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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3183 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3183 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 101, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 434, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 420, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 374, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 468, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Agricultural Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.156
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 31  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0308-521X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • Stricter cross-compliance standards in Switzerland: Economic and
           environmental impacts at farm- and sector-level
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Alena Schmidt, Gabriele Mack, Anke Möhring, Stefan Mann, Nadja El Benni A Swiss popular initiative reflecting large public concerns about the negative environmental impacts of agricultural production launched a proposal to rigorously tighten environmental cross-compliance standards. The so-called drinking water initiative (DWI) proposes restricting direct payments to farms that (1) preserve biodiversity, (2) do not use any pesticides, (3) adapt their livestock to their on-farm feed capacity and (4) do not use antibiotics regularly or prophylactically. Based on the recursive-dynamic, agent-based agricultural sector model SWISSland, we assessed, ex-ante, the impacts of the initiative on environmental and economic indicators at the farm- and sector-level. Stakeholders from both groups, supporters and opponents of the initiative, were involved in the assessment. We found that the incorporation of far more stringent environmental standards into the cross-compliance system caused a larger number of farms to opt-out: For 33–63% of the pork and poultry farms and 51–93% of the vegetable/orchards/winery farms, it was more profitable to forego direct payments. However, the majority of the ruminant farms (87%) were expected to comply with the standards. Although the non-complying farm types were associated with the most severe environmental impacts, we found that the initiative nonetheless had positive effects on water quality at the sectoral level in Switzerland: e.g., the share of pesticide-free arable land increased to 70–92%, those of the permanent cropland to 11–52%, and the nitrogen surplus decreased. However, the total agricultural production measured in calories decreased (12–21%), and therefore agricultural imports would increase. If the current direct payment budget goes completely to the complying farms, and if these farms receive a price premium, then we predict an average farm income increase of 2–34% for the complying farms; otherwise, a decrease of 6–22% will be found depending on the scenario. A sensitivity analysis showed that price uncertainties had the highest impact on farm income.
  • Vulnerability and adaptation options to climate change for rural
           livelihoods – A country-wide analysis for Uganda
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Jannike Wichern, Katrien Descheemaeker, Ken E. Giller, Peter Ebanyat, Godfrey Taulya, Mark T. van Wijk Rural households in sub-Saharan Africa earn a substantial part of their living from rain-fed smallholder agriculture, which is highly sensitive to climate change. There is a growing number of multi-level assessments on impacts and adaptation options for African smallholder systems under climate change, yet few studies translate impacts at the individual crop level to vulnerability at the household level, at which other livelihood activities need to be considered. Further, these assessments often use representative household types rather than considering the diversity of households for the identification of larger-scale patterns at sub-national and national levels. We developed a framework that combines crop suitability maps with a household food availability analysis to quantify household vulnerability to climate-related impacts on crop production and effects of adaptation options. The framework was tested for Uganda, identifying four hotspots of household vulnerability across the country. Hotspots were visually identified as areas with a relatively high concentration of vulnerable households, experiencing a decline in household crop suitability. About 30% of the households in the hotspots in (central) southwest were vulnerable to a combination of 3 °C temperature increase and 10% rainfall decline through declining suitability for several key crops (including highland banana, cassava, maize and sorghum). In contrast only 10% of the households in West Nile and central northern Uganda were negatively affected, and these were mainly affected by declining suitability of common beans. Households that depended on common beans and lived at lower elevations in West Nile and central north were vulnerable to a 2 to 3 °C temperature increase, while households located at higher elevations (above 1100–2000 m.a.s.l. depending on the crop) benefited from such an increase. Options for adaptation to increasing temperatures were most beneficial in northern Uganda, while drought-related adaptation options were more beneficial in the southwest. This framework provides a basis for decision makers who need information on where the vulnerable households are, what crops drive the vulnerability at household level and which intervention efforts are most beneficial in which regions.
