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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 94, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 412, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 397, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 341, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 445, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Agricultural Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.156
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 32  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0308-521X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Assessing the relative sustainability of smallholder farming systems in
           Ethiopian highlands
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 167Author(s): Vine Mutyasira, Dana Hoag, Dustin Pendell, Dale T. Manning, Melaku BerheAbstractGlobal population growth will require substantial increases in agricultural production worldwide. Yet, despite growing concern about the environmental and social impacts of increased agricultural productivity, no consensus exists on the appropriate method for assessing the appropriate tradeoffs for sustainability. To address this need, this paper proposes the use of Data Envelope Analysis to create an index that permits assessment of the relative sustainability of smallholder farms in a given region, with minimal external interpretation about how individual farmers weight tradeoffs on their own farms. The method is applied to the Ethiopian highlands to explore the determinants of economic, social and environmental sustainability in the region's agricultural sector. Econometric model results suggest that farmers felt that farm size, market access, access to off farm income, agricultural loans, and access to agricultural extension and demonstration plots are key drivers of agricultural sustainability at the farm-level. Differences in agro-ecological conditions and region-specific factors were also significant determinants of relative farm sustainability. This underscores the importance of geographical targeting and tailoring of interventions to increase farm sustainability.
  • Design of spatial PGIS-MCDA-based land assessment planning for identifying
           sustainable land-use adaptation priorities for climate change impacts
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 167Author(s): Jin Su JeongAbstractClimate change is an obvious worldwide phenomenon closely related to human development, growth and consumption patterns, and it threatens land use, development, people and the environment. Due to its characteristics, Spain is among the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the European Union (EU). Thus, spatial planning is considered one of the main instruments available to manage sustainable adaptation to climate change. This article presents an assessment framework for exploring climate change impacts using participatory geographic information systems (PGISs)-multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) spatial planning with the preference ranking organization method for enrichment of evaluations (PROMETHEE) in sustainable land-use adaptation. Assessment planning applies to any agroforestry system at a regional level for a municipality with higher vulnerability. An indicator-based model with five categorical values was developed to assess twelve possible impacts from climate change and the main threats of climate change to water sources, agriculture, soil, and land management. This model is available to manage sustainable land-use adaptation priorities for climate change in a spatial context. The model discusses the likelihood of implementing and adopting strategies for climate change adaptation as assessed by a sensitivity analysis and a professional online survey. Among the five strategies, scenario A (suitability map) accounts for 8.84% of the priority areas (v) and 2.13% of the hot spots (i) and was the scenario most supported by professionals, while scenario D (priority to socioeconomic) accounts for 3.07% of the priority areas and 10.12% of the hotspots, and the lowest number of professionals supported this scenario. The results summarize foreseeable problems derived from climate change effects that require urgent adaptation activities through spatial land assessment planning. Thus, this study provides some recommendations and limitations from which decision-makers can select the most suitable arrangement for an agroforestry system to make it climate-resilient, and the study is applicable to similar geographical and spatial locations.Graphical AbstractUnlabelled Image
  • Co-design and assessment of mitigation practices in rice production
           systems: A case study in northern Vietnam
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 167Author(s): Azeem Tariq, Andreas de Neergaard, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Bjoern Ole Sander, Mai Van Trinh, Quynh Duong Vu, Reiner Wassmann, Stephane de TourdonnetRice production systems are an important source of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Mitigation techniques, such as alternate wetting and drying, have been developed but have often not taken into consideration the constraints imposed by the practices and preferences of farmers. Since GHG mitigation benefits are not obvious at smallholder farm level, it is essential to design site-specific mitigation technologies with the participation of local stakeholders. The purpose of the present study was to adapt a participatory approach to designing and assessing mitigation practices for the dissemination of climate-friendly rice production systems. To improve the hybridization of scientific and local knowledge, a participatory five-step approach to prototyping was applied: (i) diagnosis based on a literature review and survey of stakeholders, (ii) design of mitigation practices based on laboratory trial and local knowledge (that of farmers, agricultural advisors and regional stakeholders), (iii) testing in growth chambers, (iv) testing in farmers' fields and (v) dissemination and assessment. The study was conducted in An Luong village, Red River Delta, northern Vietnam. In the study area, rice residue burning is restricted and farmers have to incorporate residue into the soil. Current water management practices, i.e. conventional continuous flooding and adopted midseason drainage, are not enough to reduce GHG emissions from added residues. Two new water management practices (pre-planting plus midseason drainage and early plus midseason drainage) were designed in participation with local stakeholders, and subsequently tested in the laboratory and in the field with the participation of local farmers. Future mitigation practices were assessed based on the yield, GHG emissions reduction and feedbacks of local stakeholders. Early plus midseason drainage proved to be an effective and feasible mitigation option for rice production in the area. Here we show that participation of local stakeholders in co-designing process help to identify the feasible GHG mitigation options, further it facilitates smallholder rice farmers to implement mitigation practices in their fields.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Mapping Nairobi's dairy food system: An essential analysis for policy,
           industry and research
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 167Author(s): Stella Kiambi, Pablo Alarcon, Jonathan Rushton, Maurice K. Murungi, Patrick Muinde, James Akoko, Gabriel Aboge, Stephen Gikonyo, Kelvin Momanyi, Erastus K. Kang'ethe, Eric M. FèvreAbstractDemand for dairy products in sub-Saharan Africa, is expected to triple by 2050, while limited increase in supply is predicted. This poses significant food security risk to low income households. Understanding how the dairy food system operates is essential to identify mitigation measures to food insecurity impact. This study aims to determine the structure and functionality of Nairobi's dairy system using a value chain mapping approach.Primary data were gathered through focus group discussions and key informant interviews with dairy value chain stakeholders in Nairobi to obtain qualitative information on people and products in the chains while describing their interactions and flows. Qualitative thematic analysis combined with flowcharts created by participants enabled identification of key food system segments and the development of chain profiles (or flow-diagrams) which together form Nairobi's dairy system.Seven chain profiles forming Nairobi's dairy value chain were identified. These were found to be dominated by small-scale individuals who operate largely independently. Our profiles for the urban and peri-urban farming systems were structurally similar in their downstream networks, obtaining inputs from similar sources. Upstream, the urban systems were shorter, supplying mostly to immediate neighbours or based on own consumption, while the peri urban systems supplied to a wider network and showed some affiliations to producers' associations. Two distinct profiles characterize the milk flow from traders belonging either to a Dairy Traders Association (DTA) or those not belonging to this association (non-DTA). DTA traders sell mainly to fixed retailers and non-DTA traders to mobile retailers (hawkers or roadside vendors). Profiles associated with medium and large cooperatives were driven by networks of collection centres, but with medium-sized cooperatives selling half of their production to large processing companies, and large cooperatives only to fixed retailers. Large processing companies' profiles indicated distribution of high volumes and value addition processing. They reported strategic milk collection arrangements with suppliers on long, medium - or short - term contracts and with well-established product distribution channels.We have identified numerous inter-linkages across dairy chain profiles in Nairobi's complex system, demonstrating significant interdependency among the stakeholders. Therefore, enhancing the system's efficiency requires a holistic, system-wide approach and any policy interventions should consider every segment of the value chain. This study provides a methodological approach for organizations and policy makers to understand and address structural and functional vulnerabilities within food systems more broadly. The insights from this study are relevant to other rapidly growing cities in the region.
