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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 351, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Water Resources
  [SJR: 2.408]   [H-I: 94]   [43 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0309-1708
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • A comparison of discrete versus continuous adjoint states to invert
           groundwater flow in heterogeneous dual porosity systems
    • Authors: Frederick Delay; Hamid Badri; Marwan Fahs; Philippe Ackerer
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 110
      Author(s): Frederick Delay, Hamid Badri, Marwan Fahs, Philippe Ackerer
      Dual porosity models become increasingly used for simulating groundwater flow at the large scale in fractured porous media. In this context, model inversions with the aim of retrieving the system heterogeneity are frequently faced with huge parameterizations for which descent methods of inversion with the assistance of adjoint state calculations are well suited. We compare the performance of discrete and continuous forms of adjoint states associated with the flow equations in a dual porosity system. The discrete form inherits from previous works by some of the authors, as the continuous form is completely new and here fully differentiated for handling all types of model parameters. Adjoint states assist descent methods by calculating the gradient components of the objective function, these being a key to good convergence of inverse solutions. Our comparison on the basis of synthetic exercises show that both discrete and continuous adjoint states can provide very similar solutions close to reference. For highly heterogeneous systems, the calculation grid of the continuous form cannot be too coarse, otherwise the method may show lack of convergence. This notwithstanding, the continuous adjoint state is the most versatile form as its non-intrusive character allows for plugging an inversion toolbox quasi-independent from the code employed for solving the forward problem.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Dendrohydrogeology in paleohydrogeologic studies
    • Authors: V. Gholami; J. Torkaman; M.R. Khaleghi
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 110
      Author(s): V. Gholami, J. Torkaman, M.R. Khaleghi
      Dendrohydrogeology can be used to simulate historical groundwater depth, water table drawdown, groundwater recharge and piezometric lines. We simulated paleohydrogeologic conditions via tree-rings and vessel chronologies using an artificial neural network (ANN) in the alluvial aquifer of the Caspian southern coast of Iran during the past century. Tree-ring width, vessel features, secondary piezometric well data, and precipitation from different sites within the study area were evaluated. After cross-dating, standardization and time series analysis, the relationships between tree-rings and vessel chronologies with groundwater depth were defined and simulated. Additionally, paleohydrogeologic records during the past century were simulated. The results generally demonstrate that tree-ring width is a better index than vessel features. However, we obtained the most exact groundwater depth modeling results by using the combination of tree-rings and earlywood vessel diameter from periods of low precipitation and groundwater fluctuations and significant temperature fluctuations. We also found that dendrohydrogeology has more applicability in groundwater modeling in areas where groundwater depth fluctuates 10–20 m below ground surface (based on root depth and water access). Moreover, using the simulated groundwater depths, piezometric lines in 1927 and 2000 (the years with maximum natural recharge and maximum drawdown respectively) were extracted using an interpolation technique and Geographic Information System (GIS). Finally, we suggest applying dendrohydrogeology for paleohydrogeologic modeling in alluvial aquifers.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Vortex-induced suspension of sediment in the surf zone
    • Authors: Junichi Otsuka; Ayumi Saruwatari; Yasunori Watanabe
      Pages: 59 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 110
      Author(s): Junichi Otsuka, Ayumi Saruwatari, Yasunori Watanabe
      A major mechanism of sediment suspension by organized vortices produced under violent breaking waves in the surf zone was identified through physical and computational experiments. Counter-rotating flows within obliquely descending eddies produced between adjacent primary roller vortices induce transverse convergent near-bed flows, driving bed load transport to form regular patterns of transverse depositions. The deposited sediment is then rapidly ejected by upward carrier flows induced between the vortices. This mechanism of vortex-induced suspension is supported by experimental evidence that coherent sediment clouds are ejected where the obliquely descending eddies reach the sea bed after the breaking wave front has passed. In addition to the effects of settling and turbulent diffusion caused by breaking waves, the effect of the vortex-induced flows was incorporated into a suspension model on the basis of vorticity dynamics and parametric characteristics of transverse flows in breaking waves. The model proposed here reasonably predicts an exponential attenuation of the measured sediment concentration due to violent plunging waves and significantly improves the underprediction of the concentration produced by previous models.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Geological heterogeneity: Goal-oriented simplification of structure and
           characterization needs
    • Authors: Heather Savoy; Thomas Kalbacher; Peter Dietrich; Yoram Rubin
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 109
      Author(s): Heather Savoy, Thomas Kalbacher, Peter Dietrich, Yoram Rubin
      Geological heterogeneity, i.e. the spatial variability of discrete hydrogeological units, is investigated in an aquifer analog of glacio-fluvial sediments to determine how such a geological structure can be simplified for characterization needs. The aquifer analog consists of ten hydrofacies whereas the scarcity of measurements in typical field studies precludes such detailed spatial models of hydraulic properties. Of particular interest is the role of connectivity of the hydrofacies structure, along with its effect on the connectivity of mass transport, in site characterization for predicting early arrival times. Transport through three realizations of the aquifer analog is modeled with numerical particle tracking to ascertain the fast flow channel through which early arriving particles travel. Three simplification schemes of two-facies models are considered to represent the aquifer analogs, and the velocity within the fast flow channel is used to estimate the apparent hydraulic conductivity of the new facies. The facies models in which the discontinuous patches of high hydraulic conductivity are separated from the rest of the domain yield the closest match in early arrival times compared to the aquifer analog, but assuming a continuous high hydraulic conductivity channel connecting these patches yields underestimated early arrivals times within the range of variability between the realizations, which implies that the three simplification schemes could be advised but pose different implications for field measurement campaigns. Overall, the results suggest that the result of transport connectivity, i.e. early arrival times, within realistic geological heterogeneity can be conserved even when the underlying structural connectivity is modified.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Maximizing the value of pressure data in saline aquifer characterization
    • Authors: Seonkyoo Yoon; John R. Williams; Ruben Juanes; Peter K. Kang
      Pages: 14 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 109
      Author(s): Seonkyoo Yoon, John R. Williams, Ruben Juanes, Peter K. Kang
      The injection and storage of freshwater in saline aquifers for the purpose of managed aquifer recharge is an important technology that can help ensure sustainable water resources. As a result of the density difference between the injected freshwater and ambient saline groundwater, the pressure field is coupled to the spatial salinity distribution, and therefore experiences transient changes. The effect of variable density can be quantified by the mixed convection ratio, which is a ratio between the strength of two convection processes: free convection due to the density differences and forced convection due to hydraulic gradients. We combine a density-dependent flow and transport simulator with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to analyze the effects of freshwater injection rates on the value-of-information of transient pressure data for saline aquifer characterization. The EnKF is applied to sequentially estimate heterogeneous aquifer permeability fields using real-time pressure data. The performance of the permeability estimation is analyzed in terms of the accuracy and the uncertainty of the estimated permeability fields as well as the predictability of breakthrough curve arrival times in a realistic push-pull setting. This study demonstrates that injecting fluids at a rate that balances the two characteristic convections can maximize the value of pressure data for saline aquifer characterization.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Combining human and machine intelligence to derive agents’ behavioral
           rules for groundwater irrigation
    • Authors: Yao Hu; Christopher J. Quinn; Ximing Cai; Noah W. Garfinkle
      Pages: 29 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 109
      Author(s): Yao Hu, Christopher J. Quinn, Ximing Cai, Noah W. Garfinkle
      For agent-based modeling, the major challenges in deriving agents’ behavioral rules arise from agents’ bounded rationality and data scarcity. This study proposes a “gray box” approach to address the challenge by incorporating expert domain knowledge (i.e., human intelligence) with machine learning techniques (i.e., machine intelligence). Specifically, we propose using directed information graph (DIG), boosted regression trees (BRT), and domain knowledge to infer causal factors and identify behavioral rules from data. A case study is conducted to investigate farmers' pumping behavior in the Midwest, U.S.A. Results show that four factors identified by the DIG algorithm- corn price, underlying groundwater level, monthly mean temperature and precipitation- have main causal influences on agents’ decisions on monthly groundwater irrigation depth. The agent-based model is then developed based on the behavioral rules represented by three DIGs and modeled by BRTs, and coupled with a physically-based groundwater model to investigate the impacts of agents’ pumping behavior on the underlying groundwater system in the context of coupled human and environmental systems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Large-scale model of flow in heterogeneous and hierarchical porous media
    • Authors: Morgan Chabanon; Francisco J. Valdés-Parada; J. Alberto Ochoa-Tapia; Benoît Goyeau
      Pages: 41 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 109
      Author(s): Morgan Chabanon, Francisco J. Valdés-Parada, J. Alberto Ochoa-Tapia, Benoît Goyeau
