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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3158 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3157 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 422, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 408, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 471, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Water Resources
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.551
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 48  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0309-1708
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3158 journals]
  • An argument-driven classification and comparison of reservoir operation
           optimization methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Barnaby Dobson, Thorsten Wagener, Francesca Pianosi Reservoir operation optimization aims to determine release and transfer decisions that maximise water management objectives such as ensuring a reliable water supply, hydropower production, mitigation of downstream floods, etc. An extensive and growing body of scientific literature exists on advancing and applying mathematical optimization methods to reservoir operation problems. In this paper, we review such literature according to a novel classification system of optimization approaches, which focuses on the characteristics of the actual operation problem – i.e. what needs to be optimized, or in mathematical terms, ‘the argument’ of the optimization problems - rather than the mathematical properties of the optimization algorithm. This enables us to discuss the advantages, limitations and the scope of application of the different optimisation methods; and to provide practical guidelines for matching the properties of a system and operation problem with a suitable optimization method. Alongside this paper we provide code to implement many of the methods we review for an illustrative reservoir system.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of effluent chemistry using
           locally obtained mineral dissolution rates of forsterite and pyrrhotite
           from a mine tailings deposit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Rodrigo F. Embile, Ingar F. Walder, John J. Mahoney Multicomponent reactive transport modeling using PHREEQC of a Ni-sulfide tailings deposit was undertaken to assess how effective locally-obtained mineral dissolution rates in simulating long-term kinetic testing results of the tailings material. Forsterite and pyrrhotite were used as proxies for the chemical reactions occuring within the tailings. The dissolution rates of forsterite and pyrrhotite were obtained based on the actual kinetic testing data and PHREEQC inverse modeling. BET (Brunauer Emmet Teller) and geometric surface area-derived rates were used in the kinetic test data simulation and long-term prediction for 100 years. Results indicate that the geochemical models for both the BET and geometric surface area-derived rates are generally consistent with the actual pH, Mg, SO4 and Ni of the kinetic testing data. Long term prediction of effluent chemistry suggests that pH will continue to increase until a stable pH of 8 is achieved while the predicted Mg, SO4 and Ni concentrations will be stable and will be close to the concentrations observed towards the end of the kinetic test. This method of using locally-obtained mineral dissolution rates in multicomponent reactive transport modeling of a kinetic test data has proven to be reliable as compared to using literature dissolution rate values. This method can then be used for a quick and cost-effective way for future effluent chemistry prediction rather than conducting long and expensive kinetic tests.
  • Analytical Solution for Upscaling Hydraulic Conductivity in Anisotropic
           Heterogeneous Formations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Qinzhuo Liao, Gang Lei, Dongxiao Zhang, Shirish Patil Modern geological modeling techniques represent anisotropic heterogeneous formations by high-resolution grids, which can be computationally prohibitive. This motivates the upscaling process that scales-up properties defined at a fine-scale system to equivalent properties defined at a coarse-scale system. In general, analytical methods are very efficient but limited to assumptions and approximations, whereas numerical methods are more robust albeit more time-consuming.In this work, we developed an analytical method to approximate numerical solutions in a finite difference scheme with periodic boundary conditions for two-dimensional problem. Using perturbation expansion techniques and Fourier analysis, the method generates explicit formulas of tensorial equivalent conductivity considering heterogeneity and anisotropy of two-dimensional space, as well as geometry of gridblocks. It is applicable for various cases with different covariance/variagram models and a wide range of log-conductivity variances, correlation lengths, rotation angles, anisotropy ratios of fine grid conductivity, anisotropy ratios of fine grid size, and the number of fine gridblocks in a coarse gridblock. The analytical method matched well with the numerical method for the estimation of the conductivity tensor, hydraulic head, and discharge velocity. The coefficients in the analytical method need to be computed only once for any given statistics, which makes the proposed method much more efficient than the numerical method.
  • Role of model parameterization in risk-based decision support: An
           empirical exploration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Matthew J. Knowling, Jeremy T. White, Catherine R. Moore The degree with which to parameterize a computer model that is to be used for risk-based resource management decision support has been a topic of much discussion in the environmental modeling industry, and remains a difficult choice facing practitioners. High-dimensional parameterization schemes allow for a more robust expression of model input uncertainty over traditional lower-dimensional schemes, but often incur a higher computational burden and require greater understanding of inverse problem theory to implement effectively. However, a number of significant questions remain, such as: “What level of parameterization is needed to adequately express uncertainty for a given decision-relevant simulated output'”; and “To what extent can a simplified parameterization be adopted while maintaining the ability of the model to serve as a decision-support tool'”. This study addresses these questions, among others, by using empirical paired complex-simple model analyses to investigate the consequences of reduced parameterization on decision-relevant simulated outputs in terms of bias incursion and underestimation of uncertainty. A Bayesian decision analysis approach is adopted to facilitate evaluation of parameterization reduction outcomes, not only in terms of the prior and posterior probability density functions of decision-relevant simulated outputs, but also in terms of the management decisions that would be made on their basis. Two integrated surface water/groundwater model case study examples are presented; the first is a complex synthetic model used to forecast groundwater abstraction-induced changes in ecologically-sensitive streamflow characteristics, and the second is a real-world regional-scale model (Hauraki Plains, New Zealand) used to simulate nitrate-loading impacts on water quality. It is shown empirically that, for some decision-relevant simulated outputs, even relatively high-dimensional parameterization schemes ( > 2,000 adjustable parameters), display significant bias in simulated outputs as a result of improper parameter compensation induced through history matching, relative to complex parameterization cases ( > 100,000 adjustable parameters)—ultimately leading to incorrect decisions and resource management action. For other decision-relevant simulated outputs, however, reduced parameterization schemes may be appropriate for resource management decision making, especially when considering a prior uncertainty stance only.
