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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3030 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3030 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 390, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Agriculture and Natural Resources
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2452-316X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • FM - TOC

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources, Volume 51, Issue 1


      PubDate: 2017-04-05T08:43:47Z
       
  • Identification key to species of the flying lizard genus Draco Linnaeus,
           1758 (Squamata: Agamidae) in Thailand

    • Authors: Nattawut Srichairat; Pattanee Jantrarotai; Prateep Duengkae; Yodchaiy Chuaynkern
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Nattawut Srichairat, Pattanee Jantrarotai, Prateep Duengkae, Yodchaiy Chuaynkern
      A species identification key of flying lizards in the genus Draco from Thailand was constructed based on 521 preserved specimens from collections during 1967 to 2012 in the Thailand Natural History Museum, Bangkok, Thailand and the National Science Museum, Pathum Thani province, Thailand. Regardless of sexual characters, four characters were used to identify Draco spp. lizards: 1) nostril direction; 2) type of tympanum; 3) pattern of patagium; and 4) snout with or without a series of scales forming a Y-shaped figure. The specimens were identified into nine species—D. blanfordii, D. fimbriatus, D. maculatus, D. maximus, D. melanopogon, D. obscurus, D. quinquefasciatus, D. taeniopterus and D. volans.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T12:23:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2017.02.002
       
  • Evaluation of mating type distribution and genetic diversity of three
           Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence genes, PWL-2, AVR-Pii and Avr-Piz-t, in
           Thailand rice blast isolates

    • Authors: Thanyaluk Sirisathaworn; Tanakorn Srirat; Apinya Longya; Chatchawan Jantasuriyarat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Thanyaluk Sirisathaworn, Tanakorn Srirat, Apinya Longya, Chatchawan Jantasuriyarat
      Rice blast disease, caused by the filamentous ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae), has been ranked among the most important diseases of rice. The molecular mechanisms against this fungus follow the idea of “gene-for-gene interaction”, in which a plant resistance (R) gene product recognizes a fungal avirulence (Avr) effector and triggers the defense response. However, the Avr genes have been shown to be rapidly evolving resulting in high levels of genetic diversity. This study investigated genetic diversity that is influenced by sexual recombination and mutation for the adaptation of rice blast fungus to overcome the defense response. Mating type distribution and the nucleotide sequence variation of three avirulence genes were evaluated—PWL-2, Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t. In total, 77 rice blast isolates collected from infected rice plants in northern, northeastern and central Thailand in 2005, 2010 and 2012, were used in the analysis with mating type and avirulence gene-specific primers. The results revealed that all the tested blast isolates belonged to the mating type MAT1-2, suggesting a lack of sexual recombination within the population. The successful rates of PWL-2, Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t gene-specific primer amplification were 100%, 60% and 54%, respectively. Base substitution mutation was observed in coding regions of the Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t genes. Although these results showed a low level of genetic diversity in Thai rice blast isolates, non-synonymous mutations did occur which revealed common mechanisms of selective pressure that are prone to adaptation of Avr genes. The information on nucleotide sequence variation and the genetic diversity of Avr genes obtained from this study could be useful for planning novel strategies in the development of rice breeding programs in Thailand.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.08.005
       
  • Molecular identification and expression profiling of a novel
           alpha2-macroglobulin gene in giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium
           rosenbergii, De Man)

    • Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong; Uthairat Na-Nakorn; Supawadee Poompuang; Skorn Koonawootrittriron; Prapansak Srisapoome
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Wirot Likittrakulwong, Uthairat Na-Nakorn, Supawadee Poompuang, Skorn Koonawootrittriron, Prapansak Srisapoome
      A full-length cDNA encoding a novel alpha-2 macroglobulin (Mr-2α2M) gene in giant freshwater prawn was cloned and sequenced using rapid amplification cDNA end techniques. The Mr-2α2M was 5,194 bp and comprised a 4,560-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1,519 amino acid residues. The mature Mr-2α2M protein had a calculated molecular mass of 168.8 kDa and an estimated pI of 5.14. Mr-2α2M contained significantly functional domains, including a bait region, a thiol ester motif and a receptor-binding domain, similar to the α2Ms of other species. Amino acid sequence analysis of α2Ms indicated that Mr-2α2M was most similar to the Chinese white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) α2M isoform 2 (Fc-A2M-2), with an identity of 58.8%, and the previously identified giant freshwater prawn Mr-1α2M protein, with an identity of 43.5%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Mr-2α2M was more closely related to Fc-A2M-2 than Mr-1α2M, which was placed in a different subminor group. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay illustrated that Mr-2α2M mRNA transcripts were strongly detected in the subcuticular epithelium, heart, midgut and muscle but marginally detected in the hemocytes of normal prawns. Immune response analysis in prawns stimulated with Aeromonas hydrophila clearly indicated that Mr-2α2M was quickly up-regulated to high levels in hemocytes and hepatopancreas after 12 hr, in contrast to the expression pattern of Mr-1α2M. This novel α2M gene may have unique, important roles in giant freshwater prawn immune systems that differ significantly from those of the previously identified Mr-1α2M gene.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2017.02.001
       
  • Effects of protein levels and energy sources in total mixed ration on
           feedlot performance and carcass quality of Kamphaeng Saen steers

    • Authors: Phoompong Boonsaen; Nann Winn Soe; Wisut Maitreejet; Sutisa Majarune; Taweeporn Reungprim; Suriya Sawanon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Phoompong Boonsaen, Nann Winn Soe, Wisut Maitreejet, Sutisa Majarune, Taweeporn Reungprim, Suriya Sawanon
      The effects of dietary protein and energy sources of a total mixed ration (TMR) were evaluated based on the performance, carcass quality and production cost of feedlot Kamphaeng Saen steers. Twenty-four Kamphaeng Saen steers were assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial in a randomized complete block design with two factors: 1) energy sources comprised of cassava chip (cTMR) and cassava chip plus ground corn (ccTMR); and 2) crude protein (CP) levels (12%CP and 14%CP). The steers were slaughtered after being fed for 120 d. The carcass characterization and meat quality were determined at day 7 of aging. The results indicated that the average daily gain, final weight (p < 0.05), carcass weight (p = 0.06) and the profit of the steers fed the cTMR were greater compared to the ccTMR without effects on carcass characteristic and meat quality. The different levels of CP in the diet had no effects (p > 0.05) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristic and meat quality but steers fed 12%CP cTMR provided a profit. Cassava chip provided good potential to be used as an energy source in a TMR for feedlot cattle.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2017.02.003
       
  • In vitro propagation of the aromatic herb Strobilanthes tonkinensis Lindau

    • Authors: Niyomsri Srikun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Niyomsri Srikun
      Strobilanthes tonkinensis Lindau. is a rare aromatic herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae. Its plant extract has been confirmed as a major source of squalene. In this research, a protocol for micropropagation was developed that can support ex situ conservation and will benefit plant material production. Shoot explants were provided from plants grown in the greenhouse and trickle irrigated for 1 mth and then effectively sterilized by shaking in NaOCl at a concentration of 1.2% for 10 min, followed by 0.6% for 15 min, which produced 70% good-growing, healthy shoots. Increasing thidiazuron and N6-benzyladenine (BA) concentrations did not promote shoot multiplication. Shoot multiplication was the best on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 16 μM BA. The highest shoot number (12 shoots/explant) was obtained at 8 wk of culture. The highest shoot elongation was obtained on the medium added with 16 μM BA for 4 wk and subsequent subculturing to hormone-free MS medium for another 4 wk. High frequency rooting (21 roots/shoot) was obtained on MS medium fortified with 7.5 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Complete plantlets that were transferred to pots under greenhouse conditions produced healthy plants with 100% survival after 5 wk.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.01.006
       
