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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3183 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3183 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 102, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 436, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 385, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 476, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Water Resources
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.551
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 53  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0309-1708
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • An extension of data assimilation into the short-term hydrologic forecast
           for improved prediction reliability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): James M. Leach, Paulin Coulibaly Typically, when using data assimilation to improve hydrologic forecasting, observations are assimilated up to the start of the forecast. This is done to provide more accurate state and parameter estimates which, in turn, allows for a better forecast. We propose an extension to the traditional data assimilation approach which allows for assimilation to continue into the forecast to further improve the forecast's performance and reliability. This method was tested on two small, highly urbanized basins in southern Ontario, Canada; the Don River and Black Creek basins. Using a database of forcing data, model states, predicted streamflow, and streamflow observations, a lookup function was used to provide an observation during the forecast which can be assimilated. This allows for an indirect way to assimilate the numerical weather prediction forcing data. This approach can help in addressing prediction uncertainty, since an ensemble of previous observations can be pulled from the database which correspond to the forecast probability density function given previous information. The results show that extending data assimilation into the forecast can improve forecast performance in these urban basins, and it was shown that the forecast reliability could be improved by up to 78 percent.
       
  • Deeply Uncertain Pathways: Integrated Multi-City Regional Water Supply
           Infrastructure Investment and Portfolio Management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): B.C. Trindade, P.M. Reed, G.W. Characklis This study contributes the Deep Uncertainty (DU) Pathways framework for bridging long-term water supply infrastructure investments and improved short-term water portfolio management (e.g., restrictions, water transfers, financial instruments, etc.) to yield a regional water supply policy robust to supply and financial failures. The DU Pathways framework combines flexibility-providing risk-of-failure (ROF) decision rules, dynamic adaptive policy pathways concepts, and a careful consideration of time-evolving information feedbacks to yield management-conditioned infrastructure pathways for regions. The DU Pathways’ framework has been developed to carefully consider multi-actor regional contexts with the goal of aiding stakeholders in discovering pathway policies that attain high performance levels for supply reliability and financial stability across challenging, deeply uncertain futures and to guide robustness compromises that may be necessary between regional actors. As demonstrated in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina, DU Pathways clarifies how to identify robust infrastructure investment and management policies across the municipalities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary, and Chapel Hill. Our results provide insights about the most cost-effective infrastructure options to be pursued in the near-term, clarify which sources of uncertainty drive the performance tradeoffs and robustness conflicts across the regional system, and demonstrate valuable information on the diversity of interdependent failure modes that may emerge across the multiple actors implementing each candidate policy.
       
  • 2D numerical simulation of unsteady flows for large scale floods
           prediction in real time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): I. Echeverribar, M. Morales-Hernández, P. Brufau, P. García-Navarro The challenge of finding a compromise between computational time and level of accuracy and robustness has traditionally expanded the use simplified models rather than full two-dimensional (2D) models for flood simulation. This work presents a GPU accelerated 2D shallow water model for the simulation of flood events in real time. In particular, an explicit first-order finite volume scheme is detailed to control the numerical instabilities that are likely to appear when used in complex topography. The model is first validated with the benchmark test case of the Toce River (Italy) and numerical fixes are demonstrated to be necessary. The model is next applied to reproduce real events in a reach of the Ebro River (Spain) in order to compare simulation results with field data. The second case deals with a large domain (744 km2) and long flood duration (up to 20 days) allowing an analysis of the performance and speed-up achieved by different GPU devices. The high values of fit between observed and simulated results as well as the computational times achieved are encouraging to propose the use of the model as forecasting system.
       
  • In Situ Pore-Scale Analysis of Oil Recovery During Three-Phase
           Near-Miscible CO2 Injection in a Water-Wet Carbonate Rock
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Abdulla Alhosani, Alessio Scanziani, Qingyang Lin, Ziqing Pan, Branko Bijeljic, Martin J. Blunt We study in situ three-phase near-miscible CO2 injection in a water-wet carbonate rock at elevated temperature and pressure using X-ray microtomography. We examine the recovery mechanisms, presence or absence of oil layers, pore occupancy and interfacial areas during a secondary gas injection process. In contrast to an equivalent immiscible system, we did not observe layers of oil sandwiched between gas in the centre of the pore space and water in the corners. At near-miscible conditions, the measured contact angle between oil and gas was approximately 73○, indicating only weak oil wettability in the presence of gas. Oil flows in the centres of large pores, rather than in layers for immiscible injection, when displaced by gas. This allows for a rapid production of oil since it is no longer confined to movement in thin layers. A significant recovery factor of 80% was obtained and the residual oil saturation existed as disconnected blobs in the corners of the pore space. At equilibrium, gas occupied the biggest pores, while oil and water occupied pores of varying sizes (small, medium and large). Again, this was different from an immiscible system, where water occupied only the smallest pores. We suggest that a double displacement mechanism, where gas displaces water that displaces oil is responsible for shuffling water into larger pores than that seen after initial oil injection. This is only possible since, in the absence of oil layers, gas can contact water directly. The gas-oil and oil-water interfacial areas are lower than in the immiscible case, since there are no oil layers and even water layers in the macro-pore space become disconnected; in contrast, there is a larger direct contact of oil to the solid. These results could serve as benchmarks for developing near-miscible pore-scale modelling tools.
       