  • Linking Statistical and Hydrodynamic Modeling for Compound Flood Hazard
           Assessment in Tidal Channels and Estuaries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Hamed Moftakhari, Jochen E. Schubert, Amir AghaKouchak, Richard Matthew, Brett F. Sanders A method to link bivariate statistical analysis and hydrodynamic modeling for flood hazard estimation in tidal channels and estuaries is presented and discussed for the general case where flood hazards are linked to upstream riverine discharge Q and downstream ocean level, H. Using a bivariate approach, there are many possible combinations of Q and H that jointly reflect a specific return period, T, raising questions about the best choice as boundary forcing in a hydrodynamic model. We show, first of all, how possible Q and H values depend on whether the definition of T corresponds to the probability of exceedance of “H OR Q” or “H AND Q”. We also show that flood hazards defined by “OR” return periods are more conservative than “AND” return periods. Finally, we introduce a new composite water surface profile to represent the spatially distributed hazard for return period T. The composite profile synthesizes hydrodynamic model results from the “AND” hazard scenario and two scenarios based on traditional univariate analysis, a “Marginal Q” scenario and a “Marginal H” scenario.
  • Model-data fusion of hydrologic simulations and GRACE Terrestrial Water
           Storage observations to estimate changes in water table depth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Dimitrios Stampoulis, John T. Reager, Cédric H. David, Konstantinos M. Andreadis, James S. Famiglietti, Tom G. Farr, Amy R. Trangsrud, Ralph R. Basilio, John L. Sabo, Gregory B. Osterman, Paul R. Lundgren, Zhen Liu Despite numerous advances in continental-scale hydrologic modeling and improvements in global Land Surface Models, an accurate representation of regional water table depth (WTD) remains a challenge. Data assimilation of observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission leads to improvements in the accuracy of hydrologic models, ultimately resulting in more reliable estimates of lumped water storage. However, the usually shallow groundwater compartment of many models presents a problem with GRACE assimilation techniques, as these satellite observations also represent changes in deeper soils and aquifers. To improve the accuracy of modeled groundwater estimates and allow the representation of WTD at finer spatial scales, we implemented a simple, yet novel approach to integrate GRACE data, by augmenting the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. First, the subsurface model structural representation was modified by incorporating an additional (fourth) soil layer of varying depth (up to 1000 meters) in VIC as the bottom ‘groundwater’ layer. This addition allows the model to reproduce water storage variability not only in shallow soils but also in deeper groundwater, in order to allow integration of the full GRACE-observed variability. Second, a Direct Insertion scheme was developed that integrates the high temporal (daily) and spatial (∼6.94 km) resolution model outputs to match the GRACE resolution, performs the integration, and then disaggregates the updated model state after the assimilation step. Simulations were performed with and without Direct Insertion over the three largest river basins in California and including the Central Valley, in order to test the augmented model's ability to capture seasonal and inter-annual trends in the water table. This is the first-ever fusion of GRACE total water storage change observations with hydrologic simulations aiming at the determination of water table depth dynamics, at spatial scales potentially useful for local water management.
  • Pore Occupancy, Relative Permeability and Flow Intermittency Measurements
           Using X-Ray Micro-tomography in a Complex Carbonate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Ying Gao, Ali Q. Raeini, Martin J. Blunt, Branko Bijeljic We imaged the steady-state flow of brine and decane (oil) at different fractional flows during dual injection in a micro-porous limestone, Estaillades, using X-ray micro-tomography. We applied differential imaging to (a) distinguish micro-porous regions from macro-pores, and (b) determine fluid pore occupancy in both regions, and relative permeability at a capillary number, Ca = 7.3 × 10−6. The sample porosity was approximately 28%, with 7% in macro-pores and 21% in pores that could not be directly resolved (micro-porosity). Fluid occupancy in micro-porosity was classified into three sub-phases: micro-pore space with oil, micro-pore space with brine, and micro-pores partially filled with oil and brine. Our method indicated an initially higher oil recovery from micro-porosity, consistent with waterflooding in a water-wet rock. The fractional flow and relative permeabilities of the two fluids were obtained from measurements of the pressure differential across the sample and the saturation calculated from the images. The brine saturation and relative permeabilities are impacted by the presence of water-wet micro-porosity which provides additional connectivity to the phases. Furthermore, we find that in addition to brine and decane, a fraction of the macroscopic pore space contains an intermittent phase, which is occupied either by brine or decane during the hour-long scan time. Pore and throat occupancy of oil, brine and intermittent phase were obtained from images at different fractional flows using the generalized pore network extracted from the image of macro-pores. The intermittent phase, where the occupancy fluctuated between oil-filled and brine-filled, was predominantly located in the small and intermediate size pores and throats. Overall, we establish a new experimental methodology to (i) quantify initial and recovered oil in micro-pores, (ii) characterise intermittent flow, and (iii) measure steady-state relative permeability in carbonates, which is shown to be greatly influenced by micro-porosity.
  • A double-continuum transport model for segregated porous media: derivation
           and sensitivity analysis-driven calibration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): G. Ceriotti, A. Russian, D. Bolster, G. Porta We derive a novel double-continuum transport model based on pore-scale characteristics. Our approach relies on building a simplified unit cell made up of immobile and mobile continua. We employ a numerically resolved pore-scale velocity distribution to characterize the volume of each continuum and to define the velocity profile in the mobile continuum. Using the simplified unit cell, we derive a closed form model, which includes two effective parameters that need to be estimated: a characteristic length scale and a parameter, RD, given by the ratio of characteristic times that lumps the effect of stagnant regions and escape process. To calibrate and validate our model, we rely on a set of pore-scale numerical simulation performed on a 2D disordered segregated periodic porous medium, taking into account different initial solute distributions. Using a Global Sensitivity Analysis, we explore the impact of the two effective parameters on solute concentration profiles and thereby define a Sensitivity Analysis driven criterion for model calibration. The latter is compared to a classical calibration approach. Our results show that, depending on the initial condition, the mass exchange process between mobile and immobile continua impact on solute profile shape significantly. Our transport model is capable of interpreting both symmetric and highly skewed solute concentration profiles. Effectiveness of the calibration of the two parameters largely depends on the content of information of calibration dataset and the selected objective function whose definition can be supported by the implementation of sensitivity analysis. By relying on a sensitivity analysis driven calibration, we are able to provide an accurate and robust interpretation of the concentration profile evolution across different given initial conditions by relying on a unique set of effective parameter values.