  • A novel agroecosystem: Beef production in abandoned farmland as a
           multifunctional alternative to rewilding
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 167Author(s): Stephen J.G. HallAbstractIn much of Europe policy is challenged by the abandonment of crop and pasture land and its replacement by natural forest regrowth. Rewilding is one option. An alternative, multifunctional, strategy is extensive beef farming coupled with carbon storage in herbage and naturally regenerating trees. An economic model is developed in the context of Estonia, where many of the constraints and opportunities relating to natural forest regrowth are in particularly sharp focus, but the approach will be widely applicable. Production of niche market beef, carbon sequestration, and other ecosystem services can proceed in parallel. A novel concept of support payments is proposed. Net present value assessment, with cash credits for carbon storage, demonstrates that the model is viable. A 100 ha tract of abandoned land, stocked with 35 beef cows, would produce beef profitably. Provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services would be delivered, including a net storage of carbon, and rural regeneration would be promoted. The study provides further scientific underpinning for a policy discussion on abandoned land, which represents a growing proportion of Europe's land area. Extensive beef production is compatible with net carbon storage and can provide sustainable ecosystem services together with rural regeneration.
  • A robustness-based viewpoint on the production-ecology trade-off in
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 167Author(s): R. Sabatier, L. MouyssetAbstractThe intrinsic variability of the ecological functions underlying agroecological farming systems calls for a discussion on their robustness, i.e. their ability to maintain their performances in spite of environmental uncertainties. In this study, we apply the mathematical framework of the viability theory to assess three dimensions of robustness in relation with the production and ecological objectives in three contrasted case studies. Our results first show that robustness towards production and ecological constraints follows similar patterns across case-studies. We moreover show that robustness does not conflict with the production-ecological trade-off for the 3 case studies. From the management standpoint, this means that including the robustness criterion in the analysis helps reducing the set of possible options while ensuring the highest probability of success of the management scenarios chosen.
  • Beef production and ecosystem services in Canada’s prairie
           provinces: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Sarah J. Pogue, Roland Kröbel, H. Henry Janzen, Karen A. Beauchemin, Getahun Legesse, Danielle Maia de Souza, Majid Iravani, Carrie Selin, James Byrne, Tim A. McAllisterAbstractGlobally, consumption of bovine meat is projected to increase by 1.2% per annum until 2050, a demand likely met in part by increased Canadian beef production. With this greater production on a finite agricultural land base, there is a need to weigh the contribution of this industry to the Canadian economy against the full range of positive and negative ecological and social impacts of beef production. This review, focussing on the prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, which collectively support just over 80% of the Canadian beef herd, examines the social and ecological footprint of the cow-calf, backgrounding, finishing and forage/feed production stages of beef production within an ecosystem services framework. We summarise the literature on how beef production and management practices affect a range of services, including livestock; water supply; water, air and soil quality; climate regulation; zoonotic diseases; cultural services; and biodiversity. Based on 742 peer-reviewed publications, spanning all agricultural stages of beef production, we established a framework for identifying management practices yielding the greatest overall socio-ecological benefits in terms of positive impacts on ecosystem service supply. Further, we identified research gaps and crucial research questions related to the sustainability of beef production systems.
  • Innovation, investment and enterprise: Climate resilient entrepreneurial
           pathways for overcoming poverty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Anamika Dey, Anil K. Gupta, Gurdeep SinghAbstractHarnessing innovative potential of individual and communities in high risk environments provides an entrepreneurial approach to poverty alleviation. The access to resources and the ability of communities to transform these resources technologically depends on the matrices of institutional assurances and attitude to take risks to convert ecological variability into entrepreneurial opportunities for investments. These innovations can emerge endogenously or sourced exogenously or might be a blend of both. The Honey Bee Network has evolved several instruments for scouting, documenting, validating and value-adding, financing and disseminating innovations for, from and with grassroots.Climatic fluctuations produce four kinds of household portfolios depending upon the average income or productivity and variance around it: a) high mean-low variance, b) high mean-high variance, c) low mean-low variance and d) low mean-high variance. Category d comprises the most vulnerable community members; but the challenge before agriculture scientist is to recognize that the economically poorest people may not be intellectually or institutionally poor. The grassroots innovations often remain localized and underdeveloped. Blending and/or bundling formal and informal knowledge systems can generate viable, investible choices for individuals, communities or a combination thereof. Innovation can take place in terms of various combinations of products, processes, services and systems (PPSS). The conventional agricultural system has not focused on creating or augmenting innovation capabilities or potential by modifying the interplay between existing institutions, technologies and resources. in the age of mass customization, the standardized solutions and packages have no place. Without enhancing local capabilities to interpret climatic and other sources of fluctuations, we cannot generate dynamic household portfolios of private, common and public resource based survival strategies.Innovations in instruments of engagement between formal and informal system are as important as technological and other innovations. The microfinance has to evolve into micro venture innovation finance so that communities and individuals can take risk to generate viable social and economic enterprises. Incentives to experiment, explore and fail may not work effectively without risk absorption mechanisms at different levels. While conventional intellectual property protection system is useful for market based economies, the concept of Technology Commons may be more apt for network based economies, promoting open sharing among communities but sharing with commercial firms through licensing.The proposed inclusive innovation ecosystem focuses at strengthening the coping strategies of marginal farmers, particularly women by 1) harnessing social & ethical capital by pooling and sharing of resources and associated knowledge, 2) converting access to resources and knowledge into episodic and/or perennial enterprises 3) overcoming climatic or market induced fluctuations through innovations in PPSS; 4) building self-designed, self-governed institutions i.e. autopoietic institutions for continuous learning and experimentation to overcome poverty; 5) encouraging third party interventions through heteropoietic institutions only for short term so as not to dissipate long term autopoietic potential for sustainability by having permeable and fuzzy boundaries to facilitate exchange of expertise, feedback and other resources as and when needed, and 6) fostering distributed, decentralized and diversified innovation-based portfolio of enterprises contributing to social, economic and ecological resilience.