  • Effects of shrimp chitosan on the physical properties of handsheets

    • Authors: Somwang Khantayanuwong; Chutatip Khemarom; Sumaida Salaemae
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Somwang Khantayanuwong, Chutatip Khemarom, Sumaida Salaemae
      The effects of shrimp chitosan as an additive were determined on the physical properties of handsheets, especially: their brightness, opacity, surface roughness and surface water absorptiveness. Commercial, hardwood, bleached kraft pulp was beaten to attain 390 mL Canadian standard freeness and then made into four sets of handsheets by mixing each part of the beaten pulp slurry with shrimp-chitosan solution to obtain 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75% (oven dry weight (o.d. wt.) of pulp), respectively, in accordance with standard test methods. All the sets of handsheets were conditioned for 1 wk and then tested for their mechanical and physical properties at 50 ± 2 % relative humidity and 23 ± 1oC. The results indicated that even though there were some substantial decreases in some physical properties of shrimp-chitosan-treated handsheets (brightness, surface roughness and surface water absorptiveness), their opacity was slightly increased. Most of the mechanical properties of shrimp-chitosan-treated handsheets such as the bursting index, folding endurance, tensile index, modulus of elasticity and tensile energy absorption were greatly increased with the addition of shrimp chitosan at 0.25% o.d. wt. of pulp to 0.50% o.d. wt. of pulp. However, there was no effect on the tearing strength by adding shrimp chitosan to the handsheets.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.07.006
       
  • Physicochemical Quality and Antioxidant Changes in ‘Leb Mue Nang’
           Banana Fruit during Ripening

    • Authors: Pannipa Youryon; Suriyan Supapvanich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Pannipa Youryon, Suriyan Supapvanich
      The physicochemical and antioxidant changes of ‘Kluai Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit (Musa AA group) were investigated during ripening. The visual appearance, peel and pulp color, firmness, total soluble solids concentration (TSS), total acidity (TA) and bioactive compounds of the fruit at three stages of ripening (mature green, ripe and overripe) were monitored. Changes in both the peel and pulp color, texture, TSS and TA contents during banana ripening were similar to those of other banana fruits. Interestingly, the highest total antioxidants capacity and total phenols concentration were found in the ripe banana fruit. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity remained constant and the highest total flavonoids concentration was found in the mature green fruit.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2015.12.004
       
  • Host-substrate preference of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera:
           Pteromalidae), a larval parasitoid of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais
           (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    • Authors: Saruta Sitthichaiyakul; Weerawan Amornsak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Saruta Sitthichaiyakul, Weerawan Amornsak
      The solitary parasitoid Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was investigated attacking larvae of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under laboratory conditions. Theocolax elegans parasitoids were mass reared on 21-day-old S. zeamais fed with different host substrates consisting of brown rice, maize, sorghum and wheat. The developmental time of S. zeamais was observed. The widest head capsule was recorded from S. zeamais developing in brown rice grain kernels. The head capsule width was used to determine the age of the larval instars. The sex ratio of T. elegans progeny emerging from brown rice was the same in the choice and no-choice tests (1.8:1.0 and 1.8:1.0, respectively). Female parasitoids preferred to oviposit on S. zeamais developed in brown rice grain kernels in both tests. The number of parasitoid progeny emerging from different host substrates was different in the choice and no-choice tests. The progeny of T. elegans females and males were fully winged, short winged and wingless.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.09.003
       
  • Soil Macrofauna Communities under Plant Cover in a No-till System in
           Thailand

    • Authors: Phakphoom Tantachasatid; Johnny Boyer; Sornprach Thanisawanyankura; Lucien Séguy; Kannika Sajjaphan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Phakphoom Tantachasatid, Johnny Boyer, Sornprach Thanisawanyankura, Lucien Séguy, Kannika Sajjaphan
      The impact of no-till cropping systems with plant cover on soil macrofauna communities was assessed according to their abundance and biomass. The study was carried out in northeastern Thailand under a conventional cropping system (plow-based tillage), no-till cropping systems with plant cover (Brachiaria ruziziensis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Stylosanthes guianensis associated with Brachiaria ruziziensis, rice straw) and under a natural dipterocarp forest. Soil macrofauna populations were sampled in 2007 (June and October) during the rainy season and at a beginning of the dry season, respectively. The results revealed that in the short term, the biological compartment responded quickly to the presence of plant cover, as shown by a significant increase in soil macrofauna abundance and total biomass. The highest mean total abundance (MTA) of 4,224 indviduals/m2 at the end of planting period (October 2007) was observed under S. guianensis cover and also the highest mean total soil macrofauna biomass (MTB) of 14.63 g/m2 was observed in the forest system in the same period. However, in the system of cultivation, the highest MTB of 11.33 g/m2 was observed under S. guianensis cover. Moreover, the change rate of soil macrofauna MTA was the highest under S. guianensis cover (+751.61%) and the change rate of soil macrofauna MTB revealed that this change rate was highest in forest (+430.07%). However, in the other systems of cultivation, the highest change rate of MTB was under S. guianensis cover (+12.96%).

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.08.004
       
  • Cultivation, production and management techniques of broom grass
           (Thysanolaena maxima Roxb.) in hilly areas of Bangladesh

    • Authors: Mohammod Jahangir Alam; Sayed Mohammod Zahirul Islam; Mohammod Motiar Rahman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Mohammod Jahangir Alam, Sayed Mohammod Zahirul Islam, Mohammod Motiar Rahman
      This paper presents the results on appropriate cultivation, plantation, production and management techniques of Thysanolaena maxima for domestication at age 1–4 yr (grown 2007–2011). Rhizome cuttings were planted in research experimental plots at spacings of T1=1.0 m × 1.0 m, T2= 1.5 m × 1.5 m and T3= 2.0 m × 2.0 m in a randomized complete block design with six replications and three treatments. The results showed that the number of panicles produced was 1,048, 41,237, 78,737 and 105,094 in year 1 to year 4, respectively. The average total green weight (kg/plot) was 10.26, 632.15, 423.34 and 543.40 and the average dry weight (kg/plot) was 9.88, 287.65, 216.93 and 241.60 in year 1 to year 4, respectively. Composite soil samples were collected and the soil pH values of the surface soil from the different treatments varied from 5.1 to 5.2. There was no significant difference among the treatments in the available P and S. The available Ca, Mg and K were higher in the T3 treatment compared with the other treatments. Planting rhizome cuttings at 2.0 m × 2.0 m spacing gave the maximum broom/panicle production.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T16:14:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.08.006
       
  • FM - TOC

    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources, Volume 50, Issue 6


      PubDate: 2017-02-11T16:59:08Z
       
  • FM - TOC

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources, Volume 50, Issue 5


      PubDate: 2017-02-11T16:59:08Z
       
  • Impacts of sodium chlorite combined with calcium chloride, and calcium
           ascorbate on microbial population, browning, and quality of fresh-cut rose
           apple

    • Authors: Sunthon Mola; Apiradee Uthairatanakij; Varit Srilaong; Sukunya Aiamla-or; Pongphen Jitareerat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Sunthon Mola, Apiradee Uthairatanakij, Varit Srilaong, Sukunya Aiamla-or, Pongphen Jitareerat
      Microbial activity and browning were minimized and fresh-cut rose apple quality was maintained using sodium chlorite (SC) combined with calcium chloride (CC) and calcium ascorbate (CaAs) and by investigating the optimal concentration and dipping time of SC for inhibiting microbial activity and browning. Fresh-cut rose apple samples were dipped in SC solution at 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L for 1 min and 3 min, with filtered water and non-dipped samples as controls. All samples were kept at 4 ± 2°C for 9 d. The results showed that 200 mg/L SC for 3 min was the best treatment to inhibit microbial growth (total bacteria, yeast and molds, E. coli and coliforms), delay browning and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut rose apples, but could not maintain the fresh firmness. A firmness experiment was conducted by dipping fresh-cut rose apples in 200 mg/L SC and in 200 mg/L SC combined with 20 g/L CC and 20 g/L CaAs (SC+CC+CaAs) for 3 min before storage at 4 ± 2°C for 9 d. Samples immersed in filtered water were used as the control. The combined treatment delayed microbial contamination and browning by reducing the PPO activity and the accumulation of phenolic content, and maintained the fresh firmness of fresh-cut rose apples. Thus, the combination treatment of SC+CC+CaAs solution can protect fresh-cut rose apples against microbial contamination and delay browning and maintain firmness.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T05:37:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.12.001
       
