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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3160 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 403, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 359, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 464, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Water Resources
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.551
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 48  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0309-1708
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Modeling electrokinetic transport and biogeochemical reactions in porous
           media: a multidimensional Nernst-Planck-Poisson approach with PHREEQC
           coupling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Riccardo Sprocati, Matteo Masi, Muhammad Muniruzzaman, Massimo Rolle Electrokinetic techniques (EK) have been proposed and applied in different fields of science and engineering to enhance solute transport and species mobility in subsurface porous media. Modeling of EK requires a comprehensive approach allowing the description of the complex interplay between physical, chemical and biogeochemical processes occurring in EK applications. We propose a multidimensional modeling approach that allows the integrated description of fluid flow, solute transport (including electromigration and electroosmosis), Coulombic interactions between transported species, and a wide range of kinetic and equilibrium reactions. The proposed modeling tool, NP-Phreeqc-EK, is a coupling between COMSOL Multiphysics, which is used to solve fluid flow and solute transport in saturated porous media based on a Nernst-Planck-Poisson formulation, and PhreeqcRM, used to solve geochemical reactions. We illustrate the capabilities of NP-Phreeqc-EK with selected benchmarks in domains with different dimensions (1D, 2D and 3D). The results of the model are successfully compared with analytical solutions, numerical simulations with other software, and data from previously published EK-experiments. The outcomes of this study show the flexibility of the approach in simulating electrokinetic reactive transport processes in saturated porous media and highlight the importance of Coulombic interactions in EK applications. Such electrostatic interactions can strongly impact the performance of EK techniques since they affect the displacement velocities of charged species and can limit the maximum concentration of amendments that can be delivered through electromigration.
       
  • UAV-Based Measurements of Spatio-Temporal Concentration Distributions of
           Fluorescent Tracers in Open Channel Flows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Donghae Baek, Il Won Seo, Jun Song Kim, Jonathan M. Nelson A new method of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based tracer tests using RGB images was developed in order to acquire the spatio-temporal concentration distribution of tracer clouds in open channel flows. Tracer tests using Rhodamine WT were conducted to collect the RGB images using the commercial digital camera mounted on a UAV, and the concentration of Rhodamine WT using in-situ fluorometric probes. The correlation analysis showed that the in-situ measured concentrations of Rhodamine WT were strongly correlated with the digital number (DN) of the RGB images, even though the response of DN to the concentration was spatially heterogeneous. The empirical relationship between the DN values and the Rhodamine WT concentration data was estimated using artificial neural network (ANN) models. The trained ANN models, which consider the effect of water depth and river bed, accurately retrieved the detailed spatio-temporal concentration distributions of all study areas that had an R2 higher than 0.9. The acquired spatio-temporal concentration distributions by the proposed method based on the UAV images gave general as well as detailed views of the tracer cloud moving dynamically in open channel flows that cannot be easily observed using conventional in-situ measurements.
       
  • Evaluating lateral flow in an experimental channel using the diffusive
           wave inverse problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Roger Moussa, Samer Majdalani Lateral flow L(t) is a major process during flood events, which can be either gains (positive) or losses (negative) to the channel. The inverse problem consists of evaluating L(t) knowing the inflow I(t) and the outflow O(t) on a channel. However L(t) is very difficult to measure on real channels, and we are always not sure to which extent the evaluated L(t) is close to the real one. This paper aims at evaluating L(t) in a channel using the analytical solution of the inverse problem of the Hayami diffusive wave equation (DWE) with L(t) uniformly distributed along the channel. We conceived and built a novel experimental channel where I(t), O(t) and L(t) are highly controlled at 1 second time step and we realize 62 experimental hydrograph scenarios corresponding to different shapes of I(t) and L(t). We validate the hypotheses of both the DWE Hayami model and the corresponding inverse model (with very high criteria functions values for a large majority of scenarios) which reflects the ability of the DWE inverse model to reproduce complex lateral flow hydrograph dynamics. We discuss the limits of application of the DWE especially for short wave lengths. The coupled experimental-modelling approach proposed herein opens promising perspectives regarding the evaluation of lateral flow on real channels.
       
  • Analysis of the influence of averaged positive second invariant Qav of
           deformation tensor ∇u on the maximum dilution index Emax in steady Darcy
           flows through isotropic heterogeneous porous media.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Anthony Beaudoin, Arthur Dartois, Serge Huberson Characterization of flow topology is essential to understand the effects of the heterogeneity and dimensionality of geological formations on the mixing of inert solute clouds in these same geological formations. In this work, we numerically study two indicators of flow topology, the averaged vorticity magnitude ω av and the averaged positive second invariant Qav of the deformation tensor ∇u, in steady Darcy flows through exponentially correlated lognormal hydraulic conductivity fields K. Our numerical results allow us to establish the relationships between the two indicators considered here and the hydraulic conductivity variance σ2 in 2D and 3D, highlighting the role played by the spatial structure of these porous media on flow topology, and indirectly on mixing. This work leads us to assess the maximum dilution index Emax, indicator of mixing, theoretically known to increase monotonically in steady Darcy flows through isotropic heterogeneous porous media. Our numerical results allow us to test this hypothesis by establishing the relationship between the slope a of maximum dilution index Emax and the averaged positive second invariant Qav of deformation tensor ∇u. The parameters of this relationship depend on molecular diffusion and dimensionality of problem considered.
       
