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Showing 1 - 200 of 3120 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 371, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 339, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 435, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 178, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)

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Journal Cover Agricultural Systems
  [SJR: 1.275]   [H-I: 74]   [31 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0308-521X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Grazing supplementation and crop diversification benefits for southern
           Brazil beef: A case study
    • Authors: Carolina H. Pereira; Harold O. Patino; Aaron K. Hoshide; Daniel C. Abreu; C. Alan Rotz; Carlos Nabinger
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 162
      Author(s): Carolina H. Pereira, Harold O. Patino, Aaron K. Hoshide, Daniel C. Abreu, C. Alan Rotz, Carlos Nabinger

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Ways forward for resilience research in agroecosystems
    • Authors: Caitlin A. Peterson; Valerie T. Eviner; Amélie C.M. Gaudin
      Pages: 19 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 162
      Author(s): Caitlin A. Peterson, Valerie T. Eviner, Amélie C.M. Gaudin
      Agroecosystems are on both the receiving and contributing ends of increasingly demanding climatic and environmental conditions. Maintaining productive systems under resource scarcity and multiplicative stresses requires precise monitoring and systems-scale planning. By incorporating ecological resilience into agroecosystems research we can gain valuable insight into agroecosystem identity, change, responsivity, and performance under stress, but only if we move away from resilience as a mere touchstone concept. Using the productivity, stability, resistance, and recovery of system processes as a basic framework for resilience monitoring, we propose quantitative research approaches to tackle the continuing lack of biophysical, field-scale indicators needed to lend insight into dynamic resilience variables and mechanisms. We emphasize the importance of considering productive functions, sources of system regulation and disturbance, and cross-scale interactions when applying resilience theory to agroecosystems. Agroecosystem resilience research requires understanding of multiple scales and speeds of influence both above and below the focal scale. When these considerations are addressed, resilience theory can add tangible value to agroecosystems research, both for the purposes of monitoring current systems and of planning future systems that can reconcile productivity and sustainability goals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • A free online tool to calculate three nitrogen-related indicators for
           farming systems
    • Authors: Matthieu Carof; Olivier Godinot
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 162
      Author(s): Matthieu Carof, Olivier Godinot
      Reactive nitrogen (N) is a key agricultural input, essential for crop growth and production, but excess N in the environment causes problems for human and ecological health. One of the most promising solutions for reducing environmental impacts of excess N levels and feeding a growing population is to improve N efficiency of farming systems i.e., increase the ratio of their N output to N input. Assessing promising solutions involves calculating N efficiency, which is not trivial. For this reason, a free online tool was developed – the SyNE calculator, – to allow farmers, farm advisors, researchers, and policy makers to calculate three N-related indicators of farming systems: SyNE, an N efficiency indicator; SyNB, an N balance indicator; and RNE, a relative N efficiency indicator. After entering information about a farming system, the SyNE calculator produces two main outputs: first, values of the three indicators (SyNE, SyNB, and RNE) and those of related variables (N inputs, N losses during production and transport of inputs, N outputs, and change in soil N); second, a downloadable diagram showing these values. The main advantages of this tool are that it (i) simplifies N indicator calculation, using the same scientific framework for all farming systems, and (ii) includes many reference values that are difficult to obtain (e.g., N losses during production and transport of inputs). Furthermore, this tool allows advanced users to modify the values and equations used to calculate the three N-related indicators. The SyNE calculator is currently available for farms producing dairy cattle, beef cattle, and field crops; in the near future, it will be available for farms producing pigs and broilers. If used, this online tool will contribute to the development of N efficiency evaluation by farmers, farm advisors, and researchers, which may result in improved agricultural N management practices.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Stakeholder-driven modelling the impact of animal profile and market
    • Authors: Frederik Leen; Alice Van den Broeke; Marijke Aluwé; Ludwig Lauwers; Sam Millet; Jef Van Meensel
      Pages: 34 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 162
      Author(s): Frederik Leen, Alice Van den Broeke, Marijke Aluwé, Ludwig Lauwers, Sam Millet, Jef Van Meensel
      Pig delivery weight optimisation (PDWO) has been studied extensively and has resulted in several optimisation models. A previous participatory analysis of the problem has revealed that existing models are too complex and might therefore be under-valorised. Farmers desire a simple but reliable model based on available farm data to learn about the problem. A spreadsheet simulation model was therefore developed based on empirical animal performance models. The present study aims at conceptualising a stakeholder-driven model concerning PDWO that should provide insights into four key questions: I) how do the driving forces behind the optimisation determine the optima, II) what is the dependency of the optimal delivery weight on market conditions, III) how do the opportunity costs due to suboptimal delivery evolve, in addition to the mere optimisation results and IV) what is the effect of differences in animal performance profile, in terms of growth, feed intake and average carcass quality on the optimal delivery results' The results generated by the simulation model generally align with those generated using more sophisticated modelling approaches in previous studies. Our results indicate that the animal's growth and feed intake profile can more importantly affect the location of the optima, the stability of the optima and economic importance of delivery weight optimisation compared to market conditions. Moreover, the effect of market conditions on the optimisation was dependent on the animal profile, which determines the flatness of the payoff curve per pig. The possible flat payoff curves imply that the benefits of accurate PDWO can be limited and that some error margin in decisions on PDWO can be exploited. Moreover, this finding illustrates and corroborates the increased benefit of a shift in technology, i.e. an improved animal performance, compared to striving for the optimum on the production function of an inferior technology. Using this simplified model, farmers can investigate the flatness of their farm-specific payoff curve and the stability of their farm-specific optima. That information may help them to determine the appropriateness of a robust decision-supportive rule about optimal delivery weight on their farm.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • An application of Q-methodology to Mediterranean olive production –
           stakeholders' understanding of sustainability issues
    • Authors: Nathalie Iofrida; Anna Irene De Luca; Giovanni Gulisano; Alfio Strano
      Pages: 46 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 162
      Author(s): Nathalie Iofrida, Anna Irene De Luca, Giovanni Gulisano, Alfio Strano
      Olive growing is one of the most significant sources of income for agricultural areas in the Mediterranean basin, and a characteristic element from environmental and landscape perspectives. Italy is the second largest producer of olive oil; this cultivation represents the nation's most important supply chain, especially in the southern Italian Calabrian region, contributing to both local and rural economies. However, in a Calabrian context, olive production underperforms due to structural and managerial weaknesses, and farming techniques' potential impacts are not properly addressed due to farmers' poor knowledge of agricultural sustainability techniques. Therefore, Calabrian olive growing requires innovation, especially to respond to new sustainability requirements, currently claimed by public policies (eco-conditionality), and consumers and citizens increasingly concerned with environmental quality, human health and social liveability. This paper analyses the aspects that require innovation towards sustainability aims by exploring the perceptions of various actors, including local and supply chain stakeholders, and highlighting and suggesting new pathways to be introduced in Calabrian olive growing. The application of a mixed qualitative/quantitative statistical method, or the ‘Q-methodology’, small and medium-sized farms, academic experts, technicians and consumers have been interviewed to investigate their perceptions and interpretations of sustainability issues. Further, their opinions on possible weaknesses and areas of improvement are examined, highlighting either a consensus or diversity regarding their points of view. The results indicated that all actors perceived a need to orient Calabrian olive growing towards more sustainable management practices by better exploiting its potential and focusing on product quality. Sustainable innovation, in this sense, would increase production efficiency and economic performance, thus satisfying the need for employment and fairer remunerations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Performance of a fertiliser management algorithm to balance yield and
           nitrogen losses in dairy systems
    • Authors: Rogerio Cichota; Iris Vogeler; Armin Werner; Kathryn Wigley; Brittany Paton
      Pages: 56 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 162
      Author(s): Rogerio Cichota, Iris Vogeler, Armin Werner, Kathryn Wigley, Brittany Paton
