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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Ageing Research Reviews
  [SJR: 3.289]   [H-I: 78]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1568-1637
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Sirtuins, epigenetics and longevity
    • Authors: Mateusz Wątroba; Ilona Dudek; Marta Skoda; Aleksandra Stangret; Przemysław Rzodkiewicz; Dariusz Szukiewicz
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 40
      Author(s): Mateusz Wątroba, Ilona Dudek, Marta Skoda, Aleksandra Stangret, Przemysław Rzodkiewicz, Dariusz Szukiewicz
      Aging of organisms begins from a single cell at the molecular level. It includes changes related to telomere shortening, cell senescence and epigenetic modifications. These processes accumulate over the lifespan. Research studies show that epigenetic signaling contributes to human disease, tumorigenesis and aging. Epigenetic DNA modifications involve changes in the gene activity but not in the DNA sequence. An epigenome consists of chemical modifications to the DNA and histone proteins without the changes in the DNA sequence. These modifications strongly depend on the environment, could be reversible and are potentially transmittable to daughter cells. Epigenetics includes DNA methylation, noncoding RNA interference, and modifications of histone proteins. Sirtuins, a family of nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent enzymes, are involved in the cell metabolism and can regulate many cellular functions including DNA repair, inflammatory response, cell cycle or apoptosis. Literature shows the strong interconnection between sirtuin expression and aging processes. However, the direct relationship is still unknown. Here, we would like to summarize the existing knowledge about epigenetic processes in aging, especially those related to sirtuin expression. Another objective is to explain why some negative correlations between sirtuin activity and the rate of aging can be assumed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T14:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
       
  • AMPK orchestrates an elaborate cascade protecting tissue from fibrosis and
           aging
    • Authors: Shuai Jiang; Tian Li; Zhi Yang; Wei Yi; Shouyin Di; Yang Sun; Dongjin Wang; Yang Yang
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 38
      Author(s): Shuai Jiang, Tian Li, Zhi Yang, Wei Yi, Shouyin Di, Yang Sun, Dongjin Wang, Yang Yang
      Fibrosis is a common process characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation after inflammatory injury, which is also a crucial cause of aging. The process of fibrosis is involved in the pathogenesis of most diseases of the heart, liver, kidney, lung, and other organs/tissues. However, there are no effective therapies for this pathological alteration. Annually, fibrosis represents a huge financial burden for the USA and the world. 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal energy sensor that alleviates or delays the process of fibrogenesis. In this review, we first present basic background information on AMPK and fibrogenesis and describe the protective roles of AMPK in three fibrogenic phases. Second, we analyze the protective action of AMPK during fibrosis in myocardial, hepatic, renal, pulmonary, and other organs/tissues. Third, we present a comprehensive discussion of AMPK during fibrosis and draw a conclusion. This review highlights recent advances, vital for basic research and clinical drug design, in the regulation of AMPK during fibrosis.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T13:32:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
       
  • Circuit resistance training is an effective means to enhance muscle
           strength in older and middle aged adults
    • Authors: Assaf Buch; Ofer Kis; Eli Carmeli; Lital Keinan-Boker; Yitshal Berner; Yael Barer; Gabi Shefer; Yonit Marcus; Naftali Stern
      Pages: 16 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 37
      Author(s): Assaf Buch, Ofer Kis, Eli Carmeli, Lital Keinan-Boker, Yitshal Berner, Yael Barer, Gabi Shefer, Yonit Marcus, Naftali Stern
      Background Physical exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is proven treatment to reduce the accelerated decline in muscle strength exhibited by older adults, but its effect is hindered by low adherence rate, even under well-structured programs. Objective and data sources We investigated the efficacy of circuit resistance training (CRT) on muscle strength, lean mass and aerobic capacity in older adults based on report in MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov and Cochrane electronic (through 8/2016). Study eligibility criteria: middle and older aged men and/or women who followed a structured program, assigned to CRT. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: Out of 237 originally identified articles, 10 articles were included with a total of 362 patients with mean: age −64.5±7.4 years; 3±1.15 sessions/week; session duration 41.8±15.9min. Results Upper body strength modestly increased, by 1.14kg (95% CI; 0.28–2.00), whereas larger increment was seen in lower body strength (11.99; 2.92–21.06). Higher program volume (>24 sessions) positively influenced upper body strength and aerobic capacity. Limitations (1) variability in the studies’ validity; (2) relatively low number of studies. Conclusion CRT is a valid alternative to conventional RT. Its shorter duration and lower intensity relative to traditional RT, may increase adherence to training in older adults.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T14:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
       
  • Evidence on multimorbidity from definition to intervention: An overview of
           systematic reviews
    • Authors: Xiaolin Xu; Gita D. Mishra; Mark Jones
      Pages: 53 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 37
      Author(s): Xiaolin Xu, Gita D. Mishra, Mark Jones
      The increasing challenge of multiple chronic diseases (multimorbidity) requires more evidence-based knowledge and effective practice. In order to better understand the existing evidence on multimorbidity, we performed a systematic review of systematic reviews on multimorbidity with pre-established search strategies and exclusion criteria by searching multiple databases and grey literature. Of 8006 articles found, 53 systematic reviews (including meta-analysis and qualitative research synthesis performed in some reviews) that stated multimorbidity as the main focus were included, with 79% published during 2013–2016. Existing evidence on definition, measurement, prevalence, risk factors, health outcomes, clinical practice and medication (polypharmacy), and intervention and management were identified and synthesised. There were three major definitions from three perspectives. Seven studies on prevalence reported a range from 3.5% to 100%. As six studies showed, depression, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, asthma, and osteoarthritis were prone to be comorbid with other conditions. Four groups of risk factors and eight multimorbidity associated outcomes were explored by five and six studies, respectively. Nine studies evaluated interventions, which could be categorized into either organizational or patient-oriented, the effects of these interventions were varied. Self-management process, priority setting and decision making in multimorbidity were synthesised by evidence from 4 qualitative systematic reviews. We were unable to draw solid conclusions from this overview due to the heterogeneity in methodology and inconsistent findings among included reviews. As suggested by all included studies, there is a need for prospective research, especially longitudinal cohort studies and randomized control trials, to provide more definitive evidence on multimorbidity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T14:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
       
  • Role of physical exercise on cognitive function in healthy older adults: A
           systematic review of randomized clinical trials
    • Authors: Mikel López Sáez de Asteasu; Nicolás Martínez-Velilla; Fabricio Zambom-Ferraresi; Álvaro Casas-Herrero; Mikel Izquierdo
      Pages: 117 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 37
      Author(s): Mikel López Sáez de Asteasu, Nicolás Martínez-Velilla, Fabricio Zambom-Ferraresi, Álvaro Casas-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo
      Cognitive impairment has a harmful effect on quality of life, is associated with functional limitations and disability in older adults. Physical activity (PA) has shown to have beneficial effects on cognition but the results and conclusions of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are less consistent. Update of knowledge was necessary to examine the effects on cognitive function of new training modalities developed in recent years, such as multicomponent exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to examine the role of multicomponent training versus aerobic or resistance training alone on cognition in healthy older adults (>65 years) without known cognitive impairment. The mean differences (MD) of the parameters from pre-intervention to post-intervention between groups were pooled using a random-effects model. Twenty-one RCTs published between 2002 and 2016 were included. Multicomponent exercise training may have the most positive effects on cognitive function in older adults. The small number of included studies and the large variability in study populations, study design, exercise protocols, adherence rates and outcome measures complicate the interpretation of the results and contribute to discrepancies within the exercise research literature.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T14:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
       