  • A new second-order shallow water scheme on two-dimensional structured
           grids over abrupt topography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Andreas Buttinger-Kreuzhuber, Zsolt Horváth, Sebastian Noelle, Günter Blöschl, Jürgen Waser This paper presents a finite volume (FV) scheme on structured grids to simulate shallow flows over complex terrain. The situation of shallow downhill flow over a step is particularly challenging for most shallow water schemes. We study this situation in detail and devise a novel second-order reconstruction strategy, which gives superior results over former hydrostatic reconstruction (HR) schemes. The reconstruction step is based on a recent first-order hydrostatic reconstruction HR method, which improves shallow flows over steps. The proposed second-order scheme is well-balanced, positivity-preserving, and handles dry cells. When compared with the original HR, we lower the computational burden by using a simplified quadrature for the bed slope source term. We test the scheme on various benchmark setups to assess accuracy and robustness, where the method produces comparable results to other HR-based schemes in most cases and superior results in the case of shallow downhill flow over steps. The novel second-order scheme is capable of simulating large-scale real-world flood scenarios fast and accurately.
       
  • Computationally efficient modeling of hydro-sediment-morphodynamic
           processes using a hybrid local time step/global maximum time step
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Peng Hu, Yunlong Lei, Jianjian Han, Zhixian Cao, Huaihan Liu, Zhiguo He A hybrid local time step/global maximum time step (LTS/GMaTS) method is proposed for computationally efficient modeling of hydro-sediment-morphodynamic processes. The governing equations are numerically solved on unstructured triangular meshes using a well-balanced shock-capturing finite volume method with the HLLC approximate Riemann solver. High computational efficiency is achieved by implementing the LTS to solve equations governing sediment-laden flows (i.e., the hydro-sediment part), and implementing the GMaTS to solve equations governing bed materials (i.e., the morphodynamic part). Two benchmark experimental dam-break flows over erodible beds and one field case of the Taipingkou waterway, Middle Yangtze River, are simulated to demonstrate the high computational efficiency and the satisfactory quantitative accuracy. It is shown that the computational efficiency of the new model can be faster by an order of magnitude than a traditional model of similar type but implementing the global minimum time step (GMiTS). The satisfactory quantitative accuracy of the new model for the present cases is demonstrated by the negligible L2 norms of water level and bed elevation between the new model and the traditional model, as compared to the L2 norms between the traditional model and the measured data.
       
  • Positron Emission Tomography in Water Resources and Subsurface Energy
           Resources Engineering Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Christopher Zahasky, Takeshi Kurotori, Ronny Pini, Sally M. Benson Recent studies have demonstrated that positron emission tomography (PET) is a valuable tool for in-situ characterization of fluid transport in porous and fractured geologic media at the laboratory scale. While PET imaging is routinely used for clinical cancer diagnosis and preclinical medical research—and therefore imaging facilities are available at most research institutes—widespread adoption for applications in water resources and subsurface energy resources engineering have been limited by real and perceived challenges of working with this technique. In this study we discuss and address these challenges, and provide detailed analysis highlighting how positron emission tomography can complement and improve laboratory characterization of different subsurface fluid transport problems. The physics of PET are reviewed to provide a fundamental understanding of the sources of noise, resolution limits, and safety considerations. We then layout the methodology required to perform laboratory experiments imaged with PET, including a new protocol for radioactivity dosing optimization for imaging in geologic materials. Signal-to-noise and sensitivity analysis comparisons between PET and clinical X-ray computed tomography are performed to highlight how PET data can complement more traditional characterization methods, particularly for solute transport problems. Finally, prior work is critically reviewed and discussed to provide a better understanding of the strengths and weakness of PET and how to best utilize PET-derived data for future studies.
       
  • Investigation of impact of shoreline alteration on coastal hydrodynamics
           using Dimension REduced Surrogate based Sensitivity Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Advances in Water Resources, Volume 126Author(s): Gaofeng Jia, Ruo-Qian Wang, Mark T Stacey To inform the decision-making of coastal protection against sea level rise (SLR), we have to estimate the impact of shoreline alterations on the hydrodynamics. This task involves estimating of a large number of shoreline decision combinations. Here we present a sensitivity analysis based approach to understand how the variation in the shoreline, for example, due to construction of seawalls at different location along the shoreline, would impact the water levels over the coastal region under SLR. To facilitate efficient sensitivity analysis for expensive high-fidelity numerical models with high-dimensional outputs, we propose a Dimension REduced Surrogate based Sensitivity Analysis (DRESSA) method. DRESSA uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to exploit the correlation in the high-dimensional outputs to find a low-dimensional latent output representation, then builds a surrogate model for the latent outputs based on a small number of runs of the high-fidelity numerical model. In the end, DRESSA first establishes relevant covariance matrices for the low-dimensional latent outputs using the surrogate model, and then directly establishes sensitivity indexes for the high-dimensional outputs using these covariance matrices and the derived transformation between sensitivity in latent space and original space. We applied this method to generate sensitivity maps and investigate the impact of different containment strategies on peak water level (PWL) over the entire San Francisco Bay under SLR.
       