  • Phylogenetic variation of the green muscadine fungus, Metarhizium
           anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin, and its virulence to larvae of the
           sugarcane longhorn stem borer, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera:
           Cerambycidae)

    • Authors: Nichanun Kernasa; Sopon Uraichuen; Naoto Kamata
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Nichanun Kernasa, Sopon Uraichuen, Naoto Kamata
      The sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB), Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) has recently become a serious insect pest of sugarcane in Thailand and effective biological control agent must be evaluated. The green muscadine fungus (GMF), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin is a species complex of entomopathogenic fungi, which includes many cryptic subspecies and species. It has been reported that GMF infects and kills the sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB), Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin, so that GMF is a possible biological control agent of SLSB. Molecular analyses were conducted to gain a better understanding of the taxonomic position of GMF Thai strains. Virulence bioassays were carried out on four isolates of GMF to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. This study revealed that an isolate from Khon Kaen (KK) showed the highest virulence to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. In biological control, an aqueous suspension containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL of KK isolate was best from the viewpoint of a tradeoff between the economic cost/benefit of the mass production cost and the consequent mortality after application. Comparing suspensions containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL with those containing 1 × 1013 conidia/mL, 100,000 times as much quantity of suspension can be obtained from the same quantity of conidia, though the difference in the D. buqueti mortality was relatively small. Six isolates of GMF from SLSB in Thailand were likely a cryptic species, although further molecular analysis using factor 1-alpha sequences is needed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:13:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.07.001
       
  • Seed vigor classification using analysis of mean radicle emergence time
           and single counts of radicle emergence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and mung
           bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    • Authors: Damrongvudhi Onwimo; Wanchai Chanmprasert; Petchlada Changsee; Thunyapuk Rongsangchaichareon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Damrongvudhi Onwimo, Wanchai Chanmprasert, Petchlada Changsee, Thunyapuk Rongsangchaichareon
      The radicle emergence (RE) test for seed vigor classification is an ingenious protocol that will lead to a fast and reliable automated procedure for verifying seed quality using image analysis. Nevertheless, the success of this protocol has never been described in rice and mung bean that are global staple foods. This experiment analyzed the correlation between RE (2 mm in length) and normal seedlings (NS) during a germination test of rice and mung bean. In total, 12 samples using four cultivars of each species were obtained from different locations and production years. In addition to the germination test, an accelerated ageing (AA) test and an electrical conductivity (EC) test were analyzed. The results revealed that the pattern of the cumulative germination curve of RE and NS coincided but the curve for NS was longer than for RE (p ≤ 0.05). There was no significant difference in the variance of the germination time between RE and NS of rice but there was a significant difference for mung bean. The vigor levels of the rice seed classified by single counts of RE at 110 hr after set to germinate (HASG) conformed to the result of single counts of NS at 200 HASG and the result of the AA test. However, these classifications disagreed with the result derived from the EC test. In contrast, the mung bean vigor level classified by single counts of RE, NS, the AA test and the EC test did not relate well with each other. In conclusion, it is possible to develop the automated procedure for verifying rice seed quality using image analysis via a single count of RE.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T05:13:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.12.003
       
  • Diversity and uses of Zingiberaceae in Nam Nao National Park, Chaiyaphum
           and Phetchabun provinces, Thailand, with a new record for Thailand

    • Authors: Surapon Saensouk; Piyaporn Saensouk Pattana Pasorn Pranom Chantaranothai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Surapon Saensouk, Piyaporn Saensouk, Pattana Pasorn, Pranom Chantaranothai
      Three tribes, 12 genera and 38 species of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) along five routes in Nam Nao National Park were surveyed between January 2012 and December 2013 to determine their diversity, ecological data, phenology, uses and conservation status. The highest diversity was found in the tribe Zingibereae (6 genera and 21 species), of which the genera Curcuma and Zingiber comprised the highest number species (eight species each). A species key was constructed based on morphology. The ginger family was found in four forest-types—deciduous dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest and pine forest. The most flowering bloom of the ginger family in Nam Nao National Park was during March to August and the most fruiting bloom was during June to September. The popular uses of Zingiberaceae were as a food, spice, in medicine, as ornamentation and in rituals. Eight species have been evaluated as of least concern and are presented in theIUCN Red List,while two rare species were reported in Thailand Red Data: Plants, while six rareZingiberaceae species were identified based on the evaluation criteria of Saensouk (2011). Four species were endemic to Thailand. Moreover,Etlingerayunnanensis (T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen) R. M. Smith was a new record for Thailand.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
       
  • Leaf Blade Anatomy Characteristics of the Genus Amorphophallus Blume ex
           Decne. in Thailand

    • Authors: Duangchai Sookchaloem; Oraphan Sungkajanttranon; Sahanat Petchsri; Suchai Horadee; Chaiya Huayhongthong; Amphon Vanapanich; Chanu Wongsawaddiwattana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Duangchai Sookchaloem, Oraphan Sungkajanttranon, Sahanat Petchsri, Suchai Horadee, Chaiya Huayhongthong, Amphon Vanapanich, Chanu Wongsawaddiwattana
      Twenty-three species of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. were collected from several areas of Thailand between November 2008 and May 2012, and grown under greenhouse conditions with 70% sunlight. Leaf blade anatomy characteristics were studied using free hand section and epidermal peeled slides before being observed using a light transmission microscope from May 2011 to November 2013. The results showed the different anatomical characteristics of each species. The midribs in cross section were curved, or had 5, 6, 7, 8 or 12 lobes. Vascular bundles numbered 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16 or 23. The upper and lower epidermal cell walls had three subtypes—straight-sided, undulate or sinuous anticlinal. Both sides of the epidermal cell wall can be similar or can vary in each species. There were 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 subsidiary cells along both sides of paired guard cells and the stomatal type was paracytic and stomatal subtypes varied from species to species, being brachyparacytic, hemiparacytic, amphibrachyparacytic, paratetracytic or parahexacytic. The stomatal number was 16–104/mm2 of leaf area and varied with the leaf gloss and leaf texture of each species.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.09.002
       
  • Analysis of cracking potential and micro-elongation of linerboard

    • Authors: Supattra Panthai; Tongchai Patchiyo; Pratuang Puthson; Phichit Somboon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Supattra Panthai, Tongchai Patchiyo, Pratuang Puthson, Phichit Somboon
      Folding cracks of linerboards in relation to their micro elongation and the forming conditions were studied using an industrial linerboard machine with a top former. The experiments consisted of the study of various forming conditions by manipulating the jet/wire speed ratio to produce linerboard with differences in fiber structures that were related to the cracked and uncracked products. The results showed that changes to the jet/wire speed ratio of about 0.01–0.02 to improve the tested folding endurance in the machine direction potentially produced folding cracks in the linerboard, which indicated an ambiguous interpretation of the foldability tests. The delaminated cracked layers were found to have a high folding endurance and tensile strength, while the decrease in the micro-elongation formulated in this study was found to be related to cracking. A lower micro-elongation of about 350–500 μm/N·g was found in a range of products with folding cracks.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.08.003
       
  • Larval preference and performance of the green lacewing, Plesiochrysa
           ramburi (Schneider) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on three species of cassava
           mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    • Authors: Charida Sattayawong; Sopon Uraichuen; Wiwat Suasa-ard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Charida Sattayawong, Sopon Uraichuen, Wiwat Suasa-ard
      The green lacewing, Plesiochrysa ramburi (Schneider) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), is a dominant predatory insect in cassava fields. The suitability of different cassava mealybug species as prey for Pl. ramburi is important information for mass rearing in the laboratory. Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (Gimpel & Miller) were compared to determine their potential as prey for Pl. ramburi larvae by testing the green lacewing’s preference and performance. Non-choice tests showed that Pl. ramburi larva could feed on all three cassava mealybug species. Choice tests showed that the 1st and 2nd instars of Pl. ramburi preferred Ph. manihoti and the 3rd instars preferred Ph. madeirensis. However, life table parameters showed that the highest net reproduction number (19.1967) and gross reproductive rate (46.0156, females/female/generation) occurred when Pl. ramburi fed on Ps. jackbeardsleyi. This indicates that Ps. jackbeardsleyi is the most suitable diet for the mass rearing of Pl. ramburi to allow releases in integrated pest management programs.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.07.002
       