  • ICAT: A numerical scheme to minimize numerical diffusion in
           advection-dispersion modeling and its application in identifying flow
           channeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Hui Wu, Pengcheng Fu, Joseph P. Morris, Randolph R. Settgast, Frederick J. RyersonAbstractThe advection-dispersion equation for scalar transport is essential for the numerical modeling of many fluid dynamics problems. However, solutions from numerical schemes always suffer from numerical diffusion and/or oscillation. In this study, we develop an Intra-Cell Advection Tracking (ICAT) scheme to minimize numerical diffusion and preserve monotonicity for advection-dispersion modeling. The key idea is to introduce “queues” in each discretized cell, and using a sequential transport rule and a flow distribution mechanism to track the scalar transport in these queues temporally and spatially. The capability and limitations of ICAT are first investigated through three test cases. Compared with the results obtained from other numerical schemes, the results from ICAT show substantially reduced numerical diffusion and agree better with analytical solutions. We also employ ICAT to simulate the transport process of a conservative tracer in a fracture with a highly heterogeneous aperture distribution. Discrete flow channels in the fracture are better discerned by ICAT than by other numerical schemes, indicating the suitability of ICAT for modeling tracer transport in channelized flow fields.
       
  • Copula-based modelling of earthen levee breach due to overtopping
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Matteo Balistrocchi, Giovanni Moretti, Stefano Orlandini, Roberto Ranzi The level of protection offered by an earthen levee is typically described in terms of flood water level that the levee is capable of containing. If a larger flood occurs, floodwaters exceed the height of the levee and flow over its crest. As the water passes over the top, it may erode the levee, worsening the flooding and potentially causing a breach. In order to determine the annual probability that an earthen levee breaches due to overtopping, multiple flood characteristics such as peak flood water level, or related peak flow discharge, and flood duration need to be characterized statistically by using multivariate statistics. In this study, critical conditions for levee failure are described by using a Clayton copula relating peak flow discharge to flood duration. The obtained model is tested over a real river site located along the Panaro River, in northern Italy, where a 52-year time series of hourly flow discharge and a normal flow rating curve are available. The developed model makes it possible to delimitate the levee failure region within the population of flood events and to statistically describe earthen levee breach due to overtopping. Breach probability is found to be underestimated when the statistical association between peak flow discharge and flood duration is neglected. The proposed copula-based model is therefore important to support the design and construction of earthen levees, and to identify the actions needed to save lives and property when a flood exceeding the levee design limit occurs.
       
  • Linking parametric and water-balance models of the Budyko and Turc spaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Edoardo Daly, Salvatore Calabrese, Jun Yin, Amilcare Porporato The Budyko and Turc frameworks have become very popular tools for the estimation of catchment-scale water balance. In their original definition, these frameworks and the resulting equations, which are considered equivalent, apply in the long-term to very large catchments, whose water balance is predominately driven by climatic factors. Several equations similar to Budyko’s and Turc’s have subsequently been proposed to account also for the effect of catchment characteristics, including parametric formulations as well as equations resulting from a simplified physical representation of the water balance. After highlighting their advantages and disadvantages, we show that models based on the water balance, which account for rainfall variability and feedback between water availability and evapotranspiration, are more versatile to describe catchment-scale rainfall partitioning. They include parameters that have clearer physical meaning and, therefore, can be estimated independently of streamflow and evapotranspiration, thereby making them more amenable to practical use in un-gaged catchments. They show that Budyko’s and Turc’s point of view are equivalent only for large catchments. Additionally, water balance models have limiting conditions for extremely dry and wet climates that differ from those of the Budyko equations and its parametric formulations, as expected in catchments with a finite water storage capacity; in these models, Budykoâs and Turcâs points of view become equivalent only for large catchments.
       
  • Splitting-based domain decomposition methods for two-phase flow with
           different rock types
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Elyes Ahmed In this paper, we are concerned with the global pressure formulation of immiscible incompressible two-phase flow between different rock types. We develop for this problem two robust schemes based on domain decomposition (DD) methods and operator-splitting techniques. The first scheme follows a sequential procedure in which the (global) pressure, the saturation-advection and the saturation-diffusion problems are fully decoupled. In this scheme, each problem is treated individually using various DD approaches and specialized numerical methods. The coupling between the different problems is explicit and the time-marching is with no iterations. To adapt to different time scales of problem components and different rock types, the novel scheme uses a multirate time stepping strategy, by taking multiple finer time steps for saturation-advection within one coarse time step for saturation-diffusion and pressure, and permits independent time steps for the advection step in the different rocks. In the second scheme, we review the classical Implicit Pressure–Explicit Saturation (IMPES) method (by decoupling only pressure and saturation) in the context of multirate coupling schemes and nonconforming-in-time DD approaches. For the discretization, the saturation-advection problem is approximated with the explicit Euler method in time, and in space with the cell-centered finite volume method of first order of Godunov type. The saturation-diffusion problem is approximated in time with the implicit Euler method and in space with the mixed finite element method, as in the pressure problem. Finally, in a series of numerical experiments, we investigate the practicality of the proposed schemes, the accuracy-in-time of the multirate and nonconforming time strategies, and compare the convergence of various DD methods within each approach.
       
  • Assessing the sensitivity of hydro-climatological change detection methods
           to model uncertainty and bias
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Ze Jiang, Ashish Sharma, Fiona Johnson Detection of systematic changes in the climate system resulting from anthropogenic forcing is a critical area of research. Detection and attribution of hydro-climatological change has been limited by model uncertainty and bias as well as the poor spatial-temporal coverage of observational data. This study assesses a routinely adopted detection methodology and its sensitivity to model uncertainty and bias within a hydro-climatological context. Using a synthetic case study, we establish the sensitivity of detection approaches to the magnitude and consistency of trend and variance along with the length of data available. It is found that the extent of uncertainty (as measured by the variance) plays a critical role in changing the detection outcome. Another important factor is the consistency of trend between simulations and observations. A case study of soil moisture in select locations within Australia shows that averaging over multiple years (e.g., five years to a decade) improves the detection of the climate change signal as long as consistency in the trends exists. Our results also demonstrate that there are substantial differences in simulated trends across climate models. Therefore, even though ensemble averaging is effective in modulating variance, it has the risk of canceling out the signal over models with markedly different responses.
       
