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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
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Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
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Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
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Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
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Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 338, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 422, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Agricultural Water Management
  [SJR: 1.546]   [H-I: 79]   [38 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0378-3774
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Combining the ensemble mean and bias correction approaches to reduce the
           uncertainty in hillslope-scale soil moisture simulation
    • Authors: Kaihua Liao; Xiaoming Lai; Zhiwen Zhou; Qing Zhu
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 191
      Author(s): Kaihua Liao, Xiaoming Lai, Zhiwen Zhou, Qing Zhu
      The ROSETTA model has routinely been applied to predict the soil hydraulic properties for simulating the water flow at the hillslope scale. However, the uncertainties in water flow simulations are substantial due to the soil heterogeneity and ROSETTA model structure. In order to reduce these uncertainties, this study used the HYDRUS-2D and ensemble mean to simulate soil moisture based on the outputs of all candidate models. In addition, the bias correction techniques (including linear bias correction (LBC) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) matching) were also applied to improve the prediction of soil moisture. A total of 320days of observed soil moisture data at two depths (10 and 30cm) in the upper and lower slope positions were adopted to evaluate the performances of different bias correction methods results showed that the uncertainty in hillslope-scale soil moisture simulation due to the ROSETTA model structure was more important than that due to the soil heterogeneity. The CDF matching-based nonlinear bias correction approach was generally better than the LBC in reducing the uncertainty in soil moisture simulation. Combining the ensemble mean and CDF matching was a viable approach to improve the accuracy of the numerical model for simulating the hillslope-scale soil moisture variations.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T06:59:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2017)
  • Are basin and reservoir tillage effective techniques to reduce runoff
           under sprinkler irrigation in Mediterranean conditions'
    • Authors: Luis L. Silva
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 191
      Author(s): Luis L. Silva
      The increasing use of low pressure moving sprinklers irrigation systems, like center-pivot irrigation systems, has increased surface runoff problems. Runoff decreases the irrigation system application efficiency, increasing the operational costs. It can also be responsible for environmental problems, such as soil erosion and the contamination of surface waters. Basin tillage and reservoir tillage have proved to be an effective practice to prevent runoff in many situations and can be an option to reduce surface runoff under moving sprinkler irrigation systems operating in Mediterranean conditions. However, even though it is a common practice in some Mediterranean regions, there are very few studies quantifying the effect of these tillage practices under moving sprinkler irrigation systems in Mediterranean countries. Many farmers are still not convinced that this is the best practice to prevent runoff. Some of them are converting to conservation agriculture, using no-till or minimum tillage, but the results of these tillage systems in the prevention of runoff are not always consistent. The industry is also creating new implements used to create the basins and reservoirs that apparently have some advantages over the old ones. But more studies are still required in order to be able to identify the better solutions for different soil, crop and irrigation management situations.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T07:25:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2017)
  • Does water salinity affect pepper plant response to nitrogen
    • Authors: Hagai Yasuor; Guy Tamir; Avraham Stein; Shabtai Cohen; Asher Bar-Tal; Alon Ben-Gal; Uri Yermiyahu
      Pages: 57 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 191
      Author(s): Hagai Yasuor, Guy Tamir, Avraham Stein, Shabtai Cohen, Asher Bar-Tal, Alon Ben-Gal, Uri Yermiyahu
      Recent increase in demand for agricultural products combined with scarcity of fresh water has motivated increased use of non-conventional water sources for irrigation. Application of water varying in quality dictates adjustment of nitrogen (N) management. The response of bell pepper to a range of different concentrations of N and salinity (NaCl) was evaluated in soilless and field experiments under greenhouse conditions. Pepper plant biomass and yield increased with N and decreased with salinity. Chloride accumulated mainly in the stems and the fraction of Cl in leaves increased as a function of increased exposure to salinity. Increasing N application resulted in reduced Cl uptake and accumulation in pepper organs, including leaves and petioles. Although N significantly reduced Cl content and concentration in leaves and petioles it did not compensate for the negative effects of increasing salinity. This indicates that salinity itself and not Cl − N competition was the limiting factor affecting growth and yield.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:54:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2017)
  • Impact of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer rate on soil water trends and
           maize evapotranspiration during the vegetative and reproductive periods
    • Authors: D.R. Rudnick; S. Irmak; K. Djaman; V. Sharma
      Pages: 77 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 191
      Author(s): D.R. Rudnick, S. Irmak, K. Djaman, V. Sharma
      Field research was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln South Central Agricultural Laboratory located near Clay Center, NE to evaluate maize actual evapotranspiration (ETa) during the vegetative and reproductive growth periods for 0, 84, 140, 196, and 252kgha−1 nitrogen (N) fertilizer treatments under full irrigation (FIT), limited irrigation (75% of FIT), and rainfed settings. Daily ETa values were greatest during the early reproductive period (silking to blister growth stages) with average values of 3.62, 5.18, and 5.91mmd−1 in 2011 and 4.37, 5.92, and 6.12mmd−1 in 2012 for rainfed, 75% FIT, and FIT, respectively. Maize ETa during the vegetative period was not significantly impacted by N fertilizer rate in 2011 (P0.05 = 0.2357) or 2012 (P0.05 = 0.6341). Whereas, reproductive period ETa for FIT and 75% FIT for the pooled years significantly increased with N fertilizer rate with slopes of 0.20 and 0.17, respectively. The rainfed regression slopes were not statistically different from zero in 2012 (P0.05 = 0.1467) or pooled years (P0.05 = 0.0505). The increase in reproductive ETa with N fertilizer and irrigation resulted in a positive grain yield response with slopes of 0.021, 0.048, and 0.104 Mg ha−1 mm−1 for the rainfed, 75% FIT, and FIT settings, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:54:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 191 (2017)
  • Can ridge-furrow plastic mulching replace irrigation in dryland wheat and
           maize cropping systems?