      To demonstrate the use of a previously developed fertilisation algorithm and to determine its potential effects on nitrogen (N) losses from grazed pastoral systems, a simulation study was performed using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM). The study considered a dairy system with irrigated ryegrass pasture on a silt loam soil in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. Firstly, the algorithm was parameterised for each month based on pasture yield and N contents from simulation run over 20 years using a wide range of N fertilisation rates. The algorithm was then used in the simulation of fertilisation management of a hypothetical dairy farm under different scenarios where its performance for increasing pasture yield with more efficient N use was tested. The scenarios were based on different yield targets for the proposed algorithm (50, 75, 90 or 100% of the average maximum yield) and included scheduled fertilisation to mimic more typical management. For more realistic evaluation, the simulations took into account changes in stocking rates and N flows in the farm resulting from the different fertiliser management. The simulations also considered the uneven return of urinary N by grazing animals, which are crucial to determine N losses in these systems. Both pasture yield and N losses were in general agreement with available measured data from similar systems and with comparable N inputs. Thus providing support for the simulation study as a valid way to demonstrate the potential effects of changing fertiliser management. The average of simulations run over 10 years showed that direct losses from the fertiliser were lower when the fertilisation was controlled by the proposed algorithm compared with scheduled fertilisation at similar N rates. However, with animals in the paddock and thus including the effects of urine patches, N losses were not significantly different. As there was an increase in pasture yield and consequent stocking numbers, the area receiving urinary N increased, counter balancing the increased N use efficiency when using the algorithm. Nonetheless, the larger yield lead to greater farm productivity, and this resulted in about 13% reduction in N losses per unit of milk production.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Reducing vulnerability of rainfed agriculture through seasonal climate
           predictions: A case study on the rainfed rice production in Southeast Asia
    • Authors: Keiichi Hayashi; Lizzida Llorca; Sri Rustini; Prihasto Setyanto; Zulkifli Zaini
      Pages: 66 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 162
      Author(s): Keiichi Hayashi, Lizzida Llorca, Sri Rustini, Prihasto Setyanto, Zulkifli Zaini
      Rainfed rice production needs to contribute more to the current and future world food security due to the increasing competition for limited water supplies including irrigation water. However, it is vulnerable to climate variabilities and extremes hence the utilization of climate predictions is crucial. In this study, the predictive accuracy and applicability of a seasonal climate predictions (SINTEX-F) were evaluated for rainfed rice areas where climate uncertainties are main constraints for a stable and high production. Outputs from SINTEX-F such as daily rainfall, maximum and minimum air temperatures, and wind speed were tested for Indonesia and Lao PDR through the cumulative distribution function-based downscaling method (CDFDM), which is a simple, flexible and inexpensive bias reduction method through removing bias from the empirical cumulative distribution functions of the GCM outputs. The CDFDM outputs were compared with historical weather data. Obtained results showed that discrepancies between SINTEX-F and the historical weather data were significantly reduced through CDFDM for both sites. ORYZA, an ecophysiological rice growth model that simulate agroecological rice growth processes, was used to evaluate the applicability of the SINTEX-F for grain yield predictions. Obtained results from on-farm field validation showed that the predicted grain yield was close to the actual grain yield that was obtained through optimum sowing timing given by the predictions. A normalized root mean square error between predicted and actual grain yield showed satisfactory model fit in predictions. This implies that SINTEX-F was applicable for improving rainfed rice production through CDFDM. However, CDFDM has a limitation in orographic precipitation, the high-resolution daily weather data or a sophisticated special interpolation method should be considered in order to improve the representation of the geographical pattern for the parameters derived from CDFDM.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Maize yield and profitability tradeoffs with social, human and
           environmental performance: Is sustainable intensification feasible'
    • Authors: Sieglinde S. Snapp; Philip Grabowski; Regis Chikowo; Alex Smith; Erin Anders; Dorothy Sirrine; Vimbayi Chimonyo; Mateete Bekunda
      Pages: 77 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 162
      Author(s): Sieglinde S. Snapp, Philip Grabowski, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Dorothy Sirrine, Vimbayi Chimonyo, Mateete Bekunda
      Sustainable intensification (SI) has been regarded as the basis for environmentally sound and equitable agricultural development. Field based assessment of technologies needs to move beyond production and economic performance to include environment, social and human condition. In this study we systematically consider all five domains of SI based on participatory action research (PAR) initiated in 2012 at three Central Malawi sites that varied in agroecology from low to high potential. Fifteen SI indicators were assessed for four technologies: sole maize (Zea mays L.) with 0 and recommended fertilization (69kg Nha−1 and 9kgPha−1), pigeonpea (Cajanus Cajun (L.) Millsp.)-maize intercrop (half rate fertilizer), and doubled up legume rotation (DLR, a pigeonpea-groundnut intercrop) sequenced with maize at half rate fertilizer in that phase. Through radar charts SI performance and tradeoffs were visualized, and causal loop analysis allowed identification of research gaps. SI indicator assessments included crop performance from on-farm trials, profitability, modeled probability of food sufficiency, risk of crop failure and ratings of technologies by women farmers who were engaged in evaluation of technologies through participatory research. The PAR included six mother trials, 236 baby trial farmers and a survey that was carried out with 324 farmers (baby trial farmers plus control farmers) to document socio-economic factors and management practices on focal fields. Replicated mother trials further provided the basis for simulation modeling (APSIM) of weather-associated crop failure risk and slow processes such as soil carbon (C) accrual. Radar charts were used to visualize SI performance of the technologies. Environmental performance of the two pigeonpea-diversified technologies was variable, but generally high compared with sole maize systems, due to gains in vegetative biomass, duration of cover and biological nitrogen (N) fixation. Maize production and economic assessment varied by site, and with steeper tradeoffs for legume diversification in the mesic site, less so in the marginal site. The domains of social and human capacity building were superior for legume integration, notably in terms of diverse diet, food security and farmer preferences (notably, female farmers generally favored legume crops). Performance varied by site with legume systems most beneficial at the most marginal site, including less risk of crop failure than unfertilized maize. Causal loop analyses identified regulators of SI that require further attention, notably: crop-livestock conflicts and opportunities, male-female control of legume crop production, and residue management. Overall, the SI indicators framework provided a systematic means to consider tradeoffs and opportunities associated with novel crop combinations and management practices.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 162 (2018)
  • Bio-economic evaluation of cropping systems for saline coastal Bangladesh:
           III Benefits of adaptation in current and future environments
    • Authors: Md. Jahangir Kabir; Rob Cramb; Donald S. Gaydon; Christian H. Roth
      Pages: 28 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): Md. Jahangir Kabir, Rob Cramb, Donald S. Gaydon, Christian H. Roth
      Climate change and salinisation present substantial challenges to the sustainability of cropping systems in south-west coastal Bangladesh. This is the third paper in a series reporting a study to assess the impacts of climate change and salinity on the productivity and economic viability of ten current and potential rice-based cropping systems in two coastal villages in Khulna District. In this paper, possible adaptations are assessed, including novel dry-season crops, changed fertilizer use, and changed sowing dates, across five climate and three salinity scenarios. Farmers' estimated, APSIM-simulated, and extrapolated yield distributions were incorporated in budgets for the ten cropping systems, using current and projected salinity levels. Current and projected future prices and costs were used to estimate different measures of profitability. Estimated variability in yields and prices was used to generate probability distributions for these profitability measures, permitting comparison of cropping systems based on profitability and risk. Adaptation through changed fertilizer use (higher or lower, depending on the crop) was projected to give higher returns for some cropping systems. However, larger improvements were obtainable with changes in sowing dates to avoid the worst stresses imposed by climate change and salinity. The loss of production of all crops except watermelon and pumpkin due to salinity was more than offset with changed sowing dates for 2030 and 2060 conditions, irrespective of season. With such adaptations, and allowing for risk, the rice/shrimp system maintained the top ranking in terms of net income per hectare in 2030 and 2060 and the rice/sunflower system maintained the second ranking. The rice/pumpkin/rice system ranked third for 2030 and fourth in 2060 while the rice/maize system moved up to third in 2060.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Identifying viable nutrient management interventions at the farm level:
           The case of smallholder organic Basmati rice production in Uttarakhand,
    • Authors: L. Ditzler; T.A. Breland; C. Francis; M. Chakraborty; D.K. Singh; A. Srivastava; F. Eyhorn; J.C.J. Groot; J. Six; C. Decock
      Pages: 61 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): L. Ditzler, T.A. Breland, C. Francis, M. Chakraborty, D.K. Singh, A. Srivastava, F. Eyhorn, J.C.J. Groot, J. Six, C. Decock
      Smallholder farmers may gain notable livelihood benefits by participating in organic value chains. However, whether there are enough resources available to maintain organic production sustainably on smallholder farms in resource-poor regions is of concern. If not balanced by sufficient inputs, continual nutrient export via commodity crops will result in nutrient mining, and livelihood improvements gained by participating in profitable value chains could be negated by soil degradation in the long term. The objectives of this study were to test an integrated approach for understanding the farm-level impacts of subsystem nutrient management actions and to identify locally viable interventions for increased nutrient supply and recycling. We employ a systems analysis methodology to address the nutrient gaps on smallholder farms in Uttarakhand, India producing organic Basmati rice for an international value chain. Farmers here rely on few livestock (three to five head of cattle ha−1) to supply nutrient inputs and are achieving smaller than potential Basmati yields. We surveyed 42 small farms (<3.5ha, average annual income around $1000year−1) and analyzed available manure stocks for nutrient contents in order to trace the farm-level flow of manure nutrients, identify vectors of avoidable nutrient loss, and systematically identify locally relevant and feasible improvements. The interventions identified as viable were reducing nutrient losses through simple and relatively cheap manure management modifications (i.e. using straw bedding to capture livestock urine, covering farmyard manure stockpiles with plastic sheeting, enclosed biogas slurry storage, and using biogas slurry for improved compost production), in situ green manuring, and purchasing farmyard manure. Cost–benefit analyses predicted that proposed interventions could increase farmers' net profit by up to 40% while also addressing problematic nutrient gaps. While our results pertain specifically to Uttarakhand, we found that our integrated research approach worked well to address the problem of nutrient gaps on resource-poor smallholder organic farms, and believe that the strategy could be used with equal success to address similar problems in other regions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • A new approach for improving emission factors for enteric methane
           emissions of cattle in smallholder systems of East Africa – Results for
           Nyando, Western Kenya
    • Authors: J.P. Goopy; A.A. Onyango; U. Dickhoefer; K. Butterbach-Bahl
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): J.P. Goopy, A.A. Onyango, U. Dickhoefer, K. Butterbach-Bahl
      In Africa, the agricultural sector is the largest sector of the domestic economy, and livestock, are a crucial component of agriculture, accounting for ~45% of the Kenyan agricultural GDP and >70% of African agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Accurate estimates of GHG emissions from livestock are required for inventory purposes and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures, but most estimates rely on TIER I (default) IPCC protocols with major uncertainties coming from the IPCC methodology itself. Tier II estimates represent a significant improvement over the default methodology, however in less developed economies the required information is lacking or of uncertain reliability. In this study we developed an alternative methodology based on animal energy requirements derived from field measurements of live weight, live weight change, milk production and locomotion to estimate intake. Using on-farm data, we analysed feed samples to produce estimates of digestibility by season and region, then and used these data to estimate daily methane production by season, area and class of animal to produce new emission factors (EF) for annual enteric CH4 production. Mean Dry Matter Digestibility of the feed basket was in the range of 58–64%, depending on region and season (around 10% greater than TIER I estimates). EFs were substantially lower for adolescent and adult male (30.1, 35.9 versus 49kg CH4) and for adolescent and adult female (23.0, 28.3 versus 41kg), but not calves (15.7 versus 16kg) than those given for “other” African cattle in IPCC (Tier I) estimates. It is stressed that this study is the first of its kind for Sub-Sharan Africa relying on animal measurements, but should not automatically be extrapolated outside of its geographic range. It does however, point out the need for further measurements, and highlights the value of using a robust methodology which does not rely on the (often invalid) assumption of ad libitum intake in systems where intake is known or likely to be restricted.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Assessing the impacts of land fragmentation and plot size on yields and
           costs: A translog production model and cost function approach
    • Authors: Hua Lu; Hualin Xie; Yafen He; Zhilong Wu; Xinmin Zhang
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): Hua Lu, Hualin Xie, Yafen He, Zhilong Wu, Xinmin Zhang
      More attentions should be focused on the changes in plot size of each household rather than the size of farmland in the discussions of economic problem of land fragmentation in China. This study empirically analyzes the impact of land fragmentation and plot size on yields, along with average costs, using household survey data collected from the Jiangsu province in China. A detailed and careful translog production model and cost function are employed to understand and analyze these problems. The empirical results reveal that there are increasing returns to scale in agricultural production. Land fragmentation reduces yields through changes in marginal outputs of agricultural inputs. Especially in areas with high opportunity costs of labor, the negative impact is more obvious. A one-unit increase in the Simpson index leads to a 39% increase in the average cost, whereas a one-unit increase in plot size leads to an 8% decline in the average cost. Thus, moderate expansion of the size of the plot can reduce the average cost, implying that agriculture can achieve economies of scale within each plot. Economies of scale should be developed by keeping farm size constant, reducing the number of plots, and expanding the size of each plot. We suggest that economies of scale can be achieved in each plot by either land consolidation or land transfer as well as by joint farming and joint association.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Simulating incomes of radical organic farms with MERLIN: A grounded
           modeling approach for French microfarms
    • Authors: Kevin Morel; Magali San Cristobal; François Gilbert Léger
      Pages: 89 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): Kevin Morel, Magali San Cristobal, François Gilbert Léger
      Microfarms are commercial soil-based market gardens with <1.5ha of organic vegetables per farmer seeking to make a living on that small acreage by combing high land-use intensity, low input and few mechanized practices with direct sells. Insights in their profitability are missing in literature. Our research objective was to build a simulation model of micro-farms' income and agricultural area based on farmers' expertise. An interactive development based on grounded modelling was implemented. This implied an inductive qualitative analysis and farmers' participation to collect data and to build and validate the model. With data collected on 20 micro-farms', a stochastic simulation model (MERLIN) was built, combining (i) two mixed models to predict yields and workload for 50 crops, and (ii) a crop-planning model. MERLIN generates cropping plans that match the complex and temporal commercial requirements for direct selling of vegetable boxes through community-supported agricultural schemes. The model was validated with various strategic choices, climate assumptions and annual workload. Our model was judged relevant and legitimate by agricultural practitioners because it was not prescriptive and corresponds to strategic preferences of organic farmers. Grounded modelling is promising to create generic knowledge adapted to radical organic farming systems, but some epistemological implications require further investigation, e.g. by taking benefit from the transdisciplinary framework developed in agroecological studies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • The role of agricultural intensification in Brazil's Nationally Determined
           Contribution on emissions mitigation
    • Authors: Rafael De Oliveira Silva; Luis Gustavo Barioni; Giampaolo Queiroz Pellegrino; Dominic Moran
      Pages: 102 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): Rafael De Oliveira Silva, Luis Gustavo Barioni, Giampaolo Queiroz Pellegrino, Dominic Moran
      Brazil is the first developing country to provide an absolute emissions cut as its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), seeking to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 37% below 2005 levels by 2025 and 43% by 2030. The NDC is also noteworthy in focussing on emissions from deforestation control and land use change. Agricultural intensification is a key component of the offer, potentially allowing the country to make credible mitigation commitments that are aligned with a national development strategy of halting deforestation in the Amazon, and increasing livestock production. This apparent contradiction is potentially resolved by understanding the technical, economic and policy feasibility of intensification by pasture restoration. We use bio-economic modelling to demonstrate the extent of cost-effective mitigation that could be delivered by this measure, and to show a result that underpins the target of zero deforestation in Brazil. The analysis was requested by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture prior to the NDC announcement at COP21 by the Government of Brazil. The study provided the basis of the livestock sector contribution to the NDC and highlights the on-going role of effective deforestation control policies. It also contributes to the global debate on land sparing by sustainable agricultural intensification.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • DSS-Ecopay – A decision support software for designing ecologically
           effective and cost-effective agri-environment schemes to conserve
           endangered grassland biodiversity
    • Authors: Astrid Sturm; Martin Drechsler; Karin Johst; Melanie Mewes; Frank Wätzold
      Pages: 113 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): Astrid Sturm, Martin Drechsler, Karin Johst, Melanie Mewes, Frank Wätzold
      Agri-environment schemes (AES) compensate farmers for applying costly land-use measures that are beneficial to biodiversity. We present DSS-Ecopay, a decision support software for the simulation and optimization of grassland AES. DSS-Ecopay consists of a database capturing the ecological and economic input data, an ecological model for calculating the effect of mowing regimes, grazing regimes and combinations of mowing and grazing regimes on endangered birds, butterflies and habitat types, an agri-economic model for estimating their costs and a simulation and an optimization module for determining ecologically effective and cost-effective AES. DSS-Ecopay is highly flexible and adaptive as it can be applied to different regions and changing economic and ecological circumstances.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Techno-economic optimization of community-based manure processing
    • Authors: Mahmoud A. Sharara; Troy Runge; Rebecca Larson; John G. Primm
      Pages: 117 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): Mahmoud A. Sharara, Troy Runge, Rebecca Larson, John G. Primm
      This study investigates community-based processing of manure to produce organic fertilizer using granulation. We developed a mixed-integer optimization model to determine the minimum sale price of granulated manure, i.e., price corresponding to zero net present value (NPV=0). We used dairy farms inventories for two regions in Wisconsin to develop case studies to evaluate community-based processing. Minimum sale price of granulated manure varied between $360 and $460 per ton based on the region and the imposed aggregation radius. Granulation facilities were located on the farm with the largest herd in each case. Selection of farms for participation in granulation facility relied on both proximity and herd size. Sensitivity analyses were performed to analyze the impacts of market changes and subsidies on the investment. Community-based manure processing was found to offer an opportunity to facilitate processing and export of nutrients due to economies of scale advantage.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Corrigendum to “Targeting, out-scaling and prioritising climate-smart
           interventions in agricultural systems: Lessons from applying a generic
           framework to the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa” [Agric. Syst.
           2017 Feb; 151: 153–162]
    • Authors: An Notenbaert; Catherine Pfeifer; Silvia Silvestri; Mario Herrero
      First page: 124
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): An Notenbaert, Catherine Pfeifer, Silvia Silvestri, Mario Herrero

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2018)
  • Distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous price volatility in food
           security assessment: An empirical nonlinear dynamics approach
    • Authors: R. Huffaker; M. Canavari; R. Muñoz-Carpena
      Pages: 98 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 160
      Author(s): R. Huffaker, M. Canavari, R. Muñoz-Carpena
      We propose an empirical scheme—based on nonlinear dynamics—for diagnosing real-world market dynamics from observed price series data. The scheme distinguishes between endogenous and exogenous volatility in observed price series, tests whether endogenous volatility is generated by low-dimensional deterministic market dynamics, simulates these dynamics with a phenomenological market model, and models extreme volatility probabilistically. These diagnostics allow policymakers to make an empirically-informed determination of whether laissez-faire or interventionist policies are most promising in reducing price volatility in particular cases. We apply the diagnostic scheme to provide compelling empirical evidence that observed volatility in organic apple, pear, orange, and lemon prices at the Milano (Italy) Ipercoop is due to endogenous market dynamics governed by low-dimensional nonlinear behavior. The implication for food policy is that this inherently unstable market cannot be relied upon to systematically stabilize observed price volatility from random exogenous shocks. There may be scope for public interventions targeted to increasing the flexibility of organic fruit producers in responding to changing market conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2016.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2018)
  • Participatory systems approaches for urban and peri-urban agriculture
           planning: The role of system dynamics and spatial group model building
    • Authors: Karl M. Rich; Magda Rich; Kanar Dizyee
      Pages: 110 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 160
      Author(s): Karl M. Rich, Magda Rich, Kanar Dizyee
      Urban agriculture has become an important research theme in recent years. Over the past decade, a number of different, diverse value chains have been established in the urban areas of developed and developing countries alike, with increasing convergence in their motivations related to food security and livelihoods development, particularly for poor and disadvantaged segments of society. However, for urban agriculture to be sustainable as a livelihoods and resilience strategy will require decision-support tools that allow planners and participants alike to jointly develop strategies and assess potential leverage points within urban food value chains. In this paper, we argue that system dynamics (SD) models combined with participatory approaches have important roles in bridging this gap, though these will need to be adapted to the spatial influences that exist in urban settings. We first review elements of urban agriculture and some of the policy challenges faced in this growing phenomenon. We follow this by motivating the role of SD models in the context of urban agriculture and note their potential utility in overlaying quantitative models of urban food value chains alongside their land-use characteristics, highlighting the dynamic feedbacks between intensive processes within changing urban food systems and extensive processes associated with land-use and planning. From this background, we introduce the concept of spatial group model building (SGMB), which adapts standard group model building concepts to account for both the spatial context of urban agriculture and enables a spatially sensitive, participatory approach to qualitative and quantitative model building. We provide a qualitative proof-of-concept of SGMB principles and techniques in the context of describing the setting and dynamic issues facing organic urban agriculture value chains in Christchurch, New Zealand. Our approach fills an important space between participatory GIS practices and the development of complex spatial system dynamics models, infusing systems thinking principles to participatory processes, while showing a way to enhance the future development of quantitative spatial system dynamics models more generally.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2016.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2018)
  • Climate-smart management can further improve winter wheat yield in China
    • Authors: Shuang Sun; Xiaoguang Yang Xiaomao Lin Gretchen Sassenrath Kenan
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 162
      Author(s): Shuang Sun, Xiaoguang Yang, Xiaomao Lin, Gretchen F. Sassenrath, Kenan Li
      Climate change, genotype, and agronomic management have profound impacts on crop yield. Our goal in this study is to untangle the interrelated contributions of climate change, genetic improvements, and agronomic management on winter wheat yield in China to develop management strategies that address future nutritional needs. The Agricultural Production System Simulator (APSIM) farming systems model was used to simulated long-term (1981–2010) wheat yield for four wheat production regions under different Genotype by Environment by Management (GxExM) scenarios. Using detailed field experimental data from 1981 to 2005 in conjunction with the APSIM-wheat model, the potential for climate-smart management to improve yield on a regional scale is investigated. Results showed that when all climatic variables were considered together, winter wheat relative yield change decreased from 0.62% to 7.16% over the period 1981 to 2010, depending on cultivar and growing region. The impact of individual climatic variables varied by region. In general, winter wheat yields showed the least decline in the Northern China Plain (NC) due to climate change. Cultivar renewal combined with improvements in agronomic management boosted yields but to a different extent in each region. For cultivar renewal, yields increased 6.93%, 17.69%, 24.87%, and 52.72% in the NC, Yellow and Huai River Valleys (YH), SW and YV, respectively over the period 1981 to 2010. Agronomic management improved yields by 22.91%, 5.27%, 58.77%, and 59.20% in these regions, respectively. Overall, the observed yield improvements with agronomic management were higher than those resulting from cultivar renewal for most of China's wheat growing regions. The exception was found in YH, where improvements in winter wheat yield from cultivar renewal were greater than those from agronomic management. Regardless, there is still ample room for yield improvement in winter wheat by implementing climate-smart management. SW would benefit significantly, with a potential increase of 99% because of improved agronomic management. More moderate, but still significant increases were predicted for NC and YH (49% and 42%, respectively) while only moderate improvements were anticipated for YV (17%). Our findings highlight the extent that improvements in cultivar renewal and agronomic management have compensated for the negative impacts of climate change for different wheat growing regions of China over the past three decades. The results also indicate that advances in agronomic management outweighed the effects of cultivar renewal in most regions. Climate-smart management is still needed to further improve yields in wheat-growing regions of China.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
  • Overview of the Special Issue on Urban Food Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 160

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
  • Market-level effects of firm-level adaptation and intermediation in
           networked markets of fresh foods: A case study in Colombia
    • Authors: Gonzalo
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 160
      Author(s): Gonzalo Mejía, César García-Díaz
      This paper presents a multi-agent simulation that studies market competition in a multi-stage negotiation with both direct sales and intermediation, in the presence of cost heterogeneity at the agent (i.e., producer) level. Producers sell their products according to an adaptive reinforcement strategy. Product is sold to clients (small shops and consumers) according to two types of marketplaces, which are characterized by whether they obtain the product from intermediaries or directly from producers. The model is applied to the case of a networked market of potato (Solanum tuberosum) producers in Bogotá, Colombia, and calibrated to real data. The results reveal that, contingent upon the number of producers, number of intermediaries, unit transportation cost and producers' culture, intermediation might lead to greater traded quantities than sales through farmers' (local) markets. Also, we found that increasing the intensity of competition among intermediaries is at odds with the increase of producers' long run profit. Thus, we conclude that intermediation still plays an important role to maintain the supply ecosystem, especially when transportation costs are important in a network of isolated and fragmented network of producers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
  • Climate risk management and rural poverty reduction
    • Authors: James Hansen; Jon Hellin; Todd Rosenstock; Eleanor Fisher; Jill Cairns; Clare Stirling; Christine Lamanna; Jacob van Etten; Alison Rose; Bruce Campbell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems
      Author(s): James Hansen, Jon Hellin, Todd Rosenstock, Eleanor Fisher, Jill Cairns, Clare Stirling, Christine Lamanna, Jacob van Etten, Alison Rose, Bruce Campbell
      Climate variability is a major source of risk to smallholder farmers and pastoralists, particularly in dryland regions. A growing body of evidence links climate-related risk to the extent and the persistence of rural poverty in these environments. Stochastic shocks erode smallholder farmers' long-term livelihood potential through loss of productive assets. The resulting uncertainty impedes progress out of poverty by acting as a disincentive to investment in agriculture – by farmers, rural financial services, value chain institutions and governments. We assess evidence published in the last ten years that a set of production technologies and institutional options for managing risk can stabilize production and incomes, protect assets in the face of shocks, enhance uptake of improved technologies and practices, improve farmer welfare, and contribute to poverty reduction in risk-prone smallholder agricultural systems. Production technologies and practices such as stress-adapted crop germplasm, conservation agriculture, and diversified production systems stabilize agricultural production and incomes and, hence, reduce the adverse impacts of climate-related risk under some circumstances. Institutional interventions such as index-based insurance and social protection through adaptive safety nets play a complementary role in enabling farmers to manage risk, overcome risk-related barriers to adoption of improved technologies and practices, and protect their assets against the impacts of extreme climatic events. While some research documents improvements in household welfare indicators, there is limited evidence that the risk-reduction benefits of the interventions reviewed have enabled significant numbers of very poor farmers to escape poverty. We discuss the roles that climate-risk management interventions can play in efforts to reduce rural poverty, and the need for further research on identifying and targeting environments and farming populations where improved climate risk management could accelerate efforts to reduce rural poverty.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T05:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2018.01.019
  • A modeling framework for the strategic design of local fresh-food systems
    • Authors: Hector Flores; J. Rene Villalobos
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): Hector Flores, J. Rene Villalobos
      The increase in demand for locally grown products over the last couple of decades has created one of the fastest growing sectors within the fresh produce industry. Our hypothesis is that micro and small farmers within local food systems are well positioned to take advantage of existing sustainable and profitable opportunities, specifically in high-value agricultural production. Unearthing these opportunities can entice more micro and small farmers to enter agricultural production, thus expanding the volume, variety and/or quality of products available for local consumption, which are often key factors in farming success. In this study, our objective is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the hidden production potential that exist within local urban/rural communities and (2) to highlight the importance of supply chain modeling tools in the strategic design of local agricultural systems. As part of this study, we develop an approximation method that estimates a region's potential to produce non-perennial, vegetable items based on simplified yield functions dependent on temporal, temperature patterns. In this case, it is argued that although these estimates may not be exact, they offer practical approximations that help decision-makers identify technologies needed to protect their agricultural production, alter harvesting patterns to better match market behavior, and provide an analytical framework through which external investment entities can assess different production options. These estimates are integrated into a mixed-integer program that identifies an optimal set of small-scale operations (includes backyard-production), fresh vegetables, and wholesale markets to maximize the overall profitability of local agricultural systems. This framework conceptualizes an alternate supply chain structure that targets both internal and external consumption markets through coordinated local fresh food production. By incorporating vegetable yield patterns as a function of environmental and resource variables, the decision-maker can explore harvesting cycles of complementary regions matching market price behavior through a supply chain planning perspective. The methodology framework is applied to the design of a complementary local food system encompassing the states of New Mexico and Arizona in the U.S. Southwest region. This work demonstrates existing opportunities in exploiting complementary production capabilities of local urban communities and sets the basis for future exploration of the probabilistic components of agricultural production related to local fresh food systems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T12:24:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2017)
  • Contributions of climate change to the boundary shifts in the
           farming-pastoral ecotone in northern China since 1970
    • Authors: Wenjiao Shi; Yiting Liu; Xiaoli Shi
      Pages: 16 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 161
      Author(s): Wenjiao Shi, Yiting Liu, Xiaoli Shi
      Critical transitions of farming-pastoral ecotone (FPE) boundaries can be affected by climate change and human activities, yet current studies have not adequately analyzed the spatially explicit contributions of climate change to FPE boundary shifts, particularly those in different regions and periods. In this study, we present a series of analyses at the point (gravity center analysis), line (boundary shifts detected using two methods) and area (spatial analysis) levels to quantify climate contributions. This was done at a 1-km scale in each ecological functional region during three study periods from the 1970s to the 2000s using climate and land use data. Both gravity center analysis and boundary shift detection revealed similar spatial patterns with more extensive boundary shifts in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the FPE in northern China, especially during the 1970s–1980s and 1990s–2000s. Climate contributions in the X- and Y-coordinate directions and in the directions of transects along boundaries showed that significant differences in climate contributions to FPE boundary shifts existed in different ecological functional regions during the three periods. Additionally, the results in different directions exhibited good agreement in most of the ecological functional regions during most of the periods. However, the values of contributions in the directions of transects along the boundaries (1–17%) were always smaller than those in the X-and Y-coordinate directions (4–56%), which suggests that the analysis in the transect directions is more stable and reliable. Thus, this is an alternative method for detecting the climate contributions to boundary shifts associated with land use changes. Spatial analysis of the relationship between climate change and land use change in the context of FPE boundary shifts in northern China provides further evidence for explanation of the driving forces of climate change. Our findings provide an improved understanding of the quantitative contributions of climate change to the formation and transition of FPE in northern China, which will be essential for addressing current and future adaptation and mitigation measures and regional land use management.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T12:24:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 161 (2017)
  • Rice farming systems in Southern Lao PDR: Interpreting farmers’
           agricultural production decisions using Q methodology
    • Authors: Kim S. Alexander; Lucy Parry; Phomma Thammavong; Silinthone Sacklokham; Somphanh Pasouvang; John G. Connell; Tom Jovanovic; Magnus Moglia; Silva Larson; Peter Case
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 160
      Author(s): Kim S. Alexander, Lucy Parry, Phomma Thammavong, Silinthone Sacklokham, Somphanh Pasouvang, John G. Connell, Tom Jovanovic, Magnus Moglia, Silva Larson, Peter Case
      The agricultural sector in Lao PDR is forecast to move from subsistence rice production to a more modernized and market-oriented sector with greater focus on commercialization of agricultural production. Intensification of agricultural production in the southern and central rice growing regions of Lao PDR is problematic as dryland farmers rely on rainfall and soils are poor, yet rural households have been experiencing rapid change in their farming and livelihood systems. This paper employs Q methodology techniques to explore 35 farmers' viewpoints when contemplating their production goals and potential to adopt technologies to improve productivity. Findings describe the two emerging viewpoints among farmers as ‘labour saving productivity maximization’ and ‘traditional labour productivity using improved techniques’. The two viewpoints describe the different issues currently guiding production decisions. While the Lao Government forecasts substantial increases in rice production in the southern plains, farmers will require specialized and tailored support, accounting for their envisaged livelihood and production goals, to allow the sector transformation that many stakeholders currently envisage.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T21:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Improving drought management in the Brazilian semiarid through crop
    • Authors: Minella A. Martins; Javier Tomasella; Daniel A. Rodriguez; Regina C.S. Alvalá; Angélica Giarolla; Lucas L. Garofolo; José Lázaro Siqueira Júnior; Luis T.L.C. Paolicchi; Gustavo L.N. Pinto
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 160
      Author(s): Minella A. Martins, Javier Tomasella, Daniel A. Rodriguez, Regina C.S. Alvalá, Angélica Giarolla, Lucas L. Garofolo, José Lázaro Siqueira Júnior, Luis T.L.C. Paolicchi, Gustavo L.N. Pinto
      In this paper, we evaluated the performance of the model AquaCrop for crop yield forecasting in the Brazilian semiarid (BSA) using meteorological observation and Eta model seasonal climate forecasts as input data. The study area is characterized by low rainfall that is poorly distributed throughout the rainy season; thus, the region's agricultural productivity is vulnerable to climate conditions. AquaCrop was first calibrated using field experiments and subsequently applied to simulate an operational crop yield forecast system for maize under rainfed conditions. Simulations were performed with daily data for 37 growing seasons for the period 2001–2010. The seasonal climate forecast was used in combination with observed meteorological data to anticipate the crop forecast. Soil characteristics were derived from pedotransfer functions (PTFs). We were able to demonstrate the ability of the seasonal crop yield forecast system to provide timely and accurate information about maize yield at least 30days in advance of the harvest. The development of improved crop yield forecasting system is crucial for implementing drought-preparedness measures in the BSA region.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T13:47:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Plant factories versus greenhouses: Comparison of resource use efficiency
    • Authors: Luuk Graamans; Esteban Baeza; Andy van den Dobbelsteen; Ilias Tsafaras; Cecilia Stanghellini
      Pages: 31 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 160
      Author(s): Luuk Graamans, Esteban Baeza, Andy van den Dobbelsteen, Ilias Tsafaras, Cecilia Stanghellini
      Research on closed plant production systems, such as artificially illuminated and highly insulated plant factories, has offered perspectives for urban food production but more insight is needed into their resource use efficiency. This paper assesses the potential of this ‘novel’ system for production in harsh climates with either low or high temperatures and solar radiation levels. The performance of plant factories is compared with cultivation in traditional greenhouses by analysing the use of resources in the production of lettuce. We applied advanced climate models for greenhouses and buildings, coupled with a lettuce model that relates growth to microclimate. This analysis was performed for three different climate zones and latitudes (24–68°N). In terms of energy efficiency, plant factories (1411MJkg−1 dry weight) outperform even the most efficient greenhouse (Sweden with artificial illumination; 1699MJkg−1 dry weight). Additionally, plant factories achieve higher productivity for all other resources (water, CO2 and land area). With respect to purchased energy, however, greenhouses excel as they use freely available solar energy for photosynthesis. The production of 1kg dry weight of lettuce requires an input of 247kWhe in a plant factory, compared to 70, 111, 182 and 211kWhe in greenhouses in respectively the Netherlands, United Arab Emirates and Sweden (with and without additional artificial illumination). The local scarcity of resources determines the suitability of production systems. Our quantitative analysis provides insight into the effect of external climate on resource productivity in plant factories and greenhouses. By elucidating the impact of the absence of solar energy, this provides a starting point for determining the economic viability of plant factories.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T13:47:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Forage management to improve on-farm feed production, nitrogen fluxes and
           greenhouse gas emissions from dairy systems in a wet temperate region
    • Authors: J. Doltra; A. Villar; R. Moros; G. Salcedo; N.J. Hutchings; I.S. Kristensen
      Pages: 70 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 160
      Author(s): J. Doltra, A. Villar, R. Moros, G. Salcedo, N.J. Hutchings, I.S. Kristensen
      Improving forage cropping systems and grasslands are key factors to enhance on-farm resources and sustainability in wet temperate regions of North Spain, contributing to the preservation of associated ecosystem services. This study evaluates the potential of agronomic field management for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and enhancing nitrogen (N) fluxes that can support an increase in on-farm forage resources, thus reducing the dependency on external inputs (fertilizers and feed products). A survey conducted in a weighted sample of 40 dairy farms in Cantabria showed four characteristic forage systems according to field management based on grazing, zero-grazing, conserved forages and growth of maize. The semi-dynamic whole farm model FarmAC was used to characterize a model farm representing an average farm in each of the forage systems including field area and use, number of cows and heifers, diet, milk yield and slurry management. The model was applied to simulate carbon (C) and N fluxes at the farm level, and to calculate feed balances, GHG emissions and the N surplus. Farms were simulated under current forage management (baseline) and under scenarios of enhanced forage production. Milk yield, the balance between forage production and consumption in the animal diet, and between manure generation and application in the field, were used as reference for accepting model simulations. The results from the scenarios indicate that increasing forage productivity, not only reduces the external dependence for feeding animals, but also would have a clear potential for mitigating yield-scaled farm GHG emissions. However, this potential appears to have a limit when N surplus exceeds a threshold value. Rotational grass-clover would have additional benefits in terms of reduced N fertilizer costs and soil carbon enhancement.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T12:24:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 160 (2017)
  • Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue “Modelling cropping systems
           under climate variability and change: impacts, risk and adaptation”
    • Authors: Claas Nendel; Reimund P. Rötter; Peter J. Thorburn; Kenneth J. Boote; Frank Ewert
      Pages: 139 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): Claas Nendel, Reimund P. Rötter, Peter J. Thorburn, Kenneth J. Boote, Frank Ewert

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Climate change impact under alternate realizations of climate scenarios on
           maize yield and biomass in Ghana
    • Authors: Amit Kumar Srivastava; Cho Miltin Mboh; Gang Zhao; Thomas Gaiser; Frank Ewert
      Pages: 157 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): Amit Kumar Srivastava, Cho Miltin Mboh, Gang Zhao, Thomas Gaiser, Frank Ewert
      Climate change is unequivocal and these changes have increased over the past few years. The recent vulnerability and prospect of climate variability and change impact, thus, warrants measures now to reduce the adverse impacts. This study presents an estimate of the effects of climate variables on potential maize productivity and an assessment of the most limiting climatic drivers in the future climate scenarios for maize production in central Ghana, constituting major maize production areas. The time-slices 2000, 2030 and 2080 were chosen to represent the baseline, near future and end century climate, respectively. Furthermore, two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) namely RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from the GFDL-ESM2M, GISS-E2-H, and HadGEM2-ES, General Circulation Models (GCMs), were selected. Simulations based on the model LINTUL5 were used to estimate the crop responses. There is an average increase in the maize yield and aboveground biomass in the projected scenarios by 57% and 59% respectively under HadGEM2-ES (RCP 8.5) in the time horizon 2030. However, variability in the projected average maize yield and above ground biomass compared to the baseline values, is ranging from 183.6kgha−1 under HadGEM2-ES (RCP 8.5) by time horizon 2080 to a maximum of 1326.8kgha−1 under HadGEM2-ES (RCP 8.5) by 2030 and a minimum increase of 169.9kgha−1 under GFDL-ESM2M (RCP 8.5) by time horizon 2080 to a maximum increase of 2386.1kgha−1 under HadGEM2-ES (RCP 8.5) by time horizon 2030. The reasons for potential benefit in maize yields across the climate scenarios was attributed to the positive effect of CO2, reduced water stress reflected by lower atmospheric water demand during crop growth period. It also indicates that water is the limiting factor for maize production in the study region. However, temperature (through shortening of the maize growing cycle), and solar radiation may remain the limiting factors for maize production.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Maintaining rice production while mitigating methane and nitrous oxide
           emissions from paddy fields in China: Evaluating tradeoffs by using
           coupled agricultural systems models
    • Authors: Zhan Tian; Yilong Niu; Dongli Fan; Laixiang Sun; Günther Ficsher; Honglin Zhong; Jia Deng; Francesco N. Tubiello
      Pages: 175 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): Zhan Tian, Yilong Niu, Dongli Fan, Laixiang Sun, Günther Ficsher, Honglin Zhong, Jia Deng, Francesco N. Tubiello
      China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, accounting for more than 25% of global production and consumption. Rice cultivation is also one of the main sources of anthropogenic methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The challenge of maintaining food security while reducing greenhouse gas emissions is an important tradeoff issue for both scientists and policy makers. A systematical evaluation of tradeoffs requires attention across spatial scales and over time in order to characterize the complex interactions across agricultural systems components. We couple three well-known models that capture different key agricultural processes in order to improve the tradeoff analysis. These models are the DNDC biogeochemical model of soil denitrification-decomposition processes, the DSSAT crop growth and development model for decision support and agro-technology analysis, and the regional AEZ crop productivity assessment tool based on agro-ecological analysis. The calibration of eco-physiological parameters and model evaluation used the phenology and management records of 1981–2010 at nine agro-meteorological stations spanning the major rice producing regions of China. The eco-physiological parameters were calibrated with the GLUE optimization algorithms of DSSAT and then converted to the counterparts in DNDC. The upscaling of DNDC was carried out within each cropping zone as classified by AEZ. The emissions of CH4 and N2O associated with rice production under different management scenarios were simulated with the DNDC at each site and also each 10×10km grid-cell across each cropping zone. Our results indicate that it is feasible to maintain rice yields while reducing CH4 and N2O emissions through careful management changes. Our simulations indicated that a reduction of fertilizer applications by 5–35% and the introduction of midseason drainage across the nine study sites resulted in reduced CH4 emission by 17–40% and N2O emission by 12–60%, without negative consequences on rice yield.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Estimating the impacts of climate change on crop yields and N2O emissions
           for conventional and no-tillage in Southwestern Ontario, Canada
    • Authors: Wentian He; J.Y. Yang; C.F. Drury; W.N. Smith; B.B. Grant; Ping He; B. Qian; Wei Zhou; G. Hoogenboom
      Pages: 187 - 198
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): Wentian He, J.Y. Yang, C.F. Drury, W.N. Smith, B.B. Grant, Ping He, B. Qian, Wei Zhou, G. Hoogenboom
      Accurately predicting the impacts of higher temperatures, different precipitation rates and elevated CO2 concentrations on crop yields and GHG emissions is required in order to develop adaptation strategies. The objectives of this study were to calibrate and evaluate a regionalized denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model using measured crop yield, soil temperature, moisture and N2O emissions, and to explore the impacts of climate change scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5) on crop yields and N2O emissions in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. This simulation study was based on a winter wheat-maize-soybean rotation under conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) practices at Woodslee, Ontario, Canada. The model was calibrated using various statistics including the d index (0.85–0.99), NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, NSE>0) and nRMSE (normalized root mean square error, nRMSE<10%) all of which provided “good” to “excellent” agreement between simulated and measured crop yields for both CT and NT practices. The calibrated DNDC model had a “good” performance in assessing soil temperature. However, there were no differences in simulated soil temperatures between CT and NT treatments and this was attributed to deficiencies in the temperature algorithm which does not consider the insulation effect of surface crop residues in the DNDC model. The DNDC model provided a reasonable prediction of soil water content in the 0–0.1m depth, but it overestimated soil water content during dry conditions mainly because the model was unable to characterize preferential flow through clay cracks. Under future climate scenarios, soybean and maize yields were significantly increased compared to the baseline scenarios due to the benefits from higher optimum temperature for maize and increased CO2 for soybean. The mean annual N2O emissions for winter wheat significantly increased by about 38.1% for CT and 17.3% for NT under future RCP scenarios when using the current crop cultivars. However, when a new cultivar with higher TDD (thermal degree days) was used, the mean winter wheat yield increased by 39.5% under future climate scenarios compared to current cultivars and there were significant reductions in N2O emissions. The higher crop heat units cultivars and longer growing season length would contribute to increased biomass accumulation and crop N uptake. Hence there would be co-benefits with the development of high TDD cultivars in the future as they would not only increase crop yields but also reduce N2O emissions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • How does inter-annual variability of attainable yield affect the magnitude
           of yield gaps for wheat and maize' An analysis at ten sites
    • Authors: M.P. Hoffmann; M. Haakana; S. Asseng; J.G. Höhn; T. Palosuo; M. Ruiz-Ramos; S. Fronzek; F. Ewert; T. Gaiser; B.T. Kassie; K. Paff; E.E. Rezaei; A. Rodríguez; M. Semenov; A.K. Srivastava; P. Stratonovitch; F. Tao; Y. Chen; R.P. Rötter
      Pages: 199 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): M.P. Hoffmann, M. Haakana, S. Asseng, J.G. Höhn, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, S. Fronzek, F. Ewert, T. Gaiser, B.T. Kassie, K. Paff, E.E. Rezaei, A. Rodríguez, M. Semenov, A.K. Srivastava, P. Stratonovitch, F. Tao, Y. Chen, R.P. Rötter
      Provision of food security in the face of increasing global food demand requires narrowing of the gap between actual farmer's yield and maximum attainable yield. So far, assessments of yield gaps have focused on average yield over 5–10years, but yield gaps can vary substantially between crop seasons. In this study we hypothesized that climate-induced inter-annual yield variability and associated risk is a major barrier for farmers to invest, i.e. increase inputs to narrow the yield gap. We evaluated the importance of inter-annual attainable yield variability for the magnitude of the yield gap by utilizing data for wheat and maize at ten sites representing some major food production systems and a large range of climate and soil conditions across the world. Yield gaps were derived from the difference of simulated attainable yields and regional recorded farmer yields for 1981 to 2010. The size of the yield gap did not correlate with the amplitude of attainable yield variability at a site, but was rather associated with the level of available resources such as labor, fertilizer and plant protection inputs. For the sites in Africa, recorded yield reached only 20% of the attainable yield, while for European, Asian and North American sites it was 56–84%. Most sites showed that the higher the attainable yield of a specific season the larger was the yield gap. This significant relationship indicated that farmers were not able to take advantage of favorable seasonal weather conditions. To reduce yield gaps in the different environments, reliable seasonal weather forecasts would be required to allow farmers to manage each seasonal potential, i.e. overcoming season-specific yield limitations.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Classifying multi-model wheat yield impact response surfaces showing
           sensitivity to temperature and precipitation change
    • Authors: Stefan Fronzek; Nina Pirttioja; Timothy R. Carter; Marco Bindi; Holger Hoffmann; Taru Palosuo; Margarita Ruiz-Ramos; Fulu Tao; Miroslav Trnka; Marco Acutis; Senthold Asseng; Piotr Baranowski; Bruno Basso; Per Bodin; Samuel Buis; Davide Cammarano; Paola Deligios; Marie-France Destain; Benjamin Dumont; Frank Ewert; Roberto Ferrise; Louis François; Thomas Gaiser; Petr Hlavinka; Ingrid Jacquemin; Kurt Christian Kersebaum; Chris Kollas; Jaromir Krzyszczak; Ignacio J. Lorite; Julien Minet; M. Ines Minguez; Manuel Montesino; Marco Moriondo; Christoph Müller; Claas Nendel; Isik Öztürk; Alessia Perego; Alfredo Rodríguez; Alex C. Ruane; Françoise Ruget; Mattia Sanna; Mikhail A. Semenov; Cezary Slawinski; Pierre Stratonovitch; Iwan Supit; Katharina Waha; Enli Wang; Lianhai Wu; Zhigan Zhao; Reimund P. Rötter
      Pages: 209 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): Stefan Fronzek, Nina Pirttioja, Timothy R. Carter, Marco Bindi, Holger Hoffmann, Taru Palosuo, Margarita Ruiz-Ramos, Fulu Tao, Miroslav Trnka, Marco Acutis, Senthold Asseng, Piotr Baranowski, Bruno Basso, Per Bodin, Samuel Buis, Davide Cammarano, Paola Deligios, Marie-France Destain, Benjamin Dumont, Frank Ewert, Roberto Ferrise, Louis François, Thomas Gaiser, Petr Hlavinka, Ingrid Jacquemin, Kurt Christian Kersebaum, Chris Kollas, Jaromir Krzyszczak, Ignacio J. Lorite, Julien Minet, M. Ines Minguez, Manuel Montesino, Marco Moriondo, Christoph Müller, Claas Nendel, Isik Öztürk, Alessia Perego, Alfredo Rodríguez, Alex C. Ruane, Françoise Ruget, Mattia Sanna, Mikhail A. Semenov, Cezary Slawinski, Pierre Stratonovitch, Iwan Supit, Katharina Waha, Enli Wang, Lianhai Wu, Zhigan Zhao, Reimund P. Rötter
      Crop growth simulation models can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and hence in their response to environmental conditions. Here, we used an ensemble of 26 process-based wheat models applied at sites across a European transect to compare their sensitivity to changes in temperature (−2 to +9°C) and precipitation (−50 to +50%). Model results were analysed by plotting them as impact response surfaces (IRSs), classifying the IRS patterns of individual model simulations, describing these classes and analysing factors that may explain the major differences in model responses. The model ensemble was used to simulate yields of winter and spring wheat at four sites in Finland, Germany and Spain. Results were plotted as IRSs that show changes in yields relative to the baseline with respect to temperature and precipitation. IRSs of 30-year means and selected extreme years were classified using two approaches describing their pattern. The expert diagnostic approach (EDA) combines two aspects of IRS patterns: location of the maximum yield (nine classes) and strength of the yield response with respect to climate (four classes), resulting in a total of 36 combined classes defined using criteria pre-specified by experts. The statistical diagnostic approach (SDA) groups IRSs by comparing their pattern and magnitude, without attempting to interpret these features. It applies a hierarchical clustering method, grouping response patterns using a distance metric that combines the spatial correlation and Euclidian distance between IRS pairs. The two approaches were used to investigate whether different patterns of yield response could be related to different properties of the crop models, specifically their genealogy, calibration and process description. Although no single model property across a large model ensemble was found to explain the integrated yield response to temperature and precipitation perturbations, the application of the EDA and SDA approaches revealed their capability to distinguish: (i) stronger yield responses to precipitation for winter wheat than spring wheat; (ii) differing strengths of response to climate changes for years with anomalous weather conditions compared to period-average conditions; (iii) the influence of site conditions on yield patterns; (iv) similarities in IRS patterns among models with related genealogy; (v) similarities in IRS patterns for models with simpler process descriptions of root growth and water uptake compared to those with more complex descriptions; and (vi) a closer correspondence of IRS patterns in models using partitioning schemes to represent yield formation than in those using a harvest index. Such results can inform future crop modelling studies that seek to exploit the diversity of multi-model ensembles, by distinguishing ensemble members that span a wide range of responses as well as those that display implausible behaviour or strong mutual similarities.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Assessing future meteorological stresses for grain maize in France
    • Authors: J. Caubel; I. Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri; A.C. Vivant; M. Launay; N. de Noblet-Ducoudré
      Pages: 237 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): J. Caubel, I. Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, A.C. Vivant, M. Launay, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré
      Recent climate change has already affected maize cropping in France allowing for example earlier sowing dates in southern France and the growth of early season varieties in northern parts of the country. The climate will continue to evolve as discussed in all IPCC reports and there is a need for farmers, seed companies and agricultural cooperative corporations to be able to anticipate those changes. The ambition of our work is to provide them with the means to get ready to adapt by analyzing a) the time evolution of meteorological stresses and certain management practices throughout the crop's growth cycle, b) the impacts of climate-induced changes in calculated sowing dates on those stresses and practices. We have applied the method we developed in a former paper to study the climatic suitability of maize in two contrasted areas of France, Ile-de-France in the North and Midi-Pyrénées in the South. Three climate change scenarios, two climate models and two maize varieties distinct in terms of precocity were used to try and ensure meaningful results. Whatever the scenario, model and variety, maize will be sown earlier than it is currently the case in both regions, especially in Midi-Pyrénées. Whatever the sowing date, rising temperatures in the future will be favorable for late varieties in the current cooler areas, and therefore even farmers in Ile-de-France will be able to grow varieties with a wide range of crop cycle length. However heat and water stress will increase in both regions between flowering and maturity, irrespective of the sowing date and scenario, thereby limiting the possibility to achieve potential yields. In Midi-Pyrénées compromises will need to be found between early sowing to minimize some later stress and increasing risks of frost during emergence, that do not currently exist.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • An integrated SVR and crop model to estimate the impacts of irrigation on
           daily groundwater levels
    • Authors: Sandra M. Guzmán; Joel O. Paz; Mary Love M. Tagert; Andrew E. Mercer; Jonathan W. Pote
      Pages: 248 - 259
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): Sandra M. Guzmán, Joel O. Paz, Mary Love M. Tagert, Andrew E. Mercer, Jonathan W. Pote
      As groundwater resources are used more intensively, the need to define appropriate strategies to plan and manage irrigation systems under diverse climatic conditions becomes increasingly important. To promote more efficient irrigation practices, accurate and optimal information regarding the interaction between crop water use and groundwater sustainability is needed. In this study, we outlined a modeling approach that combines the features of a crop growth model and a support vector regression (SVR) model for the comprehensive assessment of groundwater variability under different soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr) irrigation thresholds throughout the growing season. The 20%, 40%, 50% and 60% thresholds of available water were calibrated using the CROPGRO-Soybean model to simulate daily irrigation requirements of soybeans grown in the Mississippi Delta Region (MDR). The daily crop water requirements along with precipitation and previous daily groundwater levels were used as inputs in the SVR to evaluate the predicted response of daily groundwater levels to different irrigation demands. We examined the performance of the SVR model based on the Mean Squared Error (MSE) and its ability to capture the seasonal variability in groundwater levels under different scenarios. Results demonstrate that higher groundwater irrigation volumes significantly affect the daily availability of groundwater. However, more volume does not represent significantly higher soybean yields. We conclude that the hybrid crop-SVR model is able to assess the subsurface water response to multiple scenarios of groundwater available for irrigation and provide useful information for the decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate
           and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment
    • Authors: M. Ruiz-Ramos; R. Ferrise; A. Rodríguez; I.J. Lorite; M. Bindi; T.R. Carter; S. Fronzek; T. Palosuo; N. Pirttioja; P. Baranowski; S. Buis; D. Cammarano; Y. Chen; B. Dumont; F. Ewert; T. Gaiser; P. Hlavinka; H. Hoffmann; J.G. Höhn; F. Jurecka; K.C. Kersebaum; J. Krzyszczak; M. Lana; A. Mechiche-Alami; J. Minet; M. Montesino; C. Nendel; J.R. Porter; F. Ruget; M.A. Semenov; Z. Steinmetz; P. Stratonovitch; I. Supit; F. Tao; M. Trnka; A. de Wit; R.P. Rötter
      Pages: 260 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): M. Ruiz-Ramos, R. Ferrise, A. Rodríguez, I.J. Lorite, M. Bindi, T.R. Carter, S. Fronzek, T. Palosuo, N. Pirttioja, P. Baranowski, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, Y. Chen, B. Dumont, F. Ewert, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, H. Hoffmann, J.G. Höhn, F. Jurecka, K.C. Kersebaum, J. Krzyszczak, M. Lana, A. Mechiche-Alami, J. Minet, M. Montesino, C. Nendel, J.R. Porter, F. Ruget, M.A. Semenov, Z. Steinmetz, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, F. Tao, M. Trnka, A. de Wit, R.P. Rötter
      Adaptation of crops to climate change has to be addressed locally due to the variability of soil, climate and the specific socio-economic settings influencing farm management decisions. Adaptation of rainfed cropping systems in the Mediterranean is especially challenging due to the projected decline in precipitation in the coming decades, which will increase the risk of droughts. Methods that can help explore uncertainties in climate projections and crop modelling, such as impact response surfaces (IRSs) and ensemble modelling, can then be valuable for identifying effective adaptations. Here, an ensemble of 17 crop models was used to simulate a total of 54 adaptation options for rainfed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) at Lleida (NE Spain). To support the ensemble building, an ex post quality check of model simulations based on several criteria was performed. Those criteria were based on the “According to Our Current Knowledge” (AOCK) concept, which has been formalized here. Adaptations were based on changes in cultivars and management regarding phenology, vernalization, sowing date and irrigation. The effects of adaptation options under changed precipitation (P), temperature (T), [CO2] and soil type were analysed by constructing response surfaces, which we termed, in accordance with their specific purpose, adaptation response surfaces (ARSs). These were created to assess the effect of adaptations through a range of plausible P, T and [CO2] perturbations. The results indicated that impacts of altered climate were predominantly negative. No single adaptation was capable of overcoming the detrimental effect of the complex interactions imposed by the P, T and [CO2] perturbations except for supplementary irrigation (sI), which reduced the potential impacts under most of the perturbations. Yet, a combination of adaptations for dealing with climate change demonstrated that effective adaptation is possible at Lleida. Combinations based on a cultivar without vernalization requirements showed good and wide adaptation potential. Few combined adaptation options performed well under rainfed conditions. However, a single sI was sufficient to develop a high adaptation potential, including options mainly based on spring wheat, current cycle duration and early sowing date. Depending on local environment (e.g. soil type), many of these adaptations can maintain current yield levels under moderate changes in T and P, and some also under strong changes. We conclude that ARSs can offer a useful tool for supporting planning of field level adaptation under conditions of high uncertainty.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 159 (2017)
  • Weather related risks in Belgian arable agriculture
    • Authors: Gobin
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159
      Author(s): A. Gobin
      Agricultural production risk is to a great extent determined by weather conditions. The research hypothesis was that adverse weather conditions during sensitive crop stages do not entirely explain low arable yields. The temporal overlap between weather conditions and crop stages in the arable cropping system was determined using a modelling framework that couples phenology to the soil water balance and crop growth. While climatic constraints have changed on average over time, block maxima of indicators during crop growth stages showed no trends, except for minimum temperature related indicators, owing to a dual shift in both phenology and weather conditions. Return periods were derived for adverse weather conditions such as frost, drought, heat and waterlogging, and for general weather conditions such as radiation, temperature, precipitation and the water balance using fitted statistical distributions for the period 1947–2012. Distributions fitted to detrended yields allowed relating weather conditions during the growing season to the lower and upper quintiles of the yield distributions. Weather conditions varied significantly between years, crops and growth stages. Results for winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, grain maize, potato and sugar beet in Belgium demonstrated that the impact of single events on crop yields was difficult to capture, as yields integrated weather variability during the growing season and crops recovered from adverse weather conditions. The approach of combining physically based crop modelling with statistical distribution fitting to characterise the tail ends within the range of observations of both crop yields and weather conditions showed that water (drought and waterlogging) and temperature (frost and heat) stress resulted in low arable yields when they occurred either in concatenation or in combination with adverse weather conditions such as low radiation during the growing season. The method helped quantify agricultural production risks and rate both weather and crop-based agricultural insurance.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T19:35:41Z
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 159

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T13:47:42Z
  • Livelihood and climate trade-offs in Kenyan peri-urban vegetable
    • Authors: Barnabas K. Kurgat; Silke Stöber; Samuel Mwonga; Hermann Lotze-Campen; Todd S. Rosenstock
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Agricultural Systems
      Author(s): Barnabas K. Kurgat, Silke Stöber, Samuel Mwonga, Hermann Lotze-Campen, Todd S. Rosenstock
      Trade-offs between livelihood and environmental outcomes due to agricultural intensification in sub-Saharan Africa are uncertain. The present study measured yield, economic performance and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in African indigenous vegetable (AIV) production to investigate the optimal nutrient management strategies. In order to achieve this, an on-farm experiment with four treatments – (1) 40kgN/ha diammonium phosphate (DAP), (2) 10t/ha cattle manure, (3) 20kgN/ha DAP and 5t/ha cattle manure and (4) a no-N input control – was performed for two seasons. Yields and N2O emissions were directly measured with subsampling and static chambers/gas chromatography, respectively. Economic outcomes were estimated from semi-structured interviews (N=12). Trade-offs were quantified by calculating N2O emissions intensity (N2OI) and N2O emissions economic intensity (N2OEI). The results indicate that, DAP alone resulted at least 14% greater yields, gross margin and returns to labour in absolute terms but had the highest emissions (p=0.003). Productivity-climate trade-offs, expressed as N2OI, were statistically similar for DAP and mixed treatments. However, N2OEI was minimized under mixed management (p=0.0004) while maintaining productivity and gross margins. We therefore conclude that soil fertility management strategies that mix inorganic and organic source present a pathway to sustainable intensification in AIV production. Future studies of GHG emissions in crop production need to consider not only productivity but economic performance when considering trade-offs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T21:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.10.003
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