      Heterogeneous porous structures are very often encountered in natural environments, bioremediation processes among many others. Reliable models for momentum transport are crucial whenever mass transport or convective heat occurs in these systems. In this work, we derive a large-scale average model for incompressible single-phase flow in heterogeneous and hierarchical soil porous media composed of two distinct porous regions embedding a solid impermeable structure. The model, based on the local mechanical equilibrium assumption between the porous regions, results in a unique momentum transport equation where the global effective permeability naturally depends on the permeabilities at the intermediate mesoscopic scales and therefore includes the complex hierarchical structure of the soil. The associated closure problem is numerically solved for various configurations and properties of the heterogeneous medium. The results clearly show that the effective permeability increases with the volume fraction of the most permeable porous region. It is also shown that the effective permeability is sensitive to the dimensionality spatial arrangement of the porous regions and in particular depends on the contact between the impermeable solid and the two porous regions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Efficient multi-scenario Model Predictive Control for water resources
           management with ensemble streamflow forecasts
    • Authors: Xin Tian; Rudy R. Negenborn; Peter-Jules van Overloop; José María Maestre; Anna Sadowska; Nick van de Giesen
      Pages: 58 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 109
      Author(s): Xin Tian, Rudy R. Negenborn, Peter-Jules van Overloop, José María Maestre, Anna Sadowska, Nick van de Giesen
      Model Predictive Control (MPC) is one of the most advanced real-time control techniques that has been widely applied to Water Resources Management (WRM). MPC can manage the water system in a holistic manner and has a flexible structure to incorporate specific elements, such as setpoints and constraints. Therefore, MPC has shown its versatile performance in many branches of WRM. Nonetheless, with the in-depth understanding of stochastic hydrology in recent studies, MPC also faces the challenge of how to cope with hydrological uncertainty in its decision-making process. A possible way to embed the uncertainty is to generate an Ensemble Forecast (EF) of hydrological variables, rather than a deterministic one. The combination of MPC and EF results in a more comprehensive approach: Multi-scenario MPC (MS-MPC). In this study, we will first assess the model performance of MS-MPC, considering an ensemble streamflow forecast. Noticeably, the computational inefficiency may be a critical obstacle that hinders applicability of MS-MPC. In fact, with more scenarios taken into account, the computational burden of solving an optimization problem in MS-MPC accordingly increases. To deal with this challenge, we propose the Adaptive Control Resolution (ACR) approach as a computationally efficient scheme to practically reduce the number of control variables in MS-MPC. In brief, the ACR approach uses a mixed-resolution control time step from the near future to the distant future. The ACR-MPC approach is tested on a real-world case study: an integrated flood control and navigation problem in the North Sea Canal of the Netherlands. Such an approach reduces the computation time by 18% and up in our case study. At the same time, the model performance of ACR-MPC remains close to that of conventional MPC.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • A probabilistic collocation based iterative Kalman filter for landfill
           data assimilation
    • Authors: Qiang Zheng; Wenjie Xu; Jun Man; Lingzao Zeng; Laosheng Wu
      Pages: 170 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Qiang Zheng, Wenjie Xu, Jun Man, Lingzao Zeng, Laosheng Wu
      Accurate forecast of landfill gas (LFG) transport has remained as an active research area, due to the safety and environmental concerns, as well as the green energy potential. The iterative ensemble Kalman filter (IEnKF) has been used to characterize the heterogeneous permeability field of landfills. As a Monte Carlo-based method, IEnKF requires a sufficiently large ensemble size to guarantee its accuracy, which may result in a huge computational cost, especially for large-scale problems. In this study, an efficient probabilistic collocation based iterative Kalman filter (PCIKF) is developed. The polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) is employed to represent and propagate the uncertainties, and an iterative form of Kalman filter is used to assimilate the measurements. To further reduce the computational cost, only the zeroth and first-order ANOVA (analysis of variance) components are kept in the PCE approximation. As demonstrated by two numerical case studies, PCIKF shows significant superiority over IEnKF in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The developed method has the potential to reliably predict and develop best management practices for landfill gas production.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T08:41:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Balancing Exploration, Uncertainty and Computational Demands in Many
           Objective Reservoir Optimization
    • Authors: Jazmin Zatarain Salazar; Patrick M. Reed; Julianne D. Quinn; Matteo Giuliani; Andrea Castelletti
      Pages: 196 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Jazmin Zatarain Salazar, Patrick M. Reed, Julianne D. Quinn, Matteo Giuliani, Andrea Castelletti
      Reservoir operations are central to our ability to manage river basin systems serving conflicting multi-sectoral demands under increasingly uncertain futures. These challenges motivate the need for new solution strategies capable of effectively and efficiently discovering the multi-sectoral tradeoffs that are inherent to alternative reservoir operation policies. Evolutionary many-objective direct policy search (EMODPS) is gaining importance in this context due to its capability of addressing multiple objectives and its flexibility in incorporating multiple sources of uncertainties. This simulation-optimization framework has high potential for addressing the complexities of water resources management, and it can benefit from current advances in parallel computing and meta-heuristics. This study contributes a diagnostic assessment of state-of-the-art parallel strategies for the auto-adaptive Borg Multi Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA) to support EMODPS. Our analysis focuses on the Lower Susquehanna River Basin (LSRB) system where multiple sectoral demands from hydropower production, urban water supply, recreation and environmental flows need to be balanced. Using EMODPS with different parallel configurations of the Borg MOEA, we optimize operating policies over different size ensembles of synthetic streamflows and evaporation rates. As we increase the ensemble size, we increase the statistical fidelity of our objective function evaluations at the cost of higher computational demands. This study demonstrates how to overcome the mathematical and computational barriers associated with capturing uncertainties in stochastic multiobjective reservoir control optimization, where parallel algorithmic search serves to reduce the wall-clock time in discovering high quality representations of key operational tradeoffs. Our results show that emerging self-adaptive parallelization schemes exploiting cooperative search populations are crucial. Such strategies provide a promising new set of tools for effectively balancing exploration, uncertainty, and computational demands when using EMODPS.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T08:41:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Geophysical characterisation of the groundwater–surface water
    • Authors: P.J. McLachlan; J.E. Chambers; S.S. Uhlemann; A. Binley
      Pages: 302 - 319
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 109
      Author(s): P.J. McLachlan, J.E. Chambers, S.S. Uhlemann, A. Binley
      Interactions between groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) have important implications for water quantity, water quality, and ecological health. The subsurface region proximal to SW bodies, the GW–SW interface, is crucial as it actively regulates the transfer of nutrients, contaminants, and water between GW systems and SW environments. However, geological, hydrological, and biogeochemical heterogeneity in the GW–SW interface makes it difficult to characterise with direct observations. Over the past two decades geophysics has been increasingly used to characterise spatial and temporal variability throughout the GW–SW interface. Geophysics is a powerful tool in evaluating structural heterogeneity, revealing zones of GW discharge, and monitoring hydrological processes. Geophysics should be used alongside traditional hydrological and biogeochemical methods to provide additional information about the subsurface. Further integration of commonly used geophysical techniques, and adoption of emerging techniques, has the potential to improve understanding of the properties and processes of the GW–SW interface, and ultimately the implications for water quality and environmental health.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:13:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Analytical estimation of annual runoff distribution in ungauged seasonally
           dry basins based on a first order Taylor expansion of the Fu's equation
    • Authors: D. Caracciolo; R. Deidda; F. Viola
      Pages: 320 - 332
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 109
      Author(s): D. Caracciolo, R. Deidda, F. Viola
      The assessment of the mean annual runoff and its interannual variability in a basin is the first and fundamental task for several activities related to water resources management and water quality analysis. The scarcity of observed runoff data is a common problem worldwide so that the runoff estimation in ungauged basins is still an open question. In this context, the main aim of this work is to propose and test a simple tool able to estimate the probability distribution of the annual surface runoff in ungauged river basins in arid and semi-arid areas using a simplified Fu's parameterization of the Budyko's curve at regional scale. Starting from a method recently developed to derive the distribution of annual runoff, under the assumption of negligible inter-annual change in basin water storage, we here generalize the application to any catchment where the parameter of the Fu's curve is known. Specifically, we provide a closed-form expression of the annual runoff distribution as a function of the mean and standard deviation of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, and the Fu's parameter. The proposed method is based on a first order Taylor expansion of the Fu's equation and allows calculating the probability density function of annual runoff in seasonally dry arid and semi-arid geographic context around the world by taking advantage of simple easy-to-find climatic data and the many studies with estimates of the Fu's parameter worldwide. The computational simplicity of the proposed tool makes it a valuable supporting tool in the field of water resources assessment for practitioners, regional agencies and authorities.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:13:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Hydrology, water resources and the epidemiology of water-related diseases