    • Authors: Stefani Daryanto; Lixin Wang; Pierre-André Jacinthe
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 190
      Author(s): Stefani Daryanto, Lixin Wang, Pierre-André Jacinthe
      Dryland crop production requires significant water investments, but problems associated with irrigation have been observed in many dryland regions (e.g., China, Australia and the Mediterranean basin). A key strategy for maintaining crop yields without over-exploiting the scarce water resource is by increasing water use efficiency (WUE). Plastic mulching technology for wheat and maize has been commonly used in China, but their effect on yield, soil water content, evapotranspiration (ET), and WUE has not been compared with traditional irrigation. Using a meta-analysis approach, we quantitatively examined the efficacy of plastic mulching in comparison with traditional irrigation in the same region. By covering the ridges with plastic and channeling rainwater into a very narrow planting zone (furrow), our results showed that plastic mulching resulted in a yield increase comparable to irrigated crops but used 24% less water in comparison with irrigation due primarily to a much greater WUE and better retention of soil water. The higher WUE in plastic-mulched croplands was likely a result of a greater proportion of available water being used for transpiration (T) than evaporation (E). Currently production costs and residual plastic pollution hinder worldwide adoption of the technique, despite being a promising strategy for dryland cropping systems.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:25:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 190 (2017)
  • Signal intensity based on maximum daily stem shrinkage can reflect the
           water status of apple trees under alternate partial root-zone irrigation
    • Authors: Shaoqing Du; Ling Tong; Xiaotao Zhang; Shaozhong Kang; Taisheng Du; Sien Li; Risheng Ding
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 190
      Author(s): Shaoqing Du, Ling Tong, Xiaotao Zhang, Shaozhong Kang, Taisheng Du, Sien Li, Risheng Ding
      Signal intensity (SI) and maximum daily stem shrinkage (MDS) are indicators of the water status and irrigation schedule of fruit trees under conventional irrigation (CI). However, whether SI can reflect the water status of fruit trees under alternate partial root-zone irrigation (APRI) has rarely been reported. Field experiments were conducted on apple trees over two years with two irrigation methods (CI and APRI) and two irrigation amounts (400mm and 500mm) in an arid area. The followings were measured over the whole growth season: MDS, sap flow (SF), air temperature, net radiation, vapor pressure deficit, reference evapotranspiration, soil water content, midday stem water potential and predawn leaf water potential. The signal intensities based on MDS (SIMDS ) and sap flow (SISF ) were calculated. The results show: first, MDS was significantly higher under CI at 400mm than under APRI at 400mm, while no difference was found between the two irrigation methods at 500mm. MDS was significantly positively correlated with meteorological factors, while SIMDS and SISF were not. Second, SIMDS was significantly lower under APRI than under CI, while no difference was found in SISF between the two irrigation methods. Third, in contrast to SISF , SIMDS was significantly correlated with soil water content as well as with midday stem water potential and predawn leaf water potential under APRI. These results show that the signal intensity based on maximum daily stem shrinkage accurately indicates the water status of apple trees under alternate partial root-zone irrigation in an arid apple production area.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T08:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 190 (2017)
  • Olive mill wastewater as a source of organic matter, water and nutrients
           for restoration of degraded soils and for crops managed with sustainable
    • Authors: T. Chatzistathis; T. Koutsos
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 190
      Author(s): T. Chatzistathis, T. Koutsos
      Every year, worldwide olive oil production produces in a short period of time (late autumn-winter) vast quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW). This product causes environmental and management problems due to its disposal into rivers and lakes. During the last years, OMW application (used either as crude, raw material, or as treated- with different methods- product, in order to decrease its phytotoxicity) was tested under field conditions as organic amendment; many times, the results with regard to the raise of plant growth, crop yields and enhancement of soil fertility were promising, while in some other cases phytotoxicity problems, groundwater contamination, decreased soil porosity, as well as enhanced electrical conductivity, salinity, increased soil acidity and decreased N mineralization rate occurred. On the other hand, OMW is a low-cost source of nutrients (especially N, P, K, Mg and Fe), water, and organic matter; thus, it can be successfully used for the restoration of degraded croplands, in hilly, eroded, poor in organic C, and/or semi-arid areas. Since one of the first steps in land restoration process is the enhancement of soil organic C, OMW is an excellent alternative solution for the: i) increase of organic matter, ii) improvement of soil physical properties, and iii) enhancement of productivity of degraded croplands. In addition, under certain conditions (use of treated, or diluted with water OMW in order to decrease phenol content, avoidance of exaggerate applications, suitable application rate(s) and season), OMW can be safely used as a soil amendment and low-cost organic fertilizer for crops, managed with sustainable systems. The basic purpose of this review was to present and thoroughly discuss all the beneficial aspects of OMW application with regard to: i) the restoration of degraded croplands, ii) sustainable crop management, based on the most important and recently published papers. In addition, the environmental consequences of exaggerate and untreated OMW applications, together with some solutions (strategies) adopted for eliminating soil and groundwater contamination and phytotoxicity are also presented in this review article.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T06:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 190 (2017)
  • Bruising susceptibility of Manzanilla de Sevilla table olive cultivar
           under Regulated Deficit Irrigation
    • Authors: L. Casanova; M. Corell; M.P. Suárez; P. Rallo; M.J. Martín-Palomo; M.R. Jiménez
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 189
      Author(s): L. Casanova, M. Corell, M.P. Suárez, P. Rallo, M.J. Martín-Palomo, M.R. Jiménez