  • Assessing nitrous oxide and nitrate leaching mitigation potential in US
           corn crop systems using the DNDC model
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 175Author(s): Peter A. Ingraham, William A. Salas Nitrous oxide (N2O, a potent greenhouse gas; GHG) is emitted at relatively high rates from corn-based agricultural systems. N2O mitigation strategies, in addition to reducing GHG emissions, ideally would not increase other harmful pollutants (such as leached nitrate, NO3, or volatilized ammonia, NH3) or decrease crop yield. We used the Denitrification-Decomposition model (DNDC) to simulate an array of single and combined interventions to corn management across broad range of physical conditions (climate and soil) in the Midwest US. We assumed a typical crop management baseline of continuous corn or corn-soy with conventional tillage and urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer broadcast to the soil surface. Interventions included fertilizer nitrogen (N) form, controlled-release N, addition of nitrification inhibitors, N rate, split sidedress N applications, sub-soil N placement, and reduced tillage. Single-factor interventions which reduced N2O in all locales included a change to urea fertilizer, nitrification inhibitors, reductions to N rate, and use of N injection: urea fertilizer and nitrification inhibitors both reduced N2O emissions on average (30 and 9%, respectively) while simultaneously reducing NO3 leaching and mostly neutral effects to yield; N rate reductions reduced N2O (11%) but had modest negative effects to yield. Other single-factor interventions increase N2O emissions or N leaching on average but could have beneficial effects under some conditions. Combined interventions frequently include (>50% of the time) urea, nitrification inhibitors, and reduced N. Interventions that, even when combined with other interventions, do not reduce N2O emissions and N leaching include anhydrous ammonia fertilizer, controlled release, and injection. Controlled-release fertilizer results were contrary to those reported in most field studies indicating that DNDC's simulation of linear N release over time may be too simplistic to replicate field conditions.
  • The Integrated Analysis Tool (IAT) – A model for the evaluation of
           crop-livestock and socio-economic interventions in smallholder farming
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): C.K. McDonald, N.D. MacLeod, S. Lisson, J.P. Corfield Smallholder farming systems are highly complex and many intervention strategies aimed at overcoming particular resource constraints can impact adversely on other resources, or do not fit with the farmer's goals. As a result, uptake of technical solutions is typically poor. One method of ensuring intervention strategies are better suited to particular smallholder farmers and increasing the potential for technology uptake, is the use of whole farm systems modelling. In the course of conducting development projects in Indonesia, an Integrated Analysis Tool (IAT) was constructed to fulfil this role. The IAT is highly transferable and has since been adapted and extended for application in several other South-East Asian countries, in China, as well as in countries in Africa and the sub-continent. Use of this integrated model has assisted in the definition and uptake of new technologies in a number of smallholder development projects around the world.
  • A framework to assess the economic vulnerability of farming systems:
           Application to mixed crop-livestock systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Inès Sneessens, Loïc Sauvée, Hanitra Randrianasolo-Rakotobe, Stéphane Ingrand The main challenge for farmers is to maintain a high annual income within an ever-changing context of production (climate, prices, sanitation issues), i.e. to ensure low vulnerability. The vulnerability of a given system corresponds to its susceptibility to be harmed, reflecting its inability to cope with adverse effects. This paper presents a framework that can be applied to determine the economic vulnerability of farming systems considering their social dimension, and to identify farming management profiles that are likely to be less vulnerable. The framework defines vulnerability levels based on analysis of four quantitative indicators reflecting the ‘behaviour’ of the economic results per labour unit in the long term: the relative standard deviation of the economic result per worker, the relative mean distance of the economic result to a minimum threshold, the number of economic disruptions over a specified period, and the economic recovery time after disruption. The framework was applied to a sample of 208 French farms, and the results revealed that diversification alone is not enough to cope with risks. Less vulnerable mixed crop-livestock systems are characterized by more crop-livestock interactions, allowing for less dependency on markets and more flexibility. This kind of management allows farms to be larger and to have more livestock. These findings help clarify the vulnerability of farming systems and may encourage the development of policies to enhance market opportunities at the regional level to foster diversification strategies and flexibility.
