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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3181 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3181 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 442, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 423, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 482, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Space Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.569
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 423  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0273-1177
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Numerical Simulations of Water Spray on Flame Deflector During the
           Four-Engine Rocket Launching
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Zhitan Zhou, Chenyu Lu, Changfang Zhao, Guigao Le This paper aims to study on the cooling effect with two types of water spray nozzle on the flame deflector during the four-engine launch vehicle take-off. To accurately simulate the two-phase flow of the rocket gas with multispecies and the water spray, the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations, discrete ordinates methods and realizable k-Ɛ turbulence model are used to establish the rocket supersonic plumes impact model. The Eulerian dispersed phase (EDP) model was used to simulate the water spray into the exhaust gas. The accuracy and effectiveness of the gas-liquid flow model are verified by a good agreement between simulation results and experimental data. On this basis, a series of numerical simulation studies under different water injection position are performed. The results show that the high temperature regions, along the axis of engines on the deflector plate, have no significant temperature decreasing effect by water spray from the nozzles mounted on the apex of the deflector, and the high temperature converts a large quantity of water into vapor near the plume boundary, which would decrease the flow conductivity. With the cooling spray nozzle fixed directly to the deflector plate, the temperature decrease effect is obvious and the effect of thermal shock on deflector plate induced by exhaust plume is reduced, so that it can prevent the flame deflector from thermal ablation. The study results provide indepth information and engineering guidance for designing the water spray systems and increasing the safety of the launch process.
       
  • Extending multipath hemispherical model to account for time-varying
           receiver code biases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Xiao Zhang, Baocheng Zhang, Yunbin Yuan, Jiuping Zha Multipath effects on code observables account for one of the major error sources in high-accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS)-based positioning, atmosphere sounding and timing applications. The multipath hemispherical model (MHM) represents one of the most widely used methods of mitigating code multipath effects by taking advantage of their spatial repeatability. The use of MHM usually assumes that the receiver code biases (RCBs) are time-invariant; however, this assumption is not always valid, as RCBs and linear combinations thereof (differential code biases, for instance) have long been found to be time-varying over a period of one day. In this contribution, we propose an extended multipath hemispherical model (EMHM) that is capable of mitigating the code multipath effects in the presence of time-varying RCBs. Consequently, the proposed EMHM has two advantages. First, the EMHM gives rise to code multipath corrections with improved reliability because it addresses the intraday variability of RCBs. Second, more interestingly, the EMHM allows easy and effective calibration of short-term temporal variations, if any, in the RCB on each frequency. These advantages are hopeful to benefit GPS code-related applications.
       
  • Design of BDS-3 Integrity Monitoring and Preliminary Analysis of its
           Performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Yueling Cao, Jinping Chen, Xiaogong Hu, Feng He, Lang Bian, Wei Wang, Bin Wu, Yang Yu, Jingyuan Wang, Qiuning Tian With the improvement in the service accuracy and expansion of the application scope of satellite navigation systems, users now have high demands for system integrity that are directly related to navigation safety. As a crucial index to measure the reliability of satellite navigation systems, integrity is the ability of the system to send an alarm when an abnormity occurs. The new-generation Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS-3) prioritized the upgrading of system integrity as an important objective in system construction. Because the system provides both basic navigation and satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) services by the operational control system, BDS-3 adopts an integrated integrity monitoring and processing strategy that applies satellite autonomous integrity monitoring and ground-based integrity monitoring for both the basic navigation service and SBAS navigation service. BDS-3 also uses an improved and refined integrity parameter system to provide slow, fast and real-time integrity parameters for basic navigation, and provide SBAS-provided integrity information messages in accordance with Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) specification and dual frequency, multi-constellation (DFMC) specification to support the SBAS signal frequency, single constellation operation and DFMC operation respectively. The performance of BDS-3 system integrity monitoring is preliminarily verified during on-orbit testing in different states, including normal operation, satellite clock failure and satellite ephemeris failure. The results show that satellite autonomous integrity monitoring, ground-based integrity monitoring and satellite-based augmentation all correctly work within the system. Satellite autonomous integrity monitoring can detect satellite clock failure but not satellite orbit failure. However, ground-based integrity monitoring can detect both. Moreover, the satellite-based augmentation integrity system monitors the differential range error after satellite ephemeris and clock error corrections based on user requirements. Compared to the near minute-level time-to-alert capability of ground-based integrity monitoring, satellite autonomous integrity monitoring reduces the system alert time to less than 4 seconds. With a combined satellite-ground monitoring strategy and the implementation of different monitoring technologies, the BDS-3 integrity of service has been considerably improved.
       
  • A Fast Chebyshev Polynomial Method for Calculating Asteroid Gravitational
           Fields using Space Partitioning and Cosine Sampling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Hongwei Yang, Shuang Li, Jun Sun This paper presents a computationally fast method for solving gravitational accelerations near irregularly-shaped asteroids. This method is based on analytical three-dimensional Chebyshev polynomial approximation of the polyhedral gravity. For the purpose of improving the approximation accuracy, space partitioning schemes based on practical flight zones is used to avoid interpolation the whole space around the target asteroid. Specifically, a minimum ellipsoid close to the asteroid surface is defined to select the space for surrounding trajectories with safe distance and a cone connected to the surface is defined to select the space for descent trajectories. Moreover, interpolation points are sampled in a cosine sampling fashion according to the Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto nodes and a radial adaption technique. The performance of different space partitioning schemes is analyzed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through simulations of solving gravitational accelerations at the test points near different shaped asteroids 1996 HW1, 433 Eros, 25143 Itokawa and 101955 Bennu.
       
  • Evolution of an Electron Beam Pulse Influenced by Coulomb Collision
           Effects in the Solar Corona
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): G.A. Casillas-Pérez, S. Jeyakumar, A. Carrillo-Vargas, H.R. Pérez-Enríquez Electrons accelerated in the corona during solar activity give rise to radio emission events that can be observed over a wide range of frequencies. Among different finer-scale structures in the dynamic spectra observed in the radio range, fast transients with extents of some milliseconds known as solar radio spikes are observed accompaning the background continuum emission. Fundamental to the generation of radio spikes is a propagating electron beam and following its evolution allows us to understand the physical processes occurring in the solar corona. With the use of a numerical Fokker-Planck code we follow a previous numerical study to simulate the propagation of an electron beam pulse injected in a small region at the top of a magnetic field and outwards the solar corona under typical flare conditions. It was found that in large ambient densities of 1010 cm−3 at the injection point, Coulomb collision effects have an important effect on the propagation of the electrons, causing that the injected electrons thermalize faster in a time of 0.1 and 0.4 s for an electron distribution with a low-energy cut off of 16 and 7 keV respectively and a spectral index of 3. For a tenous ambient medium of density 109 cm−3 thermalization occurs only for an electron distribution with smaller low-energy cut off (7 keV) with a duration of ≈ 1.5 s, while for a larger low-energy cut off (16 keV) the loss of accelerated electrons is very slow, regardles of the spectral index (3,7). The electron loss time by Coulomb collisions, which depends on the low boundary ambient density, might be an important parameter that influences the generation of radio spikes due to the formation of instabilities in the corona.
       