    • Authors: Enrico Bertuzzo; Lorenzo Mari
      Pages: 329 - 331
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 108
      Author(s): Enrico Bertuzzo, Lorenzo Mari

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T08:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Hydroclimatic sustainability assessment of changing climate on cholera in
           the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin
    • Authors: Fariborz Nasr-Azadani; Rakibul Khan; Javad Rahimikollu; Avinash Unnikrishnan; Ali Akanda; Munirul Alam; Anwar Huq; Antarpreet Jutla; Rita Colwell
      Pages: 332 - 344
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 108
      Author(s): Fariborz Nasr-Azadani, Rakibul Khan, Javad Rahimikollu, Avinash Unnikrishnan, Ali Akanda, Munirul Alam, Anwar Huq, Antarpreet Jutla, Rita Colwell
      The association of cholera and climate has been extensively documented. However, determining the effects of changing climate on the occurrence of disease remains a challenge. Bimodal peaks of cholera in Bengal Delta are hypothesized to be linked to asymmetric flow of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Spring cholera is related to intrusion of bacteria-laden coastal seawater during low flow seasons, while autumn cholera results from cross-contamination of water resources when high flows in the rivers cause massive inundation. Coarse resolution of General Circulation Model (GCM) output (usually at 100 – 300km)cannot be used to evaluate variability at the local scale(10–20km),hence the goal of this study was to develop a framework that could be used to understand impacts of climate change on occurrence of cholera. Instead of a traditional approach of downscaling precipitation, streamflow of the two rivers was directly linked to GCM outputs, achieving reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.89 for the Ganges and R2 = 0.91 for the Brahmaputra)using machine learning algorithms (Support Vector Regression-Particle Swarm Optimization). Copula methods were used to determine probabilistic risks of cholera under several discharge conditions. Key results, using model outputs from ECHAM5, GFDL, andHadCM3for A1B and A2 scenarios, suggest that the combined low flow of the two rivers may increase in the future, with high flows increasing for first half of this century, decreasing thereafter. Spring and autumn cholera, assuming societal conditions remain constant e.g., at the current rate, may decrease. However significant shifts were noted in the magnitude of river discharge suggesting that cholera dynamics of the delta may well demonstrate an uncertain predictable pattern of occurrence over the next century.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T08:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Real-time projections of cholera outbreaks through data assimilation and
           rainfall forecasting
    • Authors: Damiano Pasetto; Flavio Finger; Andrea Rinaldo; Enrico Bertuzzo
      Pages: 345 - 356
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 108
      Author(s): Damiano Pasetto, Flavio Finger, Andrea Rinaldo, Enrico Bertuzzo
      Although treatment for cholera is well-known and cheap, outbreaks in epidemic regions still exact high death tolls mostly due to the unpreparedness of health care infrastructures to face unforeseen emergencies. In this context, mathematical models for the prediction of the evolution of an ongoing outbreak are of paramount importance. Here, we test a real-time forecasting framework that readily integrates new information as soon as available and periodically issues an updated forecast. The spread of cholera is modeled by a spatially-explicit scheme that accounts for the dynamics of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals hosted in different local communities connected through hydrologic and human mobility networks. The framework presents two major innovations for cholera modeling: the use of a data assimilation technique, specifically an ensemble Kalman filter, to update both state variables and parameters based on the observations, and the use of rainfall forecasts to force the model. The exercise of simulating the state of the system and the predictive capabilities of the novel tools, set at the initial phase of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak using only information that was available at that time, serves as a benchmark. Our results suggest that the assimilation procedure with the sequential update of the parameters outperforms calibration schemes based on Markov chain Monte Carlo. Moreover, in a forecasting mode the model usefully predicts the spatial incidence of cholera at least one month ahead. The performance decreases for longer time horizons yet allowing sufficient time to plan for deployment of medical supplies and staff, and to evaluate alternative strategies of emergency management.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T08:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Seasonality in cholera dynamics: A rainfall-driven model explains the wide
           range of patterns in endemic areas
    • Authors: Theo Baracchini; Aaron A. King; Menno J. Bouma; Xavier Rodó; Enrico Bertuzzo; Mercedes Pascual
      Pages: 357 - 366
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 108
      Author(s): Theo Baracchini, Aaron A. King, Menno J. Bouma, Xavier Rodó, Enrico Bertuzzo, Mercedes Pascual
      Seasonal patterns in cholera dynamics exhibit pronounced variability across geographical regions, showing single or multiple peaks at different times of the year. Although multiple hypotheses related to local climate variables have been proposed, an understanding of this seasonal variation remains incomplete. The historical Bengal region, which encompasses the full range of cholera’s seasonality observed worldwide, provides a unique opportunity to gain insights on underlying environmental drivers. Here, we propose a mechanistic, rainfall-temperature driven, stochastic epidemiological model which explicitly accounts for the fluctuations of the aquatic reservoir, and analyze with this model the historical dataset of cholera mortality in the Bengal region. Parameters are inferred with a recently developed sequential Monte Carlo method for likelihood maximization in partially observed Markov processes. Results indicate that the hydrological regime is a major driver of the seasonal dynamics of cholera. Rainfall tends to buffer the propagation of the disease in wet regions due to the longer residence times of water in the environment and an associated dilution effect, whereas it enhances cholera resurgence in dry regions. Moreover, the dynamics of the environmental water reservoir determine whether the seasonality is unimodal or bimodal, as well as its phase relative to the monsoon. Thus, the full range of seasonal patterns can be explained based solely on the local variation of rainfall and temperature. Given the close connection between cholera seasonality and environmental conditions, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms would allow the better management and planning of public health policies with respect to climate variability and climate change.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T08:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Climate-driven endemic cholera is modulated by human mobility in a
    • Authors: Javier Perez-Saez; Aaron A. King; Andrea Rinaldo; Mohammad Yunus; Abu S.G. Faruque; Mercedes Pascual
      Pages: 367 - 376
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 108
      Author(s): Javier Perez-Saez, Aaron A. King, Andrea Rinaldo, Mohammad Yunus, Abu S.G. Faruque, Mercedes Pascual
      Although a differential sensitivity of cholera dynamics to climate variability has been reported in the spatially heterogeneous megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh, the specific patterns of spread of the resulting risk within the city remain unclear. We build on an established probabilistic spatial model to investigate the importance and role of human mobility in modulating spatial cholera transmission. Mobility fluxes were inferred using a straightforward and generalizable methodology that relies on mapping population density based on a high resolution urban footprint product, and a parameter-free human mobility model. In accordance with previous findings, we highlight the higher sensitivity to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the highly populated urban center than in the more rural periphery. More significantly, our results show that cholera risk is largely transmitted from the climate-sensitive core to the periphery of the city, with implications for the planning of control efforts. In addition, including human mobility improves the outbreak prediction performance of the model with an 11 month lead. The interplay between climatic and human mobility factors in cholera transmission is discussed from the perspective of the rapid growth of megacities across the developing world.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T08:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Cholera spatial-temporal patterns in Gonaives, Haiti: From contributing
           factors to targeted recommendations
    • Authors: Stanislas Rebaudet; Karolina Griffiths; Mazard Trazillio; Anne-Gaelle Lebeau; Aaron A Abedi; Gregory Bulit; Renaud Piarroux; Jean Gaudart
      Pages: 377 - 385
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 108
      Author(s): Stanislas Rebaudet, Karolina Griffiths, Mazard Trazillio, Anne-Gaelle Lebeau, Aaron A Abedi, Gregory Bulit, Renaud Piarroux, Jean Gaudart
      Introduction Gonaives, in the Artibonite region, is one of the most affected areas by the cholera epidemic in Haiti. Five years on, the epidemic persists and further information is needed to guide water and sanitation strategies for cholera elimination. Methods The number of cholera cases, socio-economic and environmental characteristics of Gonaives city neighbourhoods were included in an unsupervised classification approach and a general additive model was used to estimate standardized incidence ratios, adjusted on locations. Results Five classes of neighbourhoods were identified in Gonaives. Three classes were defined as high-risk in comparison with the area with the lowest incidence ratio: coastal flood-prone poor neighbourhoods (Class 5) with frequent open defecation and wide access to a shallow water table (Standardised Incidence Ratio - SIR of 3.15 IC95%[1.41; 7.04]); a coastal trade area (Class 3) with good access to a brackish and shallow water table likely contaminated by numerous latrines (SIR of 2.5 IC95%[1.05; 5.95]); and the hillside poor residential neighbourhoods (Class 4) with poor water availability and frequent open defecation (SIR= 3.2 IC95%[1.25; 8.18]). Conclusion Water and sanitation prevention strategies should not be homogenous. Within an urban area, prevention strategies should be planned according to the specific socio-environmental and geographical context of each neighbourhood.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T08:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Seasonal dynamics of snail populations in coastal Kenya: Model calibration
