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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 341, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 402, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Aggression and Violent Behavior
  [SJR: 1.385]   [H-I: 72]   [402 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • A systematic review of the current knowledge regarding revenge pornography
           and non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit media
    • Authors: Kate Walker; Emma Sleath
      Pages: 9 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kate Walker, Emma Sleath
      The aim of this review was to synthesize the current literature regarding revenge pornography and the non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit media. A systematic search was made of five databases using relevant search terms. From these searches, 82 articles were retained for inclusion within the systematic review. The literature spanned areas of research including legal, theory, as well as psychology related empirical papers. The findings show that particularly in the U.S., but in other countries as well, there are significant concerns regarding the implementation of revenge pornography legislation, despite this being recognized as an important endeavor. Non-consensual sharing perpetration and victimization rates can vary considerably according to how the behavior is defined and measured, however, these behaviors were evident for a considerable number of individuals across both genders.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T19:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2017)
  • Sexual murder typologies: A systematic review
    • Authors: Tamsin Higgs; Adam J. Carter; Ruth J. Tully; Kevin D. Browne
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): Tamsin Higgs, Adam J. Carter, Ruth J. Tully, Kevin D. Browne
      Establishing an empirically valid typology of sexual murder is necessary for developing theory, risk assessment, and intervention. Results from all empirical studies conducted between 1970 and 2016, drawing on information pertaining to >700 sexual murderers, were collated to provide a definitive best evidence synthesis elucidating the overall patterns and motives underlying sexual murder. Three subtypes of sexual murder were consistently found. The term sexualized murder is proposed, to refer to those crimes in which killing is functionally related to the sexual element of the offence. Grievance murder is driven by angry schema and an excessively aggressive response style. Finally, rape murder involves only an indirect association between the sexual offence and killing. Factors distinguishing these subtypes are discussed, and attention is directed towards gaps in knowledge, particularly in relation to biopsychosocial and criminal career factors that remain under-researched.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T16:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
  • Juvenile female sex traffickers
    • Authors: L.C. Miccio-Fonseca
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): L.C. Miccio-Fonseca
      The article provides a conceptual framework of the juvenile female sex trafficker. The discussion is extrapolated from a variety of data points and sources including: studies of sex trafficking victims and juvenile sexual offenders (males and females), and a large cross-validated normative sample (N = 1056) of MEGA ♪ , a risk assessment tool for sexually abusive youth (Miccio-Fonseca, 2009, 2010, 2013, 2016).

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T16:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
  • Sexual minorities in conflict zones: A review of the literature
    • Authors: Melinda W. Moore; John R. Barner
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): Melinda W. Moore, John R. Barner
      In civil and ethnic conflict, sexual minorities experience a heightened risk for war crimes such as sexual violence, torture, and death. As a result, sexual minorities remain an invisible population in armed conflict out of a need for safety. Further study of sexual minorities in conflict zones confronts matters of human rights, war crimes, and the psychosocial effects of war. This article reviews the existing research on sexual minorities in conflict zones, examines the findings on human rights, war crimes, and the psychosocial effects of war and violence on sexual minority populations, and reviews the barriers to effectiveness faced by intervention programs developed specifically to aid post-conflict societies. The article concludes with a summary of findings within the literature and further considerations for research on aggression and violent behavior with sexual minority groups in conflict zones.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
  • The scope of male rape: A selective review of research, policy and
    • Authors: Michelle Lowe; Paul Rogers
      Pages: 38 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): Michelle Lowe, Paul Rogers
      Much work has been undertaken to publicize the plight of female rape survivors, but until recent years the rape and sexual assault of adult males received little research or public attention. The aim of this paper is to selectively review the literature on male survivors of sexual violence highlighting, where relevant, timely implications for policy and practice. First, changes in UK legislation relating to male rape are discussed, with cross-national comparisons made against United States, Australian and Canadian statute to overview developing definitions and legal good practice. Second, prevalence issues relating to the under-reporting and long-term consequences of male sexual victimization are outlined. Third, the current dearth of UK service provision for male rape survivors is reported. Finally, literature on how male rape myth acceptance, victim blaming and homophobia relate to the secondary victimization of male survivors is considered. Suggestions for continued research in this developing area of work are made.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
  • Victimization in light of self-compassion: Development towards communal
    • Authors: Moshe Bensimon
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Moshe Bensimon
      The discipline of victimology emerged and continues to develop in response to the need to analyze the phenomenology of victims of crime. In the last decade, a new trend, positive victimology, has emerged; it emphasizes the role of “positive components” in efforts to promote the rehabilitation and recovery of victims. This perspective stresses the role of society and community in acceptance, encouragement, faith, forgiveness, goodness, gratitude, and compassion towards victims. One positive healing concept that has recently been found valuable for victims' well-being is that of self-compassion. The aim of the current paper was to explore the theory of self-compassion, which was first presented by Kristin D. Neff (2003a), as it applies to the lived experience of victimization. A comprehensive review of literature indicated the presence of uncompassionate responses as central in the lived experience of victims. These components include: (a) self-judgment and self-blame; (b) loneliness and alienation; and (c) over-identification and experiential avoidance. Seeing victimization from this perspective can deepen the understanding of victims' needs to increase compassionate and reduce uncompassionate responding. The present exploration also revealed the need, in the case of victimization, to adopt the notion of communal compassion, which expands the focus from self-compassion to compassion in the community.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
  • Alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression: The quest for a
           common underlying mechanism
    • Authors: Carlo Garofalo; Aidan G.C. Wright
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Carlo Garofalo, Aidan G.C. Wright
      Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse prognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression. After reviewing the relevant literature on alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and related aggression, we propose that their association could be better understood by acknowledging common underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, we outline different potential avenues that can explain their association. In particular, we focus on impulsivity and emotion dysregulation as possible triggers of alcohol abuse and personality disorders, ultimately leading to self-harm and interpersonal violence. Also, the critical role of contextual influences in exacerbating both subjective and interpersonal dysfunctions is considered. Finally, we argue that emotion dysregulation and impulsivity could serve as useful intervention targets to treat clients with personality disorders and alcohol abuse who engage in aggressive behavior, by tackling these mechanisms underlying their complex pathology. Relevant implications for both clinical and research purposes are also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T21:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • The pursuit of homeostasis: Closing the gap between science and practice