  • Modelling the effects of conservation tillage on crop water productivity,
           soil water dynamics and evapotranspiration of a maize-winter wheat-soybean
           rotation system on the Loess Plateau of China using APSIM
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Xuan Yang, Lina Zheng, Qian Yang, Zikui Wang, Song Cui, Yuying ShenAbstractInformation relating to the accurate quantification of the impacts of long-term conservation tillage practices on the crop yields and water use patterns of rainfed rotational cropping systems under global climate change is urgently required. The objectives of this study were to calibrate and evaluate APSIM (Agriculture Production System sIMulator) to accurately predict crop growth and development of a maize-winter wheat-soybean rotation, and to investigate the effects of conservation tillage on grain yield, water productivity and evapotranspiration on the Loess Plateau of China. This study integrated APSIM-based simulation modelling and field-level data collected from a maize-winter wheat-soybean rotation system under conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage with stubble retention of the previous crop (NTR) in Xifeng, Gansu, China. APSIM was successfully calibrated and evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) and index of agreement (d), indicating good performance on simulating the crop yield, dry matter biomass and soil water dynamic of the three crops for both CT and NTR treatments. Under the long-term scenario simulations (50 a, 25 rotation phases in total), the results showed that NTR improved soil water storage by 0–159 mm (72 mm on average; P  0.05). On a system basis, the NTR treatment had significantly greater plant transpiration (Tc) and Tc/system water supply (WSsys), but lower soil evaporation (Es), evapotranspiration (ET), and ET/WSsys than treatment CT did. Additionally, Tc and Es for maize production were not significantly different between the two treatments. Grain yield water productivity (WPY) and biomass water productivity (WPB) in wheat and soybean were substantially improved by 1.9–8.0 kg ha−1 mm−1 (P 
  • A meta-analysis approach to examining the greenhouse gas implications of
           including dry peas (Pisum sativum L.) and lentils (Lens culinaris M.) in
           crop rotations in western Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Susan MacWilliam, David Parker, Christopher P.F. Marinangeli, Denis TrémorinAbstractThis study used a meta-analytic approach to systematically examine changes in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensities (i.e., carbon footprints) between pulse-containing and pulse-free crop rotations in western Canada. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify published literature relevant to the goal of the analysis and meta-analysis was conducted to determine statistically significant differences in GHG emissions between pulse-free and pulse-containing crop rotations. Four pulse-free reference rotations (cereal-cereal [CC]; oilseed-cereal [OC]; oilseed-oilseed [OO]; and cereal-oilseed [CO]) were compared to rotations where the first crop in each two-year sequence was replaced with either dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) or lentil (Lens culinaris M.). Two scenarios were considered. The first scenario investigated the effects of dry peas and lentils when synthetic nitrogen (N) applied to cereal and oilseed crops grown after pulses was not reduced (i.e., no change) (NN). The second scenario (NCR) investigated the effect of dry peas and lentils when synthetic N application rates were reduced to the maximum extent possible (i.e., credit) to maintain subsequent crop yields. Pooled analyses demonstrated that, in general, cereal and oilseed crops grown after a dry pea or lentil crop had similar or reduced GHG emissions compared to those grown after a cereal or oilseed. The GHG emissions from cereal and oilseed crops grown after dry peas and lentils were higher in NN (888–987 kg CO2e/ha; 286–598 kg CO2e/t) than in NCR (311–978 kg CO2e/ha; 116–598 kg CO2e/t), suggesting that emissions were reduced to a greater extent when pulse crops offset the N fertilizer requirements of a subsequent crop compared to when they were used to provide N to maximize crop yields. In two-year rotations, the inclusion of pulses reduced GHG emissions compared to all reference rotations in both NN (savings of 475–719 kg CO2e/ha over two years [area basis]; 164–496 kg CO2e/t over two years [yield basis]) and NCR (savings of 489–1185 kg CO2e/ha over two years [area basis]; 335–610 kg CO2e/t over two years [yield basis]), mostly as a result of reduced synthetic N requirements of the whole rotation. The results of the analysis are presented by crop for each pulse-free and pulse-containing cropping sequence for each scenario to allow for flexibility in comparing GHG emissions from various rotations.
  • Evaluation of the performance of the EPIC model for yield and biomass
           simulation under conservation systems in Cambodia
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Kieu N. Le, Jaehak Jeong, Manuel R. Reyes, Manoj K. Jha, Philip W. Gassman, Luca Doro, Lyda Hok, Stéphane BoulakiaAbstractLimited field studies have been performed to evaluate the impacts of conservation agriculture (CA) on crop yields and soil organic carbon sequestration in tropical conditions. In this study, we used the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to evaluate the impact of CA and conservation tillage (CT) on crop yields in tropical conditions for unique upland rice, soybean, and cassava cropping systems in Cambodia. New crop parameters were developed and tested for cassava, sesame, banana, sunn hemp, stylo, and congo grass. The results show that EPIC successfully replicated crop yields of soybean, upland rice, maize, and cassava based on R2 statistics ranging from 0.62 to 0.88 and percent bias (PBIAS) values ≤10%. However, it cannot be concluded that the model can accurately capture the biomass for all the individual crops due to limitations in the observed biomass data. The cassava and maize biomass were simulated satisfactorily, resulting in R2 values of 0.81 and 0.75, respectively. However, the computed PBIAS for the biomass estimates of the two crops were>25%. In contrast, the predicted rice and soybean biomass met PBIAS criteria (≤23%) but resulted in weak R2 statistics of ≤0.20, indicating inaccurate replications of the measured biomass. Similarly, the cover crop mean biomass and PBIAS statistics were acceptable but the R2 values were not. Overall, the model tended to overestimate the measured crop biomass. No significant difference was found in the simulated crop yields between the CA and CT treatments. However, the predicted rice and soybean results reflect an increased yield trend over time for the CA treatments, versus no discernible trend for the cassava and maize yields.