      The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a Mediterranean tree adapted to drought conditions and traditionally rainfed. For irrigated olive groves, there is extensive knowledge about the effects of Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) scheduling on the sensibility of different phenological stages and about the importance of rehydration in the last part of the fruit growth stage. Water stress in this period could reduce the fruit size, but the exact extent of this reduction is still unknown. Additionally, table olive varieties may be damaged during harvesting or processing. This results in bruising, superficial browning injuries that progress through the mesocarp. Bruising susceptibility is an important quality parameter in table olives, however it has been little studied in RDI research. Hand-harvested fruits of ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ for green processing, treated with two types of RDI and full irrigation, were bruise-induced with a standardized drop to evaluate bruising susceptibility. Bruising index (BI) and external (BAE) and internal (BAI) bruising damage were measured 3 and 24h after the bruising treatment. A full irrigation treatment was set up in order to maintain the Ψh values higher than −1.2MPa before pit hardening and −1.4MPa until harvest. RDI-1 and RDI-2 were irrigated with a full irrigation treatment until 2 and 4 weeks before harvest, respectively. Then, water was withheld until −2.5MPa. RDI-2 can save 50% of the water applied without affecting the fruit weight, volume or pulp-to-pit ratio (fresh and dry). Fruits under RDI treatments are less susceptible to bruising than fruits with a full irrigation treatment, as evidenced by the lower bruising index and the smaller external and internal damaged area. As for the bruising time line, 3h after the bruise inducement, the bruising index and external damaged area had already developed, whereas internal bruising damage continued increasing up to 24h after the bruising treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T04:06:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 189 (2017)
  • Using the FAO dual crop coefficient approach to model water use and
           productivity of processing pea (Pisum sativum L.) as influenced by
           irrigation strategies
    • Authors: Paula Paredes; Luis S. Pereira; Gonçalo C. Rodrigues; Nuno Botelho; Maria Odete Torres
      Pages: 5 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 189
      Author(s): Paula Paredes, Luis S. Pereira, Gonçalo C. Rodrigues, Nuno Botelho, Maria Odete Torres
      Aiming at improved knowledge on water use, productivity and irrigation scheduling of processing pea, the soil water balance model SIMDualKc was calibrated and validated using field data observed in two farmers’ fields in a wet and a dry year. The model uses the dual crop coefficient approach for partitioning crop evapotranspiration into crop transpiration and soil evaporation. Calibration was performed by minimizing differences between measured and simulated soil water content with a root mean square error representing 2% of the measured mean. The calibrated basal crop coefficients for the initial, mid-season and end-season were respectively 0.15, 1.15 and 1.10. Pea commercial yield (5084–8197kgha−1), obtained from the total yield using industry textural and quality criteria, was influenced by climatic conditions and the harvesting date. Using the global water-yield function with Ky =1.15 and the actual crop transpiration computed with SIMDualKc, the fresh and commercial yields were estimated with errors smaller than 3.5%. Water productivity relative to the commercial yield varied 1.51–2.67kgm−3, mainly depending on the yield achieved rather than on water use. Results from the economic water productivity ratio (EWPR), which compares the commercial yield value with the corresponding production costs, varied 1.07–1.82. Because irrigation costs were a small fraction of the total costs, EWPR values mainly varied with the commercial yield and less with irrigation costs. Irrigation scheduling alternatives for wet and dry years showed that water saving is achievable without considerably affecting peas’ yield and economic results. Results show that the SIMDualKc model is appropriate to support irrigation advising.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T10:10:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 189 (2017)
  • Automated cycled sprinkler irrigation for spring frost protection of
    • Authors: Faith Olszewski; Peter Jeranyama; Casey D. Kennedy; Carolyn J. DeMoranville
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 189
      Author(s): Faith Olszewski, Peter Jeranyama, Casey D. Kennedy, Carolyn J. DeMoranville
      Overhead (sprinkler) irrigation is commonly used for spring frost protection of cranberries in southeastern Massachusetts, United States. Historically, conventional forms of irrigation management have been used, generally consisting of running irrigation pumps continuously throughout the night and into the early morning until ambient air temperature reached 1–2°C above the critical temperature of the plant. However, a general paucity of information exists on the horticultural and hydrological effects of on-off “cycling” of irrigation pumps based on pre-programmed temperature setpoints. To fill this gap, three years of monitoring were conducted to quantify the relative effects of cycled and conventional spring frost irrigation on cranberry bud damage, crop yield, and water use. Results showed that cycled irrigation reduced seasonal water use from 33 to 80% compared to conventional frost irrigation, with water savings under cycled frost irrigation ranging from 113 to 198mm (mean±SD: 176±47mm). Despite some variation in type and amount of observed bud damage, values of cranberry yield were similar between the two methods or higher for cycled irrigation. The conventional frost irrigation method always applied more irrigation water, possibly increasing soil saturation and anaerobic conditions that are known to lower crop yield in cranberry. Together, these results point to cycled irrigation as a water management strategy that can enhance cranberry production and reduce agricultural water use in southeastern Massachusetts.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T09:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 189 (2017)
  • Release of phosphorus from crop residue and cover crops over the
           non-growing season in a cool temperate region
    • Authors: T.M. Lozier; M.L. Macrae; R. Brunke; L.L. Van Eerd
      Pages: 39 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 189
      Author(s): T.M. Lozier, M.L. Macrae, R. Brunke, L.L. Van Eerd