  • Prediction and measurement update of fungal toxin geospatial uncertainty
           using a Stacked Gaussian process
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Kareem Abdelfatah, Jonathan Senn, Noemi Glaeser, Gabriel Terejanu The paper develops a stacked Gaussian process using both field and wet-lab measurements to predict fungal toxin (aflatoxin) concentrations in corn in South Carolina. While most of the aflatoxin contamination issues associated with the post-harvest period in the U.S. can be controlled with expensive testing, a systematic and economical approach is lacking to determine how the pre-harvest aflatoxin risk adversely affects crop producers as aflatoxin is virtually unobservable on a geographical and temporal scale. This information gap carries significant cost burdens for grain producers and it is filled by the proposed stacked Gaussian process. The novelty of the paper is twofold. First, the aflatoxin probabilistic maps are obtained using an analytical scheme to propagate the uncertainty through the stacked Gaussian process. The model predictions are validated both at the Gaussian process component level and at the system level for the entire stacked Gaussian process using historical field data. Second, a novel derivation is introduced to calculate the analytical covariance of aflatoxin production at two geographical locations. This is used to predict aflatoxin at unobserved locations using measurements at nearby locations but with the prior mean and covariance provided by the stacked Gaussian process. As field measurements arrive, this measurement update scheme may be used in targeted field inspections to warn farmers of emerging aflatoxin contaminations.
  • Bee farming system sustainability: An assessment framework in metropolitan
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Coline Kouchner, Cécile Ferrus, Samuel Blanchard, Axel Decourtye, Benjamin Basso, Yves Le Conte, Marc Tchamitchian Beekeeping is a long-standing production of livestock, which currently faces several technical and economic challenges such as high colony losses and highly variable honey yields. While the sustainability of current and future bee farms is at stake, the current research on agricultural sustainability assessment poorly considers the technical and management specificities of bee farming systems, systems that remain poorly understood. To fill this gap, we designed a sustainability assessment framework, in other words, a detailed and organised definition of the sustainability of bee farming systems, that identifies the current sustainability issues of these systems at the farm level. Through interviews and workshops, beekeepers and other stakeholders were involved in the design process to include a diversity of viewpoints on the definition of sustainability for bee farming systems, and to ensure the relevance of this assessment framework. The resulting framework highlights the current economic, social and environmental issues of bee farming systems and is organised into six dimensions. Three dimensions are farm-focused, and the three others consider the interactions of the farm with its environment, its territory and the beekeeping sector. That framework reveals the sustainability issues and factors that bee farming systems share with other agricultural sectors as well as their specific issues. In particular, the adaptive capacity of bee farming systems, including their flexibility, their diversity and the learning capacity of the beekeeper, appeared to be a key factor in their sustainability, as is the case for other pastoral systems that have to cope with unpredictable changes in the availability of their feed resources on which they have little direct control. In addition, land management practices partly determine the quality and availability of floral resources, which are hard to estimate, and thus present specific concerns and opportunities in their management. This work provides the first sustainability assessment framework that properly considers the current issues and specificities of bee farming systems, thus providing an outlook on the sustainability challenges of these systems and a basis for the development of an on-farm sustainability assessment tool.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Economic viability of newly introduced chicken strains at village level in
           Tanzania: FARMSIM model simulation approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Rogers Andrew, Jeremia Makindara, Said H. Mbaga, Roselyne Alphonce A local chicken farming is an integral part of Tanzania's rural economy. However, despite its contributions to household economy and food security, local chicken productivity remains low because of low genetic potential, diseases and poor feeding. One of the options to increase local chicken productivity is the adoption of the chicken strains with high genetic potential. With that respect, Africa Genetic Gain project introduced Sasso and Kuroiler chicken strains for on-farm test purposes. Developmental design involved provision of 25 six weeks old chicks to 20 farmers in 12 sites making a total of 240 farmers in three regions. The study was carried out in Dodoma, Morogoro and Njombe regions to assess the effects of agro-ecological differences in the performance of these strains. The chicks were vaccinated against Mareks and Newcastle diseases at the hatchery; then against Infectious Bronchitis (IB) at 0, 7 10, 16 and 21 days. The Newcastle Disease vaccine was repeated after 10 and 21 days using LaSota vaccine. After 6 weeks, the chicks were again vaccinated against fowl pox ready for supply to farmers. A farm Simulation Model (FARMSIM) and Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to Function (SERF) were applied to access economic viability of these strains relative to local chickens. FARMSIM is a Monte Carlo Simulation Model that simultaneously evaluates a baseline and an alternative farming technology. To simulate using FARMSIM, Simulation and Econometrics to Analyse Risk (Simetar©), an excel add-in is needed as a simulating engine. Data were obtained through survey, farmers' records and simulation exercises. The results indicate that keeping Sasso strain was the most economically viable with the highest Net Present Value, Net Cash Farm Income and the highest probability of attaining economic return. Kuroiler was the second, followed by keeping local chickens without supplement and local chicken with supplement was the least economically viable enterprise. However, inclusion of risk behaviour revealed that extremely risk-averse farmers preferred mostly keeping local chickens without supplement whereas extremely risk loving farmers preferred the most Sasso strain. It is recommended that the introduced chicken strains should be promoted to increase household income and improve people's livelihoods. However, scaling up of the introduced chicken strains must be integrated with education on technical know-how for good farming practices, feed formulations, medication and shelter for improved productivity and reduced variability.