  • Variability, heritability, character association, path analysis and
           morphological diversity in snake gourd

    • Authors: ASM Mahbubur Rahman Khan; Rabeya Eyasmin; M.Harunur Rashid; Sheikh Ishtiaque; Apurbo Kumar Chaki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): ASM Mahbubur Rahman Khan, Rabeya Eyasmin, M.Harunur Rashid, Sheikh Ishtiaque, Apurbo Kumar Chaki
      Genetic variability, heritability and path coefficient analysis were studied in 21 genotypes of snake gourd. The phenotypic coefficient of variations was found slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variations for all characters studied, indicating that the apparent variation is not only genetic but also influenced by the growing environment in the expression of the traits. The genotypic coefficient of variation was high for the fruit yield, number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. High heritability coupled with high-to-moderate genetic advance was estimated for all characters studied. Correlation studies revealed that the fruit yield had a significant, positive correlation with the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. Importantly, more than 90% of the genotypic total variation was contributed by the characters included in the path analysis. The highest, direct, positive effect was recorded for the number of fruits per vine. The divergence value for cluster analysis indicated that the genotypes from clusters II and III had the highest inter-cluster distance and were expected to provide high heterosis in hybridization and to show wide variability in genetic architecture. The selection of high yielding genotypes should give emphasis to the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.07.005
       
  • Comparative effectiveness of monomolecular surface film on Aedes aegypti
           (L.) and Anopheles minimus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    • Authors: Chutipong Sukkanon; Rapeeporn Yaicharoen; Warunee Ngrenngarmlert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Chutipong Sukkanon, Rapeeporn Yaicharoen, Warunee Ngrenngarmlert
      Silicone-based surfactants have become of interest for mosquito control in Thailand. When this non-ionic surfactant is applied in mosquito habitats, a monomolecular film (MMF) forms on the water surface and disrupts the ability of larvae and pupae to breathe. In this study, a laboratory bioassay was conducted to determine the mosquito control potential of MMF against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles minimus (Theobald), and to compare its efficacy with other larvicides consisting of temephos (an organophosphate), Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator). It was determined that the percentage mortality of Ae. aegypti and An. minimus treated with MMF at a recommended dosage of 1 mL/m2 was significantly greater in pupae (99.2% and 100%, respectively) than old stage larvae (L3-L4, age 46 d; 70.8% and 97.5%, respectively) and young stage larvae (L1-L2, age 1–2 d; 8.3% and 58.0%, respectively). Small larvae and prolonged stage transformations indicated MMF growth inhibition activity. MMF also displayed oviposition deterrence behavior and caused female mosquitoes to drown during egg laying. In comparison, temephos and Bti were highly effective in larval control while pyriproxyfen and MMF provided excellent control effects against the pupal stage. Based on the results, MMF showed promise as an alternative larvicide for mosquito control in Thailand. Further studies on the environmental effects of MMF are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.07.003
       
  • Sexual dimorphism and geographic variation of Calotes versicolor
           (Squamata: Agamidae) in northern and southern Thailand

    • Authors: Arpapan Prakobkarn; Kumthorn Thirakhupt; Thongchai Ngamprasertwong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Arpapan Prakobkarn, Kumthorn Thirakhupt, Thongchai Ngamprasertwong
      The garden fence lizard, Calotes versicolor, is a common and widely distributed lizard throughout the Middle to Far-East including Indo-Asia and Thailand. Although this species displays variation in its morphology throughout its range, such variation has not been examined in Thailand. Thus, 20 adult lizards were examined from each of three geographically distinct populations in each of northern and southern Thailand to document any sexual and regional variation. Differentiation in characters between sexes and populations were tested using ANCOVA and principle component analysis for the mensural characters, the Mann-Whitney U-test for the meristic characters and the χ2 test for coloration. Sexual dimorphism was found to occur in all populations. Males have a larger relative head size and longer relative limb lengths, whilst females exhibit a longer relative trunk length. The scalation of males was also more prominent than in females. Females in both the southern and northern Thailand populations have brighter patterns on the paired dorsolateral stripe, forearm stripe and paired nuchal spots than the corresponding males. Regional differentiation in mensural characters and coloration was more prominent in males, but no clustering of regional populations was found. Some meristic characters were congruent with regional variation. Males in the southern populations have a larger relative head size and longer relative limb lengths than those from the northern populations, but these differences were not found in females. Males in the southern populations have brighter patterns in dark bands on the trunk and colored throat patch than those in the northern populations.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.07.004
       
  • Aonchotheca yannickchavali n. sp. (Nematoda: Capillariidae) in Bandicota
           indica (Bechstein, 1800) and Bandicota savilei (Thomas, 1916) (Rodentia:
           Muridae) collected from Thailand

    • Authors: Marina Veciana; Kittipong Chaisiri; Serge Morand; Alexis Ribas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Marina Veciana, Kittipong Chaisiri, Serge Morand, Alexis Ribas
      During previous surveys of helminths in rodents from Southeast Asia, an unnamed species of Aonchotheca was recovered from the stomach of several rodent species. In the present study, the description of the new species Aonchotheca yannickchavali n. sp. is provided based on both female and male specimens collected from two bandicoot rat species (Bandicota indica and B. savilei) from Thailand (Buriram and Nan provinces). This nematode can be separated from other known Aonchotheca found in rodents by its microhabitat in the host and by the size of the spicules in males and the vulvar appendage in females.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.04.009
       
  • Rainfall prediction and meteorological drought analysis in the Sakae Krang
           River basin of Thailand

    • Authors: Patana Wichitarapongsakun; Charoon Sarin; Pantip Klomjek; Sombat Chuenchooklin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Patana Wichitarapongsakun, Charoon Sarin, Pantip Klomjek, Sombat Chuenchooklin
      Rainfall was predicted and used to analyze the severity levels of meteorological drought in the Sakae Krang River basin. Three forecasting models based on the Time Series Prediction technique, Single Moving Average, Simple Exponential Smoothing and Double Exponential Smoothing (Holt’s model) were used to predict rainfall using the data collected from five rain gauge stations between 1970 and 2014. The minimum mean percentage error (MPE) score was used to indicate the accuracy of prediction. A standardized precipitation index (SPI) was used to indicate the drought severity levels in the Sakae Krang River basin between 1970 and 2015. The Simple Exponential Smoothing model produced the most accurate rainfall prediction followed by Double Exponential Smoothing (Holt’s model) and the Single Moving Average model with MPE scores of 28%, 31% and 36%, respectively. The drought analysis results indicated that from 1970 to 2014, there was no clear trend in meteorological drought in the Sakae Krang River basin. In 2015, the meteorological drought severity level analysis of the sub-basins of the Sakae Krang River basin was graded as moderate drought for the lower part of Mae Nam Sakae Krang 1 and mild drought for Nam Mae Wong, the lower part of Mae Nam Sakae Krang 2, Khlong Pho and Huai Thap Salao with SPI scores of -1.01, -0.97, -0.91, -0.57 and -0.32, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.05.003
       
  • Effects of soil moisture conservation practice, irrigation and
           fertilization on Jatropha curcas