  • Hydraulic conductivity and porosity heterogeneity controls on
           environmental performance metrics: Implications in probabilistic risk
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Arianna Libera, Christopher V. Henri, Felipe P.J. de Barros Heterogeneities in natural porous formations, mainly manifested through the hydraulic conductivity (K) and, to a lesser degree, the porosity (ϕ), largely control subsurface flow and solute transport. The influence of the heterogeneous structure of K on transport processes has been widely studied, whereas less attention is dedicated to the joint heterogeneity of conductivity and porosity fields. Our study employs Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the coupled effect of K−ϕ spatial variability on the transport behavior (and uncertainty) of conservative and reactive plumes within a 3D aquifer domain. We explore multiple scenarios, characterized by different levels of heterogeneity of the geological properties, and compare the computational results from the joint K−ϕ heterogeneous system with the results originating from generally adopted constant ϕ conditions. In our study, the spatially variable K−ϕ fields are positively correlated. We statistically analyze key Environmental Performance Metrics: first arrival times and peak mass fluxes for non-reactive species and increased lifetime cancer risk for reactive chlorinated solvents. The conservative transport simulations show that considering coupled K−ϕ fields decreases the plume dispersion, increases both the first arrival times of solutes and the peak mass fluxes at the observation planes. A positive correlation between aquifer connectivity and peak mass fluxes is identified for both homogeneous and heterogeneous ϕ. Our conservative transport results indicate that the relevance of ϕ variability can depend on the metric of interest, the control plane-source distance as well as the level of heterogeneity of the conductivity field. The analysis on reactive transport shows that ϕ variability only slightly affects the mean increased lifetime cancer risk at the control planes but leads to a considerable reduction of the cancer risk uncertainty. We also see that the sensitivity of cancer risk towards ϕ heterogeneity can be influenced by the level of variability of the conductivity field, the source-to-control plane distance, but is not affected by the manner in which the contaminant concentration is computed.
       
  • Real-time simulation of surface water and groundwater with data
           assimilation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Xin He, Diana Lucatero, Marc-Etienne Ridler, Henrik Madsen, Jacob Kidmose, Øyvind Hole, Claus Petersen, Chunmiao Zheng, Jens Christian Refsgaard Data assimilation (DA) has proven to be a useful technique in real-time hydrological modeling and forecasting. Jointly assimilating both surface water and groundwater data has promising application value for hydrological simulations in areas where surface water and groundwater are closely linked; however, such studies have not been intensively reported. In addition, the role of the quality of precipitation forecast has not been fully addressed in real-time forecasting using a coupled surface water - groundwater model, where the model evaluation includes both deterministic and probabilistic forecasts. In the present study, we use the MIKE SHE hydrological model code in conjunction with the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter DA technique. The study area is a small urbanized catchment in Denmark. The model is run in simulated real-time using historical numerical weather prediction forecasts. The results show that DA can significantly reduce model bias and thereby improve model performance for both surface water and groundwater simulations. Comparing the impact of DA and rainfall forecast quality, it is found that, for streamflow forecasts, the most important factor is the quality of the rainfall data; whereas for groundwater head forecasts, the initial state at time of forecast is more important. We also find that inclusion of rainfall forecast uncertainty may be important for simulating a single event, however, it is not vital if long-term average model performance is of interest.
       
  • Autumn drought drives functional diversity of benthic diatom assemblages
           of continental intermittent streams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Viktória B-Béres, Béla Tóthmérész, István Bácsi, Gábor Borics, András Abonyi, Kálmán Tapolczai, Frederic Rimet, Ágnes Bouchez, Gábor Várbíró, Péter Török Climate change is predicted to increase drought occurrence and severity in small continental watercourses. Here, we studied the structure and the functional diversity of benthic diatom assemblages in lowland intermittent and permanent watercourses of the Carpathian basin. We assumed that the community structure of intermittent and permanent watercourses would be markedly different, and the functional diversity in both would be strongly influenced by autumn drought. We found that intermittent streams were primarily characterized by small-sized generalists and aerophilic taxa, while permanent watercourses were inhabited by large-sized planktic or fast moving groups. The functional richness was significantly lower in intermittent than in permanent streams. This decrease in the functional richness of benthic algal communities may negatively affect the functioning of lotic algal communities. We conclude that diatom assemblages in lowland intermittent watercourses are sensitive indicators of changes in ecosystem properties, and should be considered in appropriate evaluation and management of extreme climatic events on aquatic ecosystems.
       
