger in the 2005 sequences; however, the model effectively simulated seasonal trends.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2018)
  • Effects of lateral spacing for drip irrigation and mulching on the
           distributions of soil water and nitrate, maize yield, and water use
    • Authors: Lifeng Zhou; Jianqiang He; Zhijuan Qi; Miles Dyck; Yufeng Zou; Tibin Zhang; Hao Feng
      Pages: 190 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Lifeng Zhou, Jianqiang He, Zhijuan Qi, Miles Dyck, Yufeng Zou, Tibin Zhang, Hao Feng
      In this study, a two-year study in fields with and without a subsurface sand layer (identified as FSS and FNS) were conducted in the Hetao Irrigation District in Northwest China, to investigate the effects of irrigation lateral spacing and soil mulching on soil water and nitrate distribution uniformity, and the combined effects of soil water and nitrate distribution on crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize. The experiment followed a completely randomized block design with four treatments (S1M1, S1M2, S2M1, and S2M2) and three replicates for FSS and FNS, respectively. The four treatments resulted from the combination of two levels of lateral spacing (S1 for 1.0 m and S2 for 0.5 m) and two film-covering modes (full mulching, M1; partial mulching, M2). In each treatment, the Christiansen uniformity coefficient (CU) was used to evaluate the uniformities of soil water (CUw ) and nitrate (CUn ) distribution in the vertical soil profile. The results showed that the narrower lateral spacing and full mulching enhanced CUn and relative chlorophyll content of leaf, compared with the wider lateral spacing and partial mulching. However, lateral spacing and mulching methods imposed no significant effect on CUw. The correlation between CUw and CUn was not significant under mulched drip irrigation system. In soils without a subsurface sand layer, crop yield may be greater with a higher CUn in root zone. Full film-covering significantly enhanced CUn and then increased crop yields and WUE in FNS, however the combined effects of lateral spacing and mulching methods on grain yield were not significantly different. Thus, taking into account crop yields, WUE, and cost of drip laterals, the combination of wider irrigation lateral spacing and partial mulching was recommended for the FSS soil, while the combination of wider irrigation lateral spacing and full mulching for the FNS soil.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2018)
  • Using gene expression programming in monthly reference evapotranspiration
           modeling: A case study in Egypt
    • Authors: Mohamed A. Mattar
      Pages: 28 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: 2 February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 198
      Author(s): Mohamed A. Mattar
      The Penman-Monteith FAO-56 equation requires the complete climatic records for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ET o ). The present study is aimed at developing and evaluating a gene expression programming (GEP) model for estimating mean monthly ET o by using minimal amount of climatic data. The data used in the analysis are collected from 32 weather stations in Egypt through the CLIMWAT database. The results showed that the accuracy of the GEP model significantly improved when either mean relative humidity (RH) or wind speed at 2-m height (u 2) was used as additional input variables. The GEP model with the inputs as maximum and minimum air temperature, RH, and u 2 showed the lowest root mean square error (0.426 mm d−1 and 0.430 mm d−1) and, the highest coefficient of determination, (0.963 and 0.962) overall index of model performance (0.960 and 0.960), and index of agreement (0.991 and 0.990) for training and testing sets, respectively. Comparing the results of GEP models with other empirical models showed that the GEP technique are more accurate and can be employed successfully in modelling ET o .