    • Authors: Aran Phiwngam; Somchai Anusontpornperm; Suphicha Thanachit; Worachart Wisawapipat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Aran Phiwngam, Somchai Anusontpornperm, Suphicha Thanachit, Worachart Wisawapipat
      A field experiment was conducted on an Ultic Haplustalf at the Kanchanaburi Research Station, Muang district, Kanchanaburi province, western Thailand between July 2011 and June 2012. Split plots in a randomized complete block design with four replications were employed, having eight main plots (soil moisture conservation practice and irrigation, W1–W8) and 2 sub plots (fertilization, F1 and F2). J. curcas (KUBP 78-9 Var.), having been planted at 2 × 2 m spacing, was aged 2 yr when the experiment was commenced. The highly significantly heaviest 100-seed weight of 42 g was obtained 1 mth after water irrigation which had been applied at the rate of 16 L/plant, particularly in the treatment with crop residue mulching (W8) but there were no significant differences among the other treatments where irrigation had been applied (W5–W7). Fertilization and a combination between different fertilizers and soil moisture conservation schemes plus irrigation showed no different effect on the weight of 100 seeds throughout the year of measurement. Growing J. curcas with drip-irrigated water at the rate of 16 L/plant applied every 2 d and crop residue mulching (W8) significantly gave the highest seed yield of 1,301.3 kg/ha at 15% moisture content. There were no significant differences among the seed yields from the plots applied with the same amount of irrigated water but with no mulching (W7) and half that amount of irrigated water with crop residue mulching (W6), producing yields of 1,112.0 kg/ha and 1,236.3 kg/ha, respectively. Three-year-old J. curcas gave inferior seed yield when grown with no irrigated water supply (W1–W4). The application of 50-150-150 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O significantly induced a higher amount of seed yield (933.9 kg/ha) than did the addition of 93.75-93.75-93.75 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O (786.3 kg/ha). The interaction between soil moisture conservation plus irrigation and fertilizer was clear. Applying 50-150-150 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O together with water irrigation at the rate of 16 L/plant (W7F2) significantly promoted the greatest seed yield of 1,415.2 kg/ha. However, irrigated water can be reduced to 8 L/plant in combination with crop residue mulching and the addition of 50-150-150 kg/ha of N-P2O5-K2O (W6F2) and the plants still performed well, producing a seed yield of 1,356.4 kg/ha. In addition, with no irrigation, none of the moisture conservation practices (W2–W4) showed any significant effects regardless of the different fertilizers applied.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.10.006
       
  • Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and
           cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    • Authors: Amporn Srikram; Suriyan Supapvanich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 January 2017
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Amporn Srikram, Suriyan Supapvanich
      Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak.) Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat.) Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr.) S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff.) fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr.) Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW) to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56−13.96%, 11.16−50.29%, 1.43−21.94%, 2.11−38.11% and 9.56−59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.08.001
       
  • Induction of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (PR-1) by acibenzolar-s-methyl
           application in pineapple and its effect on reniform nematodes
           (Rotylenchulus reniformis)

    • Authors: Buncha Chinnasri; Tamas Borsics; David A. Christopher; Brent S. Sipes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Buncha Chinnasri, Tamas Borsics, David A. Christopher, Brent S. Sipes
      The induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in pineapples (Ananus comosus) was studied as shown by the up-regulation of the PR-1 gene (the SAR marker) and examination of the SAR effect on the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed using degenerate primers designed from the PR-1 genes of several monocotyledonous (monocots) and dicotyledonous (dicots) plants. A 266 bp cDNA band was evident only in plants treated with the SAR inducer, acibenzolar-s-methyl. This 266 bp cDNA was sequenced and found to be highly homologous to a number of PR-1 genes from monocots. In addition, the amino acid sequence deduced from the 266 bp cDNA showed a high identity to PR-1 proteins from both monocots and dicots. Therefore, it was highly likely that this cloned fragment was part of the A. comosus PR-1 gene, indicating that A. comosus has an SAR pathway. The time course of PR-1 expression was studied. The results showed that PR-1 induction was initiated as early as 1 d after acibenzolar application and continued through 3 wk thereafter. The effect of SAR on the nematodes, Rotylenchulus reniformis, in pineapples was also elucidated. The results showed that the reproduction of nematodes on the pineapples treated with 100 mg/L or 200 mg/L was 55% lower than that on pineapples treated with 0 mg/L or 50 mg/L. Nematode reproduction on pineapples treated with the same concentration but inoculated at different times was not significantly different (p > 0.05).

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.04.008
       
  • Effects of stocking density on feather pecking and aggressive behavior in
           Thai crossbred chickens

    • Authors: Xin Huo; Pongchan Na-Lampang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Xin Huo, Pongchan Na-Lampang
      The influence of stocking density on feather pecking and aggressive behavior of Thai crossbred chickens was investigatedfrom age 4–12 wk. In total,900 day-old mixed sex Thai crossbred chickens were assigned to three replicates of 100 birds per pen, at stocking densities of 8birds/m2, 12 birds/m2and 16 birds/m2, respectively. The frequency of feather pecking, the number of pecks per bout, pecking intensity and the frequency of aggressive behavior were recorded once a week by scanning all the birds in the pen. It was found that the stocking density had no effect on the frequencies of feather pecking on body areas except on the wings area (p<0.05). The stocking density had no effect on the occurrence of 1–4 pecks per bout or 5–9 pecks per bout. The stocking density had no significant influence on the pecking, pinching or plucking intensity, except on the intensity of pulling. The different types of aggressive behavior such as stand-off, fight, threat, leap, chase, avoidance andpeck were not affected by the stocking density. In conclusion, stocking density did not affect the feather pecking activities and aggressive behavior of Thai crossbred chickens. However, further work is suggested with a larger number of replications to establish that there is no effect of stocking density, as the power of this study was low.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.04.006
       
  • Fish species, relative abundances and environmental associations in small
           rivers of the Mae Klong River basin in Thailand

    • Authors: Sampan Tongnunui; Frederick W.H. Beamish; Chunte Kongchaiya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Sampan Tongnunui, Frederick W.H. Beamish, Chunte Kongchaiya
      Fish species were collected by electrofishing from 96 sites, representing 79 species, in lightly exploited rivers in western Thailand. Significant chemical and physical environmental factors associated with species numbers and total fish abundance were identified using multiple linear regression. Total abundance correlated negatively with water depth and temperature (r = 0.4, p < 0.05), whereas species numbers correlated positively with river discharge and negatively with elevation (r = 0.6, p < 0.05). Chemical and physical factors that significantly influenced species distribution were determined using partial least squares regression analysis, (p < 0.05; axes 1, r = 0.8; axes 2, r = 0.85), and included elevation, river discharge, width and depth as well as ambient oxygen, alkalinity and pH. Fish were placed into four categories according to their habitat occupancy and abundance and termed; uncommon (54 species), common (16 species), even (8 species) and uneven (1 species), respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.09.001
       
  • Predatory thrips species composition, their prey and host plant
           association in Northern Thailand

    • Authors: Samaporn Saengyot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Samaporn Saengyot
      A survey of predatory thrips, their prey and associated host plants was carried out from February 2013 to February 2014 in Chiang Rai, Phayao, Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Lampang provinces in Northern Thailand. The survey revealed 10 species of predatory thrips in 5 genera in the Family Phlaeothripidae. They were: Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Androthrips flavipes Schmutz, Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), two indeterminate Karnyothrips sp.1 and sp.2, Leptothrips sp., Podothrips lucasseni (Krüger), and two indeterminate Podothrips sp. 1, and sp. 2. Eleven species of insect and mite pests serving as prey were found associated with 16 species of host plants in 13 families. They were: scale insects, Coccus viridis (Green) and two Coccus spp.; spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell; unidentified gall-making Hemiptera; coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); unidentified crambid lepidopterous larvae; Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida; santol gall mite, Eriophyes sandorici Nelepa; litchi rust mite, Aceria litchii (Keifer); and bamboo green mite, Aponychus corpuzae Rimando. The findings from this investigation could provide basic information necessary for further investigation in the use of some of these predatory thrips as biological control agents of insect and mite pests of economic importance in Thailand.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2015.10.002
       
  • Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of seed extract from Leucaena
           leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit

    • Authors: Pichaya Chowtivannakul; Buavaroon Srichaikul; Chusri Talubmook
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Pichaya Chowtivannakul, Buavaroon Srichaikul, Chusri Talubmook
      Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit has been used for various purposes such as treatment of stomach diseases, facilitation of abortion, contraception and the treatment of diabetes. Scientific information about this plant is limited. Therefore, this study investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and also the toxicity of seed extract from L. leucocephala (LLSE). Antidiabetic activity testing was carried out by giving LLSE at an oral dose of 250 mg/kg body weight to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats daily for 6 wk. The results revealed that LLSE significantly (p<0.05) reduced the fasting blood glucose and the blood chemistry consisting of: albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein and red blood cells in the diabetic-treated rats compared to those in diabetic-untreated rats. LLSE slightly increased the serum insulin level in the diabetic-treated rats. Using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that LLSE exhibited relatively low antioxidant activity with the concentration of a sample required for 50% scavenging of the DPPH free radical of 839.56 ± 37.34 μg/mL compared to vitamin C (1.48 ± 0.07 μg/mL). A spectrophotometric technique, based on the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, revealed that the total phenolic compound contents of LLSE were 37.38 ± 0.49 mg GAE/g. LLSE at doses of 1,000 mg/k body weight, 1,500 mg/k body weight and 2,000 mg/k body weight did not produce any symptoms of acute toxicity or mortality in the rats. These results indicated that seed extract from L. leucocephala has antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity is likely due to the phenolic content. An application of this extract should be considered as it can affect renal function by reducing the levels of albumin, ALP and total protein.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.06.007
       