  • Arterial ageing: Major nutritional and life-style effects
    • Authors: Theodore G. Papaioannou; Kalliopi Karatzi; Theodora Psaltopoulou; Dimitrios Tousoulis
      Pages: 162 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 37
      Author(s): Theodore G. Papaioannou, Kalliopi Karatzi, Theodora Psaltopoulou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
      Arterial ageing is a key mechanism underling the development and progression of cardiovascular (CV) and other diseases. New technologies allow the non-invasive assessement of various biomechanical and biological aspects of arterial ageing. We discuss a few major factors in respect to arterial ageing pathophysiology, methods of assessment and some important nutritional and life-style parameters that substantially affect arterial ageing.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T13:32:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
       
  • Frailty and sarcopenia: The potential role of an aged immune system
    • Authors: Daisy Wilson; Thomas Jackson; Elizabeth Sapey; Janet M. Lord
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 36
      Author(s): Daisy Wilson, Thomas Jackson, Elizabeth Sapey, Janet M. Lord
      Frailty is a common negative consequence of ageing. Sarcopenia, the syndrome of loss of muscle mass, quality and strength, is more common in older adults and has been considered a precursor syndrome or the physical manifestation of frailty. The pathophysiology of both syndromes is incompletely described with multiple causes, inter-relationships and complex pathways proposed. Age-associated changes to the immune system (both immunesenescence, the decline in immune function with ageing, and inflammageing, a state of chronic inflammation) have been suggested as contributors to sarcopenia and frailty but a direct causative role remains to be established. Frailty, sarcopenia and immunesenescence are commonly described in older adults but are not ubiquitous to ageing. There is evidence that all three conditions are reversible and all three appear to share common inflammatory drivers. It is unclear whether frailty, sarcopenia and immunesenescence are separate entities that co-occur due to coincidental or potentially confounding factors, or whether they are more intimately linked by the same underlying cellular mechanisms. This review explores these possibilities focusing on innate immunity, and in particular associations with neutrophil dysfunction, inflammation and known mechanisms described to date. Furthermore, we consider whether the age-related decline in immune cell function (such as neutrophil migration), increased inflammation and the dysregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway in neutrophils could contribute pathogenically to sarcopenia and frailty.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T01:56:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2017)
       
  • Relationship between depression and frailty in older adults: A systematic
           review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Pinar Soysal; Nicola Veronese; Trevor Thompson; Kai G. Kahl; Brisa S. Fernandes; A. Matthew Prina; Marco Solmi; Patricia Schofield; Ai Koyanagi; Ping-Tao Tseng; Pao-Yao Lin; Che-Sheng Chu; Theodore D. Cosco; Matteo Cesari; Andre F. Carvalho; Brendon Stubbs
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 36
      Author(s): Pinar Soysal, Nicola Veronese, Trevor Thompson, Kai G. Kahl, Brisa S. Fernandes, A. Matthew Prina, Marco Solmi, Patricia Schofield, Ai Koyanagi, Ping-Tao Tseng, Pao-Yao Lin, Che-Sheng Chu, Theodore D. Cosco, Matteo Cesari, Andre F. Carvalho, Brendon Stubbs
      Aim Depression and frailty are prevalent and burdensome in older age. However, the relationships between these entities are unclear and no quantitative meta- analysis exists. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the associations between depression and frailty. Methods Two authors searched major electronic databases from inception until November-2016 for cross-sectional/longitudinal studies investigating depression and frailty. The strength of the reciprocal associations between frailty and depression was assessed through odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for potential confounders. Results From 2306 non duplicated hits, 24 studies were included. The overall prevalence of depression in 8023 people with frailty was 38.60% (95% CI 30.07–47.10, I2 =94%). Those with frailty were at increased odds of having depression (OR adjusted for publication bias 4.42, 95%CI 2.66–7.35, k=11), also after adjusting for potential confounders (OR=2.64; 95%CI: 1.59–4.37, I2 =55%, k=4). The prevalence of frailty in 2167 people with depression was 40.40% (95%CI 27.00–55.30, I2 =97%). People with depression were at increased odds of having frailty (OR=4.07, 95%CI 1.93–8.55, k=8). The pooled OR for incident frailty, adjusted for a median of 7 confounders, was 3.72 (95%CI 1.95–7.08, I2 =98%, k=4), whilst in two studies frailty increased the risk of incident depression with an OR=1.90 (95%CI 1.55–2.32, I2 =0%). Conclusion This meta-analysis points to a reciprocal interaction between depression and frailty in older adults. Specifically, each condition is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of the other, and may be a risk factor for the development of the other. However, further prospective investigations are warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T14:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2017)
       
  • HIV-associated cellular senescence: A contributor to accelerated aging
    • Authors: Justin Cohen; Claudio Torres
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 36
      Author(s): Justin Cohen, Claudio Torres
      Due to the advent of antiretroviral therapy HIV is no longer a terminal disease and the HIV infected patients are becoming increasingly older. While this is a major success, with increasing age comes an increased risk for disease. The age-related comorbidities that HIV infected patients experience suggest that they suffer from accelerated aging. One possible contributor to this accelerated aging is cellular senescence, an age-associated response that can occur prematurely in response to stress, and that is emerging as a contributor to disease and aging. HIV patients experience several stressors such as the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and to a lesser extent, substance abuse that can induce cellular senescence. This review summarizes the current knowledge of senescence induction in response to these stressors and their relation to the comorbidities in HIV patients. Cellular senescence may be a possible therapeutic target for these comorbidities.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2017)
       
  • Does music therapy enhance behavioral and cognitive function in elderly
           dementia patients' A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Yingshi Zhang; Jiayi Cai; Li An; Fuhai Hui; Tianshu Ren; Hongda Ma; Qingchun Zhao
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 35
      Author(s): Yingshi Zhang, Jiayi Cai, Li An, Fuhai Hui, Tianshu Ren, Hongda Ma, Qingchun Zhao
      Demographic aging is a worldwide phenomenon, cognitive and behavioral impairment is becoming global burden of nerve damage. However, the effect of pharmacological treatment is not satisfying. Therefore, we analyzed the efficacy of music therapy in elderly dementia patients, and if so, whether music therapy can be used as first-line non-pharmacological treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed, EMbase and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2016. A total of 34 studies (42 analyses, 1757 subjects) were included; all of them had an acceptable quality based on the PEDro and CASP scale scores. Studies based on any type of dementia patient were combined and analyzed by subgroup. The standardized mean difference was −0.42 (-0.74 to −0.11) for disruptive behavior and 0.20 (-0.09 to 0.49) for cognitive function as primary outcomes in random effect models using controls as the comparator; the secondary outcomes were depressive score, anxiety and quality of life. No evidence of publication bias was found based on Begg’s and Egger’s test. The meta-analysis confirmed that the baseline differences between the two groups were balanced. Subgroup analyses showed that disease sub-type, intervention method, comparator, subject location, trial design, trial period and outcome measure instrument made little difference in outcomes. The meta-regression may have identified the causes of heterogeneity as the intervention method, comparator and trial design. Music therapy was effective when patients received interactive therapy with a compared group. There was positive evidence to support the use of music therapy to treat disruptive behavior and anxiety; there were positive trends supporting the use of music therapy for the treatment of cognitive function, depression and quality of life. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016036153.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T14:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
       