  • Hybrid pore-network and Lattice-Boltzmann permeability modelling
           accelerated by machine learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Arash Rabbani, Masoud Babaei In this paper, a permeability calculation workflow is presented that couples pore network modeling (PNM) with a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to benefit from the strengths of both approaches. Pore network extraction is implemented using a watershed segmentation algorithm on 12 three-dimensional porous rock images. The permeabilities of all throats are calculated using the LBM and substituted in the pore network model instead of using the cylindrical formulation for throat’s permeability based on the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. Solving the LBM for every throat results in an accurate representation of flow but the algorithm is computationally expensive. In order to minimize the computational costs, LBM is used to model the steady-state incompressible fluid flow through 9,333 different throat images and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is trained to mimic the trend of throat’s permeabilities based on the cross–sectional images. To this end, we extract several morphological features of the throats cross–sectional images and search for the best describing feature. It is found that the averaged distance map of the throat images is highly correlated with the LBM-based permeability of throats to the extent that even a simple empirical correlation can reasonably describe the relationship between these two parameters. Finally, we compare the absolute permeability of samples obtained by full LBM with the presented hybrid method. Results show that the proposed method provides an accurate estimation of permeability with a considerable reduction in the computational CPU time.
       
  • Impact of absorbing and reflective boundaries on fractional derivative
           models: Quantification, evaluation and application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Yong Zhang, Xiangnan Yu, Xicheng Li, James F. Kelly, HongGuang Sun, Chunmiao Zheng Fractional-derivative models are promising tools for characterizing non-Fickian transport in heterogeneous media. Most fractional models utilize an infinite domain, although realistic problems occur on bounded domains. To quantify the impact of a finite or semi-infinite boundary on non-Fickian transport in natural geological media, this study evaluates three representative fractional advection-dispersion equations (FADEs) with absorbing or reflective boundaries. Results show that the temporal FADE (t-FADE) with absorbing/reflective boundaries has analytical solutions, the one-sided spatial FADE (s-FADE) in bounded-domains can be simulated using an Eulerian solver, and the tempered spatiotemporal FADE (st-FADE) can be efficiently solved using a fully Lagrangian approach. Further simulations reveal important impacts of absorbing/reflective boundaries on non-Fickian diffusion. First, the “local” reflective boundary mainly affects the solute dynamics near the boundary for non-local super-diffusion, while the “nonlocal” reflective boundary changes the overall pattern of non-Fickian transport in the whole domain. Second, the total mass for solutes in absorbing boundaries declines non-linearly with respect to time. Third, the mobile and immobile phase plumes tend to respond differently to the boundary because of their different transport mechanisms. Fourth, a field application shows that both the s-FADE with a negative skewness and the t-FADE can be used to quantify bounded-domain sub-diffusion for fluorescein dye transport in the Red Cedar River with a large Péclet number, although the determination of the upstream boundary position contains high uncertainty. Evaluation of the boundary impact on sub-diffusion, super-diffusion, and their mixture may improve our understanding of the nature of non-Fickian transport in bounded domains.
       
  • Comparing ERT- and scaling-based approaches to parameterize soil hydraulic
           properties for spatially distributed model applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): P. Nasta, J. Boaga, R. Deiana, G. Cassiani, N. Romano Optimal management of water resources depends on the prediction capability of process-based hydrological models. New generation Richards equation-based distributed models provide detailed descriptions of hydrological processes that, however, depend highly on the proper assessment of the spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties (SHPs). Field surveys and sampling campaigns commonly provide sparse local scale measurements of SHPs. Nevertheless, the challenge is to transfer this information from the “observation scale” to the “model scale” by increasing as much as possible the prediction efficiency with affordable practical burdens. The performances of two parameterization approaches are compared in this study in terms of outputs of water budget simulated by the HydroGeoSphere (HGS) model in a small catchment. The first approach relies on knowledge of soil hydraulic data from soil cores (centimeter scale) collected in many locations of the study site and the application of the Miller-Miller scaling technique enabling the spatial variability of the so-called “aggregated” SHPs to be described over the spatial domain of interest. The second approach, instead, estimates a set of “equivalent” SHPs through the numerical inversion of geophysical data measured with the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) during an infiltration experiment (meter scale) performed in only one plot-transect of the study catchment. The SHPs obtained by these two approaches are then assigned to each numerical grid cell in HGS to simulate the catchment-scale soil water budget at daily time resolution. Within the framework of a functional evaluation, we compare the performance of these two soil hydraulic parameterization approaches in terms of streamflow (viewed as a lumped flux) and near-surface soil effective saturation patterns (viewed as distributed state variables). Better comparisons between observed and simulated streamflow values are obtained when the study site is parameterized using the “equivalent” SHPs. Conversely, the HGS water budget simulations using the “aggregated” SHPs are more effective when one should describe the spatial patterns of near-surface soil moisture values. This study highlights the pros and cons and potential flaws when choosing two different parameterization techniques in spatially distributed modeling applications.
       