  • Trends in foF2 and the 24th solar activity cycle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): A.D. Danilov, A.V. Konstantinova The trends in foF2 are analyzed based on the data of Juliusruh and Boulder ionospheric stations. It is shown that using the traditional solar activity index F10.7 leads to an impossible trend in foF2 when the data for the 24th solar activity cycle are included into the analysis. It is assumed that the F10.7 index does not describe correctly the solar ultraviolet radiation variations in that cycle. A correction of this index using the Rz (sunspot number) and Ly (intensity of the Lyman-α line in the solar spectrum) is performed, and it is shown that in that case reasonable values of the foF2 trends are obtained.
       
  • Exploring the Temporal Variation of the Solar Quadrupole Moment from
           Relativistic Gravitation Contributions: a fortuitous circumstance'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): J.P. Rozelot, S. Eren Due to its oblateness, the Sun carries a solar quadrupole moment playing a key role at the crossroad of fundamental solar physics, astrometry and celestial mechanics. There is nowadays a general agreement on its order of magnitude (≈2×10-7), but its temporal dependence is still poorly known. Helioseismology led to a variation within the solar cycle by less than 0.04%, not yet confirmed by other means. Analysis of the perihelion precession of planetary orbits computed in the solar equatorial coordinate system, instead of the ecliptic coordinate system usually used, shows that a periodic variation of the J2 term rather than of a simple constant, must be considered. Gravity tests within the Planetary and Lunar Ephemerides provide a fruitful independent approach. Confronting results from three sets of Ephemerides computed at different periods of time, a variability dependence within the solar cycle can be evidenced. If this outcome is not fortuitous, such a finding suggests a quadratic fit, that can be explained through the variation of the rotation law with latitude and time.
       
  • An analysis of the flexibility modeling of a net for space debris removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Minghe Shan, Jian Guo, Eberhard Gill Operational spacecraft are facing a risk of collision with space debris objects. The net capturing method has been proposed to mitigate this risk on spacecraft. The mass-spring model is usually applied for net modeling by discretizing a cable into one or several mass-spring-damper elements in simulation. The absolute nodal coordinates formulation (ANCF) has also been applied to model the net, and this model is able to describe the flexibility of a net using less elements. However, the influence on the net behavior in simulation by the flexibility modeling of a net is not well understood and barely discussed. In this paper, flexibility models of a net are established based on the mass-spring model and the ANCF model,respectively. The influence on the net behavior by the flexibility modeling is, for the first time, analyzed via simulations. Two case studies of capturing a ball and a cube shaped targets are performed. It is found that the flexibility modeling has little influence on the net dynamics in simulation. Finally, the characteristics and benefits of the ANCF model are described and analyzed. A drawback of the ANCF model was found to be its inferior computational performance.
       
  • A Full-disk Image Standardization of the Chromosphere Observation at
           Huairou Solar Observing Station
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Liu Suo Observations of local features in the solar chromosphere began in 1992 at Huairou Solar Observing Station, while the full-disk chromosphere observations were carried out since 2000. In order to facilitate researchers to use full-disk chromosphere observation, algorithms have been developed to standardize the full-disk images. The algorithms include the determination of the center of the image and size standardization, geometric correction and intensity normalization. The solar limb of each image is determined from a histogram analysis of its intensity distribution. The center and radius are then calculated and the image is corrected for geometric distortions. Images are re-scaled to have a fixed radius of 500 pixels and centered within the 1024×1024 frame. Finally, large-scale variations in intensity, such as limb-darkening, are removed using a median filter. This paper provides a detailed description of these algorithms, and a summary of the properties of these chromosheric full-disk observations to be used for further scientific investigations.
       
  • On the estimation of regional covariance functions of TEC variations over
           Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Reza Ghoddousi-Fard Spatial and temporal variations of Total Electron Content (TEC) can affect GNSS high accuracy positioning. Enhanced estimation of ionospheric variations and their de-correlation can benefit differential and point positioning rapid solutions. Global and regional TEC maps can provide the overall state of ionopsheric variations in space and time domains within their accuracy limits. In this paper, these maps are exploited to retrieve ionospheric variations by means of variograms and their associated covariance functions of TEC residuals over Canadian region during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. A number of theoretical variogram functions are reviewed for modeling covariance of TEC residuals. The variogram modeling of residuals during a strong geomagnetic storm revealed variances of one order of magnitude larger compared to a rather quiet condition. Variogram modes are also used in regional and local kriging interpolation experiments and their performances are evaluated. Global maps of TEC RMS by International GNSS Service and two of its analysis centres are also compared over the Canadian region during a two-year period. Realistic representation of regional variances using estimated variograms when compared to global ionospheric RMS maps are also presented.
       
  • Case studies: A possible mechanism for F2-lacuna formation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Shenggao Yang, Beichen Zhang, Yang Liu, Yaguang Zhu, Xu Yang, Chao Tian, Fulu Yue, Peikang Xu, Jianming Jiang Two cases of F2-lacuna and their simultaneous ionospheric convection and TEC variations were presented to further understand F2-lacuna formation mechanism. Both cases of F2-lacuna are accompanied by decreased electron density and increased plasma flow. Through analyzing the role of convection electric field in the formation of F2-lacuna, an explanation for F2-lacuna formation was provided. The joule heating and frictional heating ascribed to the strengthened electric field causes the increase of electron and ion temperature, which subsequently, causes the enhancements of the recombination rate and the upflow of the O+ density resulting in decreased O+ density in F2 region.
       
  • Experimental investigation on location of debris impact source based on
           acoustic emission
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): E.L. Tang, Z.Q. Liang, L. Wang, Y.F. Han In view of the objective reality that it takes a long time for debris to locate the impact point when debris impacts the spacecraft bulkhead, timely and accurate determination of the location of the impact source is the premise and basis for damage repair, which is of great significance to the safety of astronauts. In this paper, the experiments of 2A12 aluminium plate impacted by 2A12 aluminium projectile under different impact parameters have been performed by using the self-built acoustic emission testing system and two-stage light gas gun loading system. The calculated coordinates are compared with the experimental coordinates by using triangular positioning method, quadrilateral positioning method and acoustic emission (AE) signal processing method based on Wavelet transform. The experimental results show that the positioning accuracy of quadrilateral positioning method is better than that of triangular positioning method, and the acoustic emission signal processing method based on wavelet transform is obviously better than that of quadrilateral positioning method.
       