  • Rainfall shocks and agricultural productivity: Implication for rural
           household consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Mulubrhan Amare, Nathaniel D. Jensen, Bekele Shiferaw, Jennifer Denno CisséAbstractThe paper investigates the impact of rainfall shocks on agricultural productivity and crop-specific agricultural land productivity. The paper also examines the impact of negative rainfall shocks on household consumption as well as its distributional impact by initial wealth and geographical zones. We use nationally representative panel datasets from Nigeria merged with georeferenced rainfall information. Negative rainfall shocks have heterogeneous effects on crop-specific agricultural productivity and based on geographical zones. We use an instrumental variables regression approach, where agricultural land productivity is instrumented with negative rainfall shocks. A negative rainfall shock decreases agricultural productivity and hence decreases household consumption by 37%. We also show considerable differential impacts of rainfall shocks on household consumption by initial values of wealth and geographical zones. Rainfall shocks have a negative, significant impact for asset-poor and nonpoor households, but has a higher impact on household consumption for asset-poor households. Similarly, it has higher impact for land-poor households and households in northern Nigeria.
  • Phosphate acceptance map: A novel approach to match phosphorus content of
           biosolids with land and crop requirements
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Richard Wadsworth, Stephen Hallett, Ruben SakrabaniAbstractPhosphorus is a key irreplaceable nutrient that plays a major role in crop nutrition. The mineral form of phosphorus fertiliser is a mined resource and its supply comes predominantly from geopolitically sensitive parts of the world. A renewable source of phosphorus such as biosolids therefore offers a sustainable option. Nevertheless, continuous application of biosolids needs to be managed to ensure that soil is not saturated with nutrients which can then become a cause for concern in terms of enrichment of water bodies in the event of an erosion. Existing field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of biosolids as phosphorus fertiliser to meet crop demand whilst maintaining an environmentally safe amount in the soil. However, field trials are expensive, and an alternative would be a geospatial tool that builds on such information to act as a decision support tool to determine suitability of land to receive biosolids whilst ensuring that phosphorus levels are in environmentally safe limits.Thus, a novel and evidence-based decision support method for assessing land suitability for biosolids application at a national scale known as the Phosphate Acceptance Map (PAM) is described here. It provides a sound basis for addressing this need, layering over the model the means to capture a range of realistic scenarios, developed with industry practitioners, to allow exploration of the consequences of different land management strategies. The research method has involved the development and application of a modelling approach for phosphate acceptance, drawing from a collation of the core geographical and descriptive data themes required. These data describe both the environmental characteristics of the land under assessment, as well as the expression of nominal stakeholder values and protected areas.In considering the methods, it may be noted that the modelling drew upon key empirical data themes as a pragmatic approach. A number of key national datasets have been utilised such as the National Soil Map (Natmap), the ‘National Soil Inventory’ (NSI), geology and land use, as well as topography and prevailing climatic data. Demographic data was used to calculate potential arising nationally which was coupled together in the context of fertiliser recommendations. The issues addressed in the PAM modelling span borders and thus, where the data required is forthcoming, the methods demonstrated also have the potential to support wider application in other national contexts.
  • Land fragmentation index for drip-irrigated field systems in the
           Mediterranean: A case study from Ricote (Murcia, SE Spain)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Katharina Heider, Juan Miguel Rodriguez Lopez, José María García Avilés, Andrea L. BalboAbstractLand fragmentation is widespread in traditional field systems of the Mediterranean region. A typical case for high fragmented properties is the Valley of Ricote. It is dominated by smallholder agriculture. To promote smart sustainable development in rural areas it is important to address the specific needs of these small agricultural producers; especially considering that agriculture is the most important consumer of water worldwide and that the great majority of farms are small production units extending over
  • Simulated seasonal responses of grazed dairy pastures to nitrogen
           fertilizer in SE Australia: Pasture production
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Karen M. Christie, Andrew P. Smith, Richard P. Rawnsley, Matthew T. Harrison, Richard J. EckardAbstractMany nitrogen (N) fertilizer recommendations for grazing livestock enterprises are based on cutting experiments, excluding the influence of recycled N in excreta. Grazing experiments are expensive to conduct, and so compromise on variables such as number of N fertilizer rates, replication and number of years of investigation. Biophysical modelling provides an efficient and effective approach to address many of the complexities of field studies. Our study, using the biophysical whole-farm systems model DairyMod, examined the effect of a range of N fertilizer rates on pasture production for five dairy sites through south-eastern Australia over 18 years under both cutting and grazing regimes. The study aims were to highlight the variation in pasture N responses between cutting and grazing experiments and compare results to current best management practice (BMP) guidelines for N fertilizer management. Annual and seasonal maximum and optimum pasture production, defined as 90% of maximum production, N fertilizer rate to achieve optimum pasture production and the slope of the response rate curve between two fertilizer application rates were estimated. For all five sites, at the lower N rates, there was a divergence in annual pasture production between the grazing and cutting management regimes. However, once N was no longer limiting pasture production for the cutting regime, annual pasture production under cutting and grazing converged. For most sites and seasons, current BMPs of applying between 20 and 50 kg N ha−1 post grazing will ensure efficient use of N applied, assuming soil moisture is not first limiting growth. However, this study has refined these recommendations across all sites and seasons. For some seasons and sites, there was high variability in pasture N response rate between years that need to be taken into consideration. At Elliott in Tasmania, an irrigated site, there was merit in increasing N fertilizer rates above the current recommendation above 50 kg N ha−1 post grazing during spring and summer. In contrast, at the rainfed sites of Ellinbank and Terang in Victoria, the recommendation would be to not apply N fertilizer during autumn and only in selected wetter summers.