  • Solute transport in random composite media with uncertain dispersivities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Aronne Dell'Oca, Monica Riva, Philippe Ackerer, Alberto Guadagnini Characterization of dissolved chemical migration in porous media requires knowledge of the fluid velocity field and parameters governing solute dispersion within the diverse geomaterials constituting the internal architecture of the system. Several studies have been focused on the assessment of the impact on solute concentrations of an incomplete knowledge of the fluid velocity field, typically a result of the effects of uncertain hydraulic properties of the hosting media (e.g., permeability). Limited attention has been devoted to analyze propagation of the uncertainty associated with spatial distributions of local dispersivity values to solute concentration fields. Here, we address this issue by focusing on a random composite medium, where the location of the boundary between two distinct geomaterials is uncertain as well as their associated dispersivity values. We derive and solve the equations satisfied by the (ensemble) mean and variance of solute concentration and investigate the relative impact on these moments of the two sources of uncertainty considered. Our results suggest that, in the investigated set-up, the temporal and spatial evolution of ensemble moments of the solute concentration depends on (i) the overall dispersive length scales encompassed by the solute during its migration and (ii) the actual sequence of the materials traversed by the solute.
  • A Forchheimer's law-based analytical model for constant-rate tests with
           linear flow pattern
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Yi-Feng Chen, Bo-Yong Li, Ming-Ming Liu, Ran Hu, Zhibing Yang Aquifers with quasi-linear flow pattern are frequently envisaged in fractured zones, in oil, gas or enhanced geothermal reservoirs, or in civil engineering where cut-off walls are constructed. The water flow towards a well in this linear aquifer system has been long investigated under Darcian flow condition, but remains an open issue for non-Darcian flow. In this study, a general linearization approximation strategy is suggested for the Forchheimer equation, and an analytical solution is proposed by using Laplace transform for non-Darcian flow towards a well in aquifers laterally bounded by no-flow barriers. Numerical simulations using the finite volume method prove that the linearization approximation performs best when it takes the mean of two commonly-used strategies, and the analytical model is sufficiently accurate at late times for observation wells located moderately far from the source. The proposed model was applied to data interpretation of the pumping tests at the Changheba dam foundation bounded by two cut-off walls in Southwest China, where the drawdown curves can be divided into 1D flow, transitional flow and 2D flow stages as a result of lateral flow through weathered bedrocks at late times. The proposed model provides a valuable tool for characterizing the hydraulic properties of aquifers and reservoirs with a linear flow pattern and for assessing the possible leakage through the lateral barriers by type curve matching.
  • A Regularization Strategy for Modeling Mixed-Sediment River Morphodynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Víctor Chavarrías, Guglielmo Stecca, Annunziato Siviglia, Astrid Blom A notable drawback in mixed-size sediment morphodynamic modeling is the fact that the most commonly used mathematical model in this field (i.e., the active layer model (Hirano, 1971)) can be ill-posed under certain circumstances. Under these conditions the model loses its predictive capabilities, as negligible perturbations in the initial or boundary conditions produce significant differences in the solution. In this paper we propose a preconditioning method that regularizes the model to recover well-posedness by altering the time scale of the sediment mixing processes. We compare results of the regularized model to data from four new laboratory experiments conducted under conditions in which the active layer model is ill-posed. The regularized active layer model captures the change of bed elevation and surface texture averaged over the passage of several bedforms. Neither the active layer model nor the regularized one account for small scale changes due to individual bedforms.
  • Disturbance of a natural hydrogeochemical system caused by the
           construction of a high-level radioactive waste facility: the case study of
           the Central Storage Facility at Villar de Cañas, Spain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Juan Alonso, Marina Moya, Laura Asensio, Vicente Navarro, Paloma GómezABSTRACTThis paper analyzes the natural hydrogeochemical conditions of the future Central Storage Facility site at Villar de Cañas and evaluates the evolution of the system associated with its construction.The characterization of the hydrogeochemical structure of the system is based on a comprehensive field and laboratory survey, which allowed us to define both the distribution of materials and their hydro-chemo-mechanical properties under isothermal conditions. The resulting observations were used to develop a numerical model in a multiphysics environment solver, which was calibrated from the monitoring of the hydraulic head distribution and from detailed geochemical analysis of water samples. The numerical model indicated that the behavior of the system is governed by a very slow underground flow regime and by equilibrium with gypsum and the dissolution of other sulfated phases; these results also suggest that the construction of facilities will not significantly disturb these processes, showing a very small effect of chemistry on the mechanical evolution (vertical displacements).
  • A simplified MEV formulation to model extremes emerging from multiple
           nonstationary underlying processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Francesco Marra, Davide Zoccatelli, Moshe Armon, Efrat Morin This paper presents a Simplified Metastatistical Extreme Value formulation (SMEV) able to model hydro-meteorological extremes emerging from multiple underlying processes. The formulation explicitly includes the average intensity and probability of occurrence of the processes allowing to parsimoniously model changes in these quantities to quantify changes in the probability of occurrence of extremes. SMEV allows (a) frequency analyses of extremes emerging from multiple underlying processes and (b) computationally efficient analyses of the sensitivity of extreme quantiles to changes in the characteristics of the underlying processes; moreover, (c) it provides a robust framework for explanatory models, nonstationary frequency analyses, and climate projections.The methodology is applied to daily precipitation data from long recording stations in the eastern Mediterranean, using Weibull distributions to model daily precipitation amounts generated by two classes of synoptic systems. At-site application of SMEV provides spatially consistent estimates of extreme quantiles, in line with regional GEV estimates and generally characterized by reduced uncertainties. The sensitivity of extreme quantiles to changes and uncertainty in the intensity and yearly occurrences of events generated by different synoptic classes is examined, and an application of SMEV for the projection of future extremes is provided.