  • A new attitude integration algorithm for coning environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Lijuan Xiong, Hongtao Zhu, Weijun Wu, Bo Zhou Attitude determination of the space vehicle always plays a pivotal role in space missions. Usually, the fourth-order Runge Kutta algorithm is taken as more common attitude integration algorithm. However, more appropriate algorithms are desired in order to meet variable requirement. This paper investigates the performance of the fourth-order Runge Kutta and Taylor series algorithms in coning environment, and presents a new algorithm which takes advantages from above both. Series of simulation experiments have been conducted to verify the effect of the new algorithm. Their results show that the new algorithm outperforms the fourth-order Runge Kutta and the four-sample rotation vector algorithms over long-duration run even in complex engineering applications where the attitude change is not too fast.
       
  • Systematic low-thrust trajectory design to Mars based on a full Ephemeris
           modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Mohammadreza Saghamanesh, Ehsan Taheri, Hexi Baoyin One of the fundamental tasks in space mission design is to choose a set of inter-disciplinary mission-critical parameters that are used for both sizing spacecraft sub-systems and designing optimal trajectories. Trajectory design and sub-system sizing are tightly coupled tasks and mission designers are interested in algorithms that not only improve fidelity of the underlying models, but also facilitate comprehensive trade-off studies using dependable algorithms. This paper presents a systematic-design/computationally-efficient framework that makes use of a recently developed hybrid optimization method, which is a fusion between homotopic approach and particle swarm optimization to perform a robust homotopic approach. A salient feature of this framework is the flexibility in altering the fidelity of the dynamical models to beyond the conventional two-body model by including perturbations due to: (1) other planets of the Solar System, (2) solar radiation pressure, and (3) the oblateness effects of the Earth. Moreover, a comprehensive study on the impact of using different types of thrusters, different hyperbolic excess velocity values, and different launch opportunities is conducted. Extensive numerical simulations are performed for a heliocentric rendezvous mission from Earth to Mars and the results are compared against those in the literature.
       
  • Orbit determination of CE-4′s relay satellite in Earth-Moon L2
           libration point orbit
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Jianfeng Duan, Zhaokui Wang The Magpie Bridge mission is a part of the Chang’E-4 mission, it is the first Chinese spacecraft carries out Earth-Moon communication mission at Earth-Moon libration points. The Magpie Bridge operations team utilizes the Beijing Aerospace Control Center (BACC) Orbit Determination and Analysis Software (BODAS) to obtain the orbit, the measurements include range, Doppler and relay, relay-rate from China Deep Space Network (CDSN) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) system respectively. In order to effectively improve the accuracy of the orbit, we provided the solar radiation model with multiple characteristic surfaces. The new model is based on the structure and the real-time attitude of the satellite to solve the real-time solar pressure equivalent area. Compared with the cannon-ball model, it can calculate the solar pressure equivalent area of the satellite more accurately in orbit determination. By the analysis of the tracking measurement data, we found that the new solar radiation pressure model reduces the error of position and velocity compared to the cannon-ball model.
       
  • Indirect robust suboptimal control of two-satellite electromagnetic
           formation reconfiguration with geomagnetic effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Da-wei Qi, Le-ping Yang, Yuan-wen Zhang, Wei-wei Cai As a novel approach to control the relative motion of a satellite formation, electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF) has some prominent advantages, such as no propellant consumption and no plume contamination, and has a broad prospect of application in such fields as on-orbit detection and optical interferometry. The current paper investigates the optimal control for the reconfiguration of a two-satellite electromagnetic formation using the nonlinear quadratic optimal control technique. Specifically, the effects of the Earth’s magnetic field on the EMFF satellites are analyzed, and then the nonlinear translational dynamic model of a two-satellite electromagnetic formation is derived by utilizing the analytical mechanics theory. Considering the high nonlinearity and coupling in the dynamic model and the actuator saturation, a closed-loop robust suboptimal control strategy based on the indirect robust control scheme and the θ-D technique is proposed with robust stability and optimality. To ensure a further reduction of control input, the designed suboptimal controller is modified by applying the Tracking-Differentiator. The feasibility of the derived translational dynamics and proposed control strategy for the robust reconfiguration mission is validated through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.
       
  • Variability of NmF2 during solar minima at the Equatorial Ionization
           Anomaly crest region
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Madeeha Talha, Nabeel Ahmed, Muneeza M. Ali, Ghulam Murtaza The variability of NmF2 during solar minima of solar cycle 21–22, 22–23 and 23–24 has been studied for two low latitude stations, Karachi (Pakistan) and Okinawa (Japan), as both stations are situated at the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. Diurnal, seasonal and annual behaviour of variability has been investigated using relative standard deviation approach. At both the stations, a direct relation of variability (CV) with Smoothed Sunspot Numbers (SSN) is noted which is opposite to the results found by many authors who have worked on different solar activity periods. It is suggested that the E-layer is responsible for this direct relation as an increase in the E-layer ionization with decrease in SSN for solar minimum has also been noted for Karachi in our previous work (Talha et al., 2019). The interaction of tides and waves with the E-layer might be responsible for the increase in ionization of the E-layer and the decrease in variability in the F-layer. Also, the night-time variability is observed to be higher than the daytime variability during minima as expected due to the low mean NmF2 or large deviation during night-time. Very prominent post-midnight peaks and not very well shaped post-sunset peaks are also noticed at both stations. Besides the mentioned peaks, a small increase in variability during mid-day is noticed which might be due to the flow of fountain plasma from the equator to the EIA crest region. Seasonal comparison of variability showed high variability during daytime in winter and during night-time in equinox while lowest variability is noted in summer. Lowest variability at post-midnight is noted in winter instead of summer which might be due to the complex interaction of waves and tides with the lower ionosphere. Small difference in variability between both stations is also noticed due to difference in their longitude. Geomagnetic field configuration at both stations is different which in turn causes change in the electron density and also difference in variability at both stations.
       