  • A comparison of global agricultural monitoring systems and current gaps
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Steffen Fritz, Linda See, Juan Carlos Laso Bayas, François Waldner, Damien Jacques, Inbal Becker-Reshef, Alyssa Whitcraft, Bettina Baruth, Rogerio Bonifacio, Jim Crutchfield, Felix Rembold, Oscar Rojas, Anne Schucknecht, Marijn Van der Velde, James Verdin, Bingfang Wu, Nana Yan, Liangzhi You, Sven Gilliams, Sander MücherAbstractGlobal and regional scale agricultural monitoring systems aim to provide up-to-date information regarding food production to different actors and decision makers in support of global and national food security. To help reduce price volatility of the kind experienced between 2007 and 2011, a global system of agricultural monitoring systems is needed to ensure the coordinated flow of information in a timely manner for early warning purposes. A number of systems now exist that fill this role. This paper provides an overview of the eight main global and regional scale agricultural monitoring systems currently in operation and compares them based on the input data and models used, the outputs produced and other characteristics such as the role of the analyst, their interaction with other systems and the geographical scale at which they operate. Despite improvements in access to high resolution satellite imagery over the last decade and the use of numerous remote-sensing based products by the different systems, there are still fundamental gaps. Based on a questionnaire, discussions with the system experts and the literature, we present the main gaps in the data and in the methods. Finally, we propose some recommendations for addressing these gaps through ongoing improvements in remote sensing, harnessing new and innovative data streams and the continued sharing of more and more data.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions during storage of manure and digestates: Key role
           of methane for prediction and mitigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Khagendra R. Baral, Guillaume Jégo, Barbara Amon, Roland Bol, Martin H. Chantigny, Jørgen E. Olesen, Søren O. PetersenAbstractTreatment of liquid manure and other wastes by anaerobic digestion (AD) adds to renewable energy targets, and it is thus a favorable strategy for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Both untreated manure and digestates are typically stored for a period in order to recycle nutrients for crop production, and emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) during storage contribute to the overall GHG balance. We determined emissions of all three gases during summer and autumn storage of digestates and untreated manure in pilot-scale experiments. Using these and other data, GHG balances were calculated for treatment, post-treatment storage, and field application. The GHG mitigation potential of AD was demonstrated, but CH4 emissions during storage dominated the overall GHG balance irrespective of treatment; hence for GHG inventories and mitigation efforts, the correct estimation of this source is critical. Current inventory guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimate CH4 emissions from manure management based on a simple classification of livestock production systems, volatile solids (VS) excreted, and annual average temperature, and the effects of treatment and management at farm level are therefore not accounted for in any detail. Two empirical models were evaluated, which instead calculate VS degradation and storage temperature with daily time steps; both models were based on concepts presented by Sommer et al. (2004). Parameters for the Arrhenius temperature relationship of CH4 production, i.e., apparent activation energy, Ea, and pre-exponential factor, A, could be selected, for which cumulative CH4 emissions calculated with the two models approached observed emissions. However, the magnitude of emissions during a warm period was not well reproduced, and the parameters identified for the two models differed. Sensitivity analyses showed that deviations from observations could not be explained by errors in manure storage temperature. The results thus suggest that CH4 emissions cannot be predicted from VS and temperature alone, i.e., that the methanogenic potential changes during storage. Determination of parameters for estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management is discussed with reference to recent literature.
  • 25+years+of+the+WOFOST+cropping+systems+model&rft.title=Agricultural+Systems&rft.issn=0308-521X&">25 years of the WOFOST cropping systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Allard de Wit, Hendrik Boogaard, Davide Fumagalli, Sander Janssen, Rob Knapen, Daniel van Kraalingen, Iwan Supit, Raymond van der Wijngaart, Kees van DiepenAbstractThe WOFOST cropping systems model has been applied operationally over the last 25 years as part of the MARS crop yield forecasting system. In this paper we provide an updated description of the model and reflect on the lessons learned over the last 25 years. The latter includes issues like system performance, model sensitivity, spatial model setup, parameterization and calibration approaches as well as software implementation and version management. Particularly for spatial model calibrations we provide experience and guidelines on how to execute calibrations and how to evaluate WOFOST model simulation results, particularly under conditions of limited field data availability.As an open source model WOFOST has been a success with at least 10 different implementations of the same concept. An overview is provided for those implementations which are managed by MARS or Wageningen groups. However, the proliferation of WOFOST implementations has also led to questions on the reproducibility of results from different implementations as is demonstrated with an example from MARS. In order to certify that the different WOFOST implementations and versions available can reproduce basic sets of inputs and outputs we make available a large set of test cases as appendix to this publication.Finally, new methodological extensions have been added to WOFOST in simulating the impact of nutrients limitations, extreme events and climate variability. Also, a difference is made in the operational and scientific versions of WOFOST with different licensing models and possible revenue generation. Capitalizing both on academic development as well as model testing in real-world situations will help to enable new applications of the WOFOST model in precision agriculture and smart farming.
  • A quantitative assessment of Beneficial Management Practices to reduce
           carbon and reactive nitrogen footprints and phosphorus losses on dairy
           farms in the US Great Lakes region
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Karin Veltman, C. Alan Rotz, Larry Chase, Joyce Cooper, Pete Ingraham, R. César Izaurralde, Curtis D. Jones, Richard Gaillard, Rebecca A. Larson, Matt Ruark, William Salas, Greg Thoma, Olivier JollietAbstractAssessing and improving the sustainability of dairy production is essential to secure future food production. Implementation of Beneficial Management Practices (BMP) can mitigate GHG emissions and nutrient losses and reduce the environmental impact of dairy production, but comprehensive, whole-farm studies that evaluate the efficacy of multiple BMPs to reduce multiple environmental impacts and that include an assessment of productivity and farm profitability, are scarce. We used a process-based model (IFSM) to assess the efficacy of (10+) individual BMPs to reduce the carbon (C) footprint expressed per unit of milk produced of two model dairy farms, a 1500 cow farm and a 150 cow farm, with farming practices representative for the Great Lakes region. In addition to the C footprint, we assessed the effect of BMP implementation on the reactive nitrogen (N) footprint and total phosphorus (P) losses (per unit of milk produced), as well as milk production and farm profitability. We evaluated individual farm-component specific BMPs, that is, 5 dietary manipulations, 3 (150 cow farm) or 4 (1500 cow farm) manure interventions, and 6 field interventions, as well as an integrated whole-farm mitigation strategy based on the best performing individual BMPs. Our results show that reductions in the C footprint expressed per unit of milk are greatest with individual manure management interventions (4–20% reduction) followed by dietary manipulations (0–12% reduction) for both farm types. Field management BMPs had a modest effect on reducing this footprint (0–3% reduction), but showed substantial potential to reduce the reactive N footprint (0–19% reduction) and P losses (1–47% reduction). We found that the whole-farm mitigation strategy can substantially reduce the C footprint, reactive N footprint and total P loss of both farms with predicted reductions of approximately 41%, 41% and 46% respectively, while increasing milk production and the net return per cow by approximately 11% and 27%. To contextualize IFSM predictions for the whole-farm mitigation, we compared components of IFSM predictions to those of three other process-based models (CNCPS, Manure-DNDC and EPIC). While we did observe differences in model predictions for individual flows (particularly P erosion and P leaching losses), with exception of the total P loss, the models generally predicted similar overall mitigation potentials. Overall, our analysis shows that an integrated set of BMPs can be implemented to reduce GHG emissions and nutrient losses of dairy farms in the Great Lakes region without sacrificing productivity or profit to the farmer.