  • Numerical Simulation of Hydro-mechanical Coupling in Fractured Vuggy
           Porous Media Using the Equivalent Continuum Model and Embedded Discrete
           Fracture Model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Xia Yan, Zhaoqin Huang, Jun Yao, Zhao Zhang, Piyang Liu, Yang Li, Dongyan Fan In this study, an efficient numerical model is proposed to simulate the hydro-mechanical coupling in the fractured vuggy porous media containing multi-scale fractures and vugs. Specifically, an improved Equivalent Continuum Model (ECM), which is obtained through the asymptotic homogenization method, is applied to model micro fractures and vugs, while macro fractures are modeled explicitly by using the Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) and non-matching grids. As an important feature of the explicit representment, the effects of fillings and fluid pressure on preventing macro fractures from closing can be considered. After that, the new mixed space discretization (i.e., Mimetic Finite Difference (MFD) method for flow and stabilized eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) for geomechanics) and fully coupled methods are applied to solve the proposed model. The mixed space discretization can deal with complex heterogeneous properties (e.g., full tensor permeability), and yields the benefits of local mass conservation and numerical stability in space. Finally, we demonstrate the accuracy and application of the proposed model to capture the coupled hydro-mechanical impacts of multiscale fractures and vugs on fluid flow in fractured porous media.
       
  • Pore–scale analysis of Supercritical CO2–brine immiscible displacement
           under fractional–wettability conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Sahar Bakhshian, Seyyed Abolfazl Hosseini The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of wettability heterogeneity on pore–scale characteristics of Supercritical (sc) CO2 displacement dynamics and its capillary trapping mechanism during a scCO2–brine drainage and imbibition cycle. A multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) model was employed to simulate scCO2–brine flow in rock samples of Tuscaloosa sandstone taken from the Cranfield CO2 injection site. Using a spectral method, we adopted various wettability fields to generate rock samples containing distributed CO2–wet regions. To gain a better insight into the effect of fractional wettability on scCO2 displacement patterns during drainage, we quantified the evolution of scCO2 interface with brine and rock surface for samples with various wettability heterogeneities. In addition, the effect of heterogeneous wettability on the drainage relative permeability and capillary pressure curves has been investigated in this study. According to our results, heterogeneous distribution of CO2–wet regions in the rock leads to more dispersed fluid distribution and, hence, more tortuous flow paths, resulting in higher interfacial area between fluid phases and rock surface at any given scCO2 saturation. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of wettability controls the scCO2 entrapment pattern and spatial distribution of residual scCO2 clusters during brine flooding. In fractional–wet samples, residence of scCO2 phase in CO2–wet regions creates more trapped scCO2 clusters, suppressing the connectivity of the CO2 phase, thus enhancing more residual trapping. Our results imply that the total number of scCO2 clusters and, as a result, their residual trapping, increases as the fraction of CO2–wet regions becomes larger, leading to a larger surface area of scCO2 with brine and rock surface, potentially, facilitating the likelihood of long-term dissolution and mineral trapping.
       
  • Numerical Equivalence Between SPH and Probabilistic Mass Transfer Methods
           for Lagrangian Simulation of Dispersion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Guillem Sole-Mari, Michael J. Schmidt, Stephen D. Pankavich, David A. Benson Several Lagrangian methodologies have been proposed in recent years to simulate advection-dispersion of solutes in fluids as a mass exchange between numerical particles carrying the fluid. In this paper, we unify these methodologies, showing that mass transfer particle tracking (MTPT) algorithms can be framed within the context of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), provided the choice of a Gaussian smoothing kernel whose bandwidth depends on the dispersion and the time discretization. Numerical simulations are performed for a simple dispersion problem, and they are compared to an analytical solution. Based on the results, we advocate for the use of a kernel bandwidth of the size of the characteristic dispersion length ℓ=2DΔt, at least given a “dense enough” distribution of particles, for in this case the mass transfer operation is not just an approximation, but in fact the exact solution, of the solute’s displacement by dispersion in a time step.
       
  • PRIMo: Parallel Raster Inundation Model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Brett F. Sanders, Jochen E. Schubert Simulation of flood inundation at metric resolution is important for making hazard information useful to a wide range of end-users involved in flood risk management, and addressing the alarming increase in flood losses that have been observed over recent decades. However, high data volumes and computational demands make this challenging over large spatial extents comparable to the metropolitan areas of major cities where flood impacts are concentrated, especially for time-sensitive applications such as forecasting and repetitive simulation for uncertainty assessment. Additionally, several factors present difficulties for numerical solvers including combinations of steep and flat topography that promote transcritical flows, the need to resolve flow in relatively narrow features such as drainage channels and roadways in urban areas which channel flood water during extreme events, and the need to depict compound hazards resulting from the interaction of pluvial, fluvial and coastal flooding. A new flood inundation model is presented here to address these challenges. The Parallel Raster Inundation Model (PRIMo) solves the shallow-water equations on an upscaled grid that is far coarser than the underlying raster digital topographic model (DTM), and uses a subgrid modeling approach so that the solution benefits from DTM-scale topographic data. Additionally, an approximate Riemann solver is applied in an innovative way to integrate fluxes between cells, as needed to update the solution by the finite volume method, which makes the method applicable to subcritical, supercritical and transcritical flows. PRIMo is implemented using a two-dimensional domain decomposition approach to Single Process Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel computing, and overlapping communications and computations are implemented to yield ideal parallel scaling for well-balanced test cases. With both a subgrid model and ideal parallel scaling, the model can scale to meet the demands of any application. Several benchmarks are presented to demonstrate predictive skill and the potential for timely, whole-city, metric-resolution flooding simulations. Limitations of the methods and opportunities for improvements are also presented.
       