           in the treatment of aggression and violence
    • Authors: Kellie Rhodes; Aisland Rhodes
      Pages: 9 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 34
      Author(s): Kellie Rhodes, Aisland Rhodes
      Youth who demonstrate aggression, violence, and behaviors associated with a diagnosis of conduct disorder have comprised a large population of secure youth corrections for decades. Ameliorative treatment strategies have thus far fallen short. Contemporary neuroscience reveals youths' emotions and behaviors may be limbic adaptations to homeostatic demands. We review interdisciplinary research suggesting a resource-rich environment and strategically shared body-states might be therapeutically implemented to effect adjustments in youth's emotions and behaviors. Thus, a limbically informed treatment modality, invites innovative treatment technology to address youth aggression, violence and behaviors associated with conduct disorder.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T21:31:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • A systematic review of coping among heterosexual female IPV survivors in
           the United States with a focus on the conceptualization and measurement of
    • Authors: Cynthia Fraga Rizo; Ashley Givens; Brianna Lombardi
      Pages: 35 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Cynthia Fraga Rizo, Ashley Givens, Brianna Lombardi
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant stressor associated with numerous negative consequences. Many IPV researchers have sought to understand survivors' experiences and to identify malleable factors that can enhance survivor well-being by focusing on survivors' coping efforts. To develop a better understanding of how coping has been conceptualized and measured in the context of U.S.-based research with heterosexual female IPV survivors, we conducted a systematic review of 48 research articles examining IPV and coping among this population. Additionally, the review assesses the state of this literature in terms of methodological strengths and limitations as well as what is known about these survivors' coping efforts. Review findings suggest that coping is a complex construct that has been conceptualized and measured in diverse ways. Findings also demonstrate that heterosexual, female survivors engage in various coping strategies and help-seeking behaviors, and some effort has been made to examine: (a) the relationship between coping and mental health, (b) the relationship between coping and other constructs (e.g., decision to leave an abusive partner, revictimization), and (c) differences in coping across diverse groups of survivors. Recommendations for future research are offered in light of review findings.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • Police perceptions of rape victims and the impact on case decision making:
           A systematic review
    • Authors: Emma Sleath; Ray Bull
      Pages: 102 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 34
      Author(s): Emma Sleath, Ray Bull
      Police officers are frequently perceived to hold negative attitudes about rape victims. The aim of this systematic review is to: (1) synthesise the current literature on police officers' attributions of rape victim blame, assessments of rape victim credibility, and rape myth acceptance; and, (2) examine the evidence that holding these attitudes impacts on police investigative decision making in rape cases. Twenty-four articles published between 2000 and 2016 were included following a systematic search of the available literature. The findings highlight that some police officers do hold problematic attitudes about rape victims e.g., blame, rape myth acceptance, although they are frequently noted to be at a low level. Furthermore, characteristics of the victim, e.g., alcohol intoxication and emotional expression, can affect attributions of victim credibility. Assessments of victim credibility were related to police investigative decision making e.g., recommendations to charge the perpetrator, perceptions of guilt. However, the impact of rape victim blaming and rape myth acceptance is less clear. Given that the literature was predominantly vignette-based, it is unclear how these judgements have an impact in real rape investigations.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T16:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • Impact of child sexual abuse on non-abused siblings: A review with
           implications for research and practice
    • Authors: Alayna Schreier; Jessica K. Pogue; David J. Hansen
      Pages: 254 - 262
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 34
      Author(s): Alayna Schreier, Jessica K. Pogue, David J. Hansen
      Research has widely supported the numerous negative outcomes for victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), but little attention has been paid to the experiences of non-abused, non-offending siblings following the victim's disclosure. This review presents evidence indicating that this overlooked sibling population merits both clinical and research attention. Siblings may experience significant emotional and behavioral responses to the victim's disclosure due to changes within the family system. A sibling's internalizing and externalizing behaviors can increase family distress post-abuse, while a supportive sibling can contribute to the victim's recovery. The current state of clinical services for siblings is described. Services including the entire family have been found to be especially beneficial in reducing the negative impact of CSA. Although siblings may present to treatment with subclinical symptoms of distress on average, there is a heterogeneity in emotional and behavioral responses similar to that found in victims. There are currently no measures designed to specifically capture the sibling's experience and impairment following the victim's CSA. Recommendations for future research are provided.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • Unveiling the shadows of meaning: Meaning-making for perpetrators of
    • Authors: Martha Ferrito; Adrian Needs; Gwen Adshead
      Pages: 263 - 272
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 34
      Author(s): Martha Ferrito, Adrian Needs, Gwen Adshead
      Human beings are thought to have unique capacities to interpret and make meaning after major life events. However this process may be complicated and difficult after events that involve anger and aggression and when dangerousness and destructiveness come to the fore. Meaning making may be especially challenging when such an event is incomprehensible to the victim's family and society, due to the perpetrator's irreversible actions and the painful awareness that a human life has been lost. Meaning-making for the perpetrator, including owning of responsibility, in the aftermath of a serious and violent crime remains under-explored; perhaps this is because violent death is an extraordinary behavior with tragic consequences on the victim that invokes enormous anxiety at the thought of exploration. The aim of this paper is to draw upon criminological, forensic and psychology literature to provide a unified perspective on meaning-making processes and what meanings are made for and by the offender in the aftermath of homicide. From the perspective of the perpetrator, challenges might include how sense can be made of the tragedy, including how a redemptive story can emerge and in turn lead to pro-social identity changes. The paper concludes by highlighting consequences and lack of adjustment following incomprehensibility.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • Pets in danger: Exploring the link between domestic violence and animal
    • Authors: Michelle Newberry
      Pages: 273 - 281
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 34
      Author(s): Michelle Newberry
      Previous research has found that domestic violence (DV) victims who seek refuge in DV shelters often report the abuse of companion animals as a form of psychological control. However, these studies have mainly involved the use of interviews and questionnaires which restrict the quality and depth of data collected (e.g. these methods increase the probability that victims will withhold information due to embarrassment or ethical constraints). The current study utilized a novel method previously overlooked in the literature on companion animal abuse in an attempt to overcome these problems; domestic violence victims' stories of companion animal abuse were obtained from online forums where victims voluntarily shared their experiences. Seventy-four stories were analyzed using thematic analysis and four key themes were identified: The Victim-Companion Animal Bond; Companion Animals Used to Control Victims; Victims' Perceptions of Abusers' Behavior; and Support for Victims and Companion Animals. A number of DV victims reported that companion animals were one of their main sources of support, and many chose to stay in an abusive relationship because DV shelters did not have the facilities to house their pets. Findings have policy implications for police, DV shelters, child protection organizations, and animal welfare organizations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • Monsters, madmen… and myths: A critical review of the serial killing