      In northern climates, crop residue and cover crops are potential sources of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) to runoff; yet, there are few field studies to quantify this. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify changes in water extractable phosphorus (WEP) concentrations in the residues of Triticum aestivum L. (winter wheat), Trifolium pretense L. (red clover) and Avena sativa L. (oat) cover crops and surface soil in two agricultural fields (ILD and LON) over the non-growing season (NGS); and (2) to determine if changes in WEP in vegetation residue or soil were reflected in loads of DRP or total P (TP) in surface runoff and/or tile drain effluent. Concentrations of WEP in cover crops were larger than those in wheat residue and soil. Water extractable P concentrations in vegetation increased with plant decomposition and decreased following runoff events indicating that the plant WEP was mobilized in runoff. Differences in WEP concentrations were not observed with topography, with the exception of the period following snowmelt when low-lying areas prone to surface inundation were depleted relative to upland locations. Although WEP appeared to have been mobilized from vegetation and soil pools, loads of DRP (0.165–0.245kgha−1) and TP (0.295kgha−1–0.360kgha−1) leaving the fields were small in comparison to P pools in cover crops (7.70kgha−1 oat, 1.70kgha−1 red clover), wheat residues (0.03–0.06kgha−1) and soils (1.39–5.87kgha−1), suggesting that much of the P released from vegetation was retained within the field. This study provides insight into the timing and magnitude of P release from vegetation throughout the non-growing season in regions with cool temperate climates, and provides an improved understanding of the contribution of cover crops to winter P losses.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T09:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 189 (2017)
  • Determining water quality requirements of coal seam gas produced water for
           sustainable irrigation
    • Authors: Dirk Mallants; Jirka Šimůnek; Saeed Torkzaban
      Pages: 52 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 189
      Author(s): Dirk Mallants, Jirka Šimůnek, Saeed Torkzaban
      Coal seam gas production in Australia generates large volumes of produced water that is generally high in total dissolved solids and has a high sodium absorption ratio (SAR) which may affect soil structure, hydraulic conductivity, and crop production if used untreated for irrigation. By coupling major ion soil chemistry and unsaturated flow and plant water uptake, this study incorporates effects of salt concentrations on soil hydraulic properties and on root water uptake for soils irrigated with produced water featuring different water qualities. Simulations provided detailed results regarding chemical indicators of soil and plant health, i.e. SAR, EC and sodium concentrations. Results from a base scenario indicated that the use of untreated produced water for irrigation would cause SAR and EC values to significantly exceed the soil quality guide values in Australia and New Zealand (ANZECC). The simulations provided further useful insights in the type of coupled processes that might occur, and what the potential impacts could be on soil hydrology and crop growth. Calculations showed that the use of untreated produced water resulted in a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity due to clay swelling causing water stagnation, additional plant-water stress and a reduction in plant transpiration. In case the produced water was mixed with surface water in a 1:3 ratio prior to irrigation, the calculated soil SAR values were much lower and generally acceptable for sandy to sandy-loam soil. The use of reverse osmosis treated produced water yielded an acceptable salinity profile not exceeding guide values for SAR and EC; the plant water stress was limited as there was no additional salinity stress associated with the low level of salts. Results further illustrated that accounting for coupled geochemical, hydrological and plant water uptake processes resulted in more accurate water balance calculations compared to an approach where such interactions were not implemented. Coupling unsaturated flow modelling with major ion chemistry solute transport using HYDRUS provides quantitative evidence to determine suitable water quality requirements for sustainable irrigation using coal seam gas produced water.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T09:22:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 189 (2017)
  • Thermal imaging and passive reflectance sensing to estimate the water
           status and grain yield of wheat under different irrigation regimes
    • Authors: Salah Elsayed; Mohamed Elhoweity; Hazem H. Ibrahim; Yaser Hassan Dewir; Hussein M. Migdadi; Urs Schmidhalter
      Pages: 98 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 189
      Author(s): Salah Elsayed, Mohamed Elhoweity, Hazem H. Ibrahim, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Hussein M. Migdadi, Urs Schmidhalter
      The water demand for agricultural purposes is steadily increasing. The use of contactless sensing techniques, such as passive reflectance sensors and thermal imaging cameras, is therefore becoming imperative and will be one of the major adaptation strategies to control the irrigation schedule under arid and semi-arid conditions. In this study, the performance of hyperspectral passive reflectance sensing and infrared thermal imaging was tested to assess their relationship with the water status and grain yield (GY) of wheat cultivars via simple linear regression and partial least square regression (PLSR) analyses. The models included data of the (i) normalized relative canopy temperature (NRCT); (ii) PLSR based on selected spectral indices; (iii) data fusion model of PLSR based on selected spectral indices and the NRCT; and (iv) data fusion model of PLSR based on selected spectral indices, NRCT, relative water content (RWC), and canopy water content (CWC). The experimental treatments involved two wheat cultivars (Gmiza 11 and Sods 1) and three water regimes (irrigated with 100%, 75%, and 50% of estimated crop evapotranspiration). The results show that the NRCT was closely and significantly associated with RWC, CWC, and GY, with R2 =0.84, 0.87 and 0.81, respectively. The data fusion model of PLSR based on selected spectral indices, NRCT, RWC, and CWC improved the yield prediction under three irrigation regimes (R2 =0.97, slope=0.99, root-mean-square error=26.48g/m2). In conclusion, improvements can be made in the yield prediction when traits that are physiologically related in different ways to the yield are combined with non-destructive data.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:25:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 189 (2017)
  • Improving water productivity in moisture-limited rice-based cropping
    • Authors: R.P.R.K. Amarasingha; L.D.B. Suriyagoda; B. Marambe; W.M.U.K. Rathnayake; D.S. Gaydon; L.W. Galagedara; R. Punyawardena; G.L.L.P. Silva; U. Nidumolu; M. Howden
      Pages: 111 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: 31 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 189
      Author(s): R.P.R.K. Amarasingha, L.D.B. Suriyagoda, B. Marambe, W.M.U.K. Rathnayake, D.S. Gaydon, L.W. Galagedara, R. Punyawardena, G.L.L.P. Silva, U. Nidumolu, M. Howden