  • Scaling – from “reaching many” to sustainable systems change at
           scale: A critical shift in mindset
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): L. Woltering, K. Fehlenberg, B. Gerard, J. Ubels, L. Cooley Countless development projects have piloted solutions that could make a difference if only applied at scale. The reality is that these pilot projects hardly ever reach the intended scale to contribute significantly to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this paper, we argue that two major problems undermine efforts to achieve scale in development projects. First, pilot projects are usually set up and managed in very controlled environments that make it very difficult to transition to the real world at scale. Second, poor conceptual and methodological clarity on what scaling is and how it can be pursued often results in a narrow focus on reaching numbers. Counting household adoption at the end of a grant project is a poor metric of whether these people can and will sustain adoption after the project closes, let alone if adoption will reach others and actually contributes to improved livelihoods. We advocate for a broader view on scaling that more accurately reflects the transformational change agenda of the SDGs: from reaching many to a process aiming to achieve sustainable systems change at scale. Sustainable systems change alters a sufficient number of key drivers (incentives, rules, etc.) such that the system that once perpetuated a “problem” now instead perpetuates a “solution.” This has implications on the way projects are designed and implemented. Rather than focusing on changing conditions within the project context, projects should serve as vehicles for societal change. This means that projects make most sense if designed as part of a multisector, long-term programmatic approach. Treating scaling as a transformation process helps deal with the necessary coevolution of organizational and institutional arrangements, along with the innovations in a technology or practice. To help address scaling, we present a number of frameworks that guide users to assess the scalability of innovations, design for scale from the onset of projects, and systematically think through key elements, ingredients, or success factors. We conclude that scaling requires different skills, approaches, and ways of collaborating than those required for successful implementation of pilot projects. It calls for development actors to have a mindset that allows them to creatively navigate multiple overlapping systems; likewise, they must develop a clear vision about which elements in the system the actors can and cannot address, and about where they need to collaborate strategically to exert influence. Although it is tempting to hope for the silver bullet solution that changes the world, we argue for an approach that takes scaling serious in its own right and recognizes the complexities involved in facilitating a transition to a new “normal.”
  • Modeling growing season and annual cumulative nitrous oxide emissions and
           emission factors from organically fertilized soils planted with barley in
           Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Jiacheng Shen, Roland Treu, Junye Wang, Xiying Hao, Ben W. Thomas The widely used Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) model does not explicitly account for the influence of microbes in organic fertilizer. However, applying organic fertilizers to soils may increase N2O emissions because organic fertilizers can contain appreciable levels of the plant-available nitrogen (N), and contain many types of microbes including denitrifiers. In this study, the DNDC model was extended to include a microbial factor to account for the enhancement of microbial contents by the organic fertilizer input, and applied to two organically fertilized (digestate and manure) soils planted with barley in Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. The growing season cumulative N2O emissions at the recommended N rate of digestate and manure were used to calibrate the model, while the emissions at the double recommended N loadings were used for validation. The results show that the growing season cumulative N2O emissions at recommended N loadings were calculated to be 1.90, 1.62, 3.50, and 2.55 kg-N ha−1 for digestate, and 0.45, 0.17, 0.35, and 0.74 kg-N ha−1 for manure in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 respectively. The corresponding emission factors (EFs) are 0.937, 0.444, 1.947, and 0.510, as well as 0.095, 0.035, 0.072, and 0.083 for manure in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 respectively. The average four-year relative errors of N2O emissions and EFs of validated cases are 32.3% and 34.3% for digestate, as well as 66.9% and 126% for manure, respectively. Two-factor hyperbolic and quadratic models of emissions and EFs correlating N loadings and weather conditions were developed and applied to N2O emission data at recommended N loadings. The coefficients of determination of modeled EFs to measured values are 0.887 and 0.982 for digestate and manure, respectively. The two-factor hyperbolic model predicted that N2O EFs would range from 0.085% to 1.1% for digestate with N loadings ranging from 100 to 800 kg-N ha−1, and product of average precipitation and air temperature during the growing season ranging from 18 to 36 mm × oC. The corresponding emissions ranged from 1.0 to 5.1 kg-N ha−1. We conclude that N2O emissions and EFS could be effectively modeled by a two-factor hyperbolic equation for digestate, and quadratic equation for manure.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Maize system impacts of cover crop management decisions: A simulation
           analysis of rye biomass response to planting populations in Iowa, U.S.A.