  • New locality record of Monaxinoides austrosinensis (Mazocraeidea,
           Monaxinoididae) of finlet crevalle, Atule mate (Perciformes: Carangidae)
           from the Gulf of Thailand

    • Authors: Jittikan Intamong; Smarn Keawviyuth; Thanapon Yooyen; Kittichai Chantima
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Jittikan Intamong, Smarn Keawviyuth, Thanapon Yooyen, Kittichai Chantima
      Out of 203 Atule mate fish specimens examined, only 23 had parasitic monogeneans, Monaxinoides austrosinensis from the Gulf of Thailand. The prevalence and intensity of infection were 12.81% and 1.27%, respectively. Morphologically, the leaf-like body of M. austrosinensis was 5.88–8.07 mm long and 1.84–3.34 mm wide with a fan–shaped opisthohaptor at the posterior end. Numerous pores on the body tegument were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The muscular structure around the vaginal pore presented a number of sensory papillae. The opisthohaptor was one row of clamps which appeared similar in size. The presence of M. austrosinensis in this study is a new locality record in Thailand and is the first description based on scanning electron microscopy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.04.007
       
  • Effects of Operating Factors for an Axial-flow Corn Shelling Unit on
           Losses and Power Consumption

    • Authors: Waree Srison; Somchai Chuan-Udom; Khwantri Saengprachatanarak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Waree Srison, Somchai Chuan-Udom, Khwantri Saengprachatanarak
      The operating factors were studied for an axial-flow corn shelling unit that affected losses and power consumption. The shelling unit was 0.90 m long, with a diameter toward the end of the peg tooth of 0.30 m. The factors comprised three levels of moisture content (MC), three levels of feed rate (FR), and three levels of rotor speed (RS). The experiments were conducted based on response surface methodology and 23 factorial designs. The results of this study indicated that the MC significantly affected grain breakage and power consumption, but did not affect shelling unit losses. Increasing the MC increased both the grain breakage and power consumption. The FR affected the power consumption but did not affect shelling unit losses and grain breakage. Increasing the FR increased the power consumption. The RS had a significant impact on the shelling unit losses, grain breakage and power consumption. Increasing the RS increased the grain breakage and power consumption, but decreased the shelling unit losses. Empirical models were formulated based on multiple linear models.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.05.002
       
  • Antennal sensilla morphology of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera:
           Pteromalidae), a larval parasitoid of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais
           (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    • Authors: Supawan Kongjaroen Namikawa; Weerawan Amornsak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Supawan Kongjaroen Namikawa, Weerawan Amornsak
      The antennal sensilla of Theocolax elegans (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a larval parasitoid of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The antennal sensilla of female and male wasps appeared similar in shape and types. Antennal sensilla in female and male T. elegans were classified into four groups: basiconic capitate peg sensilla, chaetica sensilla (types 1–5), placoid sensilla and trichoid sensilla. Chaetica sensilla type 5 were found only on the female antenna. These four groups of antennal sensilla probably function as proprioceptors, hygro- and thermo- mechanoreceptors or contact chemoreceptors. The receptors are involved in host examination, host discrimination, host recognition and host location by female and male T. elegans.

      PubDate: 2017-01-05T23:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2015.12.003
       
  • Growth and survival of a diallel cross for five strains of climbing perch
           (Anabas testudineus Bloch, 1792) in Thailand

    • Authors: Nitikorn Piwpong; Jarunee Chiayvareesajja; Sommai Chiayvareesajja
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Nitikorn Piwpong, Jarunee Chiayvareesajja, Sommai Chiayvareesajja
      A complete diallel cross experiment was conducted with five strains of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) representing three wild populations collected from main river basins in Thailand and two farm populations in southern Thailand. Growth performance was recorded from 794 individually tagged progeny of the 24 different strain combinations after a grow-out period of about 130 d in an earthen pond. Least squares means of body weight at harvest and absolute growth rates were computed for each strain combination. The Chumphon strain showed the highest growth performance (81.1 ± 1.1 g). The Surat Thani×Chumphon (the first strain represents the sire) showed the highest survival (65.4 ± 25.50%) among the purebreds and the crossbreds. The domesticated gene pool had much better growth in aquaculture than the wild gene pool. The correlation between the least squares means of body weight and the survival rates in the 24 strain combinations was 0.51 (p < 0.05). The mean heterosis of all crossbreds across traits was negative (-10.2 ± 22.7%). Heterosis appeared to decrease when different gene pools were crossed. This suggests that there may be outbreeding depression. The advantage of crossbred performance was clearly not shown in the study.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T19:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.05.001
       
  • Impact of microsporidian infection on growth and development of silkworm
           Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    • Authors: Sunil Kumar Gupta; Zakir Hossain; Madana Mohanan Nanu; Kalidas Mondal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Sunil Kumar Gupta, Zakir Hossain, Madana Mohanan Nanu, Kalidas Mondal
      Several species and strains of microsporidia have been isolated from infected silkworms among which pebrine caused by Nosema bombycis Nageli is the most important. Infection from this disease causes severe economic loss in sericulture. Reduction of larval and pupal development and reduced weights in silkworms due to infection has been reported. In the present study, five microsporidian (Nosema) isolates from mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L. collected from different locations in West Bengal, India were sampled to study the impact of their infection on the growth and development of B. mori. The study revealed significant differences among the isolates in their ability to cause a reduction in the larval and pupal development of silkworm. Healthy larvae showed better body and tissue weights which were significantly higher than in infected lots. Among the isolates, M5 registered the maximum reduction in relative growth rate, larval silk gland tissue somatic index, larval male and female gonad tissue somatic index (GTSI) and pupal female GTSI compared to the healthy control. Male and female pupa treated with M5 spores died before emergence, suggesting that the M5 isolate was the most virulent.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T19:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.02.005
       
  • Contrastive effects of inorganic phosphorus addition on soil microbial
           respiration and microbial biomass in tropical monoculture tree plantation
           soils in Thailand

    • Authors: Taiki Mori; Chongrak Wachrinrat; Duriya Staporn; Ponthep Meunpong; Warawich Suebsai; Kazuki Matsubara; Khitja Boonsri; Warisa Lumban; Manassawee Kuawong; Thanida Phukdee; Juruwan Srifai; Kannika Boonman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Taiki Mori, Chongrak Wachrinrat, Duriya Staporn, Ponthep Meunpong, Warawich Suebsai, Kazuki Matsubara, Khitja Boonsri, Warisa Lumban, Manassawee Kuawong, Thanida Phukdee, Juruwan Srifai, Kannika Boonman
      An incubation experiment was conducted to test the effects of inorganic phosphorus (P) addition on soil microbial activities in tropical monoculture tree plantation soils. The soils taken from an experimental tree plantation site in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand were incubated for 48 hr with and without adding 100 μg of P (KH2PO4) per gram soil after adjusting the water holding capacity to 80%. During the incubation period, the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) contents determined using the chloroform fumigation extraction method decreased and P addition stimulated the decreased rate significantly. On the other hand, the P addition increased the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents and CO2 emissions. The study suggested that P addition had changed soil microbial activities, possibly including a soil microbial community change. Furthermore, the study showed that the stimulated soil respiration by P addition is not necessarily accompanied by increased MBC. The assessment of the effects of P limitation on soil microbial activities should measure at least the effects of P addition on both soil respiration and MBC, possibly combined with soil microbial community analyses.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T19:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.04.004
       
  • Micropropagation and callus induction of Lantana camara L. - a medicinal
           plant