  • Gut microbiota: A player in aging and a target for anti-aging intervention
    • Authors: Alexander M. Vaiserman; Alexander K. Koliada; Francesco Marotta
      Pages: 36 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 35
      Author(s): Alexander M. Vaiserman, Alexander K. Koliada, Francesco Marotta
      Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat deposition and metabolism and prevention of insulin resistance. Recently, a high effectiveness and safety of novel therapeutic application such as fecal microbiota transplantation in the prevention and treatment of age-related pathological conditions including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and Parkinson’s disease has been demonstrated. In this review, recent research findings are summarized on the role of gut micribiota in aging processes with emphasis on therapeutic potential of microbiome-targeted interventions in anti-aging medicine,

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:21:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
       
  • Pain perception in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis of experimental studies
    • Authors: Trevor Thompson; Katy Gallop; Christoph U. Correll; Andre F. Carvalho; Nicola Veronese; Ellen Wright; Brendon Stubbs
      Pages: 74 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 35
      Author(s): Trevor Thompson, Katy Gallop, Christoph U. Correll, Andre F. Carvalho, Nicola Veronese, Ellen Wright, Brendon Stubbs
      While hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of clinical pain in Parkinson’s disease (PD), experimental research is equivocal and mechanisms are poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing PD patients to healthy controls (HCs) in their response to experimental pain stimuli. Articles were acquired through systematic searches of major databases from inception until 10/2016. Twenty-six studies met inclusion criteria, comprising 1292 participants (PD=739, HCs=553). Random effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) revealed lower pain threshold (indicating hyperalgesia) in PD patients during unmedicated OFF states (SMD =0.51) which was attenuated during dopamine-medicated ON states (SMD =0.23), but unaffected by age, PD duration or PD severity. Analysis of 6 studies employing suprathreshold stimulation paradigms indicated greater pain in PD patients, just failing to reach significance (SMD =0.30, p =0.06). These findings (a) support the existence of hyperalgesia in PD, which could contribute to the onset/intensity of clinical pain, and (b) implicate dopamine deficiency as a potential underlying mechanism, which may present opportunities for the development of novel analgesic strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T14:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
       
  • IFC: Aims and Scope
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 38


      PubDate: 2017-08-15T14:35:35Z
       
  • Metformin reduces all-cause mortality and diseases of ageing independent
           of its effect on diabetes control: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Jared M. Campbell; Susan M. Bellman; Matthew D. Stephenson; Karolina Lisy.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Jared M. Campbell, Susan M. Bellman, Matthew D. Stephenson, Karolina Lisy.
      This systematic review investigated whether the insulin sensitiser metformin has a geroprotective effect in humans. Pubmed and Embase were searched along with databases of unpublished studies. Eligible research investigated the effect of metformin on all-cause mortality or diseases of ageing relative to non-diabetic populations or diabetics receiving other therapies with adjustment for disease control achieved. Overall, 260 full-texts were reviewed and 53 met the inclusion criteria. Diabetics taking metformin had significantly lower all-cause mortality than non-diabetics (hazard ratio (HR)=0.93, 95%CI 0.88-0.99), as did diabetics taking metformin compared to diabetics receiving non-metformin therapies (HR=0.72, 95%CI 0.65-0.80), insulin (HR=0.68, 95%CI 0.63-0.75) or sulphonylurea (HR=0.80, 95%CI 0.66-0.97). Metformin users also had reduced cancer compared to non-diabetics (rate ratio=0.94, 95%CI 0.92-0.97) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to diabetics receiving non-metformin therapies (HR=0.76, 95%CI 0.66-0.87) or insulin (HR=0.78, 95%CI 0.73-0.83). Differences in baseline characteristics were observed which had the potential to bias findings, although statistical adjustments were made. The apparent reductions in all-cause mortality and diseases of ageing associated with metformin use suggest that metformin could be extending life and healthspans by acting as a geroprotective agent.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T14:35:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.08.003
       
  • Aging and Osteoarthritis: Central Role of the Extracellular Matrix
    • Authors: Maryam Rahmati; Giovanna Nalesso; Ali Mobasheri; Masoud Mozafari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Maryam Rahmati, Giovanna Nalesso, Ali Mobasheri, Masoud Mozafari
      Osteoarthritis (OA), is a major cause of severe joint pain, physical disability and quality of life impairment in the aging population across the developed and developing world. Increased catabolism in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the articular cartilage is a key factor in the development and progression of OA. The molecular mechanisms leading to an impaired matrix turnover have not been fully clarified, however cellular senescence, increased expression of inflammatory mediators as well as oxidative stress in association with an inherently limited regenerative potential of the tissue, are all important contributors to OA development. All these factors are linked to and tend to be maximized by aging. Nonetheless the role of aging in compromising joint stability and function in OA has not been completely clarified yet. This review will systematically analyze cellular and structural changes taking place in the articular cartilage and bone in the pathogenesis of OA which are linked to aging. A particular emphasis will be placed on age-related changes in the phenotype of the articular chondrocytes.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T14:01:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.07.004
       
  • Protein aggregation, cardiovascular diseases, and exercise training: where
           do we stand'
    • Authors: Marisol Gouveia; Ke Xia; Wilfredo Colón; Sandra I. Vieira; Fernando Ribeiro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Marisol Gouveia, Ke Xia, Wilfredo Colón, Sandra I. Vieira, Fernando Ribeiro
      Cells ensure their protein quality control through the proteostasis network. Aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, have been associated to the reduction of proteostasis network efficiency and, consequently, to the accumulation of protein misfolded aggregates. The decline in protein homeostasis has been associated with the development and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathies, and heart failure. Exercise training is a key component of the management of patients with cardiovascular disease, consistently improving quality of life and prognosis. In this review, we give an overview on age-related protein aggregation, the role of the increase of misfolded protein aggregates on cardiovascular pathophysiology, and describe the beneficial or deleterious effects of the proteostasis network on the development of cardiovascular disease. We subsequently discuss how exercise training, a key lifestyle intervention in those with cardiovascular disease, could restore proteostasis and improve disease status.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T14:01:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.07.005
       
  • Use of Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the investigation of brain activation
           during cognitive aging: A systematic review of an emerging area of
           research
    • Authors: Nounagnon F. Agbangla; Michel Audiffren; Cédric T. Albinet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Nounagnon F. Agbangla, Michel Audiffren, Cédric T. Albinet
      The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a growing and stimulating research area. The development of neuroimaging techniques in the past two decades has considerably increased our understanding of the brain mechanisms that might underlie cognitive performance and resulting changes due to normal aging. Beside traditional metabolic neuroimaging techniques, such as Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique allowing to monitor real-time cerebral blood oxygenation, has gained recent interest in this field. The aim of the present review paper, after briefly presenting the NIRS technique, is to review and to summarize the recent results of neuroimaging studies using this technique in the field of cognitive aging. The reviewed literature shows that, despite low spatial resolution and cerebral depth penetration, this technique provides consistent findings on the reduced hemodynamic activity as a function of chronological age, mainly in the prefrontal cortex. Important moderators of brain hemodynamics, such as cognitive load, subjects’ characteristics and experimental conditions, for which the NIRS technique is sensitive, are discussed. Strengths and weaknesses of functional NIRS in the field of cognitive aging are presented and finally, novel perspectives of research are proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T13:39:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.07.003
       