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Guillermo S. Marcillo, Sarah Carlson, Meghan Filbert, Thomas Kaspar, Alejandro Plastina, Fernando E. Miguez Cover crops provide environmental services that can effectively reduce the negative impacts from otherwise highly productive row-crop systems in the US Midwest. In this context, winter rye [(Secale cereale sp.)] is the most commonly used cover crop among producers because it overwinters and produces considerable biomass in the spring. While the soil and water benefits of a maize-rye system are well documented, the extent to which these benefits change under different rye planting densities has not been fully explored. In particular, shoot-biomass of a fall-seeded rye cover crop is expected to respond to increasing plant populations (PP), influence maize system productivity overall, and provide additional income for growers to justify the higher establishment costs of the cover crop. Field data for a long-term biomass assessment is costly and hard to generalize, so we used 25-year weather records to run the field-scale model APSIM at three Iowa locations to: 1) Quantify the relationship between rye biomass and rye PP, 2) Test if this relationship is further controlled by maize Nitrogen (N) rates or vary across locations and soil types, 3) Investigate if changes in maize system outcomes, i.e. grain yield, nitrate leaching, soil erosion, and runoff are significantly related to rye biomass, and 4) Estimate changes in farm returns for maize operations that utilize rye biomass under alternative management scenarios (i.e. grazing). Overall, we found a positive relationship between rye biomass and PP, with spring biomass increasing by 30% when populations double. No evidence for a biomass plateau was found, although spring biomass differed by soil type and location. Relative changes in soil erosion and N-leaching were negatively correlated with rye biomass (−30 and − 25% change relative to no cover crop, p 
  • Evaluating productivity gaps in maize production across different
           agroecological zones in Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Bright O. Asante, Omphile Temoso, Kwabena N. Addai, Renato A. Villano This paper evaluates the performance of maize farmers in three agroecological zones in Ghana. A metafrontier model is used to estimate the average technical efficiencies and maize productivty gaps across the agroecological zones. The results shows that land, labour and fertilizer significantly influence maize production. Managerial performance of farmers is influenced by land ownership, access to credit, monocropping, and participation in farmer based organisations across the agroecological zones. Additionally, the maize production technology in the Forest zone was found to be superior. Accordingly, farmers in Guinea Savanna and Transition zones can increase productivity by adopting prevailing improved technologies and good agronomic practices in the Forest zone. Such effort can be enhanced through increasing farmers' access to extension, credit, and participation in farmer based organisations.
  • Applied spatial approach of modelling field size changes based on a
           consideration of farm and landscape interrelations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Amanda E. Eigner, Ernst-August Nuppenau Field sizes in agricultural production determine landscape characteristics and thus habitats. Yet, field sizes are not adequately considered in many theoretical landscape-oriented modelling approaches explaining habitats as well as biodiversity (BD). Our objective is to transfer theoretical model thinking into a practical approach with the focus on field and farm size changes. In our novel approach we model the impact of land consolidation driven by structural change, exchange of land between neighboring farmers and the participation in agri-environmental scemes. We work with a spatial representation of farming decisions and apply our model to a regional case study characterized as an intensively used agricultural area in Germany. Results are graphically translated via a geographical information system (GIS) and indicate that structural change leads to landscape homogeneity in our study region, and diversity of farming shrinks under the Common Agricultural Policy Reform 2009. Our model gives an idea of spatial variation in crop heterogeneity over time by conceptualizing spatial and temporal scales. In our stylized landscape visualization we prove the capabilities of a bio-economic modelling approach capturing economic resource allocation patterns and spatial representation of farming decisions in a perspective of sustainability analysis.