  • Quantification of Sq parameters in 2008 based on geomagnetic observatory
           data
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Anatoly Soloviev, Artem Smirnov, Alexei Gvishiani, John Karapetyan, Anahit Simonyan The paper presents an investigation of the time-dependent parameters of the solar quiet daily (Sq) variation for the minimum of the solar cycle 23/24 in 2008. We apply “Measure of Anomalousness” algorithm to detection of the magnetically quiet days. Global distribution of Sq amplitudes of the three orthogonal magnetic field components is analyzed using one-year data from 75 INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories and 46 SuperMAG stations. The study reveals strong latitudinal dependence of the Sq(X) amplitudes, which is approximated by the sixth-order polynomial trend curve. Sq(Y) amplitudes also suggest latitudinal dependence, while no significant difference is found in the Sq(Z) amplitudes across all latitudes. In the equatorial region, Sq(X) amplitudes are strongly affected by the equatorial electrojet (EEJ), having maxima during equinoctial seasons in the region of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly (SAA). Sq(Y) demonstrates clear dependence on solar activity and amount of solar illumination, as the Sq(Y) amplitudes are typically greater in the summer-hemisphere and smaller in the winter-hemisphere. We analyze equivalent Sq current system using observatory data from the Australian mainland and narrow European-African latitudinal segment. Sq current system also strongly depends on solar activity, as the current vortices in the winter-hemisphere disintegrate showing no trace of Sq current loops’ formation, while the current vortices become evident in the summer-hemisphere.
       
  • Icing performance of stratospheric airship in ascending process
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Qiang Liu, Yanchu Yang, Qian Wang, Yanxiang Cui, Jingjing Cai The critical applications of the stratospheric airship require all weather launch capabilities. When the airship flies across icy clouds and confronts super cooled droplets in the ascending process, there exist the risk of ice accretion on the windward parts of the airship. A three dimensional ice accretion model is proposed to simulate the icing performance of a stratospheric airship in ascending process. The mathematical equations describe the ice accretion model are presented and the validation of the ice accretion model is carried out. Then, the influence of the thermal environment on the thermal performance of the airship is analyzed numerically, and a further inspection into the icing performance of a stratospheric airship is conducted. The results suggest that ice would accrete on the windward surface of the airship under certain conditions, ice accretion will change the aerodynamic performance and break the lift and gravity balance of the airship, which would seriously deteriorate the flight performance of the airship.
       
  • The effect of different phases of severe geomagnetic storms on the low
           latitude ionospheric critical frequencies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Erdinç Timoçin In this paper, the effect of different phases of severe geomagnetic storms on low latitude ionospheric critical frequencies (foF2) is investigated. For this purpose, hourly ionospheric critical frequency (foF2) data measured at the low latitude ionosonde station Manila during 1981 and 1991 is examined. The investigation is carried out using superposed epoch analysis method considering the disturbance storm time index Dst ≤ −100 nT hours as event times. To examine depending on local time the effect of the phases of geomagnetic storms on foF2, this analysis was conducted for separately for the day hours, night hours, and all hours during both the main and the recovery phases of the severe geomagnetic storms and the results were compared with each other. It is observed that for both 1981 and 1991, the highest change (increase or decrease) in foF2 values occurs at the event times for all hours of day during both the main and the recovery phase of severe geomagnetic storms. Also, during the main phases of severe geomagnetic storms, the foF2 values increase at day hours, while the foF2 values decrease at night hours. However, during the recovery phases of severe geomagnetic storms, the foF2 values decrease at day hours, while the foF2 values increase at night hours. For both the day and night hours, the changes in the foF2 values during the recovery phase of severe geomagnetic storms are greater than the changes in the foF2 values during the main phase of severe geomagnetic storms.
       
  • Satellite based trend analysis of few atmospheric parameters over the
           Indian region
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Pooja Jindal, Pradeep Kumar Thapliyal, Munn Vinayak Shukla, Som Kumar Sharma, Debashis Mitra The present work has been carried to analyze the changes in trend of temperature, water vapor and ozone profiles at different atmospheric layers, total column integrated methane (TCH4) and total column integrated carbon-monoxide (TCO) over the Indian region. The atmospheric column was divided into few atmospheric layers: surface-850 hPa, 850–500 hPa, 500–100 hPa, 100–50 hPa and 50–1 hPa. Monthly averages of these parameters were calculated from AIRS Level 2 Standard Products for a decade from 2003 to 2012. A non-parametric statistical test with seasonal modification was applied to check the trends of various parameters. Monthly means were used to examine the seasonal dependency in the trend, and allowing more information from the data to be used. The layer average temperature in surface-850 hPa layer has shown significant increase in overall annual trend over eastern part, southern part and averaged over whole India with an increase of 0.041 K/year, 0.034 K/year and 0.034 K/year, respectively. The overall trend was decreasing over all but southern parts in 100–50 hPa layer at the rate of 0.079 K/year over whole India. For water vapor trends, it has been found that layer integrated water vapor (LIWV) in surface-850 hPa layer has significant overall increasing trend over western part, southern part and averaged over whole India with the rate of increase of 0.555%/year, 0.598%/year and 0.486%/year respectively. For LIWV (850–500 hPa), only western part has significant increasing trend at a rate of 0.879%/year. However, LIWV in 500–100 hPa layer does not show any significant trend. Total water vapor (TWV) has shown significant annual increasing trend over all the parts except over the central part. The increasing trend has been estimated as 0.962%/year over whole India. The layer integrated ozone (LIOZ) in surface-850 hPa has significant increasing trend over western part (0.062%/year) and southern part (0.071%/year). In 500–100 hPa layer, the LIOZ has statistically significant decreasing trend over whole India at a rate of 0.112%/year. For LIOZ averaged over whole India in 100–50 hPa, there is significant decreasing trend with a rate of 0.273%/year. Overall, the ozone concentration is increasing near surface, whereas it is decreasing in lower stratosphere. The total column ozone (TOZ) has not shown any significant trend. The column integrated methane has shown an increasing trend (0.366%/year) over all parts of the country, whereas, TCO has not shown any significant trend.
       
  • Mapping paddy rice by the object-based random forest method using time
           series Sentinel-1/Sentinel-2 data
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Yaotong Cai, Hui Lin, Meng Zhang Rice is one of the world’s major staple foods, especially in China. In this study, we proposed an object-based random forest (RF) method for paddy rice mapping using time series Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data. Firstly, the Robust Adaptive Spatial Temporal Fusion Model (RASTFM) was used to blend MODIS and Sentinel-2 data for achieving multi-temporal Sentinel-2 data. Subsequently, the Savitzky-Golay filter (S-G) was applied to smooth the time series Sentinel-2 NDVI data. And the phenological parameters were derived from the filtered time series NDVI using the threshold method. Then, the optimum feature combination for paddy mapping was formed on the basis of Sentinel-2 MSI images, time series Sentinel-2 NDVI, phenology data and time series Sentinel-1 SAR backscattering images by using the JBh distance. Finally, an object-based Random Forest classifier was used to extract paddy rice with the optimum feature combination. The result showed that fused Sentinel-2 NDVI time series using RASTFM has a high correlation with the original Sentinel-2 image. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the classification results are higher than 95% and 0.93, respectively, when use the optimum feature combination and object-based RF method. The proposed method can provide technology support for rice mapping in areas with a lot of cloudy and rainy weathers.
       