  • Extending Darcy's law to the flow of Yield Stress fluids in packed beds:
           method and experiments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Antonio Rodríguez de Castro A large number of complex fluids commonly used in industry exhibit yield stress, e.g., concentrated polymer solutions, waxy crude oils, emulsions, colloid suspensions and foams. Yield stress fluids are frequently injected through unconsolidated porous media in many fields such as soil remediation and reservoir engineering, so modelling their flow through this type of media is of great economic importance. However, obtaining macroscopic laws to model non-Newtonian flow poses a considerable challenge given the dependence of the viscosity of the fluid on pore velocity. For this reason, no macroscopic equation is currently available to predict the relationship between injection flow rate and the pressure drop generated during the flow of a yield stress fluid without using any adjustable parameter. In this work, a method to extend Darcy's equation to the flow of yield stress fluids through model unconsolidated porous media consisting of packs of spherical beads is presented. Then, the method is experimentally validated through comparison with a total of 572 experimental measurements obtained during the flow of a concentrated aqueous polymer solution through different packs of glass spheres with uniform size. An improved prediction of the pressure drop-flow rate relationship is achieved by taking into account the non-linear relationship between apparent shear rate and average pore velocity.
       
  • Eulerian-Lagrangian flow-vegetation interaction model using immersed
           boundary method and OpenFOAM
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Haifei Chen, Qing-Ping Zou This paper presents a coupled flow-vegetation interaction model capable to resolve the flow and motions of flexible vegetation with large deflections simultaneously using a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian grid. The hydrodynamics model is based on a Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Volume of Fluid surface capturing method in OpenFOAM. The deforming and moving vegetation are tracked through a series of Lagrangian grids attached to the vegetation and embedded in the computational domain of OpenFOAM. The governing equations for the flexible vegetation motion are based on the slender rod theory and are solved by a Finite Element Method on a vegetation-following Lagrangian grid. The hydrodynamics and vegetation models are coupled through the vegetation-induced hydrodynamic forces using a novel diffused immersed boundary method to avoid excessive fluid grid refinements around the vegetation. The standard two-equation k − ε turbulence model is extended for vegetated flow by incorporating additional closure terms of vegetation effects. The newly developed coupled flow-vegetation model is validated against experiments for both individual single-stem vegetation and a vegetation patch in a large-scale wave flume. Model results of vegetation motion, wave height decay, and wave kinematics within and outside the vegetation patch are in good agreement with measurements. Modifications of the wave kinematics by the presence of vegetation patch leads to a strong current jet near the top of vegetation patch, which in turn drives a local circulation pattern around the vegetation patch. The effect of vegetation bending stiffness on the model results and empirical drag and inertia coefficients for calculating the hydrodynamic force are examined. Maximum turbulence energy is observed close to the bed and the top of vegetation patch just before and after the wave crest/trough, where the relative flow velocity to vegetation is large.
       
  • Impact of boundary excitation on stability of a diffusive boundary layer
           in porous media
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Seyed Mostafa Jafari Raad, Hamid Emami-Meybodi, Hassan Hassanzadeh We study the effects of boundary excitation on the onset of natural convection and the dynamics of subsequent convective mixing by conducting linear stability analysis (LSA) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). A detailed parametric analysis on the stability of a diffusive boundary layer in porous media subject to three different types of linear decline, linear decline followed by constant concentration, and symmetric flat floored valley shape boundary conditions is presented. We propose scaling relations based on results of LSA to describe the critical time and the associated wavenumber of convective instabilities that incorporate the effect of the boundary parameters. The LSA results show that the classic onset criterion is applicable when decline factors (α) is smaller than 10−4. The results also demonstrate that α does not play a significant role in the instability of the system unless it is greater than 10−4. The results show that in systems with linear concentration decline followed by constant concentration, the impact of decline on the stability of the system decreases as α increases. Based on the LSA results, a system with α>10−2 leads to unified stability criteria at different constant concentration (χ) similar to the classic problem, when the transient time (τ) and the wavenumber (κ) are rescaled by χ as τχ2 and κ/χ, respectively. Our results also show that the duration of the flat portion in symmetric flat floored valley shape boundary condition is the main factor controlling the stability behavior of the system. The DNS results reveal that the dynamics of the buoyancy-driven mixing is also significantly influenced by the temporal variation of concentration at the boundary. These findings improve our understanding of buoyancy-driven instabilities in the presence of boundary excitation and finds applications in thermal and solutal convection in porous media.
       