    • Authors: Sarah Hodgkinson; Herschel Prins; Joshua Stuart-Bennett
      Pages: 282 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 34
      Author(s): Sarah Hodgkinson, Herschel Prins, Joshua Stuart-Bennett
      Despite the longstanding public and media fascination with the modern ‘serial killer’, the academic literature is relatively limited. The international field is dominated by individualistic biographical accounts, which offer a highly reductionist and distorted stereotype of the perpetrator, with little opportunity to learn from past cases, or place them within wider socio-cultural contexts. Furthermore, there are a profusion of overlapping and confusing terms, confounded by the FBI's social construction of the ‘serial killer problem’, and perpetuating widespread misleading assumptions. After many years teaching in this area, we are often struck by how these media-driven misconceptions of the serial killer dominate students' knowledge and interest in the topic. This is despite a growing critique of the area in recent years, particularly from within our field of criminology. We seek to debate these issues by exploring some useful cases of serial killing, foregrounding some UK case examples, which are often underexplored. We argue for the need to facilitate scholarly, systematic research to counter the voyeuristic, essentialist narratives within popular media. We also advocate the alternative socio-cultural approach to the study of serial killing, which has emerged in recent years, although been relatively unacknowledged in the international literature to date.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • Compulsive criminal homicide: A new nosology for serial murder
    • Authors: Sasha Reid
      Pages: 290 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 34
      Author(s): Sasha Reid
      The term “serial murder” has undergone vast revisions both in its label and its definition. While interest in the study of serial murder has fluctuated, it appears as though law enforcement currently dominates research into this phenomenon. In particular, the definition of serial murder forwarded by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) pervades current literature on this issue. Though frequently employed, the FBI definition of serial murder poses problems for the purpose of research. Most notably, its non-elaborate and broad parameters have created significant limitations for empirical research. Most notably, this definition has hindered estimations of prevalence and has slowed progress with respect to determining etiology. Scientific investigations require carefully operationalized terms and descriptions that are sensitive to nuance and the subtle idiosyncrasies of the topic under study. Such features are woefully absent from current law enforcement definitions of serial murder. The adoption of a standardized definition of serial murder is necessary should researchers hope to accomplish newer and more sophisticated achievements in this field. In this paper, a new nosology for serial murder is put forward and the argument is made for the standardized adoption of this criteria across the fields of law enforcement, academia, and other clinical settings. This new nosology falls under the label of Compulsive Criminal Homicide (CCH).

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • What is the evidence' Preventing psychological violence in the
    • Authors: Emily Schindeler; Danielle M. Reynald
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Emily Schindeler, Danielle M. Reynald
      Although criminology has actively engaged with psychological violence in the context of domestic violence and child abuse, it has been slower coming to the fore when it comes to such violence in the workplace. This is despite the well-documented human, organisational, community and service costs associated with such victimisation. As demonstrated in this review, the bulk of strategies that have been trialled to date has been devised from psychology, management and organisational development perspectives. However, there is a paucity of evidence that any of the interventions that are widely promoted have been subjected to robust evaluations or provided evidence of any long-term reduction in the incidence of violence as a consequence of such interventions. Acknowledging there no easy single recipe, it is timely to consider the potential of alternative approaches including the application of guardianship and related principles from the routine activity approach, which are well-established strategies for prevention of victimisation in a range of contexts as set out in this review.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T19:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.004
  • So you want to study bullying' Recommendations to enhance the
           validity, transparency, and compatibility of bullying research
    • Authors: Anthony A. Volk; René Veenstra; Dorothy L. Espelage
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Anthony A. Volk, René Veenstra, Dorothy L. Espelage
      Bullying is a serious problem that affects millions of individuals worldwide each year. In response to this, thousands of research articles have been published on bullying. Unfortunately, much of bullying research remains largely atheoretical in its approach to defining bullying as a unique form of aggression. Another key problem in bullying research is the proliferation of heterogeneity of bullying measures whose validity is sometimes questionable. Combined, these two problems have made progress difficult as comparisons between studies and results are impeded by a lack of commonality. As a solution to these problems a discussion of the issues surrounding defining and measuring bullying is offered. This paper aims to promote thoughts and insights about the critical issues and concepts facing those who seek to define and measure bullying for research, intervention, or policy work. Although suggestions for best practices are offered, the overriding goal is to promote all practices that enhance the validity, transparency, and compatibility of bullying research. The time seems right for a general call to action for researchers to individually produce data that are both theoretically and empirically more communicable to the broader bullying community.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T19:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.003
  • Overt attacks and covert thoughts
    • Authors: Giti Zahedzadeh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Giti Zahedzadeh
      The process in which an individual moves from radical opinion to violent action is of immense interest to law enforcement and counterterrorism agencies. A deep understanding of these processes could help in the complex pursuit to thwart terrorism. Our goal is to gain insight into the thought processes of a lone wolf terrorist prior to an event. Herein, we consider the case of the Army psychiatrist Major Nidal Malik Hasan. Utilizing a novel web-based text analysis environment that helps visualize the distribution of words within a single text corpus, we analyze Hasan's presentation at Walter Reed Medical Center in 2007 and his secret messages to Anwar al-Awlaki in 2009. We show that the analysis of the content of Hasan's speech and his correspondence can reveal his intention and motivation. The use of a case analysis of Nidal Hasan is unique, in that he was directly corresponding with a senior member of al-Qaeda, while he was an active duty Army officer. Thus, this paper contributes to our understanding of intent and thought patterns of some lone wolf terrorists.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T16:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.009
  • Social climate in forensic mental health settings: A systematic review of
           qualitative studies
    • Authors: Patrick Doyle; Ethel Quayle; Emily Newman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Patrick Doyle, Ethel Quayle, Emily Newman
      Social climate is a commonly evaluated aspect of inpatient forensic mental health settings. However, there is little clarity in the literature on the components of social climate. To identify these components, qualitative studies of staff and patient experiences of social climate were systematically reviewed using best fit framework synthesis. An a priori framework was developed based on nine existing models of social climate. A systematic search identified twenty studies of sufficient quality to be included in the review. These studies included staff and patient perspectives across all levels of inpatient forensic settings. In all twenty-two themes were identified in the review papers. From these themes, a model of social climate was developed. Seven factors were identified as part of the social climate, including the therapeutic relationship, care and treatment orientation, the secure base and four aspects of the ward environment. The findings indicate that common measures of social climate may not fully represent the construct. Themes related to the patient group, the staff group, the physical environment and system level factors were identified as influencing social climate. The model described allows for consideration of interventions to positively influence social climate.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T16:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.008