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2018)
  • Comparison of the water budget for the typical cropland and pear orchard
           ecosystems in the North China Plain
    • Authors: Yucui Zhang; Huimin Lei; Wenguang Zhao; Yanjun Shen; Dengpan Xiao
      Pages: 53 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: 2 February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 198
      Author(s): Yucui Zhang, Huimin Lei, Wenguang Zhao, Yanjun Shen, Dengpan Xiao
      The North China Plain (NCP) has a severe water shortage. About 70% groundwater has been exploited for irrigation. Winter wheat – summer maize and pears are typical representative cereal crops and commercial fruit trees in this area, respectively. Water budget for the typical cropland and orchard ecosystems has a significant importance for agricultural production, especially in the NCP. Therefore, evapotranspiration (ET) and water balance were studied in the annual winter wheat – summer maize rotation (cropland) and pear orchard. Latent and sensible heat fluxes were measured by eddy covariance. Annual ET for pear trees was 764 mm and for both crops was 690 mm. The difference of ET between these two ecosystems was about equal to one irrigation. Transpiration was the main loss with the mean proportion of 63% for crops and 76% for pear trees. Wheat growth period is in the dry season and requires much more irrigation than maize. Mainly transpiration (80%) occurred from April through September in the both ecosystems which was also the growing period for pear trees. The annual precipitation was 469 mm and 444 mm in the pear orchard and cropland, respectively, although 80% of it occurred from June to September. Compared with the precipitation, annual mean water deficit was 294 mm for the pear trees and 244 mm for crops. The water shortage was severe in May while surplus water presented in July and August. Energy and ET fluxes were determined by atmospheric demand and the response of plants as controlled by plant phenology and crop selection. As the water shortage situation becomes more serious in the NCP, sustainability of the agricultural ecosystems could be improved by changing crop planting patterns, specifically, increasing the area ratio of maize to pear trees.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2018)
  • Title: Water management for sugarcane and corn under future climate
           scenarios in Brazil
    • Authors: Luciano Alves de Oliveira; Jarbas Honorio de Miranda; Richard A.C. Cooke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management
      Author(s): Luciano Alves de Oliveira, Jarbas Honorio de Miranda, Richard A.C. Cooke
      Over the last several decades, there have been concerns worldwide about energy demand. Several alternatives to oil have emerged, among them the use of plant biomass for fuel. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) have exhibited excellent potential in this regard. These crops are highly efficient in producing carbohydrates which can easily be fermented to produce ethanol. Proper irrigation practices, providing the ideal amount of water that the plant needs to reach its full potential yield, are needed to maximize income from these crops. Sugarcane and corn are of great economic importance to the state of São Paulo, where it is common to irrigate these crops. This research aims to determine conditions for increased productivity and water availability for these crops in the region of Piracicaba, SP, under future climate scenarios. To achieve this goal, two crop simulation models presented in DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer), DSSAT/CANEGRO and CERES-MAIZE, were coupled with the MarkSim model for estimating data for current and future (1982-2012 and 2062-2092, respectively) climate scenarios. Information from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used to generate data for current conditions, as well as future conditions: the A1 B − a middle-term scenario which there are a fast economic growth and balance in the use of sources of fossil and non-fossil fuels; the A2–a pessimistic scenario which there are a heterogeneous world and an oriented regional economic world; and the B1–a optimistic scenario which there are local solutions to economic, social and environmental sustainability. Based on these results, for future scenarios, sugarcane cultivar RB86-7515 yield will be reduced by approximately 40% if the cultivars are not genetically improved. To maintain the same yield levels of hybrid corn BR201, these will be necessary to increase irrigation water by 81%.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T12:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2018.01.019
  • Using saline soil and marginal quality water to produce alfalfa in arid
    • Authors: F.J. Díaz; S.R. Grattan; J.A. Reyes; B. de la Roza-Delgado; S.E. Benes; C. Jiménez; M. Dorta; M. Tejedor
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): F.J. Díaz, S.R. Grattan, J.A. Reyes, B. de la Roza-Delgado, S.E. Benes, C. Jiménez, M. Dorta, M. Tejedor