  • Opportunities to improve sustainability on commercial pasture-based dairy
           farms by assessing environmental impact
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Agricultural Systems, Volume 166Author(s): Craig Galloway, Beatrice Conradie, Heidi Prozesky, Karen EslerAbstractFor pasture-based dairy farming to become more sustainable, the negative environmental impacts associated with milk production must be minimized. These negative impacts include eutrophication, ammonia emissions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Two tools, a nutrient budget and a carbon footprint calculator, allow farm-level assessments of these negative impacts. In this study, a nutrient budget was used to calculate the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorous use, and a carbon footprint calculator was used to calculate GHG emissions. Farm system descriptors were used to identify the farm systems that had the lowest environmental impact. Soil carbon was measured as an indicator of soil health, and the link between soil health, nutrient use efficiency and GHG emissions was examined. Nitrogen and phosphorous were not efficiently utilized on the farms included in this study, with a large excess of nutrients imported onto the farms each year. The average use efficiency was 29% for nitrogen, and 36% for phosphorous. The GHG emissions per liter of milk production were higher on the farms included in this study than found in previous studies on dairy farms, with an average of 1.39 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents emitted per kilogram of energy-corrected milk. Farm systems which optimized milk production on the available land, while applying the least amount of fertilizer and feeding the least amount of purchased feeds per milk produced, had the lowest environmental impact. Farms with higher soil carbon levels had higher nitrogen use efficiencies and lower GHG emissions. This is the first South African research to examine environmental impact on pasture-based dairy farms in this manner. It is possible for pasture-based dairy farmers to reduce the environmental impact of milk production by adopting some of the principles identified in this study.
  • Using reanalysis in crop monitoring and forecasting systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): A. Toreti, A. Maiorano, G. De Sanctis, H. Webber, A.C. Ruane, D. Fumagalli, A. Ceglar, S. Niemeyer, M. ZampieriAbstractWeather observations are essential for crop monitoring and forecasting but they are not always available and in some cases they have limited spatial representativeness. Thus, reanalyses represent an alternative source of information to be explored. In this study, we assess the feasibility of reanalysis-based crop monitoring and forecasting by using the system developed and maintained by the European Commission- Joint Research Centre, its gridded daily meteorological observations, the biased-corrected reanalysis AgMERRA and the ERA-Interim reanalysis. We focus on Europe and on two crops, wheat and maize, in the period 1980–2010 under potential and water-limited conditions.In terms of inter-annual yield correlation at the country scale, the reanalysis-driven systems show a very good performance for both wheat and maize (with correlation values higher than 0.6 in almost all EU28 countries) when compared to the observations-driven system. However, significant yield biases affect both crops. All simulations show similar correlations with respect to the FAO reported yield time series.These findings support the integration of reanalyses in current crop monitoring and forecasting systems and point to the emerging opportunities linked to the coming availability of higher-resolution reanalysis updated at near real time.
  • ASAP: A new global early warning system to detect anomaly hot spots of
           agricultural production for food security analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Felix Rembold, Michele Meroni, Ferdinando Urbano, Gabor Csak, Hervé Kerdiles, Ana Perez-Hoyos, Guido Lemoine, Olivier Leo, Thierry NegreAbstractMonitoring crop and rangeland conditions is highly relevant for early warning and response planning in food insecure areas of the world. Satellite remote sensing can obtain relevant and timely information in such areas where ground data are scattered, non-homogenous, or frequently unavailable. Rainfall estimates provide an outlook of the drivers of vegetation growth, whereas time series of satellite-based biophysical indicators at high temporal resolution provide key information about vegetation status in near real-time and over large areas. The new early warning decision support system ASAP (Anomaly hot Spots of Agricultural Production) builds on the experience of the MARS crop monitoring activities for food insecure areas, that have started in the early 2000's and aims at providing timely information about possible crop production anomalies. The information made available on the website ( directly supports multi-agency early warning initiatives such as for example the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor for Early Warning and provides inputs to more detailed food security assessments that are the basis for the annual Global Report on Food Crises. ASAP is a two-step analysis framework, with a first fully automated step classifying the first sub-national level administrative units into four agricultural production deficit warning categories. Warnings are based on rainfall and vegetation index anomalies computed over crop and rangeland areas and are updated every 10 days. They take into account the timing during the crop season at which they occur, using remote sensing derived phenology per-pixel. The second step involves the monthly analysis at country level by JRC crop monitoring experts of all the information available, including the automatic warnings, crop production and food security-tailored media analysis, high-resolution imagery (e.g. Landsat 8, Sentinel 1 and 2) processed in Google Earth Engine and ancillary maps, graphs and statistics derived from a set of indicators. Countries with potentially critical conditions are marked as minor or major hotspots and a global overview is provided together with short national level narratives.
  • Use and relevance of European Union crop monitoring and yield forecasts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Marijn van der Velde, Irene Biavetti, Mohamed El-Aydam, Stefan Niemeyer, Fabien Santini, Maurits van den BergAbstractSince 1993, the JRC has put in operation a crop monitoring and yield forecasting system for Europe, the results of which are published in the JRC MARS Bulletin (currently every month). This paper outlines how the agro-meteorological analyses, country-specific overviews of crop conditions, and crop yield forecasts reported in the Bulletin are used and how these respond to the diverse needs of different types of stakeholders. Stakeholders from more than 32 countries download the JRC MARS Bulletin, in peak-season up to 1500 downloads occur in the first days after publication. The readership of the Bulletin is diverse, coming from governments (e.g. Ministries of Agriculture), private companies (e.g. commodity traders, banking), media, and research and academia. On the list of stakeholders that want to be notified of the release of the Bulletin, roughly 37% originate from business, 35% from research and development, 22% from government, and 6% from the media. The primary user is the Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development (DG-AGRI) of the European Commission, which uses the forecasts to quantify the production estimates for crop supply balance sheets and to identify regions with exceptional (mostly weather related) challenges that might require a policy response. The information for wheat, maize and rice is shared through the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) thus contributing to increased global market transparency and better governance of agriculture and food policies. The largest business use is in market information, financial, and consultancy services, followed by commodity trading. Examples of use in media reports as well as online feedback to those, e.g. by farmer's organizations, are also presented. Downloads of the Bulletin peak in the month before harvest at the time when the forecasts can be of most value for stakeholder decision-making.