  • IFC: Aims and Scope
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 37


      PubDate: 2017-07-21T13:32:32Z
       
  • Modulation of dendritic cell and T cell cross-talk during aging: The
           potential role of checkpoint inhibitory molecules
    • Authors: Joanne K. Gardner; Cyril D.S. Mamotte; Connie Jackaman; Delia J. Nelson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Joanne K. Gardner, Cyril D.S. Mamotte, Connie Jackaman, Delia J. Nelson
      Dendritic cells (DCs) undergo continuous changes throughout life, and there is evidence that elderly DCs have a reduced capacity to stimulate T cells, which may contribute to impaired anti-tumour immune responses in elderly people with cancer. Changes in checkpoint inhibitory molecules/pathways during aging may be one mechanism that impairs the ability of elderly DCs to activate T cells. However, little is currently known regarding the combined effects of aging and cancer on DC and T cell inhibitory molecules/pathways. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the influence of aging and cancer on key DC and T cell inhibitory molecules/pathways, the potential underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to their modulation, and the possibility of therapeutically targeting inhibitory molecules in elderly cancer patients.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T13:32:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.07.002
       
  • Historical demography and longevity genetics: back to the future
    • Authors: Niels van den Berg; Marian Beekman; Ken Robert Smith; Angelique Janssens; Pieternella Eline Slagboom
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Niels van den Berg, Marian Beekman, Ken Robert Smith, Angelique Janssens, Pieternella Eline Slagboom
      Research into the genetic component of human longevity can provide important insights in mechanisms that may protect against age-related diseases and multi-morbidity. Thus far only a limited number of robust longevity loci have been detected in either candidate or genome wide association studies. One of the issues in these genetic studies is the definition of the trait being either lifespan, including any age at death or longevity, i.e. survival above a diverse series of thresholds. Likewise heritability and segregation research have conflated lifespan with longevity. The heritability of lifespan estimated across most studies has been rather low. Environmental factors have not been sufficiently investigated and the total amount of genetic variance contributing to longevity has not been estimated in sufficiently well-defined and powered studies. Up to now, genetic longevity studies lack the required insights into the nature and size of the genetic component and the optimal strategies for meta-analysis and subject selection for Next Generation Sequencing efforts. Historical demographic data containing deep genealogical information may help in estimating the best definition and heritability for longevity, its transmission patterns in multi-generational datasets and may allow relevant additive and modifying environmental factors such as socio-economic status, geographical background, exposure to environmental effects, birth order, and number of children to be included. In this light historical demographic data may be very useful for identifying lineages in human populations that are worth investigating further by geneticists.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T18:38:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.06.005
       
  • A viewpoint on considering physiological principles to study stress
           resistance and resilience with aging
    • Authors: Benjamin F. Miller; Douglas R. Seals; Karyn L. Hamilton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Benjamin F. Miller, Douglas R. Seals, Karyn L. Hamilton
      Adaptation to stress is identified as one of the seven pillars of aging research. Our viewpoint discusses the importance of the distinction between stress resistance and resilience, highlights how integration of physiological principles is critical for further understanding in vivo stress resistance and resilience, and advocates for the use of early warning signs to prevent a tipping point in stress resistance and resilience.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T18:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.06.004
       
  • Physical Activity and Healthy Ageing: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies
    • Authors: C. Daskalopoulou; B. Stubbs; C. Kralj; A. Koukounari; M. Prince; A.M. Prina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): C. Daskalopoulou, B. Stubbs, C. Kralj, A. Koukounari, M. Prince, A.M. Prina
      Background Older people constitute a significant proportion of the total population and their number is projected to increase by more than half by 2050. This increasing probability of late survival comes with considerable individual, economic and social impact. Physical activity (PA) can influence the ageing process but the specific relationship with healthy ageing (HA) is unclear. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies examining the associations of PA with HA. Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception as January 2017. Random-effect meta-analysis was performed to calculate a pooled effect size (ES) and 95% CIs. Studies were assessed for methodological quality. Results Overall, 23 studies were identified including 174,114 participants (30% men) with age ranges from 20 to 87 years old. There was considerable heterogeneity in the definition and measurement of HA and PA. Most of the identified studies reported a significant positive association of PA with HA, six reported a non-significant. Meta-analysis revealed that PA is positively associated with HA (ES: 1.39, 95% CI=1.23–1.57, n=17) even if adjusted for publication bias (ES: 1.27, 95% CI=1.11–1.45, n=20). Conclusions There is consistent evidence from longitudinal observational studies that PA is positively associated with HA, regardless of definition and measurement. Future research should focus on the implementation of a single metric of HA, on the use of objective measures for PA assessment and on a full-range of confounding adjustment. In addition, our research indicated the limited research on ageing in low-and-middle income countries.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T18:20:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.06.003
       
  • Evolution of human apolipoprotein E (APOE) isoforms: gene structure,
           protein function and interaction with dietary factors
    • Authors: Patricia Huebbe; Gerald Rimbach
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Patricia Huebbe, Gerald Rimbach
      Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a member of the vertebrate protein family of exchangeable apolipoproteins that is characterized by amphipathic α-helices encoded by multiple nucleotide tandem repeats. Its equivalent in flying insects − apolipophorin-III − shares structural and functional commonalities with APOE, suggesting the possibility of an evolutionary relationship between the proteins. In contrast to all other known species, human APOE is functionally polymorphic and possesses three major allelic variants (ε4, ε3 and ε2). The present review examines the current knowledge on APOE gene structure, phylogeny and APOE protein topology as well as its human isoforms. The ε4 allele is associated with an increased age-related disease risk but is also the ancestral form. Despite increased mortality in the elderly, ε4 has not become extinct and is the second-most common allele worldwide after ε3. APOE ε4, moreover, shows a non-random geographical distribution, and similarly, the ε2 allele is not homogenously distributed among ethnic populations. This likely suggests the existence of selective forces that are driving the evolution of human APOE isoforms, which may include differential interactions with dietary factors. To that effect, micronutrients such as vitamin D and carotenoids or dietary macronutrient composition are elucidated with respect to APOE evolution.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T11:44:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.06.002
       
  • The emerging role of Wnt signaling dysregulation in the understanding and
           modification of age-associated diseases
    • Authors: Lizbeth García-Velázquez; Clorinda Arias
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Clorinda Arias
      Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway that participates in multiple aspects of cellular function during development and in adults. In particular, this pathway has been implicated in cell fate determination, proliferation and cell polarity establishment. In the brain, it contributes to synapse formation, axonal remodeling, dendrite outgrowth, synaptic activity, neurogenesis and behavioral plasticity. The expression and distribution of Wnt components in different organs vary with age, which may have important implications for preserving tissue homeostasis. The dysregulation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in age-associated diseases, such as cancer and some neurodegenerative conditions. This is a relevant research topic, as an important research avenue for therapeutic targeting of the Wnt pathway in regenerative medicine has recently been opened. In this review, we discuss the recent findings on the regulation of Wnt components during aging, particularly in brain functioning, and the implications of Wnt signaling in age-related diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T11:30:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.06.001
       
  • Calorie Restriction in Rodents: Caveats to Consider
    • Authors: Donald K. Ingram; Rafael de Cabo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Donald K. Ingram, Rafael de Cabo
      The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:21:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.05.008
       
  • Vascular aging: molecular mechanisms and potential treatments for vascular
           rejuvenation
    • Authors: Panagiotis Mistriotis; Stelios T. Andreadis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Panagiotis Mistriotis, Stelios T. Andreadis
      Aging is the main risk factor contributing to vascular dysfunction and the progression of vascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the causes and mechanisms of vascular aging at the tissue and cellular level. We focus on Endothelial Cell (EC) and Smooth Muscle Cell (SMC) aging due to their critical role in mediating the defective vascular phenotype. We elaborate on two categories that contribute to cellular dysfunction: cell extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors reflect systemic or environmental changes which alter EC and SMC homeostasis compromising vascular function. Intrinsic factors induce EC and SMC transformation resulting in cellular senescence. Replenishing or rejuvenating the aged/dysfunctional vascular cells is critical to the effective repair of the vasculature. As such, this review also elaborates on recent findings which indicate that stem cell and gene therapies may restore the impaired vascular cell function, reverse vascular aging, and prolong lifespan.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T10:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.05.006
       