      Crop and water productivities of rice-based cropping systems and cropping patterns in the irrigated lowlands of Sri Lanka have not been researched to the degree warranted given their significance as critical food sources. In order to reduce this knowledge gap, we simulated the water requirement for rice, maize, and mungbean under rice-based cropping systems in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. We evaluated the best combinations of crops for minimum water usage while reaching higher crop and water productivities. We also assessed the risk of cultivating mungbean as the third season/sandwich crop (i.e. rice-mungbean-rice) in different regions in Sri Lanka. In the simulation modelling exercise, APSIM-Oryza (rice), APSIM-maize and APSIM-mungbean modules were parameterised and validated for varieties grown widely in Sri Lanka. Moreover, crop productivities and supplementary irrigation requirement were tested under two management scenarios i.e. Scenario 1: irrigate when plant available water content in soil fell below 25% of maximum, and Scenario 2: irrigate at 7-day intervals (current farmer practice). The parameterised, calibrated and validated model estimated the irrigation water requirement (number of pairs of observations (n)=14, R2 >0.9, RMSE=66mmseason−1 ha−1), and grain yield of maize (n=37, R2 >0.95, RMSE=353kgha−1) and mungbean (n=26, R2 >0.98, RMSE=75kgha−1) with a strong fit in comparison with observed data, across years, cultivating seasons, regions, management conditions and varieties. Simulated water requirement during the cropping season reduced in the order of rice (1180–1520mm)>maize and mungbean intercrop=maize sole crop (637–672mm)>mungbean sole crop (345mm). The water productivity of the system (crop yield per unit water) could be increased by over 65% when maize or mungbean extent was increased. The most efficient crop combinations to maximise net return were diversification of the land extent as (i) 50% to rice and 50% to mungbean sole crops, or (ii) 25%, 25% and 50% to rice, maize and mungbean sole crops, respectively. Under situations where water availability is inadequate for rice, land extent could be cultivated to 50% maize and 50% mungbean as sole crops to ensure the maximum net return per unit irrigation water (115 Sri Lankan Rupees ha−1 mm−1). Regions with high rainfall during the preceding rice cultivating season are expected to have minimum risk when incorporating a third season mungbean crop. Moisture loss through evapotranspiration from the third season mungbean crop was similar to that of a fallowed site with weeds.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:25:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 189 (2017)
  • Changing soil hydraulic properties and water repellency in a pomegranate
           orchard irrigated with saline water by applying polyacrylamide
    • Authors: M. Tadayonnejad; M.R. Mosaddeghi; Sh. Ghorbani Dashtaki
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 188
      Author(s): M. Tadayonnejad, M.R. Mosaddeghi, Sh. Ghorbani Dashtaki
      Soil wettability and water repellency are important physical properties which greatly affect soil-water relations. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of polyacrylamide (PAM) on soil water repellency and wettability in a pomegranate orchard drip irrigated with saline water in Isfahan Province, central Iran. The experiment was a randomized complete block design conducted within each “durations of drip irrigation” (considered as the environment) including control (uncultivated), and 8 and 15 years old trees under drip irrigation system (DIS). PAM concentrations were 0 (control), 10 and 20mgl−1 arranged in each block at three replications. The PAM (solubilized in saline water with electrical conductivity of 6.2dSm−1) with the mentioned concentrations was applied once during the irrigation time. A week after applying the PAM, soil samples were taken from 0 to 0.3, 0.3–0.6 and 0.6–0.9m depths under the emitters. Water repellency index (WRI) and soil-water contact angle (β) were determined using intrinsic sorptivity method by measuring the water and ethanol sorptivities in all soil samples. Increasing the duration of irrigation with saline water increased electrical conductivity (ECe), concentrations of (Ca2+ +Mg2+) and Na +, and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of the saturated extract in the 0–0.3m soil layer under the emitters. Increasing the duration of irrigation also increased WRI and β, and decreased water infiltration, especially in the 0–0.3m soil layer, presumably through enhancing effects of long-term use of saline water on surface tension of water, soil aggregate stability, physical protection of organic matter in soil and stability of hydrophobic coatings. PAM application significantly reduced soil water repellency and increased soil water sorptivity. In the 0–0.3m, 8 and 15 years of drip irrigation increased the WRI by 56 and 134 percent, respectively, compared with the control. PAM application at rates of 10 and 20mgl−1 decreased WRI by 27 and 40 percent, respectively, when compared with the control. Application of 20mgl−1 of PAM could completely ameliorate the degradative effects of drip irrigation with saline water for 8 years, whereas amelioration in the 15-year treatment remained incomplete.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T13:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2017)
  • Rice sensitivity to saline irrigation in Southern Spain
    • Authors: Manuel Aguilar; José Luis Fernández-Ramírez; María Aguilar-Blanes; Clemente Ortiz-Romero
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 188
      Author(s): Manuel Aguilar, José Luis Fernández-Ramírez, María Aguilar-Blanes, Clemente Ortiz-Romero
      Losses of productivity of flooded rice in Southern Spain may occur due to the use of saline water coming from the existent tidal regime in the marshes of Guadalquivir River, and the sensibility of the plants is variable according to its stage of development. The aim of this research was to evaluate the production of rice grains and its components, spikelet sterility and the phenological development of rice at different levels of salinity and in different periods of its cycle. In the conditions of the trial, the productive potential of rice based on the electrical conductivity (EC) of the irrigation water can be estimated by using the equation “Percentage of grain yield =100−12.0 (EC – 0.92)”. It was estimated that from 1.6–1.7dSm−1 salt content affects rice grain yield. Salinity also had a negative impact on a number of yield components including panicles per surface unit, tillers and spikelets per plant; floret sterility; and even delayed heading. Individual grain size was scarcely affected by salinity increase. The vegetative and reproductive phases were significantly more sensitive to salinity than grain filling and maturation phase. Irrigation management practices should be adopted to minimize salinity during these critical growth stages.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T03:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.03.027
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2017)
  • A simple and alternative approach based on reference evapotranspiration
           and leaf area index for estimating tree transpiration in semi-arid regions
    • Authors: A. Ayyoub; S. Er-Raki; S. Khabba; O. Merlin; J. Ezzahar; J.C. Rodriguez; A. Bahlaoui; A. Chehbouni
      Pages: 61 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 188