  • Sea-level rise and vertical land motion on the Islands of Oahu and Hawaii,
           Hawaii
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Linqiang Yang, Oceana Puananilei Francis Sea-level rise is a highly publicized issue in the Hawaiian Islands because it is one of the main drivers for coastal hazards. In our study, multiple geodetic and in situ datasets are integrated to investigate the sea-level rise and vertical land motion on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii, Hawaii. The rates of relative sea-level changes are derived from the tide-gauge stations in the Hawaiian Islands, however the station located at Kawaihae, Hawaii presents a much higher trend than other stations. Our analysis shows that the questionable trend results from the sudden movement of the equipment on land, which is caused by a pair of earthquakes. After adjustment, we arrive at a revised and more consistent relative sea-level trend at this station. Our study shows that Oahu is vertically ‘stable’ (i.e., near-zero vertical land movement within uncertainties), and the relative sea-level change is dominated by the absolute sea-level change. However, the island of Hawaii was subsiding at −3.3 ± 0.9 mm/year before 1973 and changed to −1.2 ± 0.2 mm/year after 1975, which may relate to seismic activities and where relative sea-level change is attributed to both absolute sea-level change and vertical land motion. The difference in relative sea-level change between the islands of Oahu and Hawaii is due to the difference in vertical land motion rather than steric sea-level change. In addition, the ocean-mass components are the predominant factors that influence the long-term trends of absolute sea level on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii.
       
  • A polar coordinate system based on a projection surface for moon-based
           earth observation images
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Lu Zhang, Huadong Guo, Hui Jiao, Guang Liu, Guozhuang Shen, Wenjin Wu As a new potential platform for Earth observation, the Moon which is a natural satellite unique to the Earth has been paid more and more attention for its consistent and continuous observation capability of global-scale and macroscopic geoscience phenomena on Earth. Because of the effect of Earth curvature and the Earth–Moon geometric relationship, the geometric correction of the Moon-based Earth observation (MBEO) hemisphere images is more complex than that required for images obtained from low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms and need to be investigated, such as optical images in visible/thermal infrared frequencies or synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in microwave frequency. In addition, it is also difficult to find the uniformly distributed geometric correction control points on the entire surface of the Earth caused by sea and cloud cover in most regions. In this paper, a polar coordinate system on a projection surface related to the sublunar point is designed to facilitate the geometric correction of MBEO hemisphere images and to try to compensate for the problems of geometrical distortion caused by the shift of the sublunar point, the curvature of the Earth and the terrain fluctuation. Through simulation analysis, the geometric error characteristics and conditions in which the proposed moon-projection polar coordinate system can be used are discussed. This involves considering the Earth model, the projection method, the offset of the sublunar point and the external error. The results show the validity and adaptation of the proposed polar coordinate system and will support the further study of the geometric correction of MEBO images.
       
  • Estimating the slip rate on the north Tabriz fault (Iran) from InSAR
           measurements with tropospheric correction using 3D ray tracing technique
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s): Saeid Haji-Aghajany, Behzad Voosoghi, Yazdan Amerian In this paper, interseismic deformation across the north Tabriz fault (NTF) using 17 ASAR/ENVISAT acquisitions on a single track for the period 2003–2010 have been investigated. One of the main limiting factors on the accuracy of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements comes from phase propagation delays through the troposphere. In order to retrieve millimeter velocities of interseismic deformations, it is necessary to improve the tropospheric corrections and correct interferograms. For this purpose, the 3D ray tracing technique based on eikonal equations has been used to estimate the tropospheric corrections. The corrected InSAR measurements are used to derive the interseismic displacement velocity field of the study area. The obtained velocity field has enabled us to accurately estimate the slip rate and locking depth for the NTF, using a simple elastic dislocation model. The numerical achievements show a slip rate of 5.6 ± 0.15 mm/yr below a locking depth of 14.5 ± 0.67 km for the NTF. Generally, the results of this paper are confirmed by the previous studies of the NTF parameters and some differences are due to this paper applied method for tropospheric corrections.
       
  • List of Referees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 11Author(s):
       
  • Benefits of the Open-Loop Tracking Command (OLTC): Extending conventional
           nadir altimetry to inland waters monitoring
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Sophie Le Gac, François Boy, Denis Blumstein, Léa Lasson, Nicolas Picot In the past 25 years, radar altimeters have been designed and operated primarily for ocean observation. However, over the past decade there has been a growing interest for altimetry measurements over inland waters. Studying lakes, reservoirs and rivers water level is of prime importance for the hydrology community to assess the Earth’s global resources of fresh water.Satellite altimetry is key to providing such global and continuous datasets of water surface height. Indeed, much progress has been made in altimeters capability to acquire quality measurements over inland waters.In this paper we present an overview of major technical evolutions of the tracking function of altimeters, from Jason-2/POS3 and SARAL/AltiKa to Jason-3/POS3B and Sentinel-3/SRAL and the improvements brought by the Open-Loop Tracking Command (OLTC) to extend the altimeter observation domain to inland waters. The OLTC is an on-board feature used to set the altimeter waveforms reception window, containing a priori elevation information built from a dedicated database of hydrological targets. This paper focuses on the use of OLTC for acquiring reliable water signal rather than discussing the accuracy of the retrieved height, which constitutes a further step in the altimeter data processing chain.We show how Jason-3 and Sentinel-3 altimetry missions are currently able to observe and monitor about 70,000 hydrological targets over the globe and how it is contributing in building a global dataset of inland waters level, in preparation for future missions such as Sentinel-6 and the Surface Water Ocean Topography mission (SWOT).
       
  • Spatio-temporal analysis of ionospheric disturbances for ground based
           augmentation systems over a midlatitude region
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): M. Koroglu, F. Arikan Forcings from above and below the ionosphere can cause disturbances that need to be detected and corrected for navigation systems. Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) are used to give corrections to aircraft navigation systems while landing. These systems use regional ionosphere monitoring algorithms to detect the anomalies in the ionosphere. The aim of this study is to understand occurrence of ionosphere anomalies and their trends over Turkey. A comprehensive analysis of spatio-temporal variability of ionosphere is carried out for a midlatitude GPS network using Slant Total Electron Content (STEC). Differential Rate Of TEC (DROT), which is a measure of the amount of deviation of temporal derivative of TEC from its trend, is used to detect and classify the level of such disturbances. The GPS satellite tracks are grouped into north, east, west and over directions. The 24 h is divided into six time intervals. The percentage occurrence of each DROT category and the deviation from STEC trend in magnitude are calculated and grouped into satellite track directions and time intervals for 2010 (low solar activity), 2011 and 2012 (medium solar activity). The highest level of disturbances is observed in north and west directions, and during sunrise and sunset hours. The dominant periods of percentage occurrences are diurnal (22-25 h), semidiurnal (12-13 h) and terdiurnal (8-9 h) followed by quasi two-day and quasi 16-day periods. Disturbances corresponding to 50%
       