           and snail control
    • Authors: D. Gurarie; C.H. King; N. Yoon; X. Wang; R. Alsallaq
      Pages: 397 - 405
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 108
      Author(s): D. Gurarie, C.H. King, N. Yoon, X. Wang, R. Alsallaq
      A proper snail population model is important for accurately predicting Schistosoma transmission. Field data shows that the overall snail population and that of shedding snails have a strong pattern of seasonal variation. Because human hosts are infected by the cercariae released from shedding snails, the abundance of the snail population sets ultimate limits on human infection. For developing a predictive dynamic model of schistosome infection and control strategies we need realistic snail population dynamics. Here we propose two such models based on underlying environmental factors and snail population biology. The models consist of two-stage (young–adult) populations with resource-dependent reproduction, survival, maturation. The key input in the system is seasonal rainfall which creates snail habitats and resources (small vegetation). The models were tested, calibrated and validated using dataset collected in Msambweni (coastal Kenya). Seasonal rainfall in Msambweni is highly variable with intermittent wet - dry seasons. Typical snail patterns follow precipitation peaks with 2–4-month time-lag. Our models are able to reproduce such seasonal variability over extended period of time (3-year study). We applied them to explore the optimal seasonal timing for implementing snail control.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T08:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • The spatial spread of schistosomiasis: A multidimensional network model
           applied to Saint-Louis region, Senegal
    • Authors: Manuela Ciddio; Lorenzo Mari; Susanne H. Sokolow; Giulio A. De Leo; Renato Casagrandi; Marino Gatto
      Pages: 406 - 415
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources, Volume 108
      Author(s): Manuela Ciddio, Lorenzo Mari, Susanne H. Sokolow, Giulio A. De Leo, Renato Casagrandi, Marino Gatto
      Schistosomiasis is a parasitic, water-related disease that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, causing severe and chronic consequences especially among children. Here we study the spatial spread of this disease within a network of connected villages in the endemic region of the Lower Basin of the Senegal River, in Senegal. The analysis is performed by means of a spatially explicit metapopulation model that couples local-scale eco-epidemiological dynamics with spatial mechanisms related to human mobility (estimated from anonymized mobile phone records), snail dispersal and hydrological transport of schistosome larvae along the main water bodies of the region. Results show that the model produces epidemiological patterns consistent with field observations, and point out the key role of spatial connectivity on the spread of the disease. These findings underline the importance of considering different transport pathways in order to elaborate disease control strategies that can be effective within a network of connected populations.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T08:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • River networks as ecological corridors: a coherent ecohydrological
    • Authors: Andrea Rinaldo; Marino Gatto; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Andrea Rinaldo, Marino Gatto, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe
      This paper draws together several lines of argument to suggest that a ecohydrological framework, i.e. laboratory, field and theoretical approaches focused on hydrologic controls on biota, has contributed substantially to our understanding of the function of river networks as ecological corridors. Such function proves relevant to: the spatial ecology of species; population dynamics and biological invasions; the spread of waterborne disease. As examples, we describe metacommunity predictions of fish diversity patterns in the Mississippi–Missouri basin, geomorphic controls imposed by the fluvial landscape on elevational gradients of species’ richness, the zebra mussel invasion of the same Mississippi–Missouri river system, and the spread of proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish. We conclude that spatial descriptions of ecological processes in the fluvial landscape, constrained by their specific hydrologic and ecological dynamics and by the ecosystem matrix for interactions, i.e. the directional dispersal embedded in fluvial and host/pathogen mobility networks, have already produced a remarkably broad range of significant results. Notable scientific and practical perspectives are thus open, in the authors’ view, to future developments in ecohydrologic research.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.005
  • Multivariate missing data in hydrology – Review and applications
    • Authors: M.-A. Ben Aissia; F. Chebana; T.B.M.J. Ouarda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): M.-A. Ben Aissia, F. Chebana, T.B.M.J. Ouarda
      Water resources planning and management require complete data sets of a number of hydrological variables, such as flood peaks and volumes. However, hydrologists are often faced with the problem of missing data (MD) in hydrological databases. Several methods are used to deal with the imputation of MD. During the last decade, multivariate approaches have gained popularity in the field of hydrology, especially in hydrological frequency analysis (HFA). However, treating the MD remains neglected in the multivariate HFA literature whereas the focus has been mainly on the modeling component. For a complete analysis and in order to optimize the use of data, MD should also be treated in the multivariate setting prior to modeling and inference. Imputation of MD in the multivariate hydrological framework can have direct implications on the quality of the estimation. Indeed, the dependence between the series represents important additional information that can be included in the imputation process. The objective of the present paper is to highlight the importance of treating MD in multivariate hydrological frequency analysis by reviewing and applying multivariate imputation methods and by comparing univariate and multivariate imputation methods. An application is carried out for multiple flood attributes on three sites in order to evaluate the performance of the different methods based on the leave-one-out procedure. The results indicate that, the performance of imputation methods can be improved by adopting the multivariate setting, compared to mean substitution and interpolation methods, especially when using the copula-based approach.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.002
    • Authors: Harpreet Singh; Nicolas J. Huerta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Harpreet Singh, Nicolas J. Huerta
      CO2 injection into geologic formations for either enhanced oil recovery or carbon storage introduces a risk for undesired fluid leakage into overlying groundwater or to the surface. Despite decades of subsurface CO2 production and injection, the technologies and methods for detecting CO2 leaks are still costly and prone to large uncertainties. This is especially true for pressure-based monitoring methods, which require the use of simplified geological and reservoir flow models to simulate the pressure behavior as well as background noise affecting pressure measurements. In this study, we propose a method to detect the time and volume of fluid leakage based on real-time measurements of well injection and production rates. The approach utilizes analogies between fluid flow and capacitance-resistance modeling. Unlike other leak detection methods (e.g. pressure-based), the proposed method does not require geological and reservoir flow models to simulate the behavior that often carry significant sources of uncertainty; therefore, with our approach the leak can be detected with greater certainty. The method can be applied to detect when a leak begins by tracking a departure in fluid production rate from the expected pattern. The method has been tuned to detect the effect of boundary conditions and fluid compressibility on leakage. To highlight the utility of this approach we use our method to detect leaks for two scenarios. The first scenario simulates a fluid leak from the storage formation into an above-zone monitoring interval. The second scenario simulates intra-reservoir migration between two compartments. We illustrate this method to detect fluid leakage in three different reservoirs with varying levels of geological and structural complexity. The proposed leakage detection method has three novelties: i) requires only readily-available data (injection and production rates), ii) accounts for fluid compressibility and boundary effects, and iii) in addition to detecting the time when a leak is activated and the volume of that leakage, this method provides an insight about the leak location, and reservoir connectivity. We are proposing this as a complementary method that can be used with other, more expensive, methods early on in the injection process. This will allow an operator to conduct more expensive surveys less often because the proposed method can show if there are no leaks on a monthly basis that is cheap and fast.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.012
  • Classification and prediction of river network ephemerality and its
           relevance for waterborne disease epidemiology
    • Authors: Javier Perez-Saez; Theophile Mande; Joshua Larsen; Natalie Ceperley; Andrea Rinaldo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Javier Perez-Saez, Theophile Mande, Joshua Larsen, Natalie Ceperley, Andrea Rinaldo
      The transmission of waterborne diseases hinges on the interactions between hydrology and ecology of hosts, vectors and parasites, with the long-term absence of water constituting a strict lower bound. However, the link between spatio-temporal patterns of hydrological ephemerality and waterborne disease transmission is poorly understood and difficult to account for. The use of limited biophysical and hydroclimate information from otherwise data scarce regions is therefore needed to characterize, classify, and predict river network ephemerality in a spatially explicit framework. Here, we develop a novel large-scale ephemerality classification and prediction methodology based on monthly discharge data, water and energy availability, and remote-sensing measures of vegetation, that is relevant to epidemiology, and maintains a mechanistic link to catchment hydrologic processes. Specifically, with reference to the context of Burkina Faso in sub-Saharan Africa, we extract a relevant set of catchment covariates that include the aridity index, annual runoff estimation using the Budyko framework, and hysteretical relations between precipitation and vegetation. Five ephemerality classes, from permanent to strongly ephemeral, are defined from the duration of 0-flow periods that also accounts for the sensitivity of river discharge to the long-lasting drought of the 70’s-80’s in West Africa. Using such classes, a gradient-boosted tree-based prediction yielded three distinct geographic regions of ephemerality. Importantly, we observe a strong epidemiological association between our predictions of hydrologic ephemerality and the known spatial patterns of schistosomiasis, an endemic parasitic waterborne disease in which infection occurs with human-water contact, and requires aquatic snails as an intermediate host. The general nature of our approach and its relevance for predicting the hydrologic controls on schistosomiasis occurrence provides a pathway for the explicit inclusion of hydrologic drivers within epidemiological models of waterborne disease transmission.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.003