  • Crossover from anomalous to Fickean behavior in infiltration and reaction
           in fractal porous media
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): F.D.A. Aarão Reis When the solution in a porous medium is in chemical equilibrium with mineral grains and an external surface is put in contact with water, the infiltration of unsaturated solution may be accompanied by mineral reactions that change the morphology of that medium. Here we study the evolution of this infiltration process considering that the initial porous media are fractal and that the reactions form additional porous material plus soluble products. A Sierpinski carpet and a Menger sponge are the fractal models, the mineral inclusions are represented by the non-fractal blocks (squares and cubes) formed in their iterative constructions, and reaction rates are described by a thermally activated model, in conditions of slow reactions in comparison with the diffusion. The interplay between the infiltration by diffusion and the structural changes by the reactions is explained by a combination of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models and a scaling approach. At short times, the infiltration is subdiffusive, but the dissolved mass increases anomalously fast due to delocalization of the reaction, which is distributed through a time increasing infiltrated region. At long times, normal (Fickean) infiltration and reaction are observed. The crossover between the two regimes occurs when the thickness of the altered layer formed around the mineral inclusions is of the same order of magnitude of the width a of the smallest gaps between those inclusions. The order of magnitude of the crossover time tc is estimated as a/(vk), where k is the reaction rate constant and v is the molar volume of the mineral; this time does not depend on the diffusion coefficient of reaction products nor on the fractal geometry of the initial medium, which suggests the application to a variety of systems. Estimates of tc are obtained in two recently studied rocks with reported fractal properties and justify the Fickean diffusion assumption of previous models for their weathering in geological time scales. The morphological evolution of the mineral blocks that partially reacted qualitatively agrees with experiments.
       
  • Adaptation of the visibility graph algorithm for detecting time lag
           between rainfall and water level fluctuations in Lake Okeechobee
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Rahul John, Majnu John Identifying time-lag between two hydrogeological time series for planning and management of water resources has a long history and is of continuing research interest. Many hydrogeological studies in the past have used visual inspection and cross-correlogram techniques in quantifying the time lag. Cross-correlogram techniques, if not done under the transfer function framework, could lead to ambiguous results. In order to conduct cross-correlogram analysis under the transfer function framework, careful pre-processing steps have to be undertaken, which are often ignored in practice. In this paper, we propose a new approach to compare two sets of hydrogeological time series data using a visibility graph algorithm and show the advantages of using the new approach over the traditional one. Application of the new approach is demonstrated by assessing the lags between rainfall and water level fluctuation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida. We also present simulation studies to better understand the performance of the method for different sample sizes, different underlying models and in the presence of missing values.
       
  • A cross-validation framework to extract data features for reducing
           structural uncertainty in subsurface heterogeneity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Jorge Lopez-Alvis, Thomas Hermans, Frédéric Nguyen Spatial heterogeneity is a critical issue in the management of water resources. However, most studies do not consider uncertainty at different levels in the conceptualization of the subsurface patterns, for example using one single geological scenario to generate an ensemble of realizations. In this paper, we represent the spatial uncertainty by the use of hierarchical models in which higher-level parameters control the structure. Reduction of uncertainty in such higher-level structural parameters with observation data may be done by updating the complete hierarchical model, but this is, in general, computationally challenging. To address this, methods have been proposed that directly update these structural parameters by means of extracting lower dimensional representations of data called data features that are informative and applying a statistical estimation technique using these features. The difficulty of such methods, however, lies in the choice and design of data features, i.e. their extraction function and their dimensionality, which have been shown to be case-dependent. Therefore, we propose a cross-validation framework to properly assess the robustness of each designed feature and make the choice of the best feature more objective. Such framework aids also in choosing the values for the parameters of the statistical estimation technique, such as the bandwidth for kernel density estimation. We demonstrate the approach on a synthetic case with cross-hole ground penetrating radar traveltime data and two higher-level structural parameters: discrete geological scenarios and the continuous preferential orientation of channels. With the best performing features selected according to the cross-validation score, we successfully reduce the uncertainty for these structural parameters in a computationally efficient way. While doing so, we also provide guidelines to design features accounting for the level of knowledge of the studied system.
       