  • Optimal Steering Law of Refractive Sail
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Marco Bassetto, Andrea Caruso, Alessandro A. Quarta, Giovanni Mengali The interaction between electromagnetic waves and matter is the working principle of a photon-propelled spacecraft, which extracts momentum from the solar radiation to obtain a propulsive acceleration. An example is offered by solar sails, which use a thin membrane to reflect the impinging photons. The solar radiation momentum may actually be transferred to matter by means of various optical phenomena, such as absorption, emission, or refraction. This paper deals with the novel concept of a refractive sail, through which the Sun’s light is refracted by crossing a film made of polymeric micro-prisms. The main feature of a refractive sail is to give a large transverse component of thrust even when the sail nominal plane is orthogonal to the Sun-spacecraft line. Starting from the recent literature results, this paper proposes a semi-analytical thrust model that estimates the characteristics of the propulsive acceleration vector as a function of the sail attitude angles. Such a mathematical model is then used to analyze a simplified Earth-Mars and Earth-Venus interplanetary transfer within an optimal framework.
       
  • Integrating aeromagnetic data and Landsat-8 imagery for detection of
           Post-accretionary shear zones controlling hydrothermal alterations: The
           Allaqi-Heiani Suture zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Ahmed Mohammed Eldosouky, Haytham Sehsah, Sayed O. Elkhateeb, Amin Beiranvand Pour The Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) underwent a regional carbonation event with CO2 fluxes derived from the mantle and circulated along post-accretionary shear zones, thus affecting the redistribution of gold mineralization. Formerly, the analyses of remotely-sensed data have suggested regions of gold mineralization linked to the post-accretionary structured framework, but the results were insufficient for detailed prospecting in the ANS. In this research, aeromagnetic data and Landsat-8 imagery were integrated for delineating new high potential zones of gold mineralization in the Allaqi-Heiani Suture (AHS) zone, the ANS, South Eastern Desert (SED) of Egypt. Aeromagnetic data were enhanced using the Center for exploration targeting (CET) grid enhancement technique to detect the main structures that control hydrothermal alterations in the study area. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique and ratios of spectral bands were applied to Landsat-8 data for mapping zones of hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization. The traced structural elements from RTP, CET and Landsat-8 maps were statistically plotted and interpreted using rose diagrams. These diagrams indicated that the NW and NE trends are the most dominant in the RTP map and that the intersection zones obtained from the CET analysis are aligned along the NW-oriented trend. While the NNW, WNW and NE trends were the most dominant ones in Landsat maps. The integration of the results indicates several new high potential zones of gold and Cu/Ni mineralization types, which are mostly concentrated at the western part of the AHS zone. The hydrothermal alteration zones and associated gold mineralization are strongly linked to NW, NE, E-W and WNW trending lineaments. The approach used in this study can be applied to other parts of the ANS and other regions with similar geological conditions around the world.
       
  • Real-time clock comparison and monitoring with multi-GNSS precise point
           positioning: GPS, GLONASS and Galileo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Daqian Lyu, Fangling Zeng, Xiaofeng Ouyang, Haichuan Zhang The precise point positioning (PPP) technique is widely used in time and frequency applications. Because of the real-time service (RTS) project of the International GNSS Service, we can use the PPP technique for real-time clock comparison and monitoring. As a participant in the RTS, the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) implements the PPPWIZARD (Precise Point Positioning with Integer and Zero-difference Ambiguity Resolution Demonstrator) project to validate carrier phase ambiguity resolution. Unlike the Integer-PPP (IPPP) of the CNES, fixing ambiguities in the post-processing mode, the PPPWIZARD operates in the real-time mode, which is also called real-time IPPP (RT-IPPP). This paper focuses on applying the RT-IPPP for real-time clock comparison and monitoring. We review the principle of real-time clock comparison and monitoring, and introduce the methodology of the RT-IPPP technique. The observations of GPS, GLONASS and Galileo were processed for the experiments. Five processing modes were provided in the experiment to analyze the benefits of ambiguity resolution and multi-GNSS. In the clock comparison experiment, the average reduction ratios of standard deviations with respect to the G PPP mode range from 9.7% to 35.0%. In the clock monitoring experiment, G PPP mode can detect clock jumps whose magnitudes are larger than 0.9 ns. The RT-IPPP technique with GRE PPP AR (G) mode allows for the detection of any clock jumps larger than 0.6 ns. For frequency monitoring, G PPP mode allows detection of frequency changes larger than 1.1×10-14. When the RT-IPPP technique is applied, monitoring with GRE PPP AR (G) mode can detect frequency changes larger than 6.1×10-15.
       
  • Research on the Disturbance of Ballistic Missile to Ionosphere by Using 3D
           Ray Tracing Method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Jinyuan Zhu, Hanxian Fang This study uses the 3D ray tracing to analyse ionospheric disturbance generated by a ballistic missile plume (which was simulated in our previous work). Ray tracing results show that the 6 MHz radio waves are completely reflected by the ionosphere and cannot reach the ionospheric disturbance zone. The 8 MHz radio waves partially penetrate the ionospheric disturbance zone, producing a focusing effect. Most of the 10 MHz radio waves pass through the ionosphere and the disturbance zone. The focusing effect and focus height are reduced. In the height range 65∼400 km, the ray absorption loss of reflection is greater than the transmitted ray. When the ray is reflected multiple times in the cavity formed by the plume, ray absorption loss greatly increases.
       
  • Micro-spacecraft in Sun-Venus Lagrange point orbit for the Venera-D
           mission
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Irina D. Kovalenko, Natan A. Eismont, Sanjay S. Limaye, Ludmila V. Zasova, Dmitry A. Gorinov, Alexander V. Simonov The baseline Venera-D mission, proposed to be launched after 2026, consists of an orbiter and a landing module, which includes a lander and a small long-lived station. In this work, we present the possibility of augmenting the mission with one or two micro-spacecraft in Lagrange point orbits to significantly enhance the science return. Both L1 and L2 collinear points, situated at about 1 million km from Venus, are considered for scientific objectives. The paper focuses on trajectory design for the micro-spacecraft to be deployed by the Venera-D mission. The transfer scenario we propose performs the insertion of micro-spacecraft into Lagrange point orbit by making use of the main orbiter’s propulsion, while the propulsion on board micro-spacecraft is used only for trajectory correction and station-keeping manoeuvres. This scenario allows the Venera-D mission to add one or two micro-spacecraft of mass about 50 kg with only a total ΔV budget 30 m/s over 3 years on orbit.
       