  • Modeling salinity-dependent transport of viruses in porous media
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Dong Zhang, Michael Zabarankin, Valentina Prigiobbe Water contamination by pathogenic microbial species is the cause of serious outbreaks of water-borne diseases in coastal urban areas. Upon their discharge into surface water, e.g., estuaries, they may reach the bottom sediments, accumulate (i.e., attachment) under favorable conditions, and be displaced (i.e., detachment) when those conditions are reversed. Current models do not account for coupled transport of microorganism in porous media with salinity, not allowing, therefore, to predict transport behaviour under variable chemical conditions.In this paper, a coupled model of transport in porous media of pathogenic microorganisms, such as viruses, and salinity is presented. Upon verification of the model with the analytical solution derived in this work and validation with the experimental data from the literature, simulations of tidal variation of flow and transport were performed. Results show a discrepancy in the transport behaviour of viruses predicted by our model and the classical approach. In particular, our results show a peak of virus concentration when a contaminated saline system is flooded by a low salinity water. The peak is due to virus detachment from the porous medium surface upon salinity reduction. The magnitude of the peak can be up to one order of magnitude of the initial concentration within the medium. Suggesting a negative feedback from tidal flow in coastal aquifers nearby estuaries affected by virus contamination, which is not predicted by classical models.
  • On the statistical attribution of the frequency of flood events across the
           U.S. Midwest
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Andrea Neri, Gabriele Villarini, Louise J. Slater, Francesco Napolitano The frequency of flood events has increased across most of the U.S. Midwest in the past 50-70 years; however, little is known about what is driving these changes. Using an observation-driven approach, we develop a statistical framework to attribute the changes in the frequency of flood peak events to changes in the climate system and to land use / land cover. We focus on 287 U.S. Geological Survey sites with at least 50 years of daily discharge measurements between the second half of the 20th century and the present. Our analyses are performed at the seasonal level and consider five predictors: precipitation, temperature, antecedent wetness conditions, agriculture, and population density. Even though we use simple models, we are able to reproduce well the interannual variability in the frequency of flood events as well as the overall long-term tendencies. Results indicate that precipitation and antecedent wetness conditions are the strongest predictors, with the role of the latter increasing as we lower the threshold for the event identification. Temperature is an important predictor only in the northern Great Plains during spring, where snow-related processes are most relevant. Population (as a proxy of urbanization) and agriculture are less important compared to the climate predictors.
  • Stochastic multi-objective modelling for optimization of water-food-energy
           nexus of irrigated agriculture
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Mo Li, Qiang Fu, Vijay P. Singh, Dong Liu, Tianxiao Li Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of world's fresh water resources on one hand and the producer of food to feed the world's growing population on the other hand. Water, food, and energy are intertwined in irrigated agricultural systems and an effective and coordinated management of the water-food-energy nexus is needed for the sustainable development of agriculture which is challenging because of large uncertainties involved therein. This paper developed an optimization model for the allocation of resources toward the sustainable management of agricultural water, food, and energy nexus under uncertainty. The model is capable of providing policy makers with the ability to determine optimal policy options among water, energy, and land resources to obtain the maximum system economic benefit and simultaneously minimize environmental impacts. The model is also capable of handling complex uncertainties of random boundary intervals. The model is demonstrated to solve a real-world nexus management problem in an irrigation district in northeast China. Results highlight the sensitivity of food production and environmental pollution to the utilization of water, energy, and land resources. The model is applicable for similar agriculture-centered regions with limited resources.
  • Effect of Water Salinity on Permeability Alteration during CO₂
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Faisal Othman, Muhammad Arif Naufaliansyah, Furqan Hussain Fines migration during CO₂ injection into water-saturated rocks causes mineral dissolution and precipitation. We present a careful experimental study to investigate the effect of water salinity on permeability damage during CO₂ sequestration.Core samples were cut from two Berea sandstone blocks for coreflooding images. The core samples were characterized using X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses. The coreflooding began by injecting a core sample with water having salinity values of 0, 10, 30, or 60 g/L NaCl. Then, CO₂-saturated water was injected to displace the previously injected water. The resulting fluid was then displaced by the injection of water-saturated supercritical (sc) CO₂. Throughout coreflooding, the pressure difference across the core sample was monitored, and produced water samples were collected. After the coreflooding, SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was run to generate images that were then registered with the pre-injection images to reveal fines migration. The produced water samples were subjected to measurement of fines concentration and ionic chromatography analysis.During CO₂-saturated water injection, permeability increased for low-salinity water coreflooding (0 and 10 g/L NaCl) and decreased for high-salinity water coreflooding (30 and 60 g/L NaCl). After water-saturated scCO₂ injection, Permeability decrease ranged from 85% for freshwater (0 g/L NaCl) to 20% for high-salinity water (60 g/L NaCl). Fines migration and its consequent mineral dissolution and precipitation determine the core samples' permeability.
  • Hydrograph peak-shaving using a graph-theoretic algorithm for placement of
           hydraulic control structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Matthew Bartos, Branko Kerkez The need to attenuate hydrograph peaks is central to the design of stormwater and flood control systems. However, few guidelines exist for siting hydraulic control structures such that system-scale benefits are maximized. This study presents a new graph-theoretic algorithm for stabilizing the hydrologic response of watersheds by placing controllers at strategic locations in the drainage network. This algorithm identifies subcatchments that dominate the peak of the hydrograph, and then finds the “cuts” in the drainage network that maximally isolate these subcatchments, thereby flattening the hydrologic response. Evaluating the performance of the algorithm through an ensemble of hydrodynamic simulations, we find that our controller placement algorithm produces consistently flatter discharges than randomized controller configurations—both in terms of the peak discharge and the overall variance of the hydrograph. By attenuating flashy flows, our algorithm provides a powerful methodology for mitigating flash floods, reducing erosion, and protecting aquatic ecosystems. More broadly, we show that controller placement exerts an important influence on the hydrologic response and demonstrate that analysis of drainage network structure can inform more effective stormwater control policies.