  • Toward Direct Pore-Scale Modeling of Three-Phase Displacements
    • Authors: Peyman Mohammadmoradi; Apostolos Kantzas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Peyman Mohammadmoradi, Apostolos Kantzas
      A stable spreading film between water and gas can extract a significant amount of bypassed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) through immiscible three-phase gas/water injection cycles. In this study, the pore-scale displacement mechanisms by which NAPL is mobilized are incorporated into a three-dimensional pore morphology-based model under water-wet and capillary equilibrium conditions. The approach is pixel-based and the sequence of invasions is determined by the fluids’ connectivity and the threshold capillary pressure of the advancing interfaces. In addition to the determination of three-phase spatial saturation profiles, residuals, and capillary pressure curves, dynamic finite element simulations are utilized to predict the effective permeabilities of the rock microtomographic images as reasonable representations of the geological formations under study. All the influential features during immiscible fluid flow in pore-level domains including wetting and spreading films, saturation hysteresis, capillary trapping, connectivity, and interface development strategies are taken into account. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated by the successful prediction of saturation functions for Berea sandstone and the accurate reconstruction of three-phase fluid occupancies through a micromodel.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.010
  • Investigation of CO2 dissolution via mass transfer inside a porous medium
    • Authors: Anindityo Patmonoaji; Tetsuya Suekane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Anindityo Patmonoaji, Tetsuya Suekane
      The dissolution of trapped carbon dioxide (CO2) gas under various water flow rate inside a porous medium was experimentally studied using X-ray microtomography. Image processing techniques were used to determine the morphologies, CO2 fractions, and interfacial areas of the trapped bubbles. Based on fractal dimension analysis, the bubble morphology was classified into single-pore bubbles and multi-pore bubbles. Different dissolution phenomena with liquid-liquid systems were observed. First, the calculated mass transfer coefficient was lower than one order of magnitude. Second, two consecutive dissolution fronts appeared. These two fronts were not triggered by a difference in solute concentration because they occurred at CO2 concentrations far from saturated conditions. However, velocity-dependent mass transfer indicated a power function with a power value similar with liquid-liquid system dissolution experiment.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.008
  • Scaling of Dissolved Organic Carbon Removal in River Networks
    • Authors: Enrico Bertuzzo; Ashley M. Helton; Robert O. Hall; ; Tom J. Battin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Enrico Bertuzzo, Ashley M. Helton, Robert O. Hall , Tom J. Battin
      Streams and rivers play a major role in the global carbon cycle as they collect, transform and deliver terrestrial organic carbon to the ocean. The rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal depends on hydrological factors (primarily water depth and residence time) that change predictably within the river network and local DOC concentration and composition is the result of transformation and removal processes in the whole upstream catchment. We thus combine theory of the form and scaling of river networks with a model of DOC removal from streamwater to investigate how the structure of river networks and the related hydrological drivers control DOC dynamics. We find that minimization of energy dissipation, the physical process that shapes the topological and metric properties of river networks, leads to structures that are more efficient in terms of total DOC removal per unit of streambed area. River network structure also induces a scaling of the DOC mass flux with the contributing area that does not depend on the particular network used for the simulation and is robust to spatial heterogeneity of model parameters. Such scaling enables the derivation of removal patterns across a river network in terms of clearly identified biological, hydrological and geomorphological factors. In particular, we derive how the fraction of terrestrial DOC load removed by the river network scales with the catchment area and with the area of a region drained by multiple river networks. Such results further our understanding of the impact of streams and rivers on carbon cycling at large scales.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.009
    • Authors: M. Sakthi Asvini; DR. T. Amudha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): M. Sakthi Asvini, DR. T. Amudha
      Frameworks for optimal reservoir operation play an important role in the management of water resources and delivery of economic benefits. Effective utilization and conservation of water from reservoirs helps to manage water deficit periods. The main challenge in reservoir optimization is to design operating rules that can be used to inform real-time decisions on reservoir release. We develop a bio-inspired framework for the optimization of reservoir release to satisfy the diverse needs of various stakeholders. In this work, single-objective optimization and multiobjective optimization problems are formulated using an algorithm known as "strawberry optimization" and tested with actual reservoir data. Results indicate that well planned reservoir operations lead to efficient deployment of the reservoir water with the help of optimal release patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.007
  • Optimal estimation and scheduling in aquifer management using the Rapid
           Feedback Control Method
    • Authors: Hojat Ghorbanidehno; Amalia Kokkinaki; Peter K. Kitanidis; Eric Darve
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Hojat Ghorbanidehno, Amalia Kokkinaki, Peter K. Kitanidis, Eric Darve
      Management of water resources systems often involves a large number of parameters, as in the case of large, spatially heterogeneous aquifers, and a large number of “noisy” observations, as in the case of pressure observation in wells. Optimizing the operation of such systems requires both searching among many possible solutions and utilizing new information as it becomes available. However, the computational cost of this task increases rapidly with the size of the problem to the extent that textbook optimization methods are practically impossible to apply. In this paper, we present a new computationally efficient technique as a practical alternative for optimally operating large-scale dynamical systems. The proposed method, which we term Rapid Feedback Controller (RFC), provides a practical approach for combined monitoring, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and optimal control for linear and nonlinear systems with a quadratic cost function. For illustration, we consider the case of a weakly nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with a quadratic objective function, specifically a two-dimensional heterogeneous aquifer management problem. To validate our method, we compare our results with the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, which is the basic approach for feedback control. We show that the computational cost of the RFC scales only linearly with the number of unknowns, a great improvement compared to the basic LQG control with a computational cost that scales quadratically. We demonstrate that the RFC method can obtain the optimal control values at a greatly reduced computational cost compared to the conventional LQG algorithm with small and controllable losses in the accuracy of the state and parameter estimation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.011
  • Numerical simulations of Holocene salt-marsh dynamics under the hypothesis
           of large soil deformations
    • Authors: Zoccarato Teatini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): C. Zoccarato, P. Teatini
      Salt marshes are vulnerable environments hosting complex interactions between physical and biological processes. The prediction of the elevation dynamics of a salt-marsh platform is crucial to forecast its future behaviour under potential changing scenarios. An original finite-element (FE) numerical model accounting for the long-term marsh accretion and compaction linked to relative sea level rise is proposed. The accretion term considers the material sedimentation over the marsh surface, whereas the compaction reflects the progressive consolidation of the porous medium under the increasing load of the overlying younger deposits. The modelling approach is based on a 2D groundwater flow simulator coupled to a 1D vertical geomechanical module, where the soil properties may vary with the effective intergranular stress. The model takes also into account the geometric non-linearity arising from the consideration of large solid grain movements by using a Lagrangian approach with an adaptive FE mesh. The numerical experiments show the potentiality of the proposed 2D model, which consistently integrates in modelling framework the behaviour of spatially distributed model parameters. High sedimentation rates and low permeabilities largely impact on the mechanism of soil compaction following the overpressure dissipation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:13:28Z
  • Quasi-3D two-phase model for dam-break flow over movable bed based on a
           non-hydrostatic depth-integrated model with a dynamic rough wall law
    • Authors: Tatsuhiko Uchida; Shoji Fukuoka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Tatsuhiko Uchida, Shoji Fukuoka