      The gradual increase in the amount of land and water resources affected by salt in arid and semi-arid regions requires strategies to optimize the use of these marginal-quality resources. Recent field and greenhouse experiments have demonstrated the potential of growing certain ‘pre-selected’ varieties of alfalfa in highly saline conditions. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the impact of irrigation with saline groundwater on alfalfa growth and production in saline-sodic soils. The sustainability of the system in terms of forage yield and quality was also evaluated. The study included three varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, vars. SW8421S, PGI908S and WL656HQ) planted in pots filled with saline-sodic soil (Calcic Haplosalids) collected on the island of Lanzarote (Spain) and irrigated for 18 months with increasingly saline water. Although the yield of the alfalfa varieties was reduced by an average of 7, 20, 31 and 46% as the salinity of the irrigation water increased from 0.4 dS m−1 to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 dS m−1, respectively, their relative salt tolerance, based on the average electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (ECe), was much higher than those established in the literature. Based on their nutritional quality, all alfalfa varieties are categorized as ‘supreme’ quality, with metabolizable energy (ME) values in excess of 10 MJ kg−1. Moreover, no detriment to quality was observed at the higher levels of irrigation water salinity. Mineral composition analysis revealed S, K and B levels near or above the established maximum tolerable levels (MTLs) suggesting that this forage could only be safely consumed by ruminants over the long term if combined with other forages with lower mineral content.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • Water pricing following rainfall distribution and its implications for
           irrigation agriculture
    • Authors: Sarah Isselhorst; Jonas Berking; Brigitta Schütt
      Pages: 34 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Sarah Isselhorst, Jonas Berking, Brigitta Schütt
      This study uses data from water auctions, conducted by the traditional irrigation community of Vélez Blanco. Water prices are comprehensively compared and statically correlated with local precipitation data on different temporal scales; the data analyzed reach back to 1967. The local prevailing Mediterranean climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation amount of 419mm, while effective rainfall (≥1mm) occurs averagely at 37days per year. The rainfall distribution data used were of daily, seasonal and annual resolution and are assessed on their influence on the local water price formation. The results were validated with information about local agricultural practices and subjective perceptions of the vega’s status, gained from interviews with local farmers. Results show that high correlation coefficients are achieved when water prices and precipitation data are correlated on a monthly scale. The highest correlation coefficients are achieved with a temporal offset of one month throughout the spring and summer season. Interestingly, neither short term water surplus, nor long term water deficit (consecutive drought years) are clearly reflected. Based on the given data-base, annual rainfall distribution has proven to be a significant factor that influences water price formation in the Vega of Vélez Blanco.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:20:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • Determining water use efficiency of wheat and cotton: A meta-regression
    • Authors: Yubing Fan; Chenggang Wang; Zhibiao Nan
      Pages: 48 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Yubing Fan, Chenggang Wang, Zhibiao Nan
      A great challenge for agricultural production is to produce more food with less water, which can be possibly achieved by increasing crop water use efficiency (WUE). This study systematically reviewed 52 cases from 49 empirical studies with field experimental results on wheat and cotton. This research investigated yield-water use relations under both furrow and micro irrigation systems, compared optimal water use to achieve maximum WUE and maximum yield, calculated water saving potentials under various scenarios, and evaluated the effects of influential factors using meta-regression analysis. The results suggest that to achieve maximum WUE rather than maximum yield, water use for wheat can be reduced by 30.4% with a grain yield decrease of 14.8%, and water use for cotton can decrease by 51.4% with a yield reduction of 51.7%. Compared with furrow irrigation, micro irrigation reduces wheat water use by 22.7% and increases yield by 36.7%. While for cotton, micro irrigation reduces water use by 36.8% and decrease yield by 21.4%. Under the scenario of a 10% yield reduction, water use decreases by 25% for wheat and by 20–22% for cotton. Compared with maximum yield, other yield levels reduce water use by 2–15% on average for wheat, and by 15–17% for cotton. Achieving maximum WUE reduces water use by 14–31% compared with other sub-optimal WUE levels. The meta-regression analysis showed adoption of micro irrigation systems, and farm management practices on soil and water significantly improved wheat and cotton WUE. Assessments of the publication selection bias and genuine effects illustrate the application of weighted least squares in conducting meta-regression analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • Using site-specific nitrogen management in rainfed corn to reduce the risk
           of nitrate leaching
    • Authors: Maria del Pilar Muschietti-Piana; Pablo Ariel Cipriotti; Susana Urricariet; Nahuel Raul Peralta; Mauricio Niborski
      Pages: 61 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 199
      Author(s): Maria del Pilar Muschietti-Piana, Pablo Ariel Cipriotti, Susana Urricariet, Nahuel Raul Peralta, Mauricio Niborski