  • Multi-scale statistical properties of disaggregated SMOS soil moisture
           products in Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): M. Neuhauser, S. Verrier, O. Merlin, B. Molero, C. Suere, S. Mangiarotti Soil moisture has a strong impact on climate, hydrology and agronomy at different space scales, from the continent global scale to the local watershed. Passive microwave sensors, like SMOS satellite (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), allow a global study of soil moisture on the entire globe. To have access to kilometric variability, disaggregation algorithms have been developed, such as the Disaggregation based on Physical And Theoretical scale Change (DisPATCh). This method improves the space resolution of SMOS soil moisture from 40 km to 1 km. To do this, it combines coarse-scale (≈40 km) SMOS products with fine-scale (≈1 km) optical/thermal data. Validation studies on specific scales showed the potential of DisPATCh to enhance the spatio-temporal correlation of disaggregated SM with in-situ measurements, under low-vegetated semi-arid regions. Although the efficiency of the method was revealed in these regions, no studies fully explored its statistical behavior over a continuum of space scales. In this paper, we studied and compared the spatial multi-scale statistics of the different input and output datasets involved in DisPATCh downscaling. To do this, we applied spectral and multifractal analysis on the respective products for the region of southeastern Australia, from June to December 2010. Fractal and multifractal properties (in the framework of the Universal Multifractal model) were observed on inputs of DisPATCh (SMOS soil moisture, MODIS vegetation indices and surface temperature), which confirmed and completed some results reported in existing literature. For the output disaggregated soil moisture, two scaling regimes were observed, with a transition scale observed at about ten kilometers. Considering spectral analysis, at large scales (> 10 km), disaggregated soil moisture was found to have the same scaling as the original SMOS soil moisture. On finer scales (< 10 km), a different behavior was noticed, with a higher value of the slope of the power spectrum. The same scale break was detected on statistical moments, showing that both spectral and multifractal properties of DisPATCh soil moisture are characterized by this twofold scaling signature.
       
  • Simulating multi-dimensional anomalous diffusion in nonstationary media
           using variable-order vector fractional-derivative models with Kansa solver
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Xiaoting Liu, HongGuang Sun, Yong Zhang, Chunmiao Zheng, Zhongbo Yu Anomalous diffusion can be multiple dimensional and space dependent in large-scale natural media with evolving nonstationary heterogeneity, whose quantification requires an efficient technique. This research paper develops, evaluates, and applies variable-order, vector, spatial fractional-derivative equation (FDE) models with a Kansa solver, to capture spatiotemporal variation of super-diffusion along arbitrary angles (i.e., preferential pathways) in complex geological media. The Kansa approach is superior to the traditional Eulerian solvers in solving the vector FDE models, because it is meshless and can be conveniently extended to multi-dimensional transport processes. Numerical experiments show that the shape parameter, one critical parameter used in the Kansa solver, significantly affects the accuracy and convergence of the numerical solutions. In addition, the collocation nodes need to be assigned uniformly in the model domain to improve the numerical accuracy. Real-world applications also test the feasibility of this novel technique. Hence, the variable-order vector FDE model and the Kansa numerical solver developed in this study can provide a convenient tool to quantify complex anomalous transport in multi-dimensional and non-stationary media with continuously or abruptly changing heterogeneity, filling the knowledge gap in parsimonious non-local transport models developed in the last decades.
       
  • Climatic Forcing for Recent Significant Terrestrial Drying and Wetting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Rui-Qiang Yuan, Li-Ling Chang, Hoshin Gupta, Guo-Yue Niu Terrestrial water storage (TWS) experienced a substantial change in the past few decades as detected by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). However, the major causes of this change remain unclear, and none of the current state-of-the-art process-based hydrological models are able to reproduce the significantly drying/wetting trends in GRACE TWS. Here we investigate 12 terrestrial regions that show a significantly drying/wetting trend, using partial least-square regression (PLSR) to relate TWS anomalies to various climatic variables and leaf area index (LAI).Through PLSR modeling, we find changes in LAI, downward longwave radiation (DLW) and precipitation are most strongly associated with a wetting trend. Increases in precipitation appear to be responsible for the wetting trend in tropical/subtropical monsoon regions, while decreases in vegetation transpiration and atmospheric demand appear to be responsible for the wetting trend in extratropical regions. Enhanced atmospheric demand caused by increases in air temperature and the resulting enhanced DLW dominates the significant drying trend in the mid-latitude subtropical drylands, and in the cold and alpine regions. The PLSR modeling also suggests that, over global continents, the climatic forcing factors show a dominant impact on TWS over all the wetting regions, while only four out of the seven drying regions show climate-dominated drying, implying an additional impact of anthropogenic responses to the water stress on drying.
       
  • Hydraulic tomography in time-lapse mode for tracking the clogging effects
           associated with the colloid injection.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): M.T. Vu, A. Jardani, M. Krimissa, P. Fischer, N. Ahfir Clogging due to transport and accumulation of the colloids in the pore space has been recognized as one of the most significant challenges in water management research and environmental engineering. This paper proposes an inversion algorithm in time-lapse mode to track that complex process through the assessment of alteration in the transmissivity field produced by the injection of colloids. The concept is based on a joint inversion of hydraulic head and colloidal particles concentration data acquired during the injection of colloids in the porous aquifer to reconstruct the spatial variability of the transmissivity field at different times. The inversion code is deterministic and was implemented in the time-lapse scheme by adding in the objective function a temporal geostatistical constraint to control changes of the hydraulic transmissivity. This algorithm is linked to a forward problem that consists of the groundwater flow and transport equations, which were solved numerically and jointly by considering the effect of particles deposition on the decrease of hydraulic properties. As the inverse problem is deterministic and underdetermined, we have opted to use the efficient adjoint state technique to derive the sensitivity matrices. The approach has been successfully applied to a theoretical case in which the hydraulic head responses have been used alone and jointly to assess the evolution of the clogging impact on hydraulic transmissivity.
       
  • Multi-phase-flow modeling of underwater landslides on an inclined plane
           and consequently generated waves
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Ming-Lan Yu, Cheng-Hsien Lee An underwater landslide is a complex multiphase flow phenomenon with potential to cause large waves and destruction. Particle size is an important parameter that affects flow behaviors of multiphase flows. This numerical study examines underwater granular landslides on an inclined plane and their resultant waves with the purpose of exploring how the particle size affects landslide kinematics and wave amplitudes. A rheology-based multi-phase flow model is employed, newly incorporating the Navier-slip condition. Smooth and rough beds that reflect ideal and practical conditions, respectively, are simulated. Five types of particle are used; they are very fine sand, medium sand, coarse sand, granules, and pebbles. The granular masses are initially in the loose-packing condition. Our numerical results demonstrate that a smooth bed results in the faster landslides and the larger impulsive waves than a rough bed. The effects of particle size differ between the two bed conditions. For the rough bed, the relationship between the landslide speed and the particle size is negative, and so is the relationship between the wave amplitude and the particle size. For the smooth bed, the two relationships become concave and non-monotonic.
       