  • Ex-situ priors: A Bayesian hierarchical framework for defining informative
           prior distributions in hydrogeology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Karina Cucchi, Falk Heße, Nura Kawa, Changhong Wang, Yoram Rubin Stochastic modeling is a common practice for modeling uncertainty in hydrogeology. In stochastic modeling, aquifer properties are characterized by their probability density functions (PDFs). The Bayesian approach for inverse modeling is often used to assimilate information from field measurements collected at a site into properties’ posterior PDFs. This necessitates the definition of a prior PDF, characterizing the knowledge of hydrological properties before undertaking any investigation at the site, and usually coming from previous studies at similar sites. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian hierarchical algorithm capable of assimilating various information–like point measurements, bounds and moments–into a single, informative PDF that we call ex-situ prior. This informative PDF summarizes the ex-situ information available about a hydrogeological parameter at a site of interest, which can then be used as a prior PDF in future studies at the site. We demonstrate the behavior of the algorithm on several synthetic case studies, compare it to other methods described in the literature, and illustrate the approach by applying it to a public open-access hydrogeological dataset.
       
  • Assimilation of Doppler Weather Radar Data with a Regional WRF-3DVAR
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): P. Thiruvengadam, J. Indu, Subimal Ghosh Short-term precipitation forecasts from numerical weather prediction models are a vital source of information for real-time flood forecasting systems. Previous studies show that assimilation of Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) observations significantly improves the forecast skill of short-term precipitation. However, the variational assimilation methods used for DWR assimilation are sensitive to the selection of control variable options in background error statistics. In this study, the impact of control variable choices in assimilating DWR observations for improving the forecast of heavy rainfall event is analysed. For this purpose radar reflectivity and radial velocity, observations are assimilated using stream function velocity potential (ψχ) and horizontal wind components (uv) control variable options in Weather Research and Forecast model – 3DVAR (three-dimensional variational assimilation system). The results show that DWR assimilation using uv control variable option has improved the skill of first 12 hour of high intensity precipitation forecasts.
       
  • In situ and satellite-based estimates of usable groundwater storage across
           India: implications for drinking water supply and food security
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Soumendra N. Bhanja, Abhijit Mukherjee Groundwater use in India has been in the limelight in recent years due to its intensive and apparent unsustainable use that poses threats to water security, drinking water supply and food production. Here, we present estimates of usable groundwater storage, for the first time, at the state-level across all of India using both in situ and satellite-based measurements. Groundwater-level data are used from 3907 in situ monitoring wells across India and the total usable groundwater storage (UGWS) is estimated between 2005 and 2013. The UGWS estimates indicates high rates of depletion (>5 km3/yr) of groundwater storage (GWS) in north-east India (i.e. Assam), even though increase in precipitation has been observed in that state. Satellite-based (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, GRACE) estimates indicate that the development of recent GWS-depletion zones is concentrated in unconsolidated sediments or lithotype across the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal. In contrast, southern and central Indian states (such as Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Chattisgarh), show replenishing GWS trends. We also find that the states with highest groundwater depletion rates are subjected to water-intensive cropping practices. We temporally downscale the UGWS with support from GRACE satellite-based measurements. We conclude that the approach we developed here can be applied in other parts of the world to devise management options for sustainable groundwater use.
       
  • COMPUTATIONS OF PERMEABILITY OF LARGE ROCK IMAGES BY DUAL GRID DOMAIN
           DECOMPOSITION
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): YD Wang, T Chung, R.T. Armstrong, J McClure, P Mostaghimi Digital rock physics (DRP) is an eminent technology that facilitates and repeatable core analysis and multi-physics simulation of rock properties. One of the challenges in this field is the scalability of the problem size, whereby large micro-CT images over the order of 10003 voxels incur a high computational demand on performance. We estimate the of permeability in large digital samples of rocks imaged by micro-CT by using a fast and efficient Dual Grid Domain Decomposition technique based on the Schwarz Alternating Method (slow, low memory) with Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) solvers (fast, high memory) to solve on an otherwise unfeasible shared-memory machine. The comparisons and differences to other methods commonly used have been added in the introduction. The method applies a scalable parallel simulation algorithm to solve pressure and velocity fields using the Semi Analytical Pore Scale Finite Volume Solver (PFVS) within real 3D pore-scale micro-CT images. The domain is split into non-overlapping coarse partitions and also split into a set of dual coarse partitions of varying width. The governing equations are then solved iteratively between the partition sets by updating the pressure and flux at the relevant boundaries before each step. The method is validated and shown to converge to flux continuous conditions requisite of the governing equations. Permeability estimation is within 5-10% of the fine scale solution and significantly reduces memory limitations and computational time for solving problems in micro-CT images, allowing ordinary workstations to solve images over 10003 within the magnitude of 1-100 hours of CPU time. The permeability of a 2520 × 2520 × 7250 sample was calculated with a workstation to within 9% error of LBM calculated with a supercomputer within a similar timeframe.
       