  • Regulation of longevity by FGF21: interaction between energy metabolism
           and stress responses
    • Authors: Antero Salminen; Kai Kaarniranta; Anu Kauppinen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
      Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses. Recent studies have revealed that FGF21 treatment can alleviate many age-related metabolic disorders, e.g. atherosclerosis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some cardiovascular diseases. In addition, transgenic mice overexpressing FGF21 have an extended lifespan. However, chronic metabolic and stress-related disorders involving inflammatory responses can provoke FGF21 resistance and thus disturb healthy aging process. First, we will describe the role of FGF21 in interorgan energy metabolism and explain how its functions as a stress hormone can improve healthspan. Next, we will examine both the induction of FGF21 expression via the integrated stress response and the molecular mechanism through which FGF21 enhances healthy aging. Finally, we postulate that FGF21 resistance, similarly to insulin resistance, jeopardizes human healthspan and accelerates the aging process.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T23:09:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.05.004
       
  • Remote tissue conditioning − an emerging approach for inducing body-wide
           protection against diseases of ageing
    • Authors: Boaz Kim; Alice Brandli; John Mitrofanis; Jonathan Stone; Sivaraman Purushothuman; Daniel M. Johnstone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Boaz Kim, Alice Brandli, John Mitrofanis, Jonathan Stone, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Daniel M. Johnstone
      We have long accepted that exercise is ‘good for us’; that − put more rigorously − moderate exercise is associated with not just aerobic fitness but also reduced morbidity and reduced mortality from cardiovascular disease and even malignancies. Caloric restriction (moderate hunger) and our exposure to dietary phytochemicals are also emerging as stresses which are ‘good for us’ in the same sense. This review focuses on an important extension of this concept: that stress localized within the body (e.g. in a limb) can induce resilience in tissues throughout the body. We describe evidence for the efficacy of two ‘remote’ protective interventions − remote ischemic conditioning and remote photobiomodulation − and discuss the mechanisms underlying their protective actions. While the biological phenomenon of remote tissue conditioning is only partially understood, it holds promise for protecting critical-to-life tissues while mitigating risks and practical barriers to direct conditioning of these tissues.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T23:09:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.05.005
       
  • IFC: Aims and Scope
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 36


      PubDate: 2017-05-22T22:58:04Z
       
  • The role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in development, aging and age-related
           diseases
    • Authors: V. López; A.F. Fernández; M.F. Fraga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): V. López, A.F. Fernández, M.F. Fraga
      DNA methylation at the fifth position of cytosines (5mC) represents a major epigenetic modification in mammals. The recent discovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), resulting from 5mC oxidation, is redefining our view of the epigenome, as multiple studies indicate that 5hmC is not simply an intermediate of DNA demethylation, but a genuine epigenetic mark that may play an important functional role in gene regulation. Currently, the availability of platforms that discriminates between the presence of 5mC and 5hmC at single-base resolution is starting to shed light on the functions of 5hmC. In this review, we provide an overview of the genomic distribution of 5hmC, and examine recent findings on the role of this mark and the potential consequences of its misregulation during three fundamental biological processes: cell differentiation, cancer and aging.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T22:43:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.05.002
       
  • Influence of anaerobic and aerobic exercise on age-related pathways in
           skeletal muscle
    • Authors: Ignacio Navas-Enamorado; Michel Bernier; Gloria Brea-Calvo; Rafael de Cabo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Michel Bernier, Gloria Brea-Calvo, Rafael de Cabo


      PubDate: 2017-05-08T00:43:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.04.005
       
  • Oxidative stress, genomic features and DNA repair in frail elderly: A
           systematic review
    • Authors: María Sánchez-Flores; Diego Marcos-Pérez; Solange Costa; João Paulo Teixeira; Stefano Bonassi; Eduardo Pásaro; Blanca Laffon; Vanessa Valdiglesias
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): María Sánchez-Flores, Diego Marcos-Pérez, Solange Costa, João Paulo Teixeira, Stefano Bonassi, Eduardo Pásaro, Blanca Laffon, Vanessa Valdiglesias
      Frailty is an emerging geriatric syndrome characterized by higher vulnerability to stressors, with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, disability, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Although it is generally recognized to have a biological basis, no particular biological trait has been consistently associated to frailty status so far. In this work, epidemiological studies evaluating association of frailty status with alterations at cellular level − namely oxidative stress, genomic instability and DNA damage and repair biomarkers −were revised and compared. A total of 25 studies fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria and, consequently, were included in the review. Variations of oxidative stress biomarkers were often associated to frailty status in older people. On the contrary, genomic instability seems not to be linked to frailty. The only study which addressed the possible relationship between DNA repair modulations and frailty status also failed in finding association. Despite the large number of cellular alterations known to be associated with frailty, studies on this issue are still very scarce and limited to some of the possible cellular targets. The established link between DNA repair, genomic instability, and age and age-related disorders, encourage deeper investigations on this line.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T00:43:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.05.001
       
  • Splicing regulatory factors, ageing and age-related disease
    • Authors: Eva Latorre; Lorna. W Harries
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Eva Latorre, Lorna. W Harries
      Alternative splicing is a co-transcriptional process, which allows for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene and is emerging as an important control point for gene expression. Alternatively expressed isoforms often have antagonistic function and differential temporal or spatial expression patterns, yielding enormous plasticity and adaptability to cells and increasing their ability to respond to environmental challenge. The regulation of alternative splicing is critical for numerous cellular functions in both pathological and physiological conditions, and deregulated alternative splicing is a key feature of common chronic diseases. Isoform choice is controlled by a battery of splicing regulatory proteins, which include the serine arginine rich (SRSF) proteins and the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) classes of genes. These important splicing regulators have been implicated in age-related disease, and in the ageing process itself. This review will outline the important contribution of splicing regulator proteins to ageing and age-related disease.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T08:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.04.004
       
  • In vivo prion models and the disconnection between transmissibility and
           neurotoxicity
    • Authors: Matteo Senesi; Victoria Lewis; Jee H. Kim; Paul A. Adlard; David I. Finkelstein; Steven J. Collins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Matteo Senesi, Victoria Lewis, Jee H. Kim, Paul A. Adlard, David I. Finkelstein, Steven J. Collins
      The primary causative event in the development of prion diseases is the misfolding of the normal prion protein (PrPC) into an ensemble of altered conformers (herein collectively denoted as PrPSc) that accumulate in the brain. Prominent amongst currently unresolved key aspects underpinning prion disease pathogenesis is whether transmission and toxicity are sub-served by different molecular species of PrPSc, which may directly impact on the development of effective targeted treatments. The use of murine models of prion disease has been of fundamental importance for probing the relationship between hypothesised “neurotoxic” and “transmissible” PrPSc and the associated kinetic profiles of their production during disease evolution, but unfortunately consensus has not been achieved. Recent in vivo studies have led to formulation of the “two-phase” hypothesis, which postulates that there is first an exponential increase in transmitting PrPSc species followed by an abrupt transition to propagation of neurotoxic PrPSc species. Such observations however, appear inconsistent with previous in vivo murine studies employing detailed time-course behavioural testing, wherein evidence of neurotoxicity could be detected early in disease progression. This review analyses the contributions of in vivo murine models attempting to provide insights into the relationship between transmitting and neurotoxic PrPSc species and explores possible refinements to the “two-phase hypothesis”, that better accommodate the available historical and recent evidence.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T08:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.03.007
       