  • Developmental pathways to serial homicide: A critical review of the
           biological literature
    • Authors: Sasha Reid
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Sasha Reid
      This paper offers a historically grounded review of several biologically based developmental theories for serial homicide. Beginning with a discussion that outlines nineteenth-century etiological theories, this article guides its reader through a series of intellectual and scientific developments – all of which have contributed to our current understanding of the etiology of serial homicide. Embedded within this review is a critical examination of how social, methodological, and other such limitations have stalled and prevented the development of a meaningful etiological account for serial homicide. This author offers some direction to help researchers overcome these limitations, and suggests three additional lines of inquiry that may help to illuminate biologically-based developmental trajectories. This paper concludes by reinforcing the need for a transdisciplinary approach when studying violence risk and prevention within this population specifically.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.003
  • Parenting in a digital age: A review of parents' role in preventing
           adolescent cyberbullying
    • Authors: Caitlin Elsaesser; Beth Russell; Christine McCauley Ohannessian; Desmond Patton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Caitlin Elsaesser, Beth Russell, Christine McCauley Ohannessian, Desmond Patton
      While parents have a critical influence on reducing adolescent risk taking, adolescents' access to online spaces presents significant and novel challenges to parents' ability to reduce their youth's involvement in cyberbullying. The present study reviews the existing literature on parents' influence (i.e., parental warmth and parental monitoring) on adolescent cyberbullying, both as victims and perpetrators. 23 mostly cross sectional articles were identified for this review. Findings indicate that parental warmth is consistently associated with lower cyberbullying, both as victims and perpetrators. For parental monitoring, strategies that are focused on parental control, such as restricting the Internet, appear to be only weakly related to youth's involvement in cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. In contrast, strategies that are more collaborative with in nature (e.g., evaluative mediation and co-use) are more closely connected to cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, although evidence suggests that the effectiveness of these practices varies by sex and ethnicity. Results underscore the need for parents to provide emotional warmth that might support adolescent's disclosure of online activity. Implications for practice and future research are reviewed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.004
  • Examining offender, victim and offence characteristics in cases of
           stranger child abduction: An exploratory comparison of attempted and
           completed cases using publicly available data from the UK
    • Authors: Craig John Robert Collie; Karen Shalev Greene
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Craig John Robert Collie, Karen Shalev Greene
      The article examines the demographic features of victims and offenders involved in cases of stranger child abduction in the UK, performing a quantitative, secondary data analysis of a sample of 78 offences that have received a conviction in the UK since 1988. Information was gathered via a study of media and legal databases. The profiles of attempted and completed cases of stranger child abduction are compared to ascertain the relationship between case characteristics and offence outcome. Findings indicated that while females victims are targeted more frequently overall, male victims are at greater risk of being abducted successfully by strangers. Females are more likely to be approached by non-specialist offenders, whereas male victims are more likely to be targeted by chronic child sex offenders. Victims aged 10 were found to be at risk of being victimized successfully, while attempted victimization was even across all victim age groups. Finally, older offenders were found to be more persistent, with younger offenders discontinuing their offence earlier in the behavioural sequence. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations for future research made. The continued analysis of abduction offences utilizing the attempted-completed distinction is also strongly encouraged and endorsed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.005
  • Is Chappell and Di Martino's interactive model of workplace violence
           valid? An article analysing workplace violence towards healthcare
           professionals in Spain
    • Authors: Cristina Vidal-Martí; Carlos Pérez Testor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Cristina Vidal-Martí, Carlos Pérez Testor
      Workplace violence is a phenomenon affecting healthcare professionals. One of its explanatory models is Chappell and Di Martino's interactive model (2006). These authors assert that workplace violence occurs due to the interaction of multiple risk factors and according to these scholars the greater the knowledge of the phenomenon, the greater the likelihood that it can be prevented and, therefore, its incidence diminished. The aim of this article is to analyse the studies on aggression towards healthcare professionals in Spain based on this interactive model and to corroborate whether this model helps explain the phenomenon of workplace violence in Spanish healthcare professionals. For the purpose of this study, 28 studies on workplace violence affecting healthcare professionals were analysed. The obtained results we later compared to Chappel and Di Martino interactive model. The results are not conclusive: they reveal the need to keep studying the phenomenon and to analyse variables related to the model more precisely.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.006
  • You see but you do not observe: A review of bystander intervention and
           sexual assault on university campuses
    • Authors: Danielle Labhardt; Emma Holdsworth; Sarah Brown; Douglas Howat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Danielle Labhardt, Emma Holdsworth, Sarah Brown, Douglas Howat
      Sexual assault on university campuses has garnered increased attention in recent years. A systematic review was conducted to identify the factors associated with bystander intervention regarding sexual assault on university campuses. Currently, no published systematic reviews exist within this area. Twenty-eight studies were reviewed according to four major bystander factors: rape myth and date rape attitudes; bystander efficacy; bystander intent; and bystander behavior. There was a heavy emphasis on bystander intent and behavior throughout. Three important limitations were identified: (1) all empirical research has been conducted in the USA, yet bystander intervention programs exist outside of the USA, in countries such as the UK, (2) a majority of the studies employed quantitative methodologies and so failed to capture important details such as bystanders' perceptions of sexual assault or what other factors influence the likelihood of intervening, and (3) there were limited attempts to control for factors such as social desirability. This area of research is still in its infancy. Future research should examine in greater detail the factors inhibiting and facilitating bystander intervention. Finally, research outside of the USA is important in developing the literature in this area to effectively inform bystander intervention programs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.005
  • The prevalence of sexual aggression in Turkey: A systematic review
    • Authors: Isabell Schuster; Barbara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Isabell Schuster, Barbara Krahé
      Although sexual aggression is recognized as a serious problem worldwide, evidence on the prevalence and impact of sexual aggression is based predominantly on studies from Western countries with a Christian or non-religious majority. Little evidence is available from non-Western countries, especially from Muslim societies. The purpose of the present article was to provide a first systematic review of the studies examining the prevalence of sexual aggression in Turkey, including both victimization and perpetration reports from women and men. Additionally, differences in prevalence rates depending on relationship constellations and characteristics of victims and perpetrators were reviewed. By a two-stage literature search, 56 studies were identified for inclusion. All studies examined sexual aggression victimization of women, only four studies included sexual victimization of men. Data on sexual aggression perpetration were extremely limited, with only two studies providing prevalence rates. Prevalence rates of sexual victimization were found to vary greatly, which may be attributed to a lack of methodological and conceptual consistency across studies. Likewise, no consistent picture was revealed for victims' or perpetrators' sociodemographic or situational characteristics associated with differences in prevalence rates. We discuss reasons for the variability in prevalence rates and outline recommendations for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T06:59:58Z