  • The Northern and Southern Mid-latitude Ionospheric Trough using Global IGS
           vTEC maps
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): María Paula Natali, Juan Manuel Castaño, Amalia Meza The aim of this work is the analysis of the mid-latitude ionospheric trough (MIT) using the Global Ionospheric Maps from IGS (GIMs) during the solar minimum, year 2008. This study was performed for different local times, 22, 00, 02 and 04 LT on the Northern and Southern hemisphere simultaneously. In the two hemispheres the MIT show asymmetric pattern. The high-latitude troughs are clearly distinguished in autumn and winter. Another feature is the longitudinal development towards the west of the geomagnetic pole covering a wider area in the Northern Hemisphere. Five empirical reference models were tested and compared with the MIT minimum position obtained from GIMs at different local times for both hemisphere. The results show a better agreement with the observations for the Northern Hemisphere specially with the Köehnlein & Raitt model. Fluctuations of 9 days and 27 days of the MIT minimum position are found, which could be related with the solar wind oscillations, especially for 00 and 02 LT in both hemisphere, suggesting a link between them.
       
  • Improved detection of faint streaks based on a streak-like spatial filter
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): A. Vananti, K. Schild, T. Schildknecht This paper presents an algorithm to detect very faint object streaks on CCD images acquired with an optical system. The proposed detection method uses image filters simulating the geometrical form and orientation of possible streaks on the CCD image. The method searches for a matching between streak and filter evaluating the convolutions of the image with all possible filters. Based on the statistics of the image background a threshold is applied in order to accept, respectively reject, the possible streak candidates. The detection probabilities and the effect of different parameter settings are estimated with tests on simulated images, while subframes of real images are used to evaluate the applicability of the algorithm to real cases. The detection probability of this method depends on the length and on the signal-to-noise ratio of the streak. For long streaks, a detection for signal-to-noise values around 0.5 is achieved. The further characterization of the detected streak (e.g. centroid and length), which is not performed in the current algorithm, and the reduction of the computation time, which is relatively high for full acquired frames, as well as possible improvements are briefly addressed.
       
  • Is it Possible to Organize Automatic Forecasting of Expected Radiation
           Hazards Level from Solar Cosmic Ray (SCR) Events for Spacecraft in the
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Lev Dorman, Lev Pustil'nik, Uri Dai, Mark Idler, Fatima Keshtova, Elizabeth Petrov We present method of automatically forecasting of Solar Cosmic Ray (SCR)/Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) impact and estimation of radiation hazard level. We use model of SCR/SEP diffusion in general form and coupling functions for neutron monitors of world-wide network with different altitudes and cut-off rigidities, including also space detectors like GOES-11, 12. Another observational data for estimation of energy spectra SCR/SEP are measurements of different neutron multiplicities by some neutron monitors (e.g., great SCR/SEP event at 29 September, 1989). For the highest energy SCR/SEP are useful also one minute data of muon telescopes and ionization chambers shielded by 10 cm PB (e.g., for SCR/SEP events like February 23, 1956 – see in Dorman, 1957). We demonstrate algorithms for automatic estimation of the event starting, determination time-evolution of SCR/SEP in space by coupling functions in the frame of spectrographic method, solving inverse problem for SCR/SEP generation in solar corona and propagation in the interplanetary space, automatic determining on the basis of CR observation data with determining parameters of SCR/SEP generation and propagation in solar corona, escaping into solar wind, and propagation in space. We show that on the basis of found parameters it can be automatic forecasting on the basis of first about 0.5 hour data on expected level of radiation hazards for full time of event (up to about 48 hours) for objects in space on different distances from the Sun, in magnetosphere at different orbits, and in atmosphere at different altitudes and cutoff rigidities. It is important, that before to calculate expected level of radiation hazards for full time of event, the Automatic Procedure each 5-10 minutes recalculated forecasting fluxes of SCR/SEP in space, out of magnetosphere, back to the CR ground detectors and detectors on satellites using the same coupling functions. If the difference of obtained results and really observed data became smaller or order of statistical errors, it can be shoe that the Automatic Procedure starts to give really good forecasting, and only after this can be calculated expected level of radiation hazards. If for some objects expected level of radiation hazards will be dangerous, after about 0.5 hour from event beginning will be formatted and sent corresponding Alert. More and more exactly Alerts will be repeated with time for different objects in space, in magnetosphere, and in atmosphere. We take into account that for the first about 0.5 hour data from event beginning, when are coming mostly high energy particles (with very small flux)– radiation hazards expected small in comparison with more delay time when coming main part of SCR/SEP with energy ≤ 1 GeV, formatted sufficient part of radiation hazards. We need to take into account also that at the beginning of some SCR/SEP events when the Earth is on or near the force line of IMF connected with the source of SCR/SEP, several CR stations with direct arriving along the magnetic force line with about no scattering SCR/SEP particles on magnetic inhomogeneities, will show strong narrow pulse with no information on SCR/SEP diffusion during the propagation from the source to the detector. These CR stations in beginning of SCR/SEP event can be used only for estimation of SCR/SEP energy spectrum in the source and time of injection into solar wind, but not on diffusion. So, it is necessary automatically to separate the CR stations with strong narrow pulses, and exclude them from diffusion analysis. We hope to make this automatically by using a program of image identification in the frame of Matlab.
       
  • Retrieval and Validation of Aerosol Optical Depth by using GF-1 WFV
           Cameras Data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Xiao-Qin Wang, Feng Wang, Liang-Liang Jia, Yu Ding Conventional AOD retrieval is restricted to the global and regional scale due to the limited spatial resolution of satellites. This does not allow for aerosol monitoring at the city level. The Chinese GF-1 Wide Field of View (WFV) sensors have sufficiently fine resolution as a data source for Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieval with strong spatial detail and dense temporal series. In this study, the Deep Blue (DB) algorithm and Dark Target (DT) algorithm were used to retrieve AOD at 100 m spatial resolution from GF-1 WFV images supported by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectraradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance (SR) products (MOD09A1). The derived GF-1 WFV AOD were compared with a combination of MOD04_3K DT AOD and MOD04_L2 DB AOD (MODIS AOD) to find that they yield reasonable Pearson correlations (R>0.85) over Taiwan and Beijing. The derived GF-1 WFV AOD were also validated against an Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOD; the Spearman correlation values were RS = 0.911, p < 0.001 in Beijing and RS = 0.858, p < 0.001 in Taiwan, i.e., the coefficient was found to be significantly higher than that of the MODIS AOD (RS = 0.544, p = 0.055 in Beijing, RS = 0.847, p < 0.001 in Taiwan).
       