      The assumptions of equilibrium flow conditions neglecting the flow acceleration for vertical velocity distributions and of the equilibrium wall law applied to the bottom boundary condition, in which the flow acceleration is neglected in the vicinity of the bed, are questionable when used to calculate sediment transport for flows that vary rapidly over time and space. Examples of such flows include dam-break flows and flows around structures. This study proposes a two-phase depth-integrated model for large-scale geophysical flow applications involving sediment transport phenomena and bed morphology. The model for the fluid phase is based on the non-hydrostatic quasi-3D method, and uses a dynamic rough wall law that employs continuity and momentum equations for the bottom boundary conditions. It was confirmed that the proposed model reduces to the previous bedload formulae for uniform flow conditions under the weak sediment transport condition. The model was applied in an experiment involving a dam-break flow on a movable bed channel with a suddenly enlarged section. The comparison between the experimental results and the results calculated with the proposed model and previous models demonstrates the validity of the proposed model. The comparison also highlights the advantages of introducing a quasi-3D two-phase model to evaluate vertical velocity distributions and non-equilibrium sediment motions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:13:28Z
  • A Framework to Simulate Small Shallow Inland Water Bodies in Semi-arid
    • Authors: Ali Abbasi; Frank Ohene Annor Nick van Giesen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Ali Abbasi, Frank Ohene Annor, Nick van de Giesen
      In this study, a framework for simulating the flow field and heat transfer processes in small shallow inland water bodies has been developed. As the dynamics and thermal structure of these wat er bodies are crucial in studying the quality of stored water , and in assessing the heat fluxes from their surfaces as well, the heat transfer and temperature simulations were modeled. The proposed model is able to simulate the full 3-D water flow and heat transfer in the water body by applying complex and time varying boundary conditions. In this model, the continuity, momentum and temperature equations together with the turbulence equations, which comprise the buoyancy effect, have been solved. This model is built on the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with the widely used Boussinesq approach to solve the turbulence issues of the flow field. Micrometeorological data were obtained from an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) installed on the site and combined with field bathymetric measurements for the model. In the framework developed, a simple, applicable and generalizable approach is proposed for preparing the geometry of small shallow water bodies using coarsely measured bathymetry. All parts of the framework are based on open-source tools, which is essential for developing countries.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:13:28Z
  • Inversion using a new low-dimensional representation of complex binary
           geological media based on a deep neural network
    • Authors: Eric Laloy; Romain Hérault; John Lee; Diederik Jacques; Niklas Linde
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Eric Laloy, Romain Hérault, John Lee, Diederik Jacques, Niklas Linde
      Efficient and high-fidelity prior sampling and inversion for complex geological media is still a largely unsolved challenge. Here, we use a deep neural network of the variational autoencoder type to construct a parametric low-dimensional base model parameterization of complex binary geological media. For inversion purposes, it has the attractive feature that random draws from an uncorrelated standard normal distribution yield model realizations with spatial characteristics that are in agreement with the training set. In comparison with the most commonly used parametric representations in probabilistic inversion, we find that our dimensionality reduction (DR) approach outperforms principle component analysis (PCA), optimization-PCA (OPCA) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) DR techniques for unconditional geostatistical simulation of a channelized prior model. For the considered examples, important compression ratios (200 - 500) are achieved. Given that the construction of our parameterization requires a training set of several tens of thousands of prior model realizations, our DR approach is more suited for probabilistic (or deterministic) inversion than for unconditional (or point-conditioned) geostatistical simulation. Probabilistic inversions of 2D steady-state and 3D transient hydraulic tomography data are used to demonstrate the DR-based inversion. For the 2D case study, the performance is superior compared to current state-of-the-art multiple-point statistics inversion by sequential geostatistical resampling (SGR). Inversion results for the 3D application are also encouraging.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:13:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.029
  • Effect of river flow fluctuations on riparian vegetation dynamics:
           processes and models
    • Authors: Riccardo Vesipa; Carlo Camporeale; Luca Ridolfi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Riccardo Vesipa, Carlo Camporeale, Luca Ridolfi
      Several decades of field observations, laboratory experiments and mathematical modelings have demonstrated that the riparian environment is a disturbance-driven ecosystem, and that the main source of disturbance is river flow fluctuations. The focus of the present work has been on the key role that flow fluctuations play in determining the abundance, zonation and species composition of patches of riparian vegetation. To this aim, the scientific literature on the subject, over the last 20 years, has been reviewed. First, the most relevant ecological, morphological and chemical mechanisms induced by river flow fluctuations are described from a process-based perspective. The role of flow variability is discussed for the processes that affect the recruitment of vegetation, the vegetation during its adult life, and the morphological and nutrient dynamics occurring in the riparian habitat. Particular emphasis has been given to studies that were aimed at quantifying the effect of these processes on vegetation, and at linking them to the statistical characteristics of the river hydrology. Second, the advances made, from a modeling point of view, have been considered and discussed. The main models that have been developed to describe the dynamics of riparian vegetation have been presented. Different modeling approaches have been compared, and the corresponding advantages and drawbacks have been pointed out. Finally, attention has been paid to identifying the processes considered by the models, and these processes have been compared with those that have actually been observed or measured in field/laboratory studies.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:13:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.028
  • Multi-Parametric Variational Data Assimilation for Hydrological
    • Authors: R. Alvarado-Montero; D. Schwanenberg; P. Krahe; P. Helmke; B. Klein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): R. Alvarado-Montero, D. Schwanenberg, P. Krahe, P. Helmke, B. Klein
      Ensemble forecasting is increasingly applied in flow forecasting systems to provide users with a better understanding of forecast uncertainty and consequently to take better-informed decisions. A common practice in probabilistic streamflow forecasting is to force deterministic hydrological model with an ensemble of numerical weather predictions. This approach aims at the representation of meteorological uncertainty but neglects uncertainty of the hydrological model as well as its initial conditions. Complementary approaches use probabilistic data assimilation techniques to receive a variety of initial states or represent model uncertainty by model pools instead of single deterministic models. This paper introduces a novel approach that extends a variational data assimilation based on Moving Horizon Estimation to enable the assimilation of observations into multi-parametric model pools. It results in a probabilistic estimate of initial model states that takes into account the parametric model uncertainty in the data assimilation. The assimilation technique is applied to the uppermost area of River Main in Germany. We use different parametric pools, each of them with five parameter sets, to assimilate streamflow data, as well as remotely sensed data from the H-SAF project. We assess the impact of the assimilation in the lead time performance of perfect forecasts (i.e. observed data as forcing variables) as well as deterministic and probabilistic forecasts from ECMWF. The multi-parametric assimilation shows an improvement of up to 23% for CRPS performance and approximately 20% in Brier Skill Scores with respect to the deterministic approach. It also improves the skill of the forecast in terms of rank histogram and produces a narrower ensemble spread.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:13:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.026
  • The 1D Richards’ equation in two layered soils: a Filippov approach
           to treat discontinuities
    • Authors: Marco Berardi; Fabio Difonzo; Michele Vurro; Luciano Lopez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Marco Berardi, Fabio Difonzo, Michele Vurro, Luciano Lopez
      The infiltration process into the soil is generally modeled by the Richards’ partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper a new approach for modeling the infiltration process through the interface of two different soils is proposed, where the interface is seen as a discontinuity surface defined by suitable state variables. Thus, the original 1D Richards’ PDE, enriched by a particular choice of the boundary conditions, is first approximated by means of a time semidiscretization, that is by means of the transversal method of lines (TMOL). In such a way a sequence of discontinuous initial value problems, described by a sequence of second order differential systems in the space variable, is derived. Then, Filippov theory on discontinuous dynamical systems may be applied in order to study the relevant dynamics of the problem. The numerical integration of the semidiscretized differential system will be performed by using a one-step method, which employs an event driven procedure to locate the discontinuity surface and to adequately change the vector field.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:13:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.027
  • An Improved Projection-based Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (pEDFM) for
           Multiphase Flow in Fractured Reservoirs
    • Authors: Jiamin Jiang; Rami M. Younis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Jiamin Jiang, Rami M. Younis