  • Turbulence at water-vegetation interface in open channel flow: experiments
           with natural-like plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Gerardo Caroppi, Kaisa Västilä, Juha Järvelä, Paweł M. Rowinski, Maurizio Giugni Riparian shrubs and trees present a complex, seasonally variable morphology, with flexible stems and leaves efficiently adapting to the flow forcing (reconfiguration). The aim of this paper is to investigate how foliage and reconfiguration affect the flow and mixing in a partly vegetated channel. Specific attention was placed on the velocity statistics, onset and coherence of turbulent structures, and lateral momentum transport at the horizontal interface between vegetation and open water. The experimental flume arrangement was novel in that it allowed investigating the lateral shear layer induced by flexible riparian plants. The natural-like vegetation consisted of emergent woody plants and a grassy understory, with density, morphology and reconfiguration behavior comparable to those found in real riparian areas. Investigations were conducted under foliated and leafless conditions to determine the seasonality effects. The mean and turbulent flow structure was determined with acoustic Doppler velocimetry, and dynamic plant motions were investigated from video footage. The presence of foliage enhanced the drag discontinuity at the interface, resulting in more pronounced velocity gradients between the vegetated and open areas compared to the leafless conditions. Foliation induced stronger shear layer-scale mixing, whereas, under leafless conditions, the local mixing induced by stems was more important. The reconfiguration decreased the coherence of the two-dimensional large-scale vortices at the interface while their characteristic frequency was consistent with the canonical mixing layer theory. Our results indicated that shear layer dynamics in partly vegetated channels was influenced strongly by morphology and reconfiguration of complex plants, with more efficient lateral momentum transport at the interface in the foliated conditions than previously reported for shear layers induced by simpler vegetation.
  • Heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and porosity fields reconstruction
           through steady-state flow and transient solute transport data using the
           continuous adjoint state
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Frederick Delay, Hamid Badri, Philippe Ackerer A parameter estimation methodology has been developed on the basis of model inversion using a Quasi-Newton method and adaptive parameterization. The continuous adjoint state equations for both flow and transport in porous media are employed as the tool calculating the gradient components of the objective function with respect to parameters. Solving the continuous form of the adjoint equations can be implemented independently of the code used to solve the forward problem, which renders the technique non-intrusive.The developed methodology is applied to the identification of hydraulic conductivity and porosity fields conditioned by piezometric head data associated with steady-state flow and transient solute concentrations. Synthetic numerical experiments have been undertaken for test cases of increasing complexity, from an almost uniform flow sweeping the modeled domain with a prescribed uniform continuous injection of solute at the inflow boundary, to spatially highly variable flow conditions obtained through source/sink terms within the flow domain and a local stepwise solute injection. The results of inversions are analyzed using criteria based on the comparisons between estimated concentration and reference concentration values as well as comparisons between estimated hydraulic conductivity (and porosity for one test case) and reference hydraulic conductivity fields.The results show that employing a continuous adjoint state technique computed independently of the direct problem is an efficient option for parameter estimation relying jointly upon flow and transport data. In the reported numerical examples that are characterized by the identifiability of the flow problem on the basis of hydraulic head observations, concentration data from solute transport scenarios bring few added value to sought solutions of hydraulic conductivities. The spatial structure of the conductivity fields is slightly improved compared with the reference, but the overall system in terms of head distribution, identification of main flow paths, and solute transit times, only inherits cosmetics.
  • Modelling of multispecies reactive transport on pore-space images
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Thomas D.S. Oliveira, Martin J. Blunt, Branko Bijeljic We present a new model, named poreReact, to simulate multispecies reactive transport on pore space images. We solve the Navier-Stokes equations and the advection-diffusion equation for concentration on an unstructured grid using the finite volume method implemented in OpenFOAM. We couple it with the chemical model Reaktoro, which we use to calculate the chemical equilibrium of homogeneous reactions in each grid cell, considered as a completely mixed batch reactor.We validate the model against analytical solutions and experimental data, and investigate, for a range of Péclet numbers, the interplay between transport and reaction for multispecies reactive transport in a 3D bead pack where two streams of reactants at different pH are injected in parallel. We analyse the distribution of species and the rates of formation and consumption in the pore space and find that, despite the relative homogeneity of the bead pack and symmetry in injection conditions, the concentration fields of the products can be asymmetric because of the interplay between transport and chemical equilibrium. For different Péclet numbers, we calculate relative yields (the ratio between the observed change in concentration and the change that would be obtained if the reactants were completely mixed). We observe that lower Péclet numbers give rise to higher relative yields because of increased transverse mixing by diffusion. However, higher absolute yields are obtained at higher injection velocities because of the larger amount of matter available for reaction in a given time. Reaction is more favoured in the faster-flowing regions of the pore space. However, this effect is more marked for species for which advection is the dominant mechanism of transport to reactive sites, as opposed to diffusion-mediated reactions where the full velocity distribution is sampled before reaction occurs.