  • Flood propagation modelling with the Local Inertia Approximation:
           theoretical and numerical analysis of its physical limitations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Luca Cozzolino, Luigi Cimorelli, Renata Della Morte, Giovanni Pugliano, Vincenzo Piscopo, Domenico Pianese Attention of the researchers has increased towards a simplification of the complete Shallow water Equations called the Local Inertia Approximation (LInA), which is obtained by neglecting the advection term in the momentum conservation equation. This model, whose physical basis is discussed here, is commonly used for the simulation of slow flooding phenomena characterized by small velocities and absence of flow discontinuities. In the present paper it is demonstrated that a shock is always developed at moving wetting-drying frontiers, and this justifies the study of the Riemann problem on even and uneven beds. In particular, the general exact solution for the Riemann problem on horizontal frictionless bed is given, together with the exact solution of the non-breaking wave propagating on horizontal bed with friction, while some example solution is given for the Riemann problem on discontinuous bed. From this analysis, it follows that drying of the wet bed is forbidden in the LInA model, and that there are initial conditions for which the Riemann problem has no solution on smoothly varying bed. In addition, propagation of the flood on discontinuous sloping bed is impossible if the bed drops height have the same order of magnitude of the moving-frontier shock height. Finally, it is found that the conservation of the mechanical energy is violated. It is evident that all these findings pose a severe limit to the application of the model. The numerical analysis has confirmed the existence of the frontal shock in advancing flows, but has also demonstrated that LInA numerical models may produce numerical solutions, which are unreliable because of mere algorithmic nature, also in the case that the LInA mathematical solutions do not exist.Following the preceding results, two criteria for the definition of the applicability limits of the LInA model have been considered. These criteria, which are valid for the very restrictive case of continuously varying bed elevation, are based on the limitation of the wetting front velocity and the limitation of spurious total head variations, respectively. Based on these criteria, the applicability limits of the LInA model are discouragingly severe, even if the bed elevation varies continuously. More important, the non-existence of the LInA solution in the case of discontinuous topography and the non-existence of receding fronts radically question the viability of the LInA model in realistic cases. It is evident that classic SWE models should be preferred in the majority of the practical applications.
       
  • Vulnerability analysis method of vegetation due to groundwater table
           drawdown induced by tunnel drainage
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Advances in Water Resources, Volume 133Author(s): Cagri Gokdemir, Yoram Rubin, Xiaojun Li, Yandong Li, Hao Xu Tunnel drainage demonstrates a behavior that constantly drains the high-ground subsurface water that feeds the overlying vegetative cover. The environmental impact of construction process on groundwater table drawdown can be evaluated using groundwater models. However, considering only the effects of drawdown is insufficient to evaluate the vulnerability between the terrain surface and groundwater table. We proposed a vulnerability analysis method based on soil water pressure by including the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) approach. We defined the vulnerability based on the wilting point of the terrain vegetation. A theoretical case study representing the groundwater level alterations that induce permanent wilting was investigated. The vulnerability analysis method takes account of two important factors; vegetation type and soil textures. The results show that wilting is more infiltration dependent, therefore, it does not occur immediately once the water table is lower than rooting depth. Soil water pressure losses caused by groundwater table drawdowns are compensated when sufficient infiltration occurs. Without sufficient infiltration, soil texture is an important factor for the resilience of vegetation cover under the influence of groundwater table drawdown. In our case study, layered soils lead to a flow behavior which makes the vegetation reach permanent wilting earlier than the homogeneous counterpart. Vulnerability analysis of vegetation cover can be regarded as an important step for an environment-friendly tunnel drainage design.
       
  • A Laboratory Study of Flow Characteristics in Natural Heterogeneous
           Vegetation Patches under Submerged Conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Vinay Chembolu, Riddick Kakati, Subashisa Dutta Existing studies on flow through vegetation have focused mainly on understanding the turbulent structure in vegetated channels of single plant type. However, in natural riverine environments, vegetation also occurs as patches with heterogeneous plant forms. The present paper investigates the flow and turbulent characteristics in heterogeneous vegetation patches at a laboratory scale. Experiments were conducted using different forms (grass, leafy and cylindrical) of natural vegetation planted, alternatively and also as a mixed variety of patches in a staggered pattern. The results show that the presence of other vegetation forms in mixed heterogeneous patch increases the velocity reduction up to 10% compared to flexible grass. Moreover, additional drag due to mixed vegetation reduces shear generated turbulence at the canopy top and shifts its peak above the canopy. In the case of heterogeneous patches, spatial heterogeneity in velocity fields and, varying zones of increased and diminished turbulence were observed. Specifically, patch form and its alignment significantly control the velocity reduction and, momentum transfer between the canopy and overflow regions. These findings and furthermore studies on heterogeneous patches may be helpful for riparian management practices in creating ecological and sediment deposition zones.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
       