  • Corrigendum to The role of agricultural intensification in Brazil's
           Nationally Determined Contribution on emissions mitigation. Agricultural
           Systems, Volume 161, 2018, Pages 102–112
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Rafael De Oliveira Silva, Luis Gustavo Barioni, Queiroz Pellegrino Giampaolo, Dominic Moran
  • Improving WOFOST model to simulate winter wheat phenology in Europe:
           Evaluation and effects on yield
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): A. Ceglar, R. van der Wijngaart, A. de Wit, R. Lecerf, H. Boogaard, L. Seguini, M. van den Berg, A. Toreti, M. Zampieri, D. Fumagalli, B. BaruthAbstractThis study describes and evaluates improvements to the MARS crop yield forecasting system (MCYFS) for winter soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Europe, based on the WOFOST crop simulation model, by introducing autumn sowing dates, realistic soil moisture initialization, adding vernalization requirements and photoperiodicity, and phenology calibration. Dataset of phenological observations complemented with regional cropping calendars across Europe is used. The calibration of thermal requirements for anthesis and maturity is done by pooling all available observations within European agro-environmental zones and minimizing an objective function that combines the differences between observed and simulated anthesis, maturity and harvest dates. Calibrated phenology results in substantial improvement in simulated dates of anthesis with respect to the original MCYFS simulations. The combined improvements to the system result in a physically more plausible spatial distribution of crop model indicators across Europe. Crop yield indicators point to better agreement with recorded national winter wheat yields with respect to the original MCYFS simulations, most pronounced in central, eastern and southern Europe. However, model skill remains low in large parts of western Europe, which may possibly be attributed to the impacts of wet conditions.
  • An evaluation framework to build a cost-efficient crop monitoring system.
           Experiences from the extension of the European crop monitoring system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Raúl López-Lozano, Bettina BaruthAbstractThis paper presents an evaluation framework followed to identify cost-efficient alternatives to extend the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (MCYFS), run by the European Commission Joint Research Centre since 1992, to other main producing areas of the world: Eastern European Neighbourhood, Asia, Australia, South America and North America. These new systems would follow the principles and components of the MCYFS Europe: a meteorological data infrastructure, a remote sensing data infrastructure, a crop modelling platform, statistical tools, a team of analysts and a crop area estimation component. The framework designed evaluates the performance of the possible MCYFS-like system realizations against six defined objectives and their costs. Possible monitoring systems are based on a combination of different technical solutions for each of the MCYFS components, and are evaluated through an automatic algorithm that calculates the expected system performance –relying on a priori expert judgement–, the costs, and possible risks to construct some technical solutions, to finally identify the cost-efficient ones. A baseline system, achieving the minimum required performance, was identified as the most efficient starting point for the MCYFS extension in all the geographical areas. Such system would be built upon: (i) near real-time reanalysis meteorological products; (ii) remote sensing data from low-resolution (~1 km) platforms with a long-term product archive; (iii) crop models based on crop-specific model calibration from experimental data published in scientific literature; (iv) statistical methods based on trend and regression analysis applied to national level; (v) a team of analysts with specific technical profiles (on meteorology, remote sensing, and agronomy); and (vi) digital classification of very high resolution imagery supported by non-expensive ground surveys for area estimation. In countries where accessibility to local data and resources is high the baseline system can be upgraded enhancing some of the components: sub-national statistical analysis with additional statistical methods like multiple regression or scenario analysis; recruitment of experts on local agricultural conditions in the team of analysts; local calibration of crop models with experimental data; and exploiting high and low resolution biophysical products from remote sensing for crop monitoring.
  • Short-term buildup of carbon from a low-productivity pastureland to an
           agrisilviculture system in the Brazilian savannah
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Thais Rodrigues Coser, Cícero Célio de Figueiredo, Boban Jovanovic, Túlio Nascimento Moreira, Gilberto Gonçalves Leite, Sergio Lucio Salomon Cabral Filho, Eiyti Kato, Juaci Vitória Malaquias, Robélio Leandro MarchãoAbstractAgrisilviculture systems that combine two or more species with agricultural practices may potentially increase soil organic matter (SOM) quality due to its diversified and large carbon (C) inputs. The implementation of integrated agricultural systems in Brazil has reached over 11 Mha of area and is a promising strategy to revert widespread land degradation and increase ecological intensification for cropping systems. This study aimed to evaluate the transition of a low-productivity pasture to an agrisilviculture system (corn + Gliricidia sepium + Panicum maximum cv. Massai) along a four-year field experiment under a clayey Oxisol on SOM fractions, C stocks and C management index (CMI). A native Cerrado vegetation was used as a reference. Soil samples were collected in four cropping seasons: T0 - under low-productivity pasture, T1, T2, T3 – 2nd, 3rd and 4th years after implementing the integrated production system, respectively. Both mineral associated and total soil organic C (TC) increased from T0 to T3. Accordingly, C from the particulate SOM increased by 476%, 305% and 368% at 0.00–0.10, 0.10–0.20 and 0.20–0.40 m layers, respectively, and was found to be the most sensitive indicator for changes in soil management systems. Surprisingly, inert C increased up to 0.20 m layer from T0 to all the other seasons and represented 21 to 42% of TC. C stocks at the 0.00–0.40 m layer increased from 52.6 Mg ha−1 at T0 to 66.5 Mg ha−1 at T3. The CMI significantly increased from T0 to T3 – reaching CMI of native vegetation (considered CMI = 100%). The no-till agrisilviculture system with the use of Panicum maximum cv. Massai and Gliricidia sepium managed to accomplish the goal of building up soil organic C and increasing SOM quality, thus showing its potential to be used as a sustainable agricultural practice in terms of soil quality improvement and short-term C sequestration.
  • Simulating agricultural land-use adaptation decisions to climate change:
           An empirical agent-based modelling in northern Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Mahamadou L. Amadou, Grace B. Villamor, Nicholas Kyei-BaffourAbstractIn West Africa, the majority of regional climate projections for the region predict that the study area will become warmer and that precipitation patterns will be more erratic. The aim of this article is to examine local agricultural adaptation to climate change and variability in a semi-arid area of the Upper East Region of Ghana. This is performed by integrating the two-step decision making sub-models, Perception-of-Climate-Change and Adaptation-Choice-Strategies, to the Land Use Dynamic Simulator (LUDAS). The simulation results suggest that the land-use choices in the study area reflect a tendency towards increasing subsistence farming in an area where there has been a gradual trend away from traditional land uses such as cereal production to the cultivation of groundnut, rice, maize and soybean. Groundnut monoculture production has emerged locally as coping measure for dealing with increased climatic variability. In terms of livelihood strategy, there is an increasing contribution of rice and groundnut to household gross incomes. The predicted pattern of changes in gross household income under a scenario in which climate change is perceived by local farmers explicitly revealed the contribution of adaptation options to household livelihood strategy.