      The discrete fracture-matrix (DFM) approaches based on conforming grids become popular for modeling fractured reservoirs in the last decade. However, the application of conforming DFMs at field scale is limited due to its prohibitive computational cost. In recent years, embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) has received considerable attention as a promising alternative. EDFM incorporates the effect of each fracture explicitly without requiring the simulation grid to conform to the fracture geometry. A compromise between accuracy and efficiency could be achieved in EDFM by enabling the use of standard corner-point grids for the background matrix domain. Although many works confirm the high accuracy of EDFM for the solutions of pressure and velocity field, very few results have been presented to examine its accuracy for the saturation solutions from multiphase flow problems. This paper shows that EDFM can induce large errors for multiphase displacement processes, due to its incapability to capture the proper flux split through a fracture. For the first time in the literature we present a systematic evaluation on the performances of EDFM for multiphase flow and provide a detailed analysis to illuminate when and why the method fails. The analysis motivates us to exploit the projection-based extension of EDFM (pEDFM) as an effective method to resolve the limitations associated with EDFM. pEDFM is recently developed by Tene et al. (2017) to address the issue of flow barriers, and is based on the introduction of extended fracture-matrix fluxes. Moreover, we make several improvements upon the original pEDFM method. A physical constraint on the preprocessing stage is proposed to overcome the limitation in a ‘naive implementation’ of pEDFM. A number of test cases with different fracture geometries are presented to benchmark the performances of the improved pEDFM method for multiphase flow. Grid convergence studies are conducted for different numerical schemes. The results show that improved pEDFM significantly outperforms the original EDFM method.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T08:41:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.017
  • Decomposing the Satellite Precipitation Error Propagation through the
           Rainfall-Runoff Processes
    • Authors: Yiwen Mei; Emmanouil N. Anagnostou; Xinyi Shen; Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Yiwen Mei, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Xinyi Shen, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos
      This study uses an analytical hydrological framework to investigate the error propagation from satellite precipitation products to hydrological simulations. Specifically, the analytical formulation of the framework allows linking the error in hydrograph properties (i.e., cumulative volume, centroid, and dispersion) to the space-time characteristics of error in satellite-precipitation, runoff generation, and routing. Main finding from this study are that (i) the error in spatial and temporal covariance between rainfall and runoff generation is not contributing significantly to the error in cumulative volume of flood events; (ii) errors in runoff generation and routing time are of equal importance in terms of the overall error in the arrival of flood event centroid; and (iii) errors in the variability of runoff generation time is the main contributor to the error in dispersion of flood event hydrograph. Furthermore, sensitivity tests show that errors in hydrograph properties are strongly correlated with errors in the space-time characteristics of precipitation, runoff generation and routing parameters estimated by the analytical framework.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T08:41:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.012
  • Residual flow patterns and morphological changes along a macro- and
           meso-tidal coastline
    • Authors: Nicoletta Leonardi; Andrew James Plater
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Nicoletta Leonardi, Andrew James Plater
      The hydrodynamic and residual transport patterns arising from oscillating tidal motion have important consequences for the transport of sediments, and for the evolution of the shoreline, especially under macro- and meso-tidal conditions. For many locations there are significant uncertainties about residual currents and sediment transport characteristics, and their possible influence on the morphological evolution of the coastline and on the character of the bed. Herein we use the coastline of SE England as a test case to investigate possible changes in residual currents, and residual transport patterns from neap to spring tide, the reciprocal interaction between residuals and the character of the bed, and the morphological evolution of the coastline at a century timescale. We found that in the long term the morphology of the system evolves toward a dynamic equilibrium configuration characterized by smaller, and spatially constant residual transport patterns. While the spatial distribution of residual currents maintains a similar trend during both neap and spring tide, during spring tide and for large areas residual currents switch between northerly and southerly directions, and their magnitude is doubled. Residual eddies develop in regions characterized by the presence of sand bars due to the interaction of the tide with the varying topography. Residual transport patterns are also computed for various sediment fractions, and based on the hydrodynamics and sediment availability at the bottom. We found that the distribution of sediments on the bed is significantly correlated with the intensity of residuals. Finally, the majority of long-term morphological changes tend to develop or augment sand banks features, with an increase in elevation and steepening of the bank contours.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T08:41:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.013
  • References and benchmarks for pore-scale flow simulated using micro-CT
           images of porous media and digital rocks
    • Authors: Nishank Saxena; Ronny Hofmann; Faruk O. Alpak; Steffen Berg; Jesse Dietderich; Umang Agarwal; Kunj Tandon; Sander Hunter; Justin Freeman; Ove Bjorn Wilson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Nishank Saxena, Ronny Hofmann, Faruk O. Alpak, Steffen Berg, Jesse Dietderich, Umang Agarwal, Kunj Tandon, Sander Hunter, Justin Freeman, Ove Bjorn Wilson
      We generate a novel reference dataset to quantify the impact of numerical solvers, boundary conditions, and simulation platforms. We consider a variety of microstructures ranging from idealized pipes to digital rocks. Pore throats of the digital rocks considered are large enough to be well resolved with state-of-the-art micro-computerized tomography technology. Permeability is computed using multiple numerical engines, 12 in total, including, Lattice-Boltzmann, computational fluid dynamics, voxel based, fast semi-analytical, and known empirical models. Thus, we provide a measure of uncertainty associated with flow computations of digital media. Moreover, the reference and standards dataset generated is the first of its kind and can be used to test and improve new fluid flow algorithms. We find that there is an overall good agreement between solvers for idealized cross-section shape pipes. As expected, the disagreement increases with increase in complexity of the pore space. Numerical solutions for pipes with sinusoidal variation of cross section show larger variability compared to pipes of constant cross-section shapes. We notice relatively larger variability in computed permeability of digital rocks with coefficient of variation (of up to 25%) in computed values between various solvers. Still, these differences are small given other subsurface uncertainties. The observed differences between solvers can be attributed to several causes including, differences in boundary conditions, numerical convergence criteria, and parameterization of fundamental physics equations. Solvers that perform additional meshing of irregular pore shapes require an additional step in practical workflows which involves skill and can introduce further uncertainty. Computation times for digital rocks vary from minutes to several days depending on the algorithm and available computational resources. We find that more stringent convergence criteria can improve solver accuracy but at the expense of longer computation time.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T10:29:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.007
  • Four Decades of Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture Observations: Part 2.
           Product validation and inter-satellite comparisons
    • Authors: L. Karthikeyan; Ming Pan; Niko Wanders; D. Nagesh Kumar; Eric F. Wood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): L. Karthikeyan, Ming Pan, Niko Wanders, D. Nagesh Kumar, Eric F. Wood
      Soil moisture is widely recognized as an important land surface variable that provides a deeper knowledge of land-atmosphere interactions and climate change. Space-borne passive and active microwave sensors have become valuable and essential sources of soil moisture observations at global scales. Over the past four decades, several active and passive microwave sensors have been deployed, along with the recent launch of two fully dedicated missions (SMOS and SMAP). Signifying the four decades of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, this Part 2 of the two-part review series aims to present an overview of how our knowledge in this field has improved in terms of the design of sensors and their accuracy for retrieving soil moisture. The first part discusses the developments made in active and passive microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms. We assess the evolution of the products of various sensors over the last four decades, in terms of daily coverage, temporal performance, and spatial performance, by comparing the products of eight passive sensors (SMMR, SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, WindSAT, AMSR2, SMOS and SMAP), two active sensors (ERS-Scatterometer, MetOp-ASCAT), and one active/passive merged soil moisture product (ESA-CCI combined product) with the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) in-situ stations and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model simulations over the Contiguous United States (CONUS). In the process, the regional impacts of vegetation conditions on the spatial and temporal performance of soil moisture products are investigated. We also carried out inter-satellite comparisons to study the roles of sensor design and algorithms on the retrieval accuracy. We find that substantial improvements have been made over recent years in this field in terms of daily coverage, retrieval accuracy, and temporal dynamics. We conclude that the microwave soil moisture products have significantly evolved in the last four decades and will continue to make key contributions to the progress of hydro-meteorological and climate sciences.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T10:29:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.010
  • Dynamic coupling of subsurface and seepage flows solved within a
           regularized partition formulation
    • Authors: J. Marc̨ais; J.-R. de Dreuzy; J. Erhel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): J. Marc̨ais, J.-R. de Dreuzy, J. Erhel
      Hillslope response to precipitations is characterized by sharp transitions from purely subsurface flow dynamics to simultaneous surface and subsurface flows. Locally, the transition between these two regimes is triggered by soil saturation. Here we develop an integrative approach to simultaneously solve the subsurface flow, locate the potential fully saturated areas and deduce the generated saturation excess overland flow. This approach combines the different dynamics and transitions in a single partition formulation using discontinuous functions. We propose to regularize the system of partial differential equations and to use classic spatial and temporal discretization schemes. We illustrate our methodology on the 1D hillslope storage Boussinesq equations (Troch et al., 2003). We first validate the numerical scheme on previous numerical experiments without saturation excess overland flow. Then we apply our model to a test case with dynamic transitions from purely subsurface flow dynamics to simultaneous surface and subsurface flows. Our results show that discretization respects mass balance both locally and globally, converges when the mesh or time step are refined. Moreover the regularization parameter can be taken small enough to ensure accuracy without suffering of numerical artifacts. Applied to some hundreds of realistic hillslope cases taken from Western side of France (Brittany), the developed method appears to be robust and efficient.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.008