  • A Dynamic Pore-Network Model for Spontaneous Imbibition in Porous Media
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Chao-Zhong Qin, Harald van Brummelen Spontaneous imbibition in porous media plays a crucial role in many engineering applications such as enhanced oil recovery and geological carbon dioxide storage, in which predicting the imbibition rate is of great importance. In this work, we contribute to developing a novel dynamic pore-network model for spontaneous imbibition in porous media. Multiform idealized pore elements have been used to represent complex pore spaces so that our model bears the potential to quantitatively predict spontaneous imbibition for a ‘real’ porous medium. A number of case studies have been conducted to test the pore-network model. We show that the capillary force calculated by the Young-Laplace equation is much smaller than that predicted by the pore-network model. The former is usually used to estimate the capillary force at the wetting front in the widely used single-phase imbibition model. We conclude that using the capillary force calculated by the Young-Laplace equation with the mean pore radius notably overestimates the imbibition rate. Moreover, we verify that a sharp wetting front across a few pores is maintained throughout the primary imbibition process, which is in consistence with experimental observations.
       
  • Rock properties from micro-CT images: digital rock transforms for
           resolution, pore volume, and field of view
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Dr Nishank Saxena, Amie Hows, Ronny Hofmann, Faruk O. Alpak, Jesse Dietderich, Matthias Appel, Justin Freeman, Hilko De Jong Digital Rock Physics is a promising approach for achieving more, cheaper, and faster rock property characterization of digital images of rock samples. To successfully deliver on this potential, we must correctly interpret the digitally derived properties in the context of the limitations imposed by imaging constraints. To this end, we show that a combination of limited image resolution, a biased segmentation of images with coarse resolution, and a finite field of view of images, generated by the present micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) technology, leads to systematic underestimation of porosity (down to a factor of 0.5) and overestimation of permeability (up to a factor of 10) calculated using the Digital Rock Physics (DRP). We demonstrate these imaging limitations can be overcome by identifying good measures of image resolution and representative elementary volume and applying appropriate transforms. These transforms expand the operating envelop of DRP. Transforms for finite image resolution and limited field of view can be estimated directly from the micro-CT images. However, implementation of transforms related to errors in image segmentation require either a higher resolution image (e.g., nano-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy) or laboratory measured constraints (Mercury injection capillary pressure, NMR porosity). Additionally, we suggest how insights from these transforms can be used to define operating envelopes and optimize imaging resolution and field of view to achieve more reliable results from digital rock characterization and simulations.
       
  • Implications of observation-enhanced energy-balance snowmelt simulations
           for runoff modeling of Alpine catchments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): N. Griessinger, M. Schirmer, N. Helbig, A. Winstral, A. Michel, T. Jonas Snow is an important component of the water balance of many mountain watersheds worldwide. In a warming climate, snowmelt modelling and consequent soil water input, is often challenged by complex conditions such as rain-on-snow situations. This is why detailed physics-based snow models are increasingly being used. These models however have much higher input data requirements, where in many cases accurate forcing fields are very difficult to provide.This study investigates whether the latest advances in the development of snow model framework actually translate into improved discharge simulations. To this end we integrated a distributed multi-layer energy-balance snow model with two recently developed methods of updating snow model mass and energy fluxes using snow observations to improve snow accumulation and depletion predictions. Surface water input from these simulations was used as input for subsequent streamflow modelling of 25 catchments in the Swiss Alps over four hydrological years.Our analysis clearly demonstrates the benefits of accurate snow simulations for hydrological modeling in Alpine catchments. Simulations that included the flux updates improved streamflow predictions, and offered best performance at high elevation, where snow most prominently affected watershed hydrology. These results were consistently achieved when analyzing model performance over entire hydrological years, over the snowmelt season only, and for individual events.
       
  • Analytical Solution For Groundwater Recharge on a Hill
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Otto D.L. Strack, Bonnie K. Ausk, Taha Namazi We present an exact solution to the problem of two-dimensional flow with a free surface from a recharge area on a hill with vertical faces to valleys on either side of the hill. The valleys are at different elevations, and the question we address is to what extent the difference in elevation of the valleys affects the amount each valley receives from the recharge. We find that the difference in elevation has a major effect, a result that may be of interest in farming, where similar conditions exist.We solve the problem by means of the hodograph method and conformal mapping. The domain in the hodograph plane is constructed according to the boundary conditions, which leads to a domain bounded by a combination of straight lines and a circular arc. The domain in the hodograph plane is transformed into a domain bounded by straight lines, which makes conformal mapping of the reference upper half plane onto this domain possible, by means of the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. The solution is obtained by the use of a second function, the Zhukovski function, which is mapped onto the same reference plane.The results are presented in terms of graphs of discharges into the valleys for both isotropic and anisotropic aquifers; flow nets are presented as well.
       
  • Crab burrows as preferential flow conduits for groundwater flow and
           transport in salt marshes: a modeling study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Kai Xiao, Alicia M. Wilson, Hailong Li, Carolyn Ryan Crab burrows can act as preferential flow conduits for pore water-surface water interactions in salt marshes, but the effect of preferential flow on subsurface transport in these tidally-influenced systems is not fully understood. We used numerical models based on salt marshes of North Inlet, South Carolina, to investigate the impacts of crab burrows on porewater salinity. This modeling effort was inspired by field results from North Inlet, where prior field studies that used a combination of tension samplers and passive diffusion samplers measure salinity in crab burrows and in the adjacent sediment matrix found that the minimum salinity (28 PSU) reported by the tension samplers was larger than the maximum salinity (26 PSU) reported by passive diffusion samplers. Two kinds of numerical models were developed to investigate the effect of crab burrows on tidally-driven groundwater flow and salt transport. In the equivalent-continuum model (ECM), crab burrows were included via a shallow surface layer with hydraulic properties representing a bulk average of sediment matrix and crab burrow properties. In the preferential flow model (PFM), an independent high-permeability material was embedded in the surface muddy layer to explicitly simulate preferential flow conduits. The simulated results showed that both models can depict the effect of crab burrow on soil saturation and salt transport in salt marshes. The presence of crab burrows can greatly increase tidally-driven water exchange, improve the intensity and duration of soil aeration and enhance salt transport in salt marshes. The effect of crab burrows on groundwater flow and salt transport varied spatially from the creek bank to marsh interior. PFM models demonstrated that salinity is likely to differ between crab burrows and the sediment matrix, which supports observed differences in results between tension samplers and passive diffusion samplers. These findings may have important implications for practical pore water sampling and hydrochemical investigation in coastal wetlands.
       