  • Modeling electrokinetic transport and biogeochemical reactions in porous
           media: a multidimensional Nernst-Planck-Poisson approach with PHREEQC
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Riccardo Sprocati, Matteo Masi, Muhammad Muniruzzaman, Massimo Rolle Electrokinetic techniques (EK) have been proposed and applied in different fields of science and engineering to enhance solute transport and species mobility in subsurface porous media. Modeling of EK requires a comprehensive approach allowing the description of the complex interplay between physical, chemical and biogeochemical processes occurring in EK applications. We propose a multidimensional modeling approach that allows the integrated description of fluid flow, solute transport (including electromigration and electroosmosis), Coulombic interactions between transported species, and a wide range of kinetic and equilibrium reactions. The proposed modeling tool, NP-Phreeqc-EK, is a coupling between COMSOL Multiphysics, which is used to solve fluid flow and solute transport in saturated porous media based on a Nernst-Planck-Poisson formulation, and PhreeqcRM, used to solve geochemical reactions. We illustrate the capabilities of NP-Phreeqc-EK with selected benchmarks in domains with different dimensions (1D, 2D and 3D). The results of the model are successfully compared with analytical solutions, numerical simulations with other software, and data from previously published EK-experiments. The outcomes of this study show the flexibility of the approach in simulating electrokinetic reactive transport processes in saturated porous media and highlight the importance of Coulombic interactions in EK applications. Such electrostatic interactions can strongly impact the performance of EK techniques since they affect the displacement velocities of charged species and can limit the maximum concentration of amendments that can be delivered through electromigration.
  • UAV-Based Measurements of Spatio-Temporal Concentration Distributions of
           Fluorescent Tracers in Open Channel Flows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Donghae Baek, Il Won Seo, Jun Song Kim, Jonathan M. Nelson A new method of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based tracer tests using RGB images was developed in order to acquire the spatio-temporal concentration distribution of tracer clouds in open channel flows. Tracer tests using Rhodamine WT were conducted to collect the RGB images using the commercial digital camera mounted on a UAV, and the concentration of Rhodamine WT using in-situ fluorometric probes. The correlation analysis showed that the in-situ measured concentrations of Rhodamine WT were strongly correlated with the digital number (DN) of the RGB images, even though the response of DN to the concentration was spatially heterogeneous. The empirical relationship between the DN values and the Rhodamine WT concentration data was estimated using artificial neural network (ANN) models. The trained ANN models, which consider the effect of water depth and river bed, accurately retrieved the detailed spatio-temporal concentration distributions of all study areas that had an R2 higher than 0.9. The acquired spatio-temporal concentration distributions by the proposed method based on the UAV images gave general as well as detailed views of the tracer cloud moving dynamically in open channel flows that cannot be easily observed using conventional in-situ measurements.
  • Evaluating lateral flow in an experimental channel using the diffusive
           wave inverse problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Roger Moussa, Samer Majdalani Lateral flow L(t) is a major process during flood events, which can be either gains (positive) or losses (negative) to the channel. The inverse problem consists of evaluating L(t) knowing the inflow I(t) and the outflow O(t) on a channel. However L(t) is very difficult to measure on real channels, and we are always not sure to which extent the evaluated L(t) is close to the real one. This paper aims at evaluating L(t) in a channel using the analytical solution of the inverse problem of the Hayami diffusive wave equation (DWE) with L(t) uniformly distributed along the channel. We conceived and built a novel experimental channel where I(t), O(t) and L(t) are highly controlled at 1 second time step and we realize 62 experimental hydrograph scenarios corresponding to different shapes of I(t) and L(t). We validate the hypotheses of both the DWE Hayami model and the corresponding inverse model (with very high criteria functions values for a large majority of scenarios) which reflects the ability of the DWE inverse model to reproduce complex lateral flow hydrograph dynamics. We discuss the limits of application of the DWE especially for short wave lengths. The coupled experimental-modelling approach proposed herein opens promising perspectives regarding the evaluation of lateral flow on real channels.
  • Analysis of the influence of averaged positive second invariant Qav of
           deformation tensor ∇u on the maximum dilution index Emax in steady Darcy
           flows through isotropic heterogeneous porous media.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Anthony Beaudoin, Arthur Dartois, Serge Huberson Characterization of flow topology is essential to understand the effects of the heterogeneity and dimensionality of geological formations on the mixing of inert solute clouds in these same geological formations. In this work, we numerically study two indicators of flow topology, the averaged vorticity magnitude ω av and the averaged positive second invariant Qav of the deformation tensor ∇u, in steady Darcy flows through exponentially correlated lognormal hydraulic conductivity fields K. Our numerical results allow us to establish the relationships between the two indicators considered here and the hydraulic conductivity variance σ2 in 2D and 3D, highlighting the role played by the spatial structure of these porous media on flow topology, and indirectly on mixing. This work leads us to assess the maximum dilution index Emax, indicator of mixing, theoretically known to increase monotonically in steady Darcy flows through isotropic heterogeneous porous media. Our numerical results allow us to test this hypothesis by establishing the relationship between the slope a of maximum dilution index Emax and the averaged positive second invariant Qav of deformation tensor ∇u. The parameters of this relationship depend on molecular diffusion and dimensionality of problem considered.
  • A new second-order shallow water scheme on two-dimensional structured
           grids over abrupt topography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Andreas Buttinger-Kreuzhuber, Zsolt Horváth, Sebastian Noelle, Günter Blöschl, Jürgen Waser This paper presents a finite volume (FV) scheme on structured grids to simulate shallow flows over complex terrain. The situation of shallow downhill flow over a step is particularly challenging for most shallow water schemes. We study this situation in detail and devise a novel second-order reconstruction strategy, which gives superior results over former hydrostatic reconstruction (HR) schemes. The reconstruction step is based on a recent first-order hydrostatic reconstruction HR method, which improves shallow flows over steps. The proposed second-order scheme is well-balanced, positivity-preserving, and handles dry cells. When compared with the original HR, we lower the computational burden by using a simplified quadrature for the bed slope source term. We test the scheme on various benchmark setups to assess accuracy and robustness, where the method produces comparable results to other HR-based schemes in most cases and superior results in the case of shallow downhill flow over steps. The novel second-order scheme is capable of simulating large-scale real-world flood scenarios fast and accurately.