  • Emergy accounting as a support for a strategic planning towards a regional
           sustainable milk production
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): F. Agostinho, M.W. Oliveira, F.M. Pulselli, C.M.V.B. Almeida, B.F. Giannetti Milk is one of the most important food in the world, being consumed in natura or supporting the dairy industry. In Brazil, specifically, the milk supply chain corresponds to about 20% of its agro-industrial gross domestic product; however, the productivity of most domestic milk production systems are still characterized as low. In view of this, the Brazilian government supports training programs to increase milk productivity and economic returns, however, sustainability issues are usually left in the background. This work uses emergy environmental accounting to study the sustainability of milk production systems in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, aiming at two specific goals: (i) verifying their individual environmental performance based on emergy indices, and (ii) exploring alternatives for the development of milk production under a regional perspective. Results from a cluster analysis evidenced the existence of five main milk production systems in the region (G1–G5), including differences in productivity, handling, feed diet, infrastructure, and administrative control. Emergy indicators point to the G3 system (small-scale, family-managed) as the best performer concerning renewability (28%), yield (EYR 1.72), investment (EIR 1.39), environmental load (ELR 2.46), and sustainability (ESI 0.70); however, the G2 system should be promoted when equally considering ESI and efficiency for a decision. Under a regional perspective, increasing milk productivity will also increase a system's dependence on fossil-based resources, which results in an uneven emergy matching and in a less efficient use of emergy. On the other hand, pursuing the increase of sustainability for milk production by optimizing the regional EIR would result in an expansion of the G3 system in 96% of all milking areas and the production would decrease by about 57%. Such trade-off claims for different policies in accordance with societal objectives in different periods. Besides diagnosing and ranking the milk production systems according to their environmental performance, this work also provides important subsidies for decision-makers regarding a strategic plan towards a sustainable milk production under a regional perspective.
  • Whole farm modelling the effect of grass silage harvest date and nitrogen
           fertiliser rate on nitrous oxide emissions from grass-based suckler to
           beef farming systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 175Author(s): Jonathan Herron, Thomas P. Curran, Aidan P. Moloney, Donal O'Brien The intensification of agricultural production systems to produce food for the growing world population is envisaged to result in the increase in nitrous oxide emissions (N2O). The goal of this study was therefore to assess the effect of different management practices on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from contrasting grass-based suckler beef farms with a particular focus on N2O emissions. The contrasting grass-based suckler beef systems evaluated were intensive (INT) and extensive (EXT) steer and heifer (SH) beef systems and bull and heifer (BH) systems. A whole farm model approach was taken to simulate GHG emissions from these baseline systems using data from a long-term research trial and a hybrid economic-GHG model. Several aspects of the hybrid model were updated. Default values for nitrogen (N) content of fresh and conserved grass were replaced with prediction equations. N excretion and partitioning prediction equations and emission factors (EF) for N2O from grazing cattle and fertiliser were also updated. The four baseline systems were simulated to harvest first cut silage on May 24. The pasture fertiliser rate for the EXT and INT systems were 77 kg N ha−1 and 205 kg N ha−1, respectively. To test the effect of changing management practices, the four baseline systems were simulated at earlier (May 5) and later (June 28) first cut silage harvest dates and 50% higher and lower pasture fertiliser application rates. In total, GHG emissions from four baseline systems and sixteen alternative scenarios were simulated. The carbon footprint of the baseline systems in kg CO2-equivalent (CO2e) per kg of carcass weight (kg CO2e CW−1) ranged from 17.7 for BH EXT to 19.4 for SH INT. This was lower than the latest published EU average of 22.2 kg CO2e CW−1. Across all scenarios, the increase in fertiliser application rate and earlier first cut silage harvest date increased the kg N2O kg CW−1 of the four production systems. Due to younger slaughter age facilitating higher stocking rates and thus higher productivity per hectare, systems finishing males as bulls at 16 months had lower N2O and total GHG emissions than production systems finishing males as steers at 24 months. Therefore, BH EXT with increased fertiliser application rate and earlier silage harvest date was the most sustainable suckler to beef production system while SH EXT with reduced fertiliser application rate and later silage harvest date was the least sustainable suckler to beef production system due to longer time to slaughter and consequently lower stocking rate.