  • Numerical Simulation of Flow Through Suspended and Non-Suspended Canopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Wenwan Cheng, Zhaochen Sun, Shuxiu Liang Aquatic vegetation and marine aquaculture structures construct different forms of canopy. The existence of canopies produces drag resistance to water flow, alters ambient hydrodynamic and ecological environment. This work presents a numerical model to simulate flow through suspended and non-suspended canopies incorporating the interaction between the fluid field and the vegetation or structures. The numerical model is established based on Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equations with additional canopy drag terms. Turbulence is modeled using two-equation k − ε model which takes into account the effect of canopies by an approximation of dispersive fluxes using the drag force produced by the canopy. The plant stem deformation and drag resistance are simulated accounting for both internal and external forces. An empirical formula for the bulk drag coefficient of the canopy region involving the shelter effect is proposed based on numerical simulation and laboratory experiment calibration. The numerical model is validated with existing data from field observation and laboratory experiments.
       
  • Corrigendum to “A new upscaling method for fractured porous media”
           [Advances in Water Resources 80 (2015): 60-68.]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Tao Chen, Christoph Clauser, Gabriele Marquart, Karen Willbrand, Darius Mottaghy
       
  • The effects of cascade dam construction and operation on riparian
           vegetation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Yu-jun Yi, Yang Zhou, Jie Song, Shanghong Zhang, Yanpeng Cai, Wei Yang, Zhifeng YangABSTRACTRiparian vegetation acts as a corridor, filter, or barrier for the flow of material, energy, and information between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. While, dam construction, especially cascade dam construction, bring huge changes to riparian vegetation. In this study, the changing of riparian vegetation cover in response to the construction and operation of large dams at different scale was analyzed. The variations of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in longitudinal and transverse directions during pre- and post-dam construction were calculated and analyzed. The results showed that dam height was the main determining factor for the range of riparian vegetation affected in the longitudinal direction, whereas valley contour and distance to dam site affect the transverse direction vegetation together. A linear or logarithmic relation between submerged area in transverse and the distance to dam were founded. After dam construction, the NDVI in the valley becomes uniform, and the vegetation grows more homogeneously. Influence extent of different elevation in different reaches was discussed. The intensive affected area including inundated area and 200m from the water surface in vertical direction. As the altitude grows, the influence gets weak. Positive effect of a single dam on vegetation in upstream reservoir was found except near channel grade, and a potential oligotrophic threat for the downstream vegetation was posted. For cascade dams, the vegetation in the upstream of Xiaowan dam became better from elevation 200-400m above original water surface. The NDVI between Xiaowan dam and Manwan dam, which at downstream of Xiaowan but in reservoir of Manwan, degraded after Xiaowan dam constructed. Cascade dams have cumulative effects on vegetation, the influence are positive or negative mainly depend on diversion of the dam.
       
  • Wave-induced morphodynamics and sediment transport around a slender
           vertical cylinder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Massimo Miozzi, Sara Corvaro, Francisco Alves Pereira, Maurizio Brocchini We study the dynamics of a sandy bed around a slender vertical cylinder forced by progressive, non-linear water waves. The seabed evolves continuously under the effects of the up-welling, down-welling and rolling events induced by vortical coherent structures. In turn, these are closely connected to the shape of the seabed, which is modified by the scouring and/or the deposition of the sand. Starting from a flat seabed, progressive waves induce a rapid and transient modification of the bottom morphology towards a dynamically stable equilibrium state, which is the focus of this work. The dynamical equilibrium state is a function of the wave period and is reached when the seabed morphology is not substantially altered. We describe such a state by an Eulerian in-phase analysis of the sand particle motion, inferred from Lagrangian data collected over a large number of wave passages. This analysis relies on the use of the defocusing digital PIV technique (DDPIV), for the first time applied to the specific flow of interest here. On the basis of the Eulerian analysis, the triggering of the key-events (up- and down-welling, rolling) over the wave phase is captured by identifying, through the Q > 0 criterion, the coherent flow structures responsible for the events. This analysis is coupled with the description of the sediment trajectories, analyzed in a Lagrangian manner and effectively assessing how and where the solid phase is transported during the key-events. Five main mobilization/transport mechanisms have been identified, three during the onshore flow and two during the offshore flow: (i) generation of a coherent structure reminiscent of a horseshoe vortex at the toe, (ii) intense scouring at the top of the flatbed region, (iii) vortex shedding in the wake during direct (onshore) flow, (iv) shear crossflow on the lee-side of the cylinder and (v) large vertical shearing in the flatbed region during the reverse (offshore) flow. At flow reversal, this shearing mechanism impacts on a significant area of sediments in the incoming region of the flow.
       
 
 
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