  • Causes and cures XIV: Nonviolence approaches
    • Authors: Bandy X. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Bandy X. Lee
      The past several years have been a landmark moment for violence prevention, with renewed attention on the part of many international agencies, but especially the United Nations, with its adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The latter invites the world community to collaborate in an inclusive, long-ranging vision for the future, highlighting our interdependence and collective responsibility for humanity's future. A growing awareness that preventing violence does not just reduce death and disability but promotes creativity, economic growth, and general well-being is at the heart of this “movement”. An integration not only of the major disciplines but of various practical approaches is timely, and for this to occur, we require a broader overview of our existing societal structures. In this context, this fifteen article series modeled after a Global Health Studies course entitled, “Violence: Causes and Cures,” reviews the mechanisms that society has used in an attempt to stem violence. Continuing the transition from the “law and order” to the health model, this article examines the power of nonviolence. Contrary to current assumptions, far from being passive or ineffective, nonviolent methods have demonstrated to bring down empires, to topple regimes, and to effectuate long-lasting peace—at greater frequency than violent means. Starting with the personal level, and drawing upon the various spiritual traditions, nonviolence may cover the depths that are necessary for countering our complex tendency for violence. Nonviolence gives us the lesson that peace is possible, not just through stemming destructive forces, but by fostering constructive ones.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T18:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.002
  • Aggressive scripts, violent fantasy and violent behavior: A conceptual
           clarification and review
    • Authors: Flora Gilbert; Michael Daffern
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Flora Gilbert, Michael Daffern
      Aggressive scripts are stereotyped aggression-related event sequences typically acquired in early childhood, encoded in memory, rehearsed and elaborated, and then retrieved to guide aggressive behavior. In studies using non clinical and non offender populations, aggressive script rehearsal is commonly reported. Extant research suggests a tendency for aggressive script rehearsal to be activated by perceived personal affronts and constitutes imagined attempts to rebuke wrongdoing by others. Aggressive script rehearsal serves to prepare or rehearse intended acts or stimulate, maintain or regulate emotional or physiological arousal. Despite obvious relevance to violent offender assessment and treatment, research into aggressive script rehearsal is scarce and related terms such as violent fantasy are used interchangeably to describe comparable cognitive processes. Measures designed to assess aggressive scripts and violent fantasy are confounded. Further, few attempts have been made to define and differentiate the terms and there has been little progress in developing treatment procedures addressing these cognitive processes. The current review explores how aggressive scripts and violent fantasy are conceptualised with respect to their key characteristics and proposed acquisition processes and functions, noting commonalities and differences. Their relationship to violent behavior is described. Drawing on knowledge in related areas, including fantasy is likely to assist with the development of insight into the operation and function of aggressive scripts and their relationship to aggressive behavior, with implications for clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T22:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.001
  • Potential underpinnings for community maintenance programs for sexual
    • Authors: Carollyne Youssef; Sharon Casey; Astrid Birgden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Carollyne Youssef, Sharon Casey, Astrid Birgden
      The majority of incarcerated sexual offenders will one-day return to the community. While a great proportion are likely to have participated in a custodial offence-specific treatment program, knowing what happens to this ‘acquired’ knowledge and skill once they are released and how this influences the desistance process remains unclear. Research on offender rehabilitation often focuses on the efficacy of custodial treatment interventions for offenders, while studies examining post-release programs for offenders has some untapped potential. Further to this, an understanding of the theoretical underpinnings for any community maintenance-type programs for offenders remains relatively untouched in the offender rehabilitation literature. Thus, this paper attempts to explore some of the potential theoretical underpinnings for community maintenance programs for sexual offenders. Consideration will be given to the definition of such programs, some of the theories that may inform these programs, and the incorporation of desistance theory into maintenance programs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T22:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.002
  • Instruments for evaluating pharmacotherapy intervention efficacy in
           violent and aggressive behavior and conduct disorder in youth
    • Authors: Jessica L. Hambly; Sohil Khan; Brett McDermott; William Bor; Alison Haywood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Jessica L. Hambly, Sohil Khan, Brett McDermott, William Bor, Alison Haywood
      There is a need to identify the most appropriate standardized instruments for research evaluating pharmacotherapy for youth with violent and aggressive behaviors. Youth violence and aggression are heterogeneous behaviors which differ depending on age and gender. Instruments used in randomised controlled trials evaluating efficacy of pharmacotherapy in conduct disorder and its comorbidities were reviewed for psychometric, administrative and practicality evidence. Evidence was rated on a 3-point scale, adapted from the Scientific Advisory Committee's Instrument Review Criteria. Of the nine included instruments, the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF), Conners' 3rd Edition, and Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01) were rated the highest for their psychometric properties. The Children's Aggression Scale (CAS), Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale (DBDRS) were rated moderate, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP-IV) were rated lowest. The NCBRF, BPI-01 and CAS were the only instruments that could be used to measure both frequency and severity of aggressive behaviors. The CAS and MOAS featured the most items pertaining to violence and aggression. The broad-band scales, the NCBRF and Conners' 3rd Edition, rated highest for their psychometric properties, however their usefulness in youth violence and aggression research is limited. The heterogeneity of aggressive and violent behaviors, age, gender, functional level, situational context and the type of informant should be taken into account when considering an appropriate instrument. All items in the CAS and the MOAS can be used to measure violent and/or aggressive behaviors. Further research into the psychometric properties of the MOAS in violent and aggressive youth is required before its use can be recommended. The CAS was found to be the most psychometrically sound and useful instrument that exclusively measures aggressive behaviors in youth.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T16:37:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.004
  • Situational prevention of domestic violence: A review of security-based
    • Authors: Tim Prenzler; Lauren Fardell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Tim Prenzler, Lauren Fardell
      This paper assesses the effectiveness of security-based programs to reduce repeat domestic violence. A systematic search was conducted of the scientific literature, as well as an electronic newspaper database and the Internet, for published reports of domestic violence prevention programs involving security applications. The study was unable to identify cases with full experimental designs showing clear evidence of positive effects. However, five types of applications were identified with promising evidence of reduced violence – Offender GPS tracking, shelter security, home security, personal duress alarms, and combined home security and duress alarms. Within this framework the study identified six specific programs showing evidence of success. An emerging potential model of good practice – which requires further empirical investigation – involves the deployment of home security and mobile duress alarms within a coordinated program of professional support for clients.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T16:30:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.003