  • Hybrid fuzzy multi-criteria decision making to solve the irrigation water
           allocation problem in the Tunisian case
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Mohamed Ali Elleuch, Makram Anane, Jalel Euchi, Ahmed Frikha Modernization and optimization of irrigated agriculture management can involve substantial conflicting factors using the opinions of experts. A combined approach based on concepts of Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (FMCDM) methods and Mathematical Optimization Programming (MOP) model for water allocation problem has been developed. In the first phase, we calculate the criteria weights using fuzzy AHP with water expert opinions. Then, we determine the performance of various water resources performed through the application of the fuzzy TOPSIS method. In the second phase, we solve the water resource allocation using the MOP model with the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) results. The allocation of irrigation water resources using the proposed approach was tested on Sfax irrigation district, southern Tunisia. The achieved results indicate that the combination of the fuzzy MCDM model and the MOP methods provide effective linkages between irrigation expert opinions, economic return, and performance of water resource objectives.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Economic performance and risk of farming systems specialized in perennial
           crops: An analysis of Italian hazelnut production
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 176Author(s): Cinzia Zinnanti, Emanuele Schimmenti, Valeria Borsellino, Giulio Paolini, Simone Severini Assessing farm profitability and economic risk is important to support farmers' decisions. Several factors affect yields and product prices, in turn influencing farmers' income level and economic risk. However, the literature has often neglected to explicitly account for the role of product quality. This is particularly important for crops such as hazelnut because farmers' prices vary according to the quality of the harvested product. Furthermore, it seems fundamental to disentangle the role of parameters influencing farm results, noticeably yield, product price and quality. This is because farmers select their risk management tools to satisfy their needs, but these are often suitable for managing the risk of only one of these parameters.Deploying a large sample of individual farm data over ten years, the profitability and risk of hazelnut production in the four main production areas in Italy are assessed. The analysis is performed by using a set of risk indicators, which are based on the distribution of the gross margin for hazelnuts. The results of this analysis suggest that Campania and Lazio are generally the most profitable regions while Sicily is the least profitable. Risk is quite high in all regions with Campania facing the lowest risk level. The sensitivity analysis, performed by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stepwise regression techniques, permits to establish that the most important parameter generating risk is yield, followed by product quality and, to a lesser extent, market price. These results suggest that hazelnut farmers could reduce their risk by using production insurances; there is also potential to develop tools suited to managing risks related to product quality.
  • Scaling up innovations in smallholder agriculture: Lessons from the
           Canadian international food security research fund
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 175Author(s): Helena Shilomboleni, Marwan Owaygen, Renaud De Plaen, Wendy Manchur, Laura Husak Scaling up food security innovations in low-income rural environments has often failed to achieve substantive and lasting results. This poor performance can be attributed to dominant, linear approaches associated with spreading innovations which entail technology research and development and subsequent transfer to farmers. Such approaches tend to overlook complexity elements and non-linear processes in smallholder agriculture, including multiple stress factors such as climate variability and economic risks that make the uptake of new agricultural innovations more unpredictable. This article presents programmatic lessons from the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) on scaling up. It considers projects that: i) deployed successfully pilot-tested innovations to reach and benefit large numbers of beneficiaries; and projects that ii) used innovations as an entry point to catalyse systematic change in the food and agricultural sector. The paper also outlines several key scaling up principles that can encourage better understanding of relevant socio-ecological dynamics and complexities in intervention areas as a way to support innovations (at scale) that can contribute to more sustainable system outcomes. Finally, the paper reflects on how predominant definitions of impact at scale, centered around rather narrow indicators around economic growth and technology transfer, might consider more holistic goals that encompass integrated agricultural interventions that advance sustainable agri-food system outcomes.