      Author(s): A. Ayyoub, S. Er-Raki, S. Khabba, O. Merlin, J. Ezzahar, J.C. Rodriguez, A. Bahlaoui, A. Chehbouni
      The present work aims to develop a simple approach relating normalized daily sap flow (liters per unit of leaf area) and daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0) (mm/day). Two methods (FAO-Penman-Monteith (FAO-PM) and Hargreaves-Samani (HARG)) of the calculation of ET0 were tested in order to examine their impact on the established relationships. The data sets used for developing this approach are taken over well irrigated orchards from three experimental sites (olive trees, cv. “Olea europaea L.”, olive trees, cv. “Arbequino” and citrus trees cv. “Clementine Afourar”) conducted in the Tensift region around Marrakech (center of Morocco) and one experimental site (pecan orchard, cv. “Carya illinoinensis, Wangenh. K. Koch”) conducted in the Yaqui Valley, northwest of Mexico). The results showed that the normalized daily sap flow was linearly correlated with ET0 (mm per day) calculated by FAO-PM method. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the slope of this linear regression varied between 0.71 and 0.97 and between 0.30 and 0.35, respectively, depending on the type of orchards. For HARG method, the relationship between both terms is also linear but with more discrepancy (R2 =0.7). This was somehow expected since this method is known to underestimate ET0 values in the semi-arid areas. Afterward, the validation of the developed linear relationship was performed over an olive orchard (“Olea europaea L.”) where the measurements of sap flow were available for another cropping season (2004). The scatter plot between the normalized measured and estimated sap flow based on FAO-PM method reveals a very good agreement (slope=1, and RMSE=0.14L/m2 leaf area). However, for the estimation of normalized sap flow based on HARG method, the correlation is relatively more scattered (slope=0.95, and RMSE=0.35L/m2 leaf area). A further validation was performed using the measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) by eddy correlation system and the results showed that the correlation between normalized measured ET and estimated normalized sap flow is best when using FAO-PM method (RMSE=0.33L/m2 leaf area) for estimating ET0 than when using HARG method (RMSE=0.51L/m2 leaf area). Finally, the performance of the developed approach was compared to the traditional dual crop coefficient scheme for estimating plant transpiration. Cross-comparison of these two approaches with the measurements data gave satisfactory results with an average value of RMSE equal to about 0.37mm/day for both approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T03:30:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2017)
  • Effect of grafting and gypsum application on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
           growth under saline water irrigation
    • Authors: Qing Wang; Lizhi Men; Lihong Gao; Yongqiang Tian
      Pages: 79 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 188
      Author(s): Qing Wang, Lizhi Men, Lihong Gao, Yongqiang Tian
      Saline water has been increasingly used in agricultural production due to the serious high-quality water deficits in China. However, the use of saline water often leads to negative effects on both soil quality and plant growth. In this study, we investigated the effects of grafting, gypsum (GS) application and their combination on soil properties and plant growth, cucumber yield and fruit quality under irrigation with saline water. The treatments included (i) self-root plants irrigated with nonsaline water (control, C), (ii) self-root plants irrigated with 3gL−1 saline water (SW), (iii) grafted plants irrigated with 3gL−1 saline water (SW+G), (iv) self-root plants grown in GS-treated soils irrigated with 3gL−1 saline water (SW+GS), and (v) grafted plants grown in GS-treated soils irrigated with 3gL−1 saline water (SW+G+GS). In general, SW treatment significantly increased electrical conductivity (EC), Na+, Mg2+ concentration in soil, Na+ and total Na in plant, and decreased plant K+ concentration, K+/Na+ ratio, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, biomass and fruit yield, when compared to the C treatment. Under saline water irrigation, GS application merely increased soil EC and Ca2+ concentration and decreased soil pH and Mg2+ concentration, but did not affect most plant parameters. In contrast, grafting alleviated the negative effects of saline water on plant growth, by maintaining low Na+ but high K+/Na+ ratio in shoots, and improving most shoot growth-related parameters (e.g. chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate), and eventually improved the plant biomass and fruit yield. Interestingly, the combination of grafting and GS application only showed additive enhancements in free proline, starch content and osmiophilic granule number. Our results suggested that grafting had more influence than gypsum application on cucumber growth under saline water irrigation, and was an effective approach in alleviating crop salt-stress.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T03:30:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2017)
  • Evaluation of FAO56-PM, empirical, semi-empirical and gene expression
           programming approaches for estimating daily reference evapotranspiration
           in hyper-arid regions of Iran
    • Authors: Jalal Shiri
      Pages: 101 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 188
      Author(s): Jalal Shiri
      Accurate estimation of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo ) is needed in water resources planning and management, irrigation scheduling and efficient agricultural water management. The FAO56-PM combination model is usually applied as a benchmark model for calculating ETo and calibrating other ETo models. However, the need for large amount of meteorological variables is a major drawback of this model, especially in case of data scarcity. Therefore, application of ETo models relying on fewer meteorological parameters, as well as calculating ETo using estimated meteorological variables is recommended in literature. The present paper aims at assessing the performances of different ETo models using the recorded and estimated meteorological parameters and comparing the results with the corresponding gene expression programming (GEP) models (based on the same input parameters of the employed ETo models) in hyper-arid regions. Daily meteorological parameters from 5 hyper-arid locations of Iran (covering a period of 12 years) were used. The commonly used Hargreaves (HG), Priestley-Taylor (PT), Turc (Tr) and Kimberly-Penman (KP, for alfalfa reference crop) were established and calibrated using both the recorded and estimated solar radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed data. The obtained results revealed that the GEP models outperform the corresponding empirical and semi-empirical models in all three studied categorizes (temperature/humidity-, radiation-, and combination-based approaches). The results also showed that the calibrated PT (original) and Tr (with estimated relative humidity) models gave the most accurate results among the related groups.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T03:30:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2017)