  • On the sub-model errors of a generalized one-way coupling scheme for
           linking models at different scales
    • Authors: Jicai Zeng; Yuanyuan Zha; Yonggen Zhang; Liangsheng Shi; Yan Zhu; Jinzhong Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Jicai Zeng, Yuanyuan Zha, Yonggen Zhang, Liangsheng Shi, Yan Zhu, Jinzhong Yang
      Multi-scale modeling of the localized groundwater flow problems in a large-scale aquifer has been extensively investigated under the context of cost-benefit controversy. An alternative is to couple the parent and child models with different spatial and temporal scales, which may result in non-trivial sub-model errors in the local areas of interest. Basically, such errors in the child models originate from the deficiency in the coupling methods, as well as from the inadequacy in the spatial and temporal discretizations of the parent and child models. In this study, we investigate the sub-model errors within a generalized one-way coupling scheme given its numerical stability and efficiency, which enables more flexibility in choosing sub-models. To couple the models at different scales, the head solution at parent scale is delivered downward onto the child boundary nodes by means of the spatial and temporal head interpolation approaches. The efficiency of the coupling model is improved either by refining the grid or time step size in the parent and child models, or by carefully locating the sub-model boundary nodes. The temporal truncation errors in the sub-models can be significantly reduced by the adaptive local time-stepping scheme. The generalized one-way coupling scheme is promising to handle the multi-scale groundwater flow problems with complex stresses and heterogeneity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.005
  • On the optimal selection of interpolation methods for groundwater
           contouring: An example of propagation of uncertainty regarding
           inter-aquifer exchange
    • Authors: Marc Ohmer; Tanja Liesch; Nadine Goeppert; Nico Goldscheider
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Marc Ohmer, Tanja Liesch, Nadine Goeppert, Nico Goldscheider
      The selection of the best possible method to interpolate a continuous groundwater surface from point data of groundwater levels is a controversial issue. In the present study four deterministic and five geostatistical interpolation methods (global polynomial interpolation, local polynomial interpolation, inverse distance weighting, radial basis function, simple-, ordinary-, universal-, empirical Bayesian and co-Kriging) and six error statistics (ME, MAE, MAPE, RMSE, RMSSE, Pearson R) were examined for a Jurassic karst aquifer and a Quaternary alluvial aquifer. We investigated the possible propagation of uncertainty of the chosen interpolation method on the calculation of the estimated vertical groundwater exchange between the aquifers. Furthermore, we validated the results with eco-hydrogeological data including the comparison between calculated groundwater depths and geographic locations of karst springs, wetlands and surface waters. These results show, that calculated inter-aquifer exchange rates based on different interpolations of groundwater potentials may vary greatly depending on the chosen interpolation method (factor 12.5). Therefore, the choice of an interpolation method should be made with care, taking different error measures as well as additional data for plausibility control into account. The most accurate results have been made with co-Kriging incorporating secondary data (e.g. topography, river levels).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.08.016
  • Four Decades of Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture Observations: Part 1. A
           Review of Retrieval Algorithms
    • Authors: L. Karthikeyan; Ming Pan; Niko Wanders; D. Nagesh Kumar; Eric F. Wood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): L. Karthikeyan, Ming Pan, Niko Wanders, D. Nagesh Kumar, Eric F. Wood
      The satellite based passive (radiometer) and active (radar) microwave sensors enhanced our ability to retrieve soil moisture at global scales. It has been almost four decades since the first passive microwave satellite sensor was launched in 1978. Since then soil moisture has gained considerable attention in hydro-meteorological, climate, and agricultural research resulting in the deployment of two dedicated missions in the last decade, SMOS and SMAP. Microwave retrievals require an algorithm to estimate soil moisture from satellite measurements. In this Part 1 of a two-part review series, we provide a synthesis of four decades of research and development on the passive and active microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms. The algorithms associated with passive sensors use the radiometer brightness temperatures, while active sensors use the radar backscatter measurements to retrieve soil moisture. The physics of both algorithm classes are based on the fact that the microwave measurements at lower frequencies are influenced by the soil dielectric property, which acts as a proxy for the surface soil moisture content. In this review effort, the emphasis is laid on the physical models of the passive and the active retrieval algorithms. These algorithms facilitate to obtain the individual radiative contributions from soil, vegetation, and atmosphere that reach satellite sensors after mixing (roughness), scattering, and attenuation. In the process, we looked into the current research efforts to improve individual aspects of the algorithms, followed by a description of different retrieval procedures. In Part 2 of this review series, performance evaluation and inter-sensor comparisons of soil moisture of eight passive and two active sensors are carried out using 1058 stations along with model soil moisture data in the Contiguous United States (CONUS) region.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.006
  • Pore-scale modeling of wettability effects on CO2–brine displacement
           during geological storage
    • Authors: Farzad Basirat; Zhibing Yang; Auli Niemi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): Farzad Basirat, Zhibing Yang, Auli Niemi
      Wetting properties of reservoir rocks and caprocks can vary significantly, and they strongly influence geological storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers, during which CO2 is supposed to displace the resident brine and to become permanently trapped. Fundamental understanding of the effect of wettability on CO2–brine displacement is thus important for improving storage efficiency and security. In this study, we investigate the influence of wetting properties on two-phase flow of CO2 and brine at the pore scale. A numerical model based on the phase field method is implemented to simulate the two-phase flow of CO2–brine in a realistic pore geometry. Our focus is to study the pore-scale fluid-fluid displacement mechanisms under different wetting conditions and to quantify the effect of wettability on macroscopic parameters such as residual brine saturation, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and specific interfacial area. Our simulation results confirm that both the trapped wetting phase saturation and the normalized interfacial area increase with decreasing contact angle. However, the wetting condition does not appear to influence the CO2 breakthrough time and saturation. We also show that the macroscopic capillary pressures based on the pressure difference between inlet and outlet can differ significantly from the phase averaging capillary pressures for all contact angles when the capillary number is high (log Ca > -5). This indicates that the inlet–outlet pressure difference may not be a good measure of the continuum-scale capillary pressure. In addition, the results show that the relative permeability of CO2 can be significantly lower in strongly water-wet conditions than in the intermediate-wet conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.09.004
  • Pore-scale analysis of the minimum liquid film thickness around elongated
           bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows
    • Authors: M. Magnini; A.M. Beisel; A. Ferrari; J.R. Thome
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Water Resources
      Author(s): M. Magnini, A.M. Beisel, A. Ferrari, J.R. Thome
      The fluid mechanics of elongated bubbles in confined gas-liquid flows in micro-geometries is important in pore-scale flow processes for enhanced oil recovery and mobilization of colloids in unsaturated soil. The efficiency of such processes is traditionally related to the thickness of the liquid film trapped between the elongated bubble and the pore’s wall, which is assumed constant. However, the surface of long bubbles presents undulations in the vicinity of the rear meniscus, which may significantly decrease the local thickness of the liquid film, thus impacting the process of interest. This study presents a systematic analysis of these undulations and the minimum film thickness induced in the range Ca = 0.001 − 0.5 and Re = 0.1 − 2000 . Pore-scale Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed with a self-improved version of the opensource solver ESI OpenFOAM which is based on a Volume of Fluid method to track the gas-liquid interface. A lubrication model based on the extension of the classical axisymmetric Bretherton theory is utilized to better understand the CFD results. The profiles of the rear meniscus of the bubble obtained with the lubrication model agree fairly well with those extracted from the CFD simulations. This study shows that the Weber number of the flow, We = Ca Re , is the parameter that best describes the dynamics of the interfacial waves. When We < 0.1, a single wave crest is observed and the minimum film thickness tends to an asymptotic value, which depends on the capillary number, as We → 0. Undulations dampen as the capillary number increases and disappear completely when Ca = 0.5 . When We > 0.1, a larger number of wave crests becomes evident on the surface of the rear meniscus of the bubble. The liquid film thickness at the crests of the undulations thins considerably as the Reynolds number is increased, down to less than 60% of the value measured in the flat film region. This may significantly influence important environmental processes, such as the detachment and mobilization of micron-sized pollutants and pathogenic micro-organisms adhering at the pore’s wall in unsaturated soil.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T14:09:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.08.020
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