  • A dynamic data-driven method for dealing with model structural error in
           soil moisture data assimilation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Qiuru Zhang, Liangsheng Shi, Mauro Holzman, Ming Ye, Yakun Wang, Facundo Carmona, Yuanyuan Zha Attributing to the flexibility in considering various types of observation error and model error, data assimilation has been increasingly applied to dynamically improve soil moisture modelling in many hydrological practices. However, accurate characterization of model error, especially the part caused by defective model structure, presents a significant challenge to the successful implementation of data assimilation. Model structural error has received limited attention relative to parameter and input errors, mainly due to our poor understanding of structural inadequacy and the difficulties in parameterizing structural error. In this paper, we present a dynamic data-driven approach to estimate the model structural error in soil moisture data assimilation without the need for identifying error generation mechanism or specifying particular form for the error model. The error model is based on the Gaussian process regression and then integrated into the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to form a hybrid method for dealing with multi-source model errors. Two variants of the hybrid method in terms of two different error correction manners are proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested through a suit of synthetic cases and a real-world case. Results demonstrate the potential of the proposed hybrid method for estimating model structural error and providing improved model predictions. Compared to the traditional EnKF without explicitly considering the model structural error, parameter compensation issue is obviously reduced and soil moisture retrieval is substantially improved.
       
  • A Novel Method for Well Placement Design in Groundwater Management:
           Extremal Optimization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Fleford Redoloza, Liangping Li Well placement design refers to finding the optimal well locations to install with a set of constraints. This is important for both petroleum engineering and water resource management. This study presents a novel optimization method for well placement design in groundwater management. The proposed method, EO-WPP, is based on the Extremal Optimization (EO) algorithm. EO works by modifying the components of a solution that contribute the least to its overall performance. EO-WPP extends the EO algorithm to the fields of groundwater management and well field optimization for the first time. Groundwater Management program (GWM) is coupled with EO-WPP and used to rank wells in terms of pumping rate, given well locations. In the first testing phases of this work, EO-WPP was applied to a problem of simple geometry and a simple synthetic model in order to study its performance and its emergent spatial behaviors. Results show that the proposed method was faster than Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithms. EO-WPP then was applied to a field problem involving the Aberdeen groundwater model in South Dakota. The results show that EO-WPP was able to generate a series of possible of well fields that can be used to pump effectively groundwater from the Elm aquifer.
       
  • Seawater intrusion and retreat in tidally-affected unconfined aquifers:
           Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Xiayang Yu, Pei Xin, Chunhui Lu Based on combined laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, this paper examined seawater intrusion (SWI) and seawater retreat (SWR) processes caused by abrupt inland watertable changes in a laboratory-scale unconfined aquifer (length of 7.7 m and thickness of 1.0 m) subjected to a synthetic sinusoidal tide. The results showed that the salinity distribution was relatively stable and that SWI and SWR processes were almost temporally symmetrical given relatively large horizontal hydraulic gradients (0.0269, 0.0209 and 0.0149) between the inland watertable and the mean sea level. However, the salt distribution changed significantly in response to the inland watertable variations when the horizontal hydraulic gradient was relatively small (0.0030). The speed of the SWI and SWR response to the inland watertable variations was temporally asymmetric, e.g., SWR was quicker than SWI by a factor of 9 with respect to the observed saltwater wedge toe locations. As a relatively thick mixing zone (transition between freshwater and saltwater zones) was induced by the tide, simulated saltwater wedge toe locations, as indicated by the 5%, 50% and 95% isohalines, changed inconsistently. Different hysteresis behaviors were found in the relationship between the SW toe locations and total salt mass stored in the aquifer. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the response of both SWI and SWR to the inland watertable variations could be prolonged by a decreased tidal amplitude or decreased tidal period.
       
  • A model of local thermal non-equilibrium during infiltration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Thomas Heinze, Johanna R. Blöcher A realistic temperature estimation is crucial for many earth-science applications, ranging from hydro-thermal systems to plant physiology. The most common approach to calculate the temperature in multi-phase systems assumes immediate local thermal equilibrium (LTE) between the phases. However, local thermal equilibrium between the phases is not applicable in various scenarios like during the infiltration of rain or melt water in frozen soil, limiting the applicability of the approach and inhibiting the implementation of separate initial and boundary conditions for non-equilibrium situations. In local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) models, phase temperatures are described separately to the cost of additional differential equations and an explicitly formulated heat transfer between the phases. Especially a cumbersome parameterization of the explicit heat transfer restricts the use of the LTNE models in multi-phase conditions so far. In this work, we derive a general local thermal non-equilibrium model for dynamic, partly saturated porous media. Heat transfer between the phases is described explicitly using well-known semi-empirical parameterization accounting for velocity changes of the mobile phases. The change in volume fraction introduces an additional term in the heat equation, causing a coupling with the hydraulic model. We validate our model with a numerical simulation of historic experimental data from soil infiltration experiments of warm and cold water into drained soil, posing a perfect example of local thermal non-equilibrium conditions between the phases. Experimentally obtained mixture temperatures are reproduced within experimental accuracy. We further show the benefits of our model by applying it to rainwater infiltration into cold soil. Besides a consistent formulation of initial and boundary conditions, the derived model allows physically based conclusions about the thermal state of the separate phases.
       