  • Numerical Study of Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances with Vertical
           Incidence Data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Peng Lou, Na Wei, Lixin Guo, Jing Feng, Xue Li, Longquan Yang High frequency ionosphere vertical sounding, as an important and representative application for detecting the ionosphere and studying the characteristics of radio propagation, can be utilized to monitor the ionosphere continuously variation and to acquire the ionosphere asymmetrical features of diverse scale above the ionosphere vertical sounding stations. This is a first article on real time application of numerical methods to obtain the parameters of traveling ionosphere disturbances (TIDs) using vertical incident ionograms. In this paper, the distribution of ionosphere electron density with TIDs is constructed using a background ionosphere model superimposed a perturbation theory model. The background ionosphere electron density is modelled by the inversion of vertical incident ionograms which are observed before the appearance of the disturbance. Based on the fourth order Adams-Bashforth-Moulton (the so-called ABM) predictor corrector method, instead of Runge-Kutta method, the fast digital ray tracing method is established. According to process of the disturbed trace simulation and parameters inversion, the characteristic parameters of ionosphere disturbance at different detection time can be obtained in real time. The numerical analysis of TIDs is then captured completely.
       
  • A review of the disc instability model for dwarf novae, soft X-ray
           transients and related objects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): J.M. Hameury I review the basics of the disc instability model (DIM) for dwarf novae and soft-X-ray transients and its most recent developments, as well as the current limitations of the model, focusing on the dwarf nova case. Although the DIM uses the Shakura-Sunyaev prescription for angular momentum transport, which we know now to be at best inaccurate, it is surprisingly efficient in reproducing the outbursts of dwarf novae and soft X-ray transients, provided that some ingredients, such as irradiation of the accretion disc and of the donor star, mass transfer variations, truncation of the inner disc, etc., are added to the basic model. As recently realized, taking into account the existence of winds and outflows and of the torque they exert on the accretion disc may significantly impact the model. I also discuss the origin of the superoutbursts that are probably due to a combination of variations of the mass transfer rate and of a tidal instability. I finally mention a number of unsolved problems and caveats, among which the most embarrassing one is the modelling of the low state. Despite significant progresses in the past few years both on our understanding of angular momentum transport, the DIM is still needed for understanding transient systems.
       
  • List of Referees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s):
       
  • Statistics of spread F characteristics across different sectors and IRI
           2016 prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): A.O. Afolayan, J.S. Mandeep, M. Abdullah, S.M. Buhari The occurrence of the plasma irregularity and the related scintillation have been extensively investigated as a result of the impact on radio signal propagation. This study focused on the equatorial spread F (ESF) occurrence using ionogram data and IRI prediction taken across different longitude sectors, including the Jicamarca, Fortaleza, Ilorin, Chumphon and Kwajalein ionosonde stations. We have briefly discussed the varying range type spread F (RSF) occurrence features across these stations such as the duration, onset time and seasonal asymmetry. The largest seasonal average of the RSF occurrence percentage was recorded at the Ilorin station during the low solar activity, while the occurrence rate at the Chumphon and Kwajalein stations increases significantly with the solar flux intensity. Furthermore, we presented a comparative analysis of the observed RSF occurrence rate and the IRI model prediction. The result exhibited a significant error percentage across these longitudes. The IRI could not reproduce significant features such as the delayed RSF onset at the Kwajalein station during June solstice or the equinox asymmetry in the RSF occurrence across these longitudes. Surprisingly, the IRI model also performed poorly at the Brazilian longitude. These observations highlight the strong dynamic nature of the RSF features across the different regions. Hence, an extensive dataset of the RSF occurrence distribution selected with cognizance for the longitudinal pattern of the major factors controlling the phenomenon is considered necessary for the further improvement of the empirical model.
       
  • Abnormal behaviour of sporadic E-layer during the total solar eclipse of
           22 July 2009 near the crest of EIA over India
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): Prabhakar Tiwari, Navin Parihar, Adarsh Dube, Rajesh Singh, S. Sripathi In this study we present the behaviour of sporadic E-layer during a total solar eclipse (TSE) which occurred during the dawn/sunrise hours over a site located in the path of totality. A Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) was operated at Allahabad (25.4° N, 81.9° E), a low latitude station located near the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the Indian subcontinent to study the ionospheric effects of 22 July 2009 TSE. Corresponding to the eclipse period, a gradual increase of ftEs (top frequency of Es layer) in the 4–5 MHz range was seen on the control days. On 22 July (the TSE day), correlated changes in ftEs coinciding with the TSE progression was noted – (i) sharp decrease near first and second contact of TSE, (ii) an increase after first and second contact, and (iii) wavelike fluctuations in ftEs variation during eclipse hours and beyond. Much higher ftEs values were noted during the TSE hours in comparison to that seen on usual days. Strong blanketing Es layer developed during the TSE hours and persisted for slightly longer duration than its usual occurrence time. Near the TSE totality, slight lowering of the base height of Es layer was also noted.
       
  • Ionospheric Es layer scintillation characteristics studied with
           Hilbert-Huang transform
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): S.-Y. Su, L.-C. Tsai, C.H. Liu, C. Nayak, R. Caton, K. Groves A coincident event of daytime ionospheric Es layer scintillation observations is analyzed with the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to study its layer structure. One of the coincident observations is made by a radio beacon passing through the Es layer at a slant angle received by the SCINDA (Scintillation Decision Aide) receivers located at southern Taiwan. The data indicates that the Es layer consists of scattering blocks of  ∼ 650 to 970 m in size as revealed in the dominant components of the HHT analysis. The time shift in the two spaced receiving antennas implies that the daytime E region westward drift is about 36 m/s. On the other hand, the same Es layer is observed by the radio occultation (RO) experiment with the L1 signal from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites to the FORMOSAT-3/Constellation-Observing-System-for-Meteorology (FS-3/COSMIC) satellites. The GPS L1 signal passes through the Es layer horizontally. The observed signal variations reveal a dense slab structure that blocks the L1 signal to cause a diffraction pattern. The slab thickness in the vertical direction is about 780 m. The HHT analyses of the coincident observations thus conclude that the observed daytime Es layer has a vertical dense slab structure and patches of scattering blocks in the horizontal structure.
       
  • Possibilities of the usage of the total electron content in a low-latitude
           zone
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): O.A. Maltseva, N.S. Mozhaeva Last years, the small quantity of ionosondes at low latitudes could not give a sufficient picture of behavior of the ionosphere in these areas. Now, reception of experimental data, their analysis and detection of total electron content (TEC) variations at low latitudes are an actual problem. When moving from describing the state of the ionosphere using vertical sounding parameters to describing using TEC, it is important to identify similarities and differences in their behavior in order to assess the possibilities of using TEC. This paper carries out research on four ways of TEC usage in low-latitude zone: (1) research of climatological peculiarities of the TEC behavior, (2) validation of up-to-date TEC models, (3) foF2 calculation according to observational TEC, and (4) peculiarities of