      Managing nitrogen (N) to achieve yield potential and limit losses to the environment is challenging due to the temporal and spatial variability in crop N uptake which affects the distribution of soil-N. Nitrogen fertilization using site-specific management (SSM) is one of a number of strategies that can improve the efficiency of N use and reduce the losses of N to the environment from cropping systems. The aim was to assess: (i) corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield and N uptake; and (ii) soil residual- and potentially leachable-N, and its relationship with N and water use efficiency using SSM vs. uniform management (UM) strategies in high-(HP) and low-(LP) productivity zones on soils of the Inland Pampas of Argentina. Differences in soil residual- and potentially leachable-N, corn grain yield, N uptake, water and N use efficiency were compared between treatments. In HP-zones, corn grain yield and total biomass were 2.7 and 4.2 Mg ha−1 higher with SSM than UM, and corn grain N uptake and total N uptake increased by 21% and 18% with SSM when compared to UM. Soil residual-N at field-scale was reduced by 18% with SSM. Marginal differences in potentially leachable-N among treatments were observed throughout the soil profile; the highest nitrate concentration was 6.6 mg kg−1 in LP-zones with UM within the 210–240 cm soil layer. Overall corn water use efficiency in total biomass was 16% higher with SSM than with UM in both LP- and HP-zones. Using SSM in the LP-zones increased corn N use efficiency in grain and total biomass by 50% and 43% respectively. In this context, SSM can be considered as a conservation practice that optimizes N and water use efficiency by corn under dry conditions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 199 (2017)
  • Theoretical analysis of the effects of irrigation rate and paddy water
           depth on water and leaf temperatures in a paddy field continuously
           irrigated with running water
    • Authors: Kazuhiro Nishida; Shuichiro Yoshida; Sho Shiozawa
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: 2 February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 198
      Author(s): Kazuhiro Nishida, Shuichiro Yoshida, Sho Shiozawa
      Water management techniques such as continuous irrigation with running water (CIRW) have been used by Japanese farmers to control the thermal environment for rice cropping. In this study, to optimize this method to control the thermal environment in paddy fields, theoretical equations for predicting water and vegetation temperatures in a paddy field were obtained. First, the equations to calculate water and vegetation temperatures in a paddy field were obtained by solving the heat balance equations of the paddy water and vegetation, taking into account the effect of horizontal heat convection driven by irrigation. The equations were validated by comparisons with observed water temperatures in a conventional paddy field under CIRW. The calculated changes in water temperatures over time and distance showed good agreement with observed values, with a root mean square error of 0.39°C. This result indicated that the equations satisfactorily expressed the features of paddy water temperature under CIRW. Next, these equations were used to determine the effects of irrigation rate, paddy water depth and wind speed on water and rice plant temperatures. The following results were obtained. 1) The area cooled by CIRW was positively related to irrigation rate and negatively related to water depth. 2) Low water depths were preferable for application of CIRW during the nighttime. 3) Slower wind speeds and latent heat flux from vegetation strengthened the effects of water management on vegetation temperature. The proposed equations and analyses represent the common features of the effect of irrigation on water and vegetation temperatures in a paddy field, and provide quantitative information about the effects of water management techniques on the thermal environment for rice cropping.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:20:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
  • Modelling soil water dynamic in rain-fed spring maize field with plastic
    • Authors: Baoqing Chen; Enke Liu; Xurong Mei; Changrong Yan; Sarah Garré
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: 2 February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 198
      Author(s): Baoqing Chen, Enke Liu, Xurong Mei, Changrong Yan, Sarah Garré
      Numerical solution of the Richards equation with Hydrus-2D model is a low cost and fast way to get information on spatio-temporal soil water dynamics. Previous researches with Hydrus-2D have developed two different approaches to represent the rainfall infiltration in irrigated field with plastic mulching: ‘BP’ – an approach comprised by bare strip boundary and plastic strip boundary without consideration of film side infiltration;‘BP + ’- an approach comprised by bare strip and plastic strip with integrating the process of film side infiltration by increasing the rainfall infiltration amount in bare strip. Nevertheless, the performance of these approaches has not yet been evaluated in rain-fed fields. Considering much more dominant role of rainfall infiltration in rain-fed agriculture, we tested an additional approach which comprised a bare strip, plastic strip and planting hole (BPH) to take into account the effect of the rainfall canopy redistribution and film side infiltration, and we compared its performance to the two existing approaches. Results suggested BP completely failed to reproduce the soil water content (SWC) in all soil layers of plastic strip and in the deep soil layers of bare strip. BP+ overestimated the SWC in 0–20 cm of the bare strip, while the performance of BPH was acceptable in different positions. After that, we compared the soil water distribution between no-mulched field (NM) and plastic mulched field (PM) with approach BPH. Our simulation showed that the highest SWC in PM occurred near the planting hole, SWC in the center zone of plastic strip was lower, while SWC in the bare strip was lowest. PM improves the soil water availability not only in the plastic strip but also in the bare strip as compared to NM.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T18:31:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 198 (2017)
  • Agro-industrial wastewater reuse for irrigation of a vegetable crop
           succession under Mediterranean conditions
    • Authors: Angela Libutti; Giuseppe Gatta; Anna Gagliardi; Pompilio Vergine; Alfieri Pollice; Luciano Beneduce; Grazia Disciglio; Emanuele Tarantino
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 196