  • Sexual offenders, violent offenders, and community reentry: Challenges and
           treatment considerations
    • Authors: Laura M. Grossi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Laura M. Grossi
      Sexual offenders and violent offenders compose two diverse subgroups of the United States' offender population, and individuals in these groups face unique challenges with respect to reentry and reintegration into the community upon release from controlled settings. Successful reintegration is typically defined by a lack of recidivism; however, an offender's quality of life may also be considered a critical consideration when defining success. Of the major challenges faced by sexual offenders and violent offenders, social stigma and barriers to housing and employment are among the most notable. These factors are often interrelated, such that difficulty in one domain may contribute to difficulties in other domains. As public perception of such offenders is largely driven by the media, stereotypes, and public policy, and less by research, offenders also face distinctive social barriers to successful community reentry and reintegration. Moreover, there is limited support for established policies and programs intended to maximize a violent/sexual offender's reentry success, in part due to the low base rate of reoffense. The present study reviews the literature examining factors associated with successful and unsuccessful community reintegration for sexual offenders and violent offenders released from controlled settings. Treatment of sexual offenders and violent offenders, and community-based support programs designed to facilitate reentry and reintegration, are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T16:30:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.005
  • From “real rape” to real justice: A systematic review of police
           officers' rape myth beliefs
    • Authors: Kayleigh A. Parratt; Afroditi Pina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kayleigh A. Parratt, Afroditi Pina
      This systematic review examined 18 documents that contained information about rape myths/cognitions of police officers with the goal of identifying the factors that influence police officers' beliefs of rape. Past research on sexual offence processing decisions has rarely considered the characteristics of police officers as active participants in the legal decision making process (Alderden & Ullman, 2012); meaning that the factors that directly influence police officers' rape myths and the implications these may have on rape victims' experiences when reporting to the police remain unclear. The current review systematically examines the literature on police officers' rape myth beliefs, and evaluates the current available research regarding, decision-making, victim credibility, police training and experiences, and police gender. It concludes by providing recommendations for policy makers in terms of best practice, continual police training and development and improving rape victims' reporting experiences.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.005
  • Rape myth acceptance in convicted rapists: A systematic review of the
    • Authors: Larissa Gabrielle Johnson; Anthony Beech
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Larissa Gabrielle Johnson, Anthony Beech
      Aim The review examines studies on rape myth acceptance (RMA) within populations of convicted sexual offenders, changes in RMA due to interventions, comparisons between sexual offenders and community controls, comparisons within the offending population, and relationships between RMA and other psychological constructs linked to criminogenic need. Method The search employed electronic databases, OvidSP, Web of Science, and Proquest; hand searching reference lists; and contacting 35 experts in the field. Inclusion/exclusion and quality appraisal criteria were applied to each study. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results highlighted differences in subgroups of rapists for different aspects of RMA; while rapists can be distinguished from non-offenders and non-sexual offenders on measures of RMA, they cannot be significantly discriminated from child molesters; rapists and sexual murders cannot be distinguished using RMA scores; RMA was not found to be a significant predictor of sexual or violence recidivism; and significant positive change in RMA was reported after sex offenders completed treatment programs. Conclusions Differences in scores on RMA subscales amongst rapists' typologies were discovered, which may indicate differences in beliefs within each type. Implications for practice are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T21:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.004
  • Reducing aggression with martial arts: A meta-analysis of child and youth
    • Authors: Anna Harwood; Michal Lavidor; Yuri Rassovsky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Anna Harwood, Michal Lavidor, Yuri Rassovsky
      Martial arts are becoming a mainstream sport for energetic youth and their popularity extends globally. Following a comprehensive search of martial arts research, a critical review of the field and the psychological implications was conducted. The resulting meta-analysis examined the effect of martial arts on problematic externalizing behavior (aggression, anger, and violence). The final meta-analysis included twelve studies, with 507 participants (ages 6 to 18), where study type was a moderator. For nine intervention and longitudinal studies, there was a homogenous effect size of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.03) indicating a medium effect, where martial arts improved aggression amongst the practicing youth. The other three one-time comparisons studies did not yield a homogenous effect size. Based on these analyses, it appears that martial arts has a potential to reduce externalizing behaviors in youth, although further research is needed to determine the mechanisms of change and specify the most relevant population groups for targeted interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T07:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.001
  • Gun violence and substance abuse
    • Authors: Gina Banks; Kyla Hadenfeldt; Madeline Janoch; Carol Manning; Karen Ramos; David A. Patterson Silver Wolf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Gina Banks, Kyla Hadenfeldt, Madeline Janoch, Carol Manning, Karen Ramos, David A. Patterson Silver Wolf
      Gun violence and substance abuse are prevalent, widespread public health issues that have recently received a great deal of media and political attention. In order to better understand how these phenomena are linked, this paper aims to explore the relationship between the two. First, it will describe the phenomena of gun violence and substance abuse individually. Next, this paper will detail the intersection of gun violence and substance abuse, including shared antecedents, the effect of intoxication on gun violence, and the effect of criminalization of drug use on gun violence. Finally, it will address treatment and policy recommendations.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.02.002
  • A note on workplace psychopathic bullying – Measuring its frequency
           and severity
    • Authors: Clive Boddy; Ross Taplin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Clive Boddy, Ross Taplin
      In this short paper we discuss methods of measurement for investigating bullying under workplace psychopaths. We find that past estimates of bullying under workplace psychopaths may be too low due to the use of inadequate scales. We conclude that the use of actual numerical values is preferential for measuring psychopathic bullying due to the highly skewed nature of the results. Further, non-numerical measures of the severity of bullying may also need to adopt extreme end point descriptors in order to capture the severe violence of the threats that may be made by a psychopathic manager.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T15:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.02.001
  • Studying partner violence to understand gender motivations - or
    • Authors: Zeev Winstok; Michael Weinberg; Ronit Smadar-Dror
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Zeev Winstok, Michael Weinberg, Ronit Smadar-Dror
      This article critically reviews the literature on gender differences in intimate partner violence. The review reveals that many researchers view partner violence as an opportunity to learn about gender. This approach is examined and its limitations are pointed out. A reverse approach is proposed which views the study of gender as an opportunity to learn about partner violence. This alternative approach identifies gender motives in general and moves on to explore the expressions of these motives in violent and non-violent intimate relationships. Theoretical and practical implications for this alternative approach are suggested. An important implication is the moderating effect of the proposed approach on the ongoing controversy over the role of gender in partner violence.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T10:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.022