  • Recent advances in cochlear hair cell regeneration—a promising
           opportunity for the treatment of age-related hearing loss.
    • Authors: Miren Revuelta; Francisco Santaolalla; Olatz Arteaga; Antonia Alvarez; Ana Sánchez del Rey; Enrique Hilario
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Miren Revuelta, Francisco Santaolalla, Olatz Arteaga, Antonia Alvarez, Ana Sánchez del Rey, Enrique Hilario
      The objective of this paper is to review current information regarding the treatment of age-related hearing loss by using cochlear hair cell regeneration. Recent advances in the regeneration of the inner ear, including the usefulness of stem cells, are also presented. Based on the current literature, cochlear cell regeneration may well be possible in the short term and cochlear gene therapy may also be useful for the treatment of hearing loss associated with ageing. The present review provide further insight into the pathogenesis of Inner Ear senescence and aged-related hearing loss and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies to repair hair cells damaged by ageing. More research will be needed in order to translate them into an effective treatment for deafness linked to cochlear senescence in humans.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.04.002
       
  • From lymphopoiesis to plasma cells differentiation, the age-related
           modifications of B cell compartment are influenced by “Inflamm-Ageing”
           
    • Authors: Matteo Bulati; Calogero Caruso; Giuseppina Colonna-Romano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Matteo Bulati, Calogero Caruso, Giuseppina Colonna-Romano
      Ageing is a complex process characterized by a general decline in physiological functions with increasing morbidity and mortality. The most important aspect of ageing is the chronic inflammatory status, named “inflamm-ageing”, strictly associated with the deterioration of the immune function, termed “immunosenescence”. Both are causes of increased susceptibility of elderly to infectious diseases, cancer, dementia, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmunity, and of a decreased response to vaccination. It has been widely demonstrated that ageing has a strong impact on the remodelling of the B cell branch of immune system. The first evident effect is the significant decrease in circulating B cells, primarily due to the reduction of new B cell coming from bone marrow (BM) progenitors, as inflammation directly impacts on B lymphopoiesis. Besides, in aged individuals, there is a shift from naïve to memory immunoglobulins production, accompanied by the impaired ability to produce high affinity protective antibodies against newly encountered antigens. This is accompanied by the increase of expanded clones of B cells, which correlates with poor health status. Age-related modifications also occur in naïve/memory B cells subsets. Indeed, in the elderly, there is a reduction of naïve B cells, accompanied by the expansion of memory B cells that show a senescence-associated phenotype. Finally, elderly show the impaired ability of memory B cells to differentiate into plasma cells. It can be concluded that inflammation is the leading cause of the age-related impairment of B cell compartment, which play certainly a key role in the development of age-related diseases. This makes study of B cells in the aged an important tool for monitoring immunosenescence, chronic inflammatory disorders and the effectiveness of vaccines or pharmacological therapies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T23:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.04.001
       
  • Aging and cancer: The role of macrophages and neutrophils
    • Authors: Connie Jackaman; Federica Tomay; Lelinh Duong; Norbaini Bintu Abdol Razak; Fiona J. Pixley; Pat Metharom; Delia J. Nelson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Connie Jackaman, Federica Tomay, Lelinh Duong, Norbaini Bintu Abdol Razak, Fiona J. Pixley, Pat Metharom, Delia J. Nelson
      Impaired immune function has been implicated in the declining health and higher incidence of cancer in the elderly. However, age-related changes to immunity are not completely understood. Neutrophils and macrophages represent the first line of defence yet their ability to phagocytose pathogens decreases with aging. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are critical in eliminating tumors, but T cell function is also compromised with aging. T cell responses can be regulated by macrophages and may depend on the functional phenotype macrophages adopt in response to microenvironmental signals. This can range from pro-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic M1 to anti-inflammatory, pro-tumorigenic M2 macrophages. Macrophages in healthy elderly adipose and hepatic tissue exhibit a more pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype compared to young hosts whilst immunosuppressive M2 macrophages increase in elderly lymphoid tissues, lung and muscle. These M2-like macrophages demonstrate altered responses to stimuli. Recent studies suggest that neutrophils also regulate T cell function and, like macrophages, neutrophil function is modulated with aging. It is possible that age-modified tissue-specific macrophages and neutrophils contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation that is associated with dysregulated macrophage-mediated immunosuppression, which together are responsible for development of multiple pathologies, including cancer. This review discusses recent advances in macrophage and neutrophil biology in healthy aging and cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T23:58:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.03.008
       
  • DNA damage response and autophagy in the degeneration of retinal pigment
           epithelial cells – Implications for age-related macular degeneration
           (AMD)
    • Authors: Juha M.T. Hyttinen; Janusz Błasiak; Minna Niittykoski; Kati Kinnunen; Anu Kauppinen; Antero Salminen; Kai Kaarniranta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Juha M.T. Hyttinen, Janusz Błasiak, Minna Niittykoski, Kati Kinnunen, Anu Kauppinen, Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta
      In this review we will discuss the links between autophagy, a mechanism involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and controlling cellular waste management, and the DNA damage response (DDR), comprising various mechanisms preserving the integrity and stability of the genome. A reduced autophagy capacity in retinal pigment epithelium has been shown to be connected in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), an eye disease. This degenerative disease is a major and increasing cause of vision loss in the elderly in developed countries, primarily due to the profound accumulation of intra- and extracellular waste: lipofuscin and drusen. An abundance of reactive oxygen species is produced in the retina since this tissue has a high oxygen demand and contains mitochondria-rich cells. The retina is exposed to light and it also houses many photoactive molecules. These factors are clearly reflected in both the autophagy and DNA damage rates, and in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. It remains to be revealed whether DNA damage and DDR capacity have a more direct role in the development of AMD.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T23:26:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.03.006
       
  • FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING FINDINGS IN HEALTHY MIDDLE-AGED ADULTS AT RISK OF
           ALZHEIMER’s DISEASE
    • Authors: Mirette Habib; Elijah Mak; Silvy Gabel; Li Su; Guy Williams; Adam Waldman; Katie Wells; Karen Ritchie; Craig Ritchie; John T. O’Brien
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Mirette Habib, Elijah Mak, Silvy Gabel, Li Su, Guy Williams, Adam Waldman, Katie Wells, Karen Ritchie, Craig Ritchie, John T. O’Brien
      It is well established that the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins many years before symptom onset. This preclinical phase provides a crucial time-window for therapeutic intervention, though this requires biomarkers that could evaluate the efficacy of future disease-modification treatments in asymptomatic individuals. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of studies characterizing the temporal sequence of the earliest functional and structural brain imaging changes in AD. These efforts have focused on studying individuals who are highly vulnerable to develop AD, such as those with familial genetic mutations, susceptibility genes (i.e. apolipoprotein epsilon-4 allele), and/or a positive family history of AD. In this paper, we review the rapidly growing literature of functional imaging changes in cognitively intact individuals who are middle-aged: positron emission tomography (PET) studies of amyloid deposition, glucose metabolism, as well as arterial spin labeling (ASL), task-dependent, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. The prevailing evidence points to early brain functional changes in the relative absence of cognitive impairment and structural atrophy, although there is marked variability in the directionality of the changes, which could, in turn, be related to antagonistic pleiotropy early in life. A common theme across studies relates to the spatial extent of these changes, most of which overlap with brain regions that are implicated in established AD. Notwithstanding several methodological caveats, functional imaging techniques could be preferentially sensitive to the earliest events of AD pathology prior to macroscopic grey matter loss and clinical manifestations of AD. We conclude that while these techniques have great potential to serve as biomarkers to identify at-risk individuals, more longitudinal studies with greater sample size and robust correction for multiple comparisons are still warranted to establish their utility.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T23:26:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.03.004
       