  • Effect of regulated deficit irrigation scheduling on water use of corn in
           southern Taiwan tropical environment
    • Authors: Geneille E. Greaves; Yu-Min Wang
      Pages: 115 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 188
      Author(s): Geneille E. Greaves, Yu-Min Wang
      The enhancement of common irrigation practices can substantially contribute to sustainable water development. This study was conducted to determine an effective water application depth for improving agricultural water use (irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and water use efficiency (WUE)) in surface irrigated corn production, and to determine an effective rooting depth for irrigation planning in a tropical region. The effect of five irrigation treatments on corn growth, yield and root extraction patterns were investigated and assessed. The treatments included a full irrigation treatment with a water application depth of 6cm (T5), and four deficit irrigation (DI) treatments with depths of: 5cm (T4), 4cm (T3), 3cm (T2) and 2cm (T1). Irrigation water was applied to all treatments when soil moisture for T5 was depleted by 40%. Seasonal water applied varied from 235 to 555mm while the seasonal crop evapotranspiration ranged from 331 to 605mm. Results revealed all treatments sustained varying levels of water stress except for T5. Corn grain yield ranged from 567.13gm−2 in T1 to 911.26gm−2 in T5, a significant increase (P<0.05) of 37.7%. Similarly, there were significant differences in biomass ranging from 1012.64 to 1774.05gm−2 and leaf area index ranging from 3.99 to 5.83m2 m−2. The highest WUE of 1.79kgm−3 and IWUE of 2.41kgm−3 were observed for T3 and T5, respectively, whereas the lowest was found in T5 with respective values of 1.52 and 1.63kgm−3. Results indicate that it is possible to implement DI strategies for reducing agricultural water use without significant impact on grain yield. Treatments T3 and T4 offer water savings of 29% and 14% respectively in irrigation application with a 10.5% and 8.6% insignificant reduction in grain yield relative to T5. Further, agricultural water productivity can be enhanced by employing a rooting depth of 60cm when planning irrigation application amount.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T04:06:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2017)
  • Determinants of cotton farmers’ irrigation water management in arid
           Northwestern China
    • Authors: Til Feike; Ling Yee Khor; Yusuyunjiang Mamitimin; Nan Ha; Lin Li; Nurbay Abdusalih; Haifeng Xiao; Reiner Doluschitz
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 187
      Author(s): Til Feike, Ling Yee Khor, Yusuyunjiang Mamitimin, Nan Ha, Lin Li, Nurbay Abdusalih, Haifeng Xiao, Reiner Doluschitz
      To combat China’s water crisis tremendous research efforts are undertaken aiming at the improvement of water management in cotton production, which is the major consumer of the scarce water resources in arid Northwestern China. In recent years extensive field experiment based research strongly enhanced the theoretical knowledge of optimal water management in cotton production. However, farmers’ actual irrigation water productivity remains low. To fill the critical void the present study aims at increasing the understanding of Chinese cotton farmers’ actual irrigation water management. The northwestern Chinese Aksu-Tarim Region was selected as a hot-spot of water scarcity in China, where around 60% of total sown crop land are cultivated with cotton. The increasing overuse of scarce surface water resources for irrigation not only leads to severe ecological degradation, but also increases competition among water users triggering the expansion of groundwater exploitation. Based on primary survey data of 228 cotton producing farm households we firstly analyze the production factors determining farmers’ yield and irrigation water productivity (IWP). Apart from soil salinity and unbalanced fertilization, which negatively affect yield and IWP, especially the applied irrigation method (drip vs. flood irrigation) and installation of a groundwater well were identified as major determinants. Secondly, we apply logistic regression to evaluate which household and farm characteristics determine the irrigation method and installation of groundwater well. We find that farm size, crop types and cropping intensity determine the use of drip irrigation. We furthermore find that the installation of well is largely related to marginalization, with farm families of ethnic minorities, remote farms and lower educated families being more likely to install wells. The findings of our study can help policymakers in devising strategies for improving irrigation water productivity, while reducing groundwater degradation in the study region and similar arid production regions in the world.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T13:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 187 (2017)
  • An interval multistage classified model for regional inter- and
           intra-seasonal water management under uncertain and nonstationary
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 191
      Author(s): Shu Chen, Dongguo Shao, Xuezhi Tan, Wenquan Gu, Caixiu Lei
      In regional water management, various uncertainties such as randomness, non-stationarities, dynamics and complexities, lead to difficulties for water managers. To deal with the above problems, a new methodology is proposed by introducing two methods nonstationary analysis, where the generalized additive model is selected to analyze and fit the distribution of water inflow; and model optimization, where an interval multistage water classified-allocation model (IMWCA) is formulated to optimally allocate the available water. By incorporating multistage stochastic programming, interval parameter programming and classification thought, the IMWCA model can tackle both stochastic and imprecise uncertainties, realize inter-seasonal dynamic allocation, and address the complexity of various water users. The methodology is applied to the Zhanghe Irrigation District to optimize water allocation for municipality, industry, hydropower and agriculture among winter, spring, summer and autumn. The Zhanghe Reservoir seasonal inflow is found to be nonstationary for all the seasons and can be well fitted by the corresponding distributions, showing the sense of nonstationary analysis. Additionally, the comparison with the other model demonstrates the need for classification. From the results, municipality and industry are more competitive than hydropower. The Dongbao, Dangyang and Zhanghe districts have a higher priority than the Jingzhou and Shayang districts for irrigation water. Water requirements are more likely to be satisfied in autumn. These solutions of optimal targets and optimal water allocation are valuable for optimizing inter- and intra-seasonal water resource allocation under uncertainty.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T09:01:35Z