  • The unique needs of pregnant, violence-exposed women: A systematic review
           of current interventions and directions for translational research
    • Authors: Kathryn H. Howell; Laura E. Miller-Graff; Amanda J. Hasselle; Kathryn E. Scrafford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kathryn H. Howell, Laura E. Miller-Graff, Amanda J. Hasselle, Kathryn E. Scrafford
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is, unfortunately, a common lifetime experience for women, with heightened risk of exposure during pregnancy. IPV exposure in pregnancy is associated with serious physical and mental health problems in the perinatal period, as well as detrimental effects on the health and well-being of the developing infant. The objectives of the current review are to: (1) present representative literature on the effects of IPV in pregnancy, (2) conduct a systematic review of existing interventions for IPV-exposed pregnant women and (3) provide recommendations for future translational research in this area. The review indicated that despite the broad range of negative effects associated with IPV exposure during pregnancy, interventions are scarce and largely limited to crisis intervention approaches. Available interventions seeking to address broader or intergenerational effects of violence are limited in scope, and effectiveness data are preliminary in nature. As such, there is a great need for theory-based interventions that address women's complex needs, including specific developmental necessities of both the pregnant woman and her child (e.g., breastfeeding, early parenting, infant care). Incorporating these elements within a strengths-based paradigm may also decrease stigma related to IPV and facilitate empowerment and self-efficacy for this at-risk group.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T10:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.021
  • Evaluation of seclusion and restraint reduction programs in mental health:
           A systematic review
    • Authors: Marie-Hélène Goulet; Caroline Larue; Alexandre Dumais
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Marie-Hélène Goulet, Caroline Larue, Alexandre Dumais
      Context The effectiveness of seclusion and restraint (SR) reduction programs has not been well established. Objective To examine the effectiveness of SR reduction programs in mental health settings. Data sources A systematic review of English and French articles, using CINALH, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Additional studies were added by searching the references of identified papers. Study selection All evaluative studies on SR reduction programs in mental health were included based on predefined criteria (n =23 articles). Data extraction Data extraction of articles was performed using predefined data fields. The three authors conducted quality assessments independently. Data synthesis In the 23 articles analyzed, six key components were predominant in SR reduction programs: 1) leadership, 2) training, 3) post-seclusion and/or restraint review, 4) patient involvement, 5) prevention tools, and 6) the therapeutic environment. Conclusion Despite wide variability in SR indicators and methodological rigor, it remains that the outcomes argue in favor of SR reduction program implementation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.019
  • Domestic violence offending behaviors: A review of the literature
           examining childhood exposure, implicit theories, trait aggression and
           anger rumination as predictive factors
    • Authors: Anita Ruddle; Afroditi Pina; Eduardo Vasquez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Anita Ruddle, Afroditi Pina, Eduardo Vasquez
      The prevalence of domestic violence (DV) is an increasing public health concern globally. This paper outlines the current literature on what is known about DV proclivity, with particular attention to predictors for DV perpetration from childhood. We begin by reviewing key methodological issues that are inherent within DV literature and hinder the development of interventions and treatments for DV offenders. The main body of this article provides an overview of four main predictive components for DV perpetration: (1) developmental risk factors for DV offending (e.g. childhood exposure to DV); (2) specific implicit theories related to sexual, violent and DV offenders; (3) the role of anger rumination as a psychological process of DV offending; and (4) an exploration of the role of trait aggression in increasing DV Proclivity. Finally, it was concluded that there is a need for the development of a psychometric measure to encompass these four key predictors of DV Proclivity and future offending.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.016
  • Trauma responses to intimate partner violence: A review of current
    • Authors: Natalie Pill; Andrew Day; Helen Mildred
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Natalie Pill, Andrew Day, Helen Mildred
      It is now well established that those who are survivors of intimate partner violence are at increased risk of subsequently experiencing a wide range of mental health problems. Among the most significant of these is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), although relatively little is known about its course and onset in this particular group. It has also been suggested that the diagnosis of PTSD is often insufficient and, at times, inappropriate, when seeking to account for the effects of repeated trauma, with the construct of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder proposed as an alternative. This review critically evaluates current thinking and research in this area, highlighting the implications of this body of work for understanding the consequences of aggressive and violent behavior directed toward intimate partners.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.014
  • Does the pursuit of meaning explain the initiation, escalation, and
           disengagement of violent extremists?
    • Authors: Rosleenda B. Mohamed Ali; Simon A. Moss; Kate Barrelle; Peter Lentini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Rosleenda B. Mohamed Ali, Simon A. Moss, Kate Barrelle, Peter Lentini
      Researchers have uncovered an array of conditions, characteristics, and cognitions that can ignite, escalate, or reverse the radicalization of individuals. Because a multitude of events and circumstances determine the likelihood that people gravitate to violent extremism, practitioners cannot readily ascertain which individuals are most susceptible to this pathway. This paper explicates and explores a theory, derived from the meaning maintenance model and the socio-emotional selectivity theory, that integrates previous insights into a cohesive framework. According to this theory, to foster meaning in life, individuals are motivated to cultivate four conditions: a just and supportive environment, unambiguous standards, enduring values, and extensive capabilities. Violent extremism offers some individuals the opportunity to cultivate these conditions temporarily, galvanizing radicalization. Yet this pursuit can also impede these conditions, provoking the motivation to disengage from this endeavor. We presented a case study that illustrates this premise. In short, the motivations that can attract people to violent extremism can also promote disengagement as well.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.013
  • Attitudes towards sexual offenders: What do we know, and why are they
    • Authors: Craig A. Harper; Todd E. Hogue; Ross M. Bartels
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Craig A. Harper, Todd E. Hogue, Ross M. Bartels
      Over the past two decades, a large body of research on attitudes towards sexual offenders has been conducted across a number of different contexts. However, there has been less discussion of their implications. Clinically, attitudes may be related to therapeutic climates and treatment outcomes and risk judgments, while in the social context, the views of the public about sexual offenders may play a key role in the reintegration of these offenders, and the political responses associated with sexual offending. Sexual crime is advocated as a public health issue, with attitudes towards the perpetrators of such offenses being of critical importance when trying to create a social environment within which to successfully reduce rates of sexual offending. In this article, the research evidence currently available in this area is reviewed. An analysis of the conceptualization and measurement of attitudes towards sexual offenders is provided, before the existing literature on the factors underlying such attitudes is explored. Following this, the malleability of attitudes towards sexual offenders is examined. The review concludes with some suggestions for future theoretical, empirical, and practical advancements in this important area.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.011