  • Computationally efficient modeling of hydro-sediment-morphodynamic
           processes using a hybrid local time step/global maximum time step
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Peng Hu, Yunlong Lei, Jianjian Han, Zhixian Cao, Huaihan Liu, Zhiguo He A hybrid local time step/global maximum time step (LTS/GMaTS) method is proposed for computationally efficient modeling of hydro-sediment-morphodynamic processes. The governing equations are numerically solved on unstructured triangular meshes using a well-balanced shock-capturing finite volume method with the HLLC approximate Riemann solver. High computational efficiency is achieved by implementing the LTS to solve equations governing sediment-laden flows (i.e., the hydro-sediment part), and implementing the GMaTS to solve equations governing bed materials (i.e., the morphodynamic part). Two benchmark experimental dam-break flows over erodible beds and one field case of the Taipingkou waterway, Middle Yangtze River, are simulated to demonstrate the high computational efficiency and the satisfactory quantitative accuracy. It is shown that the computational efficiency of the new model can be faster by an order of magnitude than a traditional model of similar type but implementing the global minimum time step (GMiTS). The satisfactory quantitative accuracy of the new model for the present cases is demonstrated by the negligible L2 norms of water level and bed elevation between the new model and the traditional model, as compared to the L2 norms between the traditional model and the measured data.
  • Positron Emission Tomography in Water Resources and Subsurface Energy
           Resources Engineering Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Christopher Zahasky, Takeshi Kurotori, Ronny Pini, Sally M. Benson Recent studies have demonstrated that positron emission tomography (PET) is a valuable tool for in-situ characterization of fluid transport in porous and fractured geologic media at the laboratory scale. While PET imaging is routinely used for clinical cancer diagnosis and preclinical medical research—and therefore imaging facilities are available at most research institutes—widespread adoption for applications in water resources and subsurface energy resources engineering have been limited by real and perceived challenges of working with this technique. In this study we discuss and address these challenges, and provide detailed analysis highlighting how positron emission tomography can complement and improve laboratory characterization of different subsurface fluid transport problems. The physics of PET are reviewed to provide a fundamental understanding of the sources of noise, resolution limits, and safety considerations. We then layout the methodology required to perform laboratory experiments imaged with PET, including a new protocol for radioactivity dosing optimization for imaging in geologic materials. Signal-to-noise and sensitivity analysis comparisons between PET and clinical X-ray computed tomography are performed to highlight how PET data can complement more traditional characterization methods, particularly for solute transport problems. Finally, prior work is critically reviewed and discussed to provide a better understanding of the strengths and weakness of PET and how to best utilize PET-derived data for future studies.
  • Hydraulic conductivity and porosity heterogeneity controls on
           environmental performance metrics: Implications in probabilistic risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Arianna Libera, Christopher V. Henri, Felipe P.J. de Barros Heterogeneities in natural porous formations, mainly manifested through the hydraulic conductivity (K) and, to a lesser degree, the porosity (ϕ), largely control subsurface flow and solute transport. The influence of the heterogeneous structure of K on transport processes has been widely studied, whereas less attention is dedicated to the joint heterogeneity of conductivity and porosity fields. Our study employs Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the coupled effect of K−ϕ spatial variability on the transport behavior (and uncertainty) of conservative and reactive plumes within a 3D aquifer domain. We explore multiple scenarios, characterized by different levels of heterogeneity of the geological properties, and compare the computational results from the joint K−ϕ heterogeneous system with the results originating from generally adopted constant ϕ conditions. In our study, the spatially variable K−ϕ fields are positively correlated. We statistically analyze key Environmental Performance Metrics: first arrival times and peak mass fluxes for non-reactive species and increased lifetime cancer risk for reactive chlorinated solvents. The conservative transport simulations show that considering coupled K−ϕ fields decreases the plume dispersion, increases both the first arrival times of solutes and the peak mass fluxes at the observation planes. A positive correlation between aquifer connectivity and peak mass fluxes is identified for both homogeneous and heterogeneous ϕ. Our conservative transport results indicate that the relevance of ϕ variability can depend on the metric of interest, the control plane-source distance as well as the level of heterogeneity of the conductivity field. The analysis on reactive transport shows that ϕ variability only slightly affects the mean increased lifetime cancer risk at the control planes but leads to a considerable reduction of the cancer risk uncertainty. We also see that the sensitivity of cancer risk towards ϕ heterogeneity can be influenced by the level of variability of the conductivity field, the source-to-control plane distance, but is not affected by the manner in which the contaminant concentration is computed.
  • Real-time simulation of surface water and groundwater with data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Xin He, Diana Lucatero, Marc-Etienne Ridler, Henrik Madsen, Jacob Kidmose, Øyvind Hole, Claus Petersen, Chunmiao Zheng, Jens Christian Refsgaard Data assimilation (DA) has proven to be a useful technique in real-time hydrological modeling and forecasting. Jointly assimilating both surface water and groundwater data has promising application value for hydrological simulations in areas where surface water and groundwater are closely linked; however, such studies have not been intensively reported. In addition, the role of the quality of precipitation forecast has not been fully addressed in real-time forecasting using a coupled surface water - groundwater model, where the model evaluation includes both deterministic and probabilistic forecasts. In the present study, we use the MIKE SHE hydrological model code in conjunction with the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter DA technique. The study area is a small urbanized catchment in Denmark. The model is run in simulated real-time using historical numerical weather prediction forecasts. The results show that DA can significantly reduce model bias and thereby improve model performance for both surface water and groundwater simulations. Comparing the impact of DA and rainfall forecast quality, it is found that, for streamflow forecasts, the most important factor is the quality of the rainfall data; whereas for groundwater head forecasts, the initial state at time of forecast is more important. We also find that inclusion of rainfall forecast uncertainty may be important for simulating a single event, however, it is not vital if long-term average model performance is of interest.