  • Combined deficit irrigation and soil fertility management on different
           soil textures to improve wheat yield in drought-prone Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 191
      Author(s): S.M.T. Mustafa, E. Vanuytrecht, M. Huysmans
      Proper utilization of water resources is very important in agro-based and drought-prone Bangladesh. Sustainable use of water resources in agriculture requires irrigation schedules based on local environmental conditions, soil type and water availability. In this study, the water productivity model AquaCrop was used to simulate different water and fertilizer management strategies in a drought prone area of Bangladesh to obtain management recommendations. First, the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) were determined to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, which confirm that meteorological drought is occurring frequently in the study area. Also, the AquaCrop model was successfully calibrated and validated for wheat in the area, which was confirmed by the several statistical indicators, and could be used to design water and fertilizer management strategies. Simulations identified stem elongation (jointing) to booting and flowering stage as the most water sensitive stages for wheat. Deficit irrigation during the most water sensitive stages could increase the interannual yield stability and the grain yield compared to rainfed conditions for different soil fertility levels on loamy and sandy soils by 21–136% and 11–71%, respectively, while it could increase water productivity compared to full irrigation strategies. Deficit irrigation resulted in grain yields almost equal to yields under full irrigation and could at the same time save 121–197mm of water per growing season. Specifically, we suggest two irrigation applications: one at the stem elongation (jointing) to booting stage and another at the flowering stage for loamy soils; and one at the end of seedling development to the beginning of crown root initiation stage and another at the flowering stage for sandy soils. Given the water scarcity in the region, instead of optimal fertility levels, moderate fertility levels are recommended that result in 60% of the potential biomass production for loamy soils and in 50% for sandy soils in combination with the suggested deficit irrigation strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T09:01:35Z
  • Design of concave and convex paired sloped drip laterals
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 191
      Author(s): Giorgio Baiamonte
      Properly designed microirrigation plants allow water use efficiency to be optimized and quite high values of emission uniformity to be obtained in the field. Disposing paired laterals so that two distribution pipes extend in opposite directions from a common manifold contributes to provide more uniform pressure to all laterals in thesystem. Towards this end, an analytical procedure to optimize the uniform pressure when designing paired drip laterals on uniform slopes has recently been proposed, based on the assumption that the variations of the emitters’ flow rate along the lateral and the local losses due to the emitters’ insertions could be neglected. More recently, an easy method to fix the best position of the manifold (BMP) equal to 24% of the optimal lateral length was introduced. The mentioned procedures are valid under the assumption that the paired laterals are laid on straight slopes; however, real microirrigation units rarely follow an even gradient, whose topography is characterized by equally spaced contour lines. The objective of this study was to extend the analytical procedure to optimally design paired sloped drip laterals to the case in which the shape of the field is concave or convex. Results showed that the position where the minimum occurs in the downhill laterals and the optimal pressure head distribution lines vary with the shape of the drip lateral and that the easy method to fix the BMP=24% cannot be applied for paired sloped laterals laid on complex topography. Accordingly, a BMP relationship as a function of the curvature parameter of the lateral profile is proposed. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the optimal length of the paired lateral has achieved its minimum value, for a particular concave shape, at what corresponds to a paired lateral length 6.6% lower than that for straight paired laterals. By varying the curvature parameter, and for an inside diameter value equal to 17.6mm, some practical solutions are presented. The proposed procedure was successfully compared with that derived by the step-by-step exact procedure.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T09:01:35Z
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 190

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T04:54:12Z
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: 31 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 189

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T06:55:54Z
  • Buy me a river: Use of multi-attribute non-linear utility functions to
           address overcompensation in agricultural water buyback
    • Authors: C.D.
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 190
      Author(s): C.D. Pérez-Blanco, C. Gutiérrez-Martín
      The realization of buyback welfare enhancing opportunities is conditioned to the ability of government agencies to place bids consistent with the shadow price of irrigators. However, methods used to inform buyback programmes to date either rely on ex-post trading data that is not readily available in most regions worldwide; or compensate projected foregone income, and thus ignore the effects that buyback may have on other relevant attributes determining utility. This paper uses revealed preference methods to elicit the parameters of a multi-attribute objective function that mimics the observed behavior of irrigators in the overexploited Segura River Basin in SE Spain. Objective functions are used in a series of simulations in which water allocation is progressively constrained to ex-ante reveal the shadow price of water using two alternative compensation measures: i) the foregone income, a proxy of the shadow price typically used in the literature; and ii) the compensating variation that addresses foregone utility. Results show a relevant gap between the two methods For example, restoring the balance in the basin through purchase tenders would demand an investment of million 2400+ EUR (9.6+ EUR m−3) attending to the foregone income method, and million 950+ EUR (3.8+ EUR m−3) (−60.3%) with the foregone utility method.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T08:47:09Z
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 July 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 188

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T09:22:42Z
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Agricultural Water Management, Volume 187

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T04:06:24Z
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