  • Comparative Energy-Landscape Integrated Analysis (ELIA) of past and
           present agroecosystems in North America and Europe from the 1830s to the
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 175Author(s): Joan Marull, Claudio Cattaneo, Simone Gingrich, Manuel González de Molina, Gloria I. Guzmán, Andrew Watson, Joshua MacFadyen, Manel Pons, Enric Tello Along the last century there has been an unprecedented growth in both global food production and related socioecological impacts. The objective of this paper is to analyse the effects of long-term metabolic patterns of agrarian systems on land use and cover changes (LUCC). We have developed an Energy-Landscape Integrated Analysis (ELIA) of agroecosystems to measure the energy storage (E) and the information (I) represented by the complexity of internal energy cycles, in order to correlate both with the energy imprint in the landscape functional-structure (L) that sustains biodiversity. ELIA values are used to assess the agro-ecological landscape transitions in different case studies analysed in North America (Canada and USA) and Europe (Austria and Spain), demonstrating their sensitivity and robustness for case study comparisons on farm-driven environmental change. The results show two stages of the socio-metabolic transition: a first period (from 1830 to 1956) characterized by a non-significant decrease in energy reinvestment (E) and a decrease in energy redistribution (I); and a second period (from 1956 to 2000) with a significant loss of E·I optimal values and associated landscape patterns (L). To overcome the socioecological degradation that these trends implied requires a low external input strategy based on an innovative enhancement of cultural knowledge kept by rural populations, which may help to empower farm communities in the markets and in the public arena. Further research could help to reveal how and why different strategies of agroecosystem management lead to key turning points in the relationship between energy flows, landscape functioning and biodiversity. This research will be very useful for public policies aimed to promote more climate and socioecological resilience of agricultural landscapes and food systems worldwide.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Increasing risks of multiple breadbasket failure under 1.5 and
           2 °C global warming
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 175Author(s): Franziska Gaupp, Jim Hall, Dann Mitchell, Simon Dadson The increasingly inter-connected global food system is becoming more vulnerable to production shocks owing to increasing global mean temperatures and more frequent climate extremes. Little is known, however, about the actual risks of multiple breadbasket failure due to extreme weather events. Motivated by the Paris Climate Agreement, this paper quantifies spatial risks to global agriculture in 1.5 and 2 °C warmer worlds. This paper focuses on climate risks posed to three major crops - wheat, soybean and maize - in five major global food producing areas. Climate data from the atmosphere-only HadAM3P model as part of the “Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts” (HAPPI) experiment are used to analyse the risks of climatic extreme events. Using the copula methodology, the risks of simultaneous crop failure in multiple breadbaskets are investigated. Projected losses do not scale linearly with global warming increases between 1.5 and 2 °C Global Mean Temperature (GMT). In general, whilst the differences in yield at 1.5 versus 2 °C are significant they are not as large as the difference between 1.5 °C and the historical baseline which corresponds to 0.85 °C above pre-industrial GMT. Risks of simultaneous crop failure, however, do increase disproportionately between 1.5 and 2 °C, so surpassing the 1.5 °C threshold will represent a threat to global food security. For maize, risks of multiple breadbasket failures increase the most, from 6% to 40% at 1.5 to 54% at 2 °C warming. In relative terms, the highest simultaneous climate risk increase between the two warming scenarios was found for wheat (40%), followed by maize (35%) and soybean (23%). Looking at the impacts on agricultural production, we show that limiting global warming to 1.5 °C would avoid production losses of up to 2753 million (161,000, 265,000) tonnes maize (wheat, soybean) in the global breadbaskets and would reduce the risk of simultaneous crop failure by 26%, 28% and 19% respectively.
  • Spatially explicit economic effects of non-susceptible pests' invasion on
           Bt maize
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 175Author(s): Rui Catarino, Francisco Areal, Julian Park, Nicolas Parisey Maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin (Bt maize) provides a more effective control of corn borers than the use of insecticides. Yet, the spatial expansion of Bt maize may offer ideal ecological conditions for the development and spread of secondary pests, i.e. pests not susceptible to the expressed toxin. This paper develops a bio-economic, spatially explicit population model to analyse the spread and economic consequences of a secondary pest outbreak. Results show that the present use and even an eventual expansion of Bt maize can be economically and environmentally advantageous as it would decrease insecticide usage intensity. However, we show that caution is required when considering its widespread use. If a pest outbreak is not identified and dealt with at an early stage, it could lead to severe economic impacts even if insecticides are used in combination with the Bt maize. We further discuss potential policy and subsequent management strategies to address this issue.
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