    • Authors: Varaporn Veraplakorn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Varaporn Veraplakorn
      Lantana camara L., a medicinal plant, exhibits antimicrobial, fungicidal, insecticidal and nematicidal properties. Effective in vitro micropropagation and callus induction aid plant material production for bioactive compound studies and plant resource conservation. Shoot multiplication, root induction and callus formation were investigated. The results indicated a high shoot multiplication rate on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 16.0 μmol/L N6-benzyladenine (BA). Shoots showed good root regeneration with healthy plantlets on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 μmol/L indole-3-butyric acid. A large callus size occurred with roots at the basal end of shoots on the media added with 20.0 μmol/L or 40.0 μmol/L of 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) combined with 4.0 μmol/L BA. Leaf explants were more suitable for callus induction. Media containing only 4.0 μmol/L or 20.0 μmol/L or 40.0 μmol/L BA in combination with 0.0–40.0 μmol/L NAA could efficiently induce callus formation with the relative growth rate. These plants and callus will be suitable sources of plant material for further study in producing bioactive compounds.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T19:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.12.002
       
  • Responses of laying hens to induce molting procedures using cassava meal
           of variable length with or without recovery period

    • Authors: Nirat Gongruttananun; Kanokporn Saengkudrua
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Nirat Gongruttananun, Kanokporn Saengkudrua
      The effects were determined of varying the length of the recovery period on postmolt performance in laying hens induced to molt by cassava meal. The hens were randomly assigned to one of five groups: group 1 (NC), the control group, whereas groups 2 (IM0), 3 (IM1), 4 (IM2) and 5 (IM3) were subjected to an induced molt program. The procedure included a 14 d stress period, during which the birds were induced to molt with cassava meal, and recovery periods varying from 0 wk to 3 wk. Hens in the IM0, IM1, IM2 and IM3 groups had recovery periods of 0 wk, 1 wk, 2 wk and 3 wk, respectively, during which they were fed a pullet developer diet. During the early postmolt period, the egg production of the IM0 group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The IM1 hens consumed significantly more feed and had a significantly higher feed conversion ratio than the control birds. The albumen height was significantly improved by the IM0 and IM1 treatments. No consistent differences were observed among treatments for any parameter of postmolt performances, except for improved albumen weight and mortality rate, which were observed in the IM3 group. Scanning electron microscopy illustrated evidence of erosion in the mammillary layer of the shell in the control hens. The density of the mammillary knobs in all molted groups was significantly lower than that of the control group. The mammillary knob diameter of the IM2 group was significantly greater than that of the control group.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T19:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.06.008
       
  • Development and evaluation of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) taper equations
           in northern Thailand

    • Authors: Andrew J. Warner; Monton Jamroenprucksa; Ladawan Puangchit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Andrew J. Warner, Monton Jamroenprucksa, Ladawan Puangchit
      Taper refers to the general decrease in the regular outline of a solid body from its base to its tip. Taper models are used to estimate the volume and value of wood products from harvesting trees. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is highly valued as one of the world’s most preferred timbers and a teak taper equation is required to inform optimal harvesting strategies given the limited plantation resource available in Thailand. Teak taper equations were developed and evaluated based on 331 sample trees collected in 2014 from eight plantations in northern Thailand aged from 10 to 46 yr using two taper model formulations—the Kozak variable-exponent taper model and the Goodwin cubic polynomial model comprising hyperbolic and parabolic terms. Variants based on both model types were fitted using nonlinear regression analysis with diameter at breast height, total tree height and height of girth measurement as the independent variables to estimate diameter underbark at the nominated height. Goodness-of-fit and leave-one-out cross validation with lack-of-fit statistical testing combined with extensive graphical analysis of residuals were used to select the best model. A Goodwin model variant (named FIO-teak1 as the first plantation teak taper model known to be published in Thailand) provided the best estimates of volume and diameter underbark. A simple case study confirmed that FIO-teak1 in combination with the Farm Forestry Toolbox software package could assist teak plantation managers in decision making associated with optimizing log grade value based on standing tree inventory data.

      PubDate: 2016-12-25T19:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.04.005
       
  • Table of content

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources, Volume 50, Issue 4


      PubDate: 2016-12-09T13:29:58Z
       
  • Development of somatic embryos for genetic transformation in Curcuma longa
           L. and Curcuma mangga Valeton & Zijp

    • Authors: Vachiraporn Pikulthong; Tharathorn Teerakathiti; Arinthip Thamchaipenet; Surin Peyachoknagul
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Vachiraporn Pikulthong, Tharathorn Teerakathiti, Arinthip Thamchaipenet, Surin Peyachoknagul
      Buds from rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. variety ‘Chumphon’ and Curcuma mangga Valeton & Zijp variety ‘Phetchaburi’ were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L N6-benzyladenine (BA) for multiple shoot induction. Their shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of one of two plant growth regulators or a combination of both—2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Interestingly, the medium containing both auxins (5 mg/L 2, 4-D and 5 mg/L NAA) was best for somatic embryo induction after culturing for 4 weeks. Somatic embryo formation reached 87.50% for C. longa and 95.83% for C. mangga with a high quality of loose, friable and yellowish characters. The best conditions for the formation of shootlets occurred after transferring the somatic embryo to MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BA, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 3% maltose. The shootlets were rooted by transferring to MS medium containing 3.0 mg/L NAA. This is the first report of a complete in vitro regeneration system from somatic embryos of C. longa and C. mangga which was further used for gene manipulation in these plants. Diketide CoA synthase (DCS) and curcumin synthase (CURS) genes, which are the two genes involved in curcuminoid biosynthesis in turmeric, were cloned and transferred to these two species using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence of both target and marker genes, hpt, in the transformed somatic embryos was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay. After culturing, the transformed somatic embryos could survive for 4 weeks.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2015.08.004
       
  • Chemical constituents from Melodorum fruticosum Lour. flowers against
           plant pathogenic fungi

    • Authors: Rachsawan Mongkol; Jittra Piapukiew; Warinthorn Chavasiri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Rachsawan Mongkol, Jittra Piapukiew, Warinthorn Chavasiri
      The antifungal activity of hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of 45 Thai plants were in vitro screened against plant phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria porri, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora parasitica). Seven extracts strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of fungi. The plant extracts with highest antifungal activity were Limnophila aromatic, Eupatorium odoratum, Melodorum fruticosum and Alpinia galanga with 70%, 58%, 74% and 100% inhibition, respectively. The potent dichloromethane extract from M. fruticosum flowers was separated using bioassay guided against P. parasitica. Eight compounds: 1-hexacosanol (1), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (2), β-sitosterol (3), melodorinone B (4), benzoic acid (5), chrysin (6), melodorinol (7) and melodorinone A (8) could be isolated. Among the isolated compounds, benzoic acid (5) and melodorinol (7) exhibited strong activity against mycelial growth of P. parasitica at 100% and 93% inhibition with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 108 μg/mL and 130 μg/mL, respectively. This plant could be exploited for eco-friendly management control of plant diseases.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.03.001
       
  • Chemical composition of essential oil and hexane extract and antioxidant
           activity of various extracts of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) cass flowers from
           indonesia

    • Authors: Askal Maimulyanti; Anton Restu Prihadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Askal Maimulyanti, Anton Restu Prihadi
      Medicinal plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant which are used in the prevention and treatment of disease like artherosclerosis, heart stroke, diabetes and cancer and to delay the process of aging. Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass is an edible herb traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. Analysis of volatile components in the flower extract used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed the main components of the essential oil were caryophyllene (21.27%), caryophyllene oxide (15.49%), and 3-carene (10.73%). The main components of the hexane extract were N-isobutyl-2E, 6Z, 8E-decatrienamide (37.80%), α-pinene (4.98%) and hexadacanoic acid-methyl ester (4.78%). The antioxidant activity of A. uliginosa (Sw.) Cass flower from Indonesia was determined using 1,1, diphenyl- 2- picryl hydrazine (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The IC50 (defined as the total antioxidant necessary to decrease the initial DPPH radical by 50%) of extracts was calculated. A comparative study determined that A. uliginosa (Sw.) Cass in methanol extract showed higher antioxidant potential (IC50 = 96.83 μg/mL) compared to ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 123.46 μg/mL) and n-hexane extract (905.92 μg/mL) against DPPH free radicals.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2015.11.002
       