      Author(s): Angela Libutti, Giuseppe Gatta, Anna Gagliardi, Pompilio Vergine, Alfieri Pollice, Luciano Beneduce, Grazia Disciglio, Emanuele Tarantino
      In many countries of the Mediterranean region, characterized by frequent drought periods, agricultural production often occurs under water deficiency or conditions that cause the depletion of the existing water resources. In these areas, the reuse of reclaimed wastewater for crop irrigation could contribute to mitigate/decrease water shortage, support the agriculture sector and protect groundwater resources. In 1.5-year field experiments in Southern Italy (Apulia Region), the effects of irrigation with treated agro-industrial wastewater on soil properties, crops yield and qualitative traits of crop products, including their microbiological safety, were assessed. Groundwater (GW), secondary treated wastewater (SW) and tertiary treated wastewater (TW) from an innovative “on-demand” UV disinfection system were used to irrigate tomato and broccoli, cultivated in succession. The three irrigation water sources and the corresponding irrigated soils, plants and crop products were analyzed for the main physico-chemical characteristics, quali-quantitative parameters and fecal indicators. SW and TW showed higher values of the main physico-chemical parameters than GW. SW irrigated soil resulted in a significant increase of NH4-N, Na+, SAR, EC (below the threshold value beyond which a soil is defined as saline) during the first tomato crop cycle, and of pH during the broccoli growing season. Irrigation with treated wastewater did not significantly affect the marketable yield nor the qualitative traits of tomato and broccoli crops, except for the Na+ and NO3 − content (below the threshold levels defined by the European guidelines for vegetables). High levels of E. coli (above the Italian limit for reuse), Fecal coliforms and Fecal enterococci (up to 104 CFU 100ml−1) were observed in the SW and, when chlorination was not done, in the TW. Nevertheless, E. coli was not isolated from any sample of soil, plant and crop product, probably due to its rapid die-off. Moreover, low concentrations of Fecal coliforms and Total heterotrophic count were found in plant and crop product. The drip irrigation system used, which avoided the close contact between water and plant, may have contributed to this. Under the conditions applied in this study, the reuse of treated agro-industrial wastewater for irrigation can be considered an effective way to cope with agricultural water shortage in the Mediterranean area.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T15:50:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2017)
  • Measurement and simulation of water-use by canola and camelina under
           cool-season conditions in California
    • Authors: Nicholas George; Sally E. Thompson; Joy Hollingsworth; Steven Orloff; Stephen Kaffka
      Pages: 15 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 196
      Author(s): Nicholas George, Sally E. Thompson, Joy Hollingsworth, Steven Orloff, Stephen Kaffka
      The agricultural sector of California is one of the most diverse and economically valuable in the world, but is dominated by woody perennial, and annual warm-season crops, dependent on irrigation. These face potential problems from restrictions to irrigation water supply and climate change. Canola and camelina could be used to diversify cool-season cropping in the state, but the water use of these species in the region is poorly understood. In this study, both the total and temporal water use of canola and camelina under cool-season production conditions in California were investigated using field-based and computer modeling approaches. Total and temporal water-use of both species were found to be similar to what has been observed in other regions under cool-season conditions. Observed seasonal water uptake patterns also closely matched predictions by the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. These results inform the utilization of these species as new crops in California and also contribute to estimates of water use by these globally significant oilseeds under Mediterranean to arid climate conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T15:50:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2017)
  • An interval multi-objective programming model for irrigation water
           allocation under uncertainty
    • Authors: Mo Li; Qiang Fu; Vijay P. Singh; Dong Liu
      Pages: 24 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 196
      Author(s): Mo Li, Qiang Fu, Vijay P. Singh, Dong Liu
      An interval linear multi-objective programming (ILMP) model for irrigation water allocation was developed, considering conflicting objectives and uncertainties. Based on the generation of interval numbers through statistical simulation, the ILMP model was solved using a fuzzy programming method. The model balances contradictions among economic net benefit, crop yield and water-saving in irrigation systems incorporating uncertainties in both objective functions and constraints that are based on the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater. The model was applied to Hulan River irrigation district, northeast China. Tradeoffs between various crops in different subareas under different frequencies were analyzed, and scenarios with different objectives were considered to evaluate the changing trend of irrigation water allocation.Results indicated that the ILMP model provided effective linkages between revenue/output promotion and water saving, and offers insights into tradeoffs for irrigation water management under uncertainty.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T15:50:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 196 (2017)
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 196

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T06:20:12Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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