  • The relevance of α-KLOTHO to the central nervous system: Some key
           questions
    • Authors: Marina Minto Lopes-Cararo; Caio Henrique Yokoyama Mazucanti; Cristoforo Scavone; Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto; Daniel Charles Berwick
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Marina Minto Lopes-Cararo, Caio Henrique Yokoyama Mazucanti, Cristoforo Scavone, Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto, Daniel Charles Berwick
      α-Klotho is well described as an anti-aging protein, with critical roles in kidney function as a transmembrane co-receptor for FGF23, and as a soluble factor in serum. α-Klotho is also expressed in the choroid plexus, where it is released into the cerebrospinal fluid. Nonetheless, α-Klotho is also expressed in the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidence indicates that this pool of α-Klotho, which we define as brain α-Klotho, may play important roles as a neuroprotective factor and in promoting myelination, thereby supporting healthy brain aging. Here we summarize what is known about brain α-Klotho before focusing on the outstanding scientific questions related to its function. We believe there is a need for in vitro studies designed to distinguish between brain α-Klotho and other pools of α-Klotho, and for a greater understanding of the basic function of soluble α-Klotho. The mechanism by which the human KL-VS variant affects cognition also requires further elucidation. To help address these questions we suggest some experimental approaches that other laboratories might consider. In short, we hope to stimulate fresh ideas and encourage new research approaches that will allow the importance of α-Klotho for the aging brain to become clear.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T21:04:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.03.003
       
  • IFC: Aims and Scope
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews, Volume 35


      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:00:14Z
       
  • in vivo tau PET imaging in dementia: pathophysiology, radiotracer
           quantification, and a systematic review of clinical findings
    • Authors: Benjamin Hall; Elijah Mak; Simon Cervenka; Franklin I. Aigbirhio; James B. Rowe; John T. O’Brien
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Benjamin Hall, Elijah Mak, Simon Cervenka, Franklin I. Aigbirhio, James B. Rowe, John T. O’Brien
      In addition to the deposition of β-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Until now, our understanding about the natural history and topography of tau deposition has only been based on post-mortem and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and evidence continues to implicate tau as a central driver of downstream neurodegenerative processes and cognitive decline. Recently, it has become possible to assess the regional distribution and severity of tau burden in vivo with the development of novel radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. In this article, we provide a comprehensive discussion of tau pathophysiology, its quantification with novel PET radiotracers, as well as a systematic review of tau PET imaging in normal aging and various dementia conditions: mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Lewy body dementia. We discuss the main findings in relation to group differences, clinical-cognitive correlations of tau PET, and multi-modal relationships among tau PET and other pathological markers. Collectively, the small but growing literature of tau PET has yielded consistent anatomical patterns of tau accumulation that recapitulate post-mortem distribution of neurofibrillary tangles which correlate with cognitive functions and other markers of pathology. In general, AD is characterised by increased tracer retention in the inferior temporal lobe, extending into the frontal and parietal regions in more severe cases. It is also noted that the spatial topography of tau accumulation is markedly distinct to that of amyloid burden in aging and AD. Tau PET imaging has also revealed characteristic spatial patterns among various non-AD tauopathies, supporting its potential role for differential diagnosis. Finally, we propose novel directions for future tau research, including (a) longitudinal imaging in preclinical dementia, (b) multi-modal mapping of tau pathology onto other pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, and (c) the need for more validation studies against post-mortem samples of the same subjects.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T06:00:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.03.002
       
  • Cognitive functioning of individuals aged 90 years and older without
           dementia: a systematic review
    • Authors: N. Legdeur; T.T. Binnekade; R.H. Otten; M. Badissi; P. Scheltens; P.J. Visser; A.B. Maier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): N. Legdeur, T.T. Binnekade, R.H. Otten, M. Badissi, P. Scheltens, P.J. Visser, A.B. Maier
      INTRODUCTION Reference values to define cognitive impairment in individuals aged 90 years and older are lacking. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the level of cognitive functioning of individuals aged 90 years and older without dementia. METHODS The search identified 3972 articles of which 20 articles were included in the review. We calculated mean cognitive test scores and cut-off scores for cognitive tests published in two or more articles. RESULTS The mean cognitive test scores (SD)/cut-off scores for individuals aged 90 years and older without dementia of the five most commonly used cognitive tests were: MMSE: 26.6 (2.6)/23.3 points, Digit Span forward: 5.9 (1.8)/3.6 digits, Digit Span backward: 4.4 (1.6)/2.4 digits, TMT-A: 85.8 (42.5)/140.2seconds and TMT-B: 220.3 (99.2)/347.3seconds. DISCUSSION We provided mean cognitive test scores and cut-off scores that will improve the diagnostic process of cognitive impairment in individuals aged 90 years and older.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T18:42:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.02.006
       
  • Theoretical and practical aspects of using fetal fibroblasts for skin
           regeneration
    • Authors: Meirong Li; Yali Zhao; Haojie Hao; Weidong Han; Xiaobing Fu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Meirong Li, Yali Zhao, Haojie Hao, Weidong Han, Xiaobing Fu
      Cutaneous wounding in late-gestational fetal or postnatal humans results in scar formation without any skin appendages. Early or mid- gestational skin healing in humans is characterized by the absence of scaring in a process resembling regeneration. Tremendous cellular and molecular mechanisms contribute to this distinction, and fibroblasts play critical roles in scar or scarless wound healing. This review discussed the different repair mechanisms involved in wound healing of fibroblasts at different developmental stages and further confirmed that fetal fibroblast transplantation resulted in reduced scar healing in vivo. We also discussed the possible problem in fetal fibroblast transplantation for wound repair. We proposed the use of small molecules to improve the regenerative potential of repairing cells in the wound given that remodeling of the wound microenvironment into a regenerative microenvironment in adults might improve skin regeneration.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T01:56:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.02.005
       
  • Suspected Non Alzheimer’s Pathology – Is it
           non-Alzheimer’s or non-Amyloid?
    • Authors: M. Dani; D.J. Brooks; P. Edison
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): M. Dani, D.J. Brooks, P. Edison
      Neurodegeneration, the progressive loss of neurons, is a major process involved in dementia and age-related cognitive impairment. It can be detected clinically using currently available biomarker tests. Suspected Non Alzheimer Pathology (SNAP) is a biomarker-based concept that encompasses a group of individuals with neurodegeneration, but no evidence of amyloid deposition (thereby distinguishing it from Alzheimer’s disease (AD)). These individuals may often have a clinical diagnosis of AD, but their clinical features, genetic susceptibility and progression can differ significantly, carrying crucial implications for precise diagnostics, clinical management, and efficacy of clinical drug trials. SNAP has caused wide interest in the dementia research community, because it is still unclear whether it represents distinct pathology separate from AD, or whether in some individuals, it could represent the earliest stage of AD. This debate has raised pertinent questions about the pathways to AD, the need for biomarkers, and the sensitivity of current biomarker tests. In this review, we discuss the biomarker and imaging trials that first recognized SNAP. We describe the pathological correlates of SNAP and comment on the different causes of neurodegeneration. Finally, we discuss the debate around the concept of SNAP, and further unanswered questions that are emerging.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T01:56:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.02.003
       