  • Siderophore production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa FP6, a biocontrol strain
           for Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing diseases
           in chilli

    • Authors: Bhaktavatchalu Sasirekha; Srividya Shivakumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Bhaktavatchalu Sasirekha, Srividya Shivakumar
      Siderophores are compounds secreted under low iron stress, which act as specific ferric iron chelating agents. Owing to their potential in the biological control of fungal phytopathogens, they may be used as an alternative strategy to chemical control. Pseudomonas aeruginosa FP6, previously isolated from rhizospheric soil samples was screened for its siderophore production on a chrome-azurol S agar plate. Change in the color of the chrome-azurol S agar from blue to orange red confirmed the siderophore producing ability of P. aeruginosa FP6. The effects of various physicochemical parameters on siderophore production were studied. The maximum siderophore production was obtained in succinate medium (125 μM) followed by King’s B medium (105 μM). The presence of sucrose and mannitol increased the siderophore production. Yeast extract proved to be the most suitable nitrogen source. Media supplemented with Pb2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ showed appreciable siderophore production as well as growth of cultures. An increase in the iron concentration favored growth but substantially reduced siderophore production. The strain when tested for its in-vitro antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on King’s B media, with and without FeCl3, showed a significant reduction in R. solani growth with FeCl3 supplementation compared to the control (without FeCl3), suggesting the role of siderophore mediated antagonism of R. solani. Antifungal activity was not influenced by FeCl3 in the case of C. gloeosporioides, suggesting the presence of other antagonistic mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.02.003
       
  • Isolation and characterization of chitinase from soil fungi, Paecilomyces
           sp

    • Authors: Methanee Homthong; Anchanee Kubera; Matana Srihuttagum; Vipa Hongtrakul
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Methanee Homthong, Anchanee Kubera, Matana Srihuttagum, Vipa Hongtrakul
      Chitinolytic fungal strains were isolated from soil in Thailand. They were screened as chitinase producers by testing their shrimp shell digestion ability on potato dextrose agar plates. The chitinase activity was tested with colloidal chitin in culture medium C and basal medium. There was greater activity in culture medium C than in the basal medium. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis from the culture filtrate of medium C showed three protein bands at about 40 kDa, 46 kDa and 56 kDa. The chitinase gene was sequenced from genomic DNA. The obtained sequence consisted of 713 bp upstream, a 1,499 bp open reading frame that was interrupted by three introns and 1,698 bp downstream sequences. The intron lengths were 63 bp, 57 bp and 110 bp, respectively. The sequence was found to be the most similar to the chitinase gene of Paecilomyces lilacinus (EF183511). Pairwise alignment of the 1,499 bp and P. lilacinus resulted in 72.5% DNA sequence identity, while alignment of the 1,269 bp coding sequence and P. lilacinus resulted in 78.5% cDNA sequence identity and 83.5% amino acid sequence identity. The protein structure contained two conserved domains of the putative substrate binding site (S-I-G-G) and catalytic domain (D-G-I-D-L-D-W-E), suggesting that this fungal chitinase belonged to the glycosyl hydrolases family 18 chitinase (GH18). Phylogenetic analysis of the chitinase gene from the nematopathogenic fungi suggested that this chitinase sequence was class V chitinase.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2015.09.005
       
  • Variation of Lycopene and Beta-carotene Contents after Harvesting of Gac
           Fruit and its Prediction

    • Authors: Apinya Bhumsaidon; Montip Chamchong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Apinya Bhumsaidon, Montip Chamchong
      The effects were investigated of three different stages of harvesting, the storage time and sample preparation methods before extraction using a Waring blender (WBM) or ball mill (BMM) on the lycopene and β-carotene contents from the gac aril. It was found that after harvesting and being stored at 26 ± 1°C and 24 ± 1% RH for 15 d, the lycopene contents from the color break, medium ripe and fully ripe stages of gac fruits grown in Thailand were in the ranges 0.11–8.99 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), 3.88–22.94 mg/100 g FW and 18.95–50.11 mg/100 g FW, respectively, while the β-carotene contents were in the ranges 0.002–4.82 mg/100 g FW, 0.31–13.59 mg/100 g FW and 22.68–39.16 mg/100 g FW, respectively. In addition, neither the WBM nor the BMM sample preparation method had any significant (p > 0.05) effect on the analysis of these phytonutrients. Gac fruit at the fully ripe stage after 6 d of storage provided the highest lycopene content of 50.11 ± 1.59 mg/100 g FW, while the β-carotene was found highest (39.16 ± 1.29 mg/100 g FW) from fully ripe stage fruit after 15 d storage or when they had spoiled. Without classifying the fruits according to harvesting stages, equations for mixed ripe fruit were able to predict the lycopene and β-carotene contents in the aril with coefficients of determination of 0.77 and 0.89 with standard errors of the estimate of 16.09 and 6.39, respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.04.003
       
  • Prebiotic synthesis from rice using Aspergillus oryzae with solid state
           fermentation

    • Authors: Thornthan Sawangwan; Premsuda Saman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Thornthan Sawangwan, Premsuda Saman
      Prebiotic synthesis from economical substrates (glutinous rice and rice bran) using Aspergillus oryzae TISTR 3102 and TISTR 3222 with solid state fermentation (SSF) was explored. The pH value, alpha-glucosidase activity and total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration were monitored during incubation with different substrate ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 weight per weight (w/w). After 7 d incubation under SSF in glutinous rice and rice bran at 1:2 w/w, the highest alpha-glucosidase activity (4.49 Unit/mL) and TRS concentration (16.84 g/L) were detected. The product mixtures consisted of several reducing sugars as prebiotic compounds, especially panose and isomaltotriose. The prebiotic properties were investigated for their growth stimulation on two probiotic strains (Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and the inhibition of two pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella paratyphi). These product mixtures under solid state fermentation (SSF) using A. oryzae in variable rice ratios displayed high efficiency with regard to prebiotic properties and were deemed appropriate for prebiotic production.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.02.004
       
  • Efficacies of wettable pellet and fresh culture of Trichoderma asperellum
           biocontrol products in growth promoting and reducing dirty panicles of
           rice

    • Authors: Phraomas Charoenrak; Chiradej Chamswarng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2016
      Source:Agriculture and Natural Resources
      Author(s): Phraomas Charoenrak, Chiradej Chamswarng
      Wettable pellets and fresh culture (fungus-colonized rice seeds) bioproducts of Trichoderma asperellum isolates 01-52 and CB-Pin-01, respectively, were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing dirty panicle or seed discoloration, and to increase the growth and yield of rice var. Chai Nat 1. Rice seeds were soaked (Sk) in a spore suspension of wettable pellets (20 g/20 L) or a fresh culture of bioproducts (100 g/20 L) of the fungus for 24 hr. Soaked seeds were incubated for another 24 hr before sowing. The 21-day-old seedlings were transplanted into small plots (1 m2 × 3 m2). Rice plants were sprayed (Sp) three times during the growing period with a spore suspension from the two bioproducts. The results indicated that both wettable pellet 01-52 (Sk+Sp) and fresh culture CB-Pin-01 (Sk+Sp) formulations significantly increased the plant height, number of tillers per hill, 1,000-seed weight and total yield of rice compared to the untreated control. The incidence of dirty whole rice panicles, dirty panicle infected seed and empty seed were significantly reduced, while healthy seed were increased compared to the untreated control. Rice root colonization by T. asperellum isolates 01-52 and CB-Pin-01 were detected from the seedling through to the harvesting stage. The seedling vigor index and seedling health index of seedlings grown from 5 month-stored healthy and dirty panicle infected seeds treated by both wettable pellet 01-52 (Sk+Sp) and fresh culture CB-Pin-01 (Sk+Sp) bioproducts were significantly higher than the untreated control. All Trichoderma treatments increased whole kernels plus head rice and reduced broken rice in milled brown rice.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T13:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anres.2016.04.001
       
 
 
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