  • Impact of absorbing and reflective boundaries on fractional derivative
           models: Quantification, evaluation and application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Yong Zhang, Xiangnan Yu, Xicheng Li, James F. Kelly, HongGuang Sun, Chunmiao Zheng Fractional-derivative models are promising tools for characterizing non-Fickian transport in heterogeneous media. Most fractional models utilize an infinite domain, although realistic problems occur on bounded domains. To quantify the impact of a finite or semi-infinite boundary on non-Fickian transport in natural geological media, this study evaluates three representative fractional advection-dispersion equations (FADEs) with absorbing or reflective boundaries. Results show that the temporal FADE (t-FADE) with absorbing/reflective boundaries has analytical solutions, the one-sided spatial FADE (s-FADE) in bounded-domains can be simulated using an Eulerian solver, and the tempered spatiotemporal FADE (st-FADE) can be efficiently solved using a fully Lagrangian approach. Further simulations reveal important impacts of absorbing/reflective boundaries on non-Fickian diffusion. First, the “local” reflective boundary mainly affects the solute dynamics near the boundary for non-local super-diffusion, while the “nonlocal” reflective boundary changes the overall pattern of non-Fickian transport in the whole domain. Second, the total mass for solutes in absorbing boundaries declines non-linearly with respect to time. Third, the mobile and immobile phase plumes tend to respond differently to the boundary because of their different transport mechanisms. Fourth, a field application shows that both the s-FADE with a negative skewness and the t-FADE can be used to quantify bounded-domain sub-diffusion for fluorescein dye transport in the Red Cedar River with a large Péclet number, although the determination of the upstream boundary position contains high uncertainty. Evaluation of the boundary impact on sub-diffusion, super-diffusion, and their mixture may improve our understanding of the nature of non-Fickian transport in bounded domains.
  • Numerical Simulation of Flow Through Suspended and Non-Suspended Canopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Wenwan Cheng, Zhaochen Sun, Shuxiu Liang Aquatic vegetation and marine aquaculture structures construct different forms of canopy. The existence of canopies produces drag resistance to water flow, alters ambient hydrodynamic and ecological environment. This work presents a numerical model to simulate flow through suspended and non-suspended canopies incorporating the interaction between the fluid field and the vegetation or structures. The numerical model is established based on Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equations with additional canopy drag terms. Turbulence is modeled using two-equation k − ε model which takes into account the effect of canopies by an approximation of dispersive fluxes using the drag force produced by the canopy. The plant stem deformation and drag resistance are simulated accounting for both internal and external forces. An empirical formula for the bulk drag coefficient of the canopy region involving the shelter effect is proposed based on numerical simulation and laboratory experiment calibration. The numerical model is validated with existing data from field observation and laboratory experiments.
  • Corrigendum to “A new upscaling method for fractured porous media”
           [Advances in Water Resources 80 (2015): 60-68.]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Tao Chen, Christoph Clauser, Gabriele Marquart, Karen Willbrand, Darius Mottaghy
  • The effects of cascade dam construction and operation on riparian
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Yu-jun Yi, Yang Zhou, Jie Song, Shanghong Zhang, Yanpeng Cai, Wei Yang, Zhifeng YangABSTRACTRiparian vegetation acts as a corridor, filter, or barrier for the flow of material, energy, and information between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. While, dam construction, especially cascade dam construction, bring huge changes to riparian vegetation. In this study, the changing of riparian vegetation cover in response to the construction and operation of large dams at different scale was analyzed. The variations of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in longitudinal and transverse directions during pre- and post-dam construction were calculated and analyzed. The results showed that dam height was the main determining factor for the range of riparian vegetation affected in the longitudinal direction, whereas valley contour and distance to dam site affect the transverse direction vegetation together. A linear or logarithmic relation between submerged area in transverse and the distance to dam were founded. After dam construction, the NDVI in the valley becomes uniform, and the vegetation grows more homogeneously. Influence extent of different elevation in different reaches was discussed. The intensive affected area including inundated area and 200m from the water surface in vertical direction. As the altitude grows, the influence gets weak. Positive effect of a single dam on vegetation in upstream reservoir was found except near channel grade, and a potential oligotrophic threat for the downstream vegetation was posted. For cascade dams, the vegetation in the upstream of Xiaowan dam became better from elevation 200-400m above original water surface. The NDVI between Xiaowan dam and Manwan dam, which at downstream of Xiaowan but in reservoir of Manwan, degraded after Xiaowan dam constructed. Cascade dams have cumulative effects on vegetation, the influence are positive or negative mainly depend on diversion of the dam.
  • Wave-induced morphodynamics and sediment transport around a slender
           vertical cylinder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Massimo Miozzi, Sara Corvaro, Francisco Alves Pereira, Maurizio Brocchini We study the dynamics of a sandy bed around a slender vertical cylinder forced by progressive, non-linear water waves. The seabed evolves continuously under the effects of the up-welling, down-welling and rolling events induced by vortical coherent structures. In turn, these are closely connected to the shape of the seabed, which is modified by the scouring and/or the deposition of the sand. Starting from a flat seabed, progressive waves induce a rapid and transient modification of the bottom morphology towards a dynamically stable equilibrium state, which is the focus of this work. The dynamical equilibrium state is a function of the wave period and is reached when the seabed morphology is not substantially altered. We describe such a state by an Eulerian in-phase analysis of the sand particle motion, inferred from Lagrangian data collected over a large number of wave passages. This analysis relies on the use of the defocusing digital PIV technique (DDPIV), for the first time applied to the specific flow of interest here. On the basis of the Eulerian analysis, the triggering of the key-events (up- and down-welling, rolling) over the wave phase is captured by identifying, through the Q > 0 criterion, the coherent flow structures responsible for the events. This analysis is coupled with the description of the sediment trajectories, analyzed in a Lagrangian manner and effectively assessing how and where the solid phase is transported during the key-events. Five main mobilization/transport mechanisms have been identified, three during the onshore flow and two during the offshore flow: (i) generation of a coherent structure reminiscent of a horseshoe vortex at the toe, (ii) intense scouring at the top of the flatbed region, (iii) vortex shedding in the wake during direct (onshore) flow, (iv) shear crossflow on the lee-side of the cylinder and (v) large vertical shearing in the flatbed region during the reverse (offshore) flow. At flow reversal, this shearing mechanism impacts on a significant area of sediments in the incoming region of the flow.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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