  • Targeting the TLR4 signaling pathway by polyphenol: A novel therapeutic
           strategy for neuroinflammation
    • Authors: Mahban Rahimifard; Faheem Maqbool; Shermineh Moeini-Nodeh; Kamal Niaz; Mohammad Abdollahi; Nady Braidy; Seyed Mohammad Nabavi; Seyed Fazel Nabavi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Mahban Rahimifard, Faheem Maqbool, Shermineh Moeini-Nodeh, Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi
      A wide array of cell signaling mediators and their interactions play vital roles in neuroinflammation associated with ischemia, brain trauma, developmental disorders and age-related neurodegeneration. Along with neurons, microglia and astrocytes are also affected by the inflammatory cascade by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. The release of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to neural dysfunction may be helpful, neutral or even deleterious to normal cellular survival. Moreover, the important role of NF-κB factors in the central nervous system (CNS) through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation has been well established. This review demonstrates recent findings regarding therapeutic aspects of polyphenolic compounds for the treatment of neuroinflammation, with the aim of regulating TLR4. Polyphenols including flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, stilbenes and lignans, can target TLR4 signaling pathways in multiple ways. Toll interacting protein expression could be modulated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Resveratrol may also exert neuroprotective effects via the TLR4/NF-κB/STAT signaling cascade. Its role in activation of cascade via interfering with TLR4 oligomerization upon receptor stimulation has also been reported. Curcumin, another polyphenol, can suppress overexpression of inflammatory mediators via inhibiting the TLR4-MAPK/NF-κB pathway. It can also reduce neuronal apoptosis via a mechanism concerning the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway in microglia/macrophages. Despite a symphony of in vivo and in vitro studies, many molecular and pharmacological aspects of neuroinflammation remain unclear. It is proposed that natural compounds targeting TLR4 may serve as important pharmacophores for the development of potent drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T01:56:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.02.004
       
  • RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN FRAIL AND
           PRE-FRAIL OLDER ADULTS: RESULTS FROM A META-ANALYSIS AND EXPLORATORY
           META-REGRESSION ANALYSIS
    • Authors: Nicola Veronese; Emanuele Cereda; Brendon Stubbs; Marco Solmi; Claudio Luchini; Enzo Manzato; Giuseppe Sergi; Peter Manu; Tamara Harris; Luigi Fontana; Timo Strandberg; Helene Amieva; Julien Dumurgier; Alexis Elbaz; Christophe Tzourio; Monika Eicholzer; Sabine Rohrmann; Claudio Moretti; Fabrizio D’Ascenzo; Giorgio Quadri; Alessandro Polidoro; Roberto Alves Lourenço; Virgilio Garcia Moreira; Juan Sanchis; Valeria Scotti; Stefania Maggi; Christoph U. Correll
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Nicola Veronese, Emanuele Cereda, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Claudio Luchini, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi, Peter Manu, Tamara Harris, Luigi Fontana, Timo Strandberg, Helene Amieva, Julien Dumurgier, Alexis Elbaz, Christophe Tzourio, Monika Eicholzer, Sabine Rohrmann, Claudio Moretti, Fabrizio D’Ascenzo, Giorgio Quadri, Alessandro Polidoro, Roberto Alves Lourenço, Virgilio Garcia Moreira, Juan Sanchis, Valeria Scotti, Stefania Maggi, Christoph U. Correll
      Frailty is common and associated with poorer outcomes in the elderly, but its role as potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor requires clarification. We thus aimed to meta-analytically evaluate the evidence of frailty and pre-frailty as risk factors for CVD. Two reviewers selected all studies comparing data about CVD prevalence or incidence rates between frail/pre-frail vs. robust. The association between frailty status and CVD in cross-sectional studies was explored by calculating and pooling crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs); the data from longitudinal studies were pooled using the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). Eighteen cohorts with a total of 31,343 participants were meta-analyzed. Using estimates from 10 cross-sectional cohorts, both frailty and pre-frailty were associated with higher odds of CVD than robust participants. Longitudinal data were obtained from 6 prospective cohort studies. After a median follow-up of 4.4 years, we identified an increased risk for faster onset of any-type CVD in the frail (HR=1.70 [95%CI, 1.18-2.45]; I2 =66%) and pre-frail (HR=1.23 [95%CI, 1.07-1.36]; I2 =67%) vs. robust groups. Similar results were apparent for time to CVD mortality in the frail and pre-frail groups. In conclusion, frailty and pre-frailty constitute addressable and independent risk factors for CVD in older adults.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T14:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.01.003
       
  • Understanding quasi-apoptosis of the most numerous enucleated components
           of blood needs detailed molecular autopsy
    • Authors: Gennadii Petrovich Gusev; Rukmini Govekar; Nikhil Gadewal; Natalia Ivanovna Agalakova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Gennadii Petrovich Gusev, Rukmini Govekar, Nikhil Gadewal, Natalia Ivanovna Agalakova
      Erythrocytes are the most numerous cells in human body and their function of oxygen transport is pivotal to human physiology. However, being enucleated, they are often referred to as a sac of molecules and their cellularity is challenged. Interestingly, their programmed death stands a testimony to their cell-hood. They are capable of self-execution after a defined life span by both cell-specific mechanism and that resembling the cytoplasmic events in apoptosis of nucleated cells. Since the execution process lacks the nuclear and mitochondrial events in apoptosis, it has been referred to as quasi-apoptosis or eryptosis. Several studies on molecular mechanisms underlying death of erythrocytes have been reported. The data has generated a non-cohesive sketch of the process. The lacunae in the present knowledge need to be filled to gain deeper insight into the mechanism of physiological ageing and death of erythrocytes, as well as the effect of age of organism on RBCs survival. This would entail how the most numerous cells in the human body die and enable a better understanding of signaling mechanisms of their senescence and premature eryptosis observed in individuals of advanced age.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T14:21:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2017.01.002
       
  • ‘Tagging’ along memories in aging: Synaptic tagging and capture
           mechanisms in the aged hippocampus
    • Authors: Mahesh Shivarama Shetty; Sreedharan Sajikumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Ageing Research Reviews
      Author(s): Mahesh Shivarama Shetty, Sreedharan Sajikumar
      Aging is accompanied by a general decline in the physiological functions of the body with the deteriorating organ systems. Brain is no exception to this and deficits in cognitive functions are quite common in advanced aging. Though a variety of age-related alterations are observed in the structure and function throughout the brain, certain regions show selective vulnerability. Medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is one such preferentially vulnerable region and is a crucial structure involved in the learning and long-term memory functions. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), are candidate cellular correlates of learning and memory and alterations in these properties have been well documented in aging. A related phenomenon called synaptic tagging and capture (STC) has been proposed as a mechanism for cellular memory consolidation and to account for temporal association of memories. Mounting evidences from behavioral settings suggest that STC could be a physiological phenomenon. In this article, we review the recent data concerning STC and provide a framework for how alterations in STC-related mechanisms could contribute to the age-associated memory impairments. The enormity of impairment in learning and memory functions demands an understanding of age-associated memory deficits at the fundamental level given its impact in the everyday tasks, thereby in the quality of life. Such an understanding is also crucial for designing interventions and preventive measures for successful brain aging.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T01:29:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.12.008
       
 
 
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