  • Cyber violence: What do we know and where do we go from here'
    • Authors: Jillian Peterson; James Densley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Jillian Peterson, James Densley
      This paper reviews the existing literature on the relationship between social media and violence, including prevalence rates, typologies, and the overlap between cyber and in-person violence. This review explores the individual-level correlates and risk factors associated with cyber violence, the group processes involved in cyber violence, and the macro-level context of online aggression. The paper concludes with a framework for reconciling conflicting levels of explanation and presents an agenda for future research that adopts a selection, facilitation, or enhancement framework for thinking about the causal or contingent role of social media in violent offending. Remaining empirical questions and new directions for future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.012
  • Youth exposure to violence in the community: Towards a theoretical
           framework for explaining risk and protective factors
    • Authors: Maria João Lobo Antunes; Eileen M. Ahlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Maria João Lobo Antunes, Eileen M. Ahlin
      Exposure to community violence (ETV-C) negatively impacts youth development and is associated with many negative outcomes. Although attention has been paid to examining risk and protective factors that promote or reduce ETV-C, many of the studies in this growing body of literature do not place predictive models within a theoretical framework. In this review, we argue that the routine activity theory and lifestyles perspectives (RAT/LS) within an ecological framework is a useful strategy for examining how a series of behaviors and choices enacted by youth in their everyday lives affects their ETV-C. By focusing on the role of target suitability and capable guardianship within the neighborhood, family, peers, and individual levels of the mesosystem, we suggest scholars can examine the relative salience of these various components to determine whether they serve to increase youth's ETV-C or buffer against such experiences. We propose that the RAT/LS perspectives can not only be placed in an ecological framework, but it also provides effective tenets with which to explore ETV-C.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.015
  • Adult protective services and victim services: A review of the literature
           to increase understanding between these two fields
    • Authors: Shelly L. Jackson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Shelly L. Jackson
      Adult protective services (APS) is designated in each state to respond to elder abuse. As elder abuse is increasingly conceptualized as a crime, and victim services expands to encompass victims of elder abuse, these two fields will increasingly cross paths. The fields of APS and victim services are each guided by federal legislation, although the path to that legislation differed for each field. The historical development of each field helps to explain the existence of a sometimes challenging relationship between these two fields. A literature review was undertaken to compare these two fields across three domains: 1) the service providers, 2) the recipients of those services, and 3) how a case typically flows from reporting to outcomes. Four areas of possible contention were identified: mandatory reporting, APS investigation, cognitive capacity of victims, and involuntary interventions. It is anticipated that by illuminating these differences and providing an explanation for them, some tension between the fields may be assuaged. This article concludes, however, that in the myriad other ways in which comparisons were made, no meaningful differences emerged. Increasing an understanding of each other's field is intended to facilitate building relationships between these two fields, with the ultimate goal of benefiting victims.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.010
  • Emotion dysregulation as an underlying mechanism of impulsive aggression:
           Reviewing empirical data to inform treatments for veterans who perpetrate
    • Authors: Shannon R. Miles; Carla Sharp; Andra Teten Tharp; Matthew Stanford; Melinda Stanley; Karin E. Thompson; Thomas A. Kent
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Shannon R. Miles, Carla Sharp, Andra Teten Tharp, Matthew Stanford, Melinda Stanley, Karin E. Thompson, Thomas A. Kent
      Violence can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which in turn is related to perpetration of aggression. Importantly, not all aggression is motivated by the same mechanisms, and understanding the driving force behind the aggression is imperative in order to select treatments that will assist the individual in decreasing the behavior. PTSD is specifically related to impulsive aggression, or aggression that is emotionally charged and uncontrolled, rather than premeditated aggression, which is planned, unemotional, and goal-directed. Emotion regulation, or the ability to recognize emotions, accept them, and control emotion-related behaviors, is related to both PTSD and impulsive aggression. This conceptual paper uses the Catalyst Model to review the literature on PTSD, impulsive aggression, and emotion regulation. Because of their high rates of PTSD, veterans are presented as a demonstration of the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsive aggression. The integrative model can be viewed as an alternative to the traditional model that proposes anger is the primary underlying mechanism of impulsive aggression in adults. Treatment recommendations, such as helping clients develop emotion regulation skills, are offered for providers who are working with individuals who have experienced trauma and who are now perpetrating impulsive aggression.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.017
  • Differences between biological and sociolegal incest offenders: A
    • Authors: Lesleigh E. Pullman; Megan L. Sawatsky; Kelly M. Babchishin; Ian V. McPhail; Michael C. Seto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Lesleigh E. Pullman, Megan L. Sawatsky, Kelly M. Babchishin, Ian V. McPhail, Michael C. Seto
      There is an important theoretical distinction between biological and sociolegal incest offenders, but this is not always recognized in clinical or empirical work. The purpose of the current meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which biological and sociolegal incest offenders differ on a number of theoretically or clinically relevant domains. In this meta-analysis, we compared a total of 4192 biological incest offenders to 2322 sociolegal incest offenders across 27 samples that were disseminated between 1984 and 2012 (Mdn =1993). Sociolegal incest offenders exhibited more antisocial tendencies (general self-regulation problems, impulsivity, drug and alcohol problems) compared to biological incest offenders. Biological incest offenders exhibited more psychopathology (repression, mental health difficulties) compared to sociolegal incest offenders. Differences were generally small to moderate in magnitude. Contrary to expectations, there were no meaningful differences between groups on atypical sexual interests (ds ranged from −0.09 to 0.11), though sociolegal incest offenders were more likely to have sexual self-regulation problems. One meaningful moderator emerged: whether the biological incest offender group was composed only of biological fathers or of both biological fathers and other biological relatives (e.g., uncles and grandfathers). The theoretical implications of these results are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T04:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.003
  • A framework for understanding sexual violence: Incentive-motivation and
           hierarchical control
    • Authors: Frederick Toates; Wineke Smid; Jan van den Berg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Frederick Toates, Wineke Smid, Jan van den Berg
      The article applies an incentive-motivation model to sexual violence. It suggests that insights can be gained by looking at the biopsychological processes that underlie ‘conventional behavior’. It argues that sexual violence, as in rape, arises from a fusion between (i) sexual motivation and (ii) sensation-seeking and varying strengths of dominance/aggression motivations. The excitatory part of the motivational system is rooted in brain dopamine and sexual violence is expressed in behavior when excitation exceeds inhibition. The assumptions are framed within the principle of the hierarchical control of behavior. The incentive-motivation and hierarchical framework can yield insights into such phenomena as planning and impulsivity, future discounting, habituation and escalation, violence as addiction, the role of fetishes, sexual fantasy, stress, drugs and brain development.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T04:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.001
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