  • Effect of aperture field anisotropy on two-phase flow in rough fractures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Zhibing Yang, Dongqi Li, Song Xue, Ran Hu, Yi-Feng Chen The void space geometry of rough fractures is one of most important factors controlling two-phase flow in fractured media. This paper presents a numerical study on the effect of aperture field anisotropy on two-phase flow properties in rough fractures. By using a power spectrum based method, we generate multiple realizations of synthetic rough fractures with aperture fields of different anisotropy factors. Fluid–fluid displacement in these fractures is simulated by a modified invasion percolation model. It is found that the spatiotemporal distribution of fluid phases is strongly influenced by the aperture field anisotropy. On average, both the nonwetting phase saturation and the entrapped wetting phase saturations at breakthrough decrease with increasing anisotropy factor; but the specific interfacial area is larger for a higher anisotropy ratio. Relative permeabilities to both phases in the direction parallel to the displacement increase with the anisotropy factor, indicating a reduced phase interference due to aperture field anisotropy. Empirical equations are proposed to link the relative permeabilities to the anisotropy factor. These results improve our understanding of immiscible displacement in rough fractures and can be useful for predicting two-phase flow in fractured media at the large scale where geomechanical and chemical processes produce anisotropic roughness.
       
  • Dam break in rectangular channels with different upstream-downstream
           widths
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): A. Valiani, V. Caleffi The classic Stoker dam-break problem (Stoker, 1957) is revisited in cases of different channel widths upstream and downstream of the dam. The channel is supposed to have a rectangular cross section and a horizontal and frictionless bottom. The system of the shallow water equations is enriched, using the width as a space-dependent variable, together with the depth and the unit discharge, which conversely depend on both space and time. Such a formulation allows a quasi-analytical treatment of the system, whose solution is similar to that of the classic Stoker solution when the downstream/upstream depth ratio is sufficiently large, except that a further stationary contact wave exists at the dam position. When the downstream/upstream depth ratio is small, the solution is richer than the Stoker solution because the critical state occurs at the dam position and the solution itself becomes resonant at the same position, where two eigenvalues are null and the strict hyperbolicity of the system is lost. The limits that identify the flow regime for channel contraction and channel expansion are discussed after showing that the nondimensional parameters governing the problem are the downstream/upstream width ratio and the downstream/upstream initial depth ratio.After the introduction of the previous analytical framework, a numerical analysis is also performed to evaluate a numerical method that is conceived to suitably capture rarefactions, shock waves and contact waves. A second-order method is adopted, employing a Dumbser-Osher-Toro Riemann solver equipped with a nonlinear path. Such an original nonlinear path is shown to perform better than the classic linear path when contact waves of large amplitude must be captured, being able to obtain specific energy conservation and mass conservation at the singularity.The codes, written in MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) language, are made available in Mendeley Data repository.
       
  • Vertically-Averaged and Moment Equations for Flow and Sediment Transport
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): Francisco n. Cantero-chinchilla, Oscar Castro-Orgaz, Abdul a. Khan Simulation of river flow processes including sediment transport is usually conducted using the shallow water flow equations, which are based on a hydrostatic pressure distribution. To increase the accuracy of predictions in a variety of scenarios involving horizontal length scales of the order of vertical length scales, an improved representation of the vertical flow structure is necessary. The mathematical approximation to field variables like the velocity and fluid pressure must be enhanced during the depth-integrating process. Therefore, this paper presents a 1D non-hydrostatic flow and sediment transport model developed by using the method of the weighted residuals into the RANS equations. Using continuity, momentum, and moment equations, the fluid pressure distribution is modelled using a quadratic predictor with perturbation parameters to deviate the vertical momentum balance from the hydrostatic law. The flow equations are a generalized non-hydrostatic flow solver, where the fluid density variation due to suspension of sediments and the bed deformation due to erosion-sedimentation processes are accounted for. A hybrid semi-implicit finite volume-finite difference numerical scheme is developed to solve the system of conservation laws. Two different approaches are used to model the sediment transport processes: (i) Unified computation of the total-load transport and (ii) separate computation of suspended and bed loads. The accuracy of the non-hydrostatic model is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data, highlighting better results accounting for separate determinations of the suspended and bed loads in highly erosive flows.Graphical Image, graphical abstract
       
  • Aging and mixing as pseudo-chemical-reactions between, and on, particles:
           Perspectives on particle interaction and multi-modal ages in hillslopes
           and streams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2019Source: Advances in Water ResourcesAuthor(s): David A. Benson, Michael J. Schmidt, Diogo Bolster, Ciaran Harmon, Nicholas B. Engdahl The particle-tracking method was recently extended to allow inter-particle mass transfer and arbitrarily complex reactions by allowing each particle to represent any number of distinct chemical compounds. This methodology allows the tracking (and broadening due to mixing) of the age probability density function (PDF) on each particle. Aquifer heterogeneity leads to channeling and multi-modal age PDFs in stream samples. This observation supports the concept of age classes but clearly shows the more complicated interplay of dispersion, mixing, and travel times on the age distributions.
       
 
 
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