  • Optimization model for on-farm irrigation management of Mediterranean
           greenhouse crops using desalinated and saline water from different sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): J. Reca, C. Trillo, J.A. Sánchez, J. Martínez, D. ValeraDesalination is becoming a competitive alternative for supplying quality water to irrigation districts in dry areas. However, its acceptance level among farmers is often low due to its higher price, the need for additional fertilization, and the misconception that it would negatively affect yield and crop quality. This work presents a decision support system that would help them to make irrigation management decisions regarding the optimal combination of saline and desalinated seawater (DSW), which would provide maximum economic profit. The model has been specially designed for Mediterranean greenhouse cropping systems. The proposed model was validated by applying it to a real watermelon crop which was experimentally monitored. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted in order to analyze the effect of different limiting factors on the optimal combination of water and the optimal profit for farmers.The application of the model to the case study demonstrated that it is profitable to use a blend of DSW and brackish water for irrigation of greenhouse crops. Despite the higher cost of the DSW, the economic optimum was achieved for higher DSW fractions than those which are used today. This sensitivity analysis has demonstrated that brackish water salinity, irrigation uniformity and crop tolerance are relevant factors that affect the optimal combination decisions. This work may encourage farmers to accept desalinated water.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Rapid transformation of food systems in developing regions: Highlighting
           the role of agricultural research & innovations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Thomas Reardon, Ruben Echeverria, Julio Berdegué, Bart Minten, Saweda Liverpool-Tasie, David Tschirley, David ZilbermanAbstractDeveloping regions' food system has transformed rapidly in the past several decades. The food system is the dendritic cluster of R&D value chains, and the value chains linking input suppliers to farmers, and farmers upstream to wholesalers and processors midstream, to retailers then consumers downstream. We analyze the transformation in terms of these value chains' structure and conduct, and the effects of changes in those on its performance in terms of impacts on consumers and farmers, as well as the efficiency of and waste in the overall chain. We highlight the role of, and implications for agricultural research, viewed broadly as farm technology as well as research pertaining to all aspects of input and output value chains.
  • Food and agricultural innovation pathways for prosperity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): Thomas P. Tomich, Preetmoninder Lidder, Mariah Coley, Douglas Gollin, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Patrick Webb, Peter CarberryAbstractThis introduction to the special issue deploys a framework, inspired by realist synthesis and introduced in Section 1, that aims to untangle the contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes associated with investments that link poverty reduction and rural prosperity within a broad agri-food systems perspective. Section 2 considers changes in contexts: Where are agricultural research investments most likely to be an engine of poverty reduction' Over the past 25 years, there have been profound changes in the development context of most countries, necessitating an update on strategic insights for research investment priorities relevant for the economic, political, social, environmental, and structural realities of the early 21st Century. Section 2 briefly surveys changes in these structural aspects of poverty and development processes in low-income countries, with particular attention to new drivers (e.g., urbanization, climate change) that will be of increasing salience in the coming decades. In Section 3, we turn to mechanisms: What are the plausible impact pathways and what evidence exists to test their plausibility' Poor farmers in the developing world are often the stated focus of public sector agricultural research. However, farmers are not the only potential beneficiaries of agricultural research; rural landless laborers, stakeholders along food value chains, and the urban poor can also be major beneficiaries of such research. Thus, there are multiple, interacting pathways through which agricultural research can contribute to reductions in poverty and associated livelihood vulnerabilities. This paper introduces an ex ante set of 18 plausible impact pathways from agricultural research to rural prosperity outcomes, employing bibliometric methods to assess the evidence underpinning causal links. In Section 4, we revisit the concept of desired impacts: When we seek poverty reduction, what does that mean and what measures are needed to demonstrate impact' The papers in this special issue are intended to yield insights to inform improvements in agricultural research that seeks to reduce poverty. History indicates that equity of distribution of gains matters hugely, and thus the questions of “who wins'” and “who loses'” must be addressed. Moreover, our understanding(s) of “poverty” and the intended outcomes of development investments have become much richer over the past 25 years, incorporating more nuance regarding gender, community differences, and fundamental reconsideration of the meaning of poverty and prosperity that are not captured by simple head count income or even living standard measures.
  • Climate risk management and rural poverty reduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018Source: Agricultural SystemsAuthor(s): James Hansen, Jon Hellin, Todd Rosenstock, Eleanor Fisher, Jill Cairns, Clare Stirling, Christine Lamanna, Jacob van Etten, Alison Rose, Bruce CampbellAbstractClimate variability is a major source of risk to smallholder farmers and pastoralists, particularly in dryland regions. A growing body of evidence links climate-related risk to the extent and the persistence of rural poverty in these environments. Stochastic shocks erode smallholder farmers' long-term livelihood potential through loss of productive assets. The resulting uncertainty impedes progress out of poverty by acting as a disincentive to investment in agriculture – by farmers, rural financial services, value chain institutions and governments. We assess evidence published in the last ten years that a set of production technologies and institutional options for managing risk can stabilize production and incomes, protect assets in the face of shocks, enhance uptake of improved technologies and practices, improve farmer welfare, and contribute to poverty reduction in risk-prone smallholder agricultural systems. Production technologies and practices such as stress-adapted crop germplasm, conservation agriculture, and diversified production systems stabilize agricultural production and incomes and, hence, reduce the adverse impacts of climate-related risk under some circumstances. Institutional interventions such as index-based insurance and social protection through adaptive safety nets play a complementary role in enabling farmers to manage risk, overcome risk-related barriers to adoption of improved technologies and practices, and protect their assets against the impacts of extreme climatic events. While some research documents improvements in household welfare indicators, there is limited evidence that the risk-reduction benefits of the interventions reviewed have enabled significant numbers of very poor farmers to escape poverty. We discuss the roles that climate-risk management interventions can play in efforts to reduce rural poverty, and the need for further research on identifying and targeting environments and farming populations where improved climate risk management could accelerate efforts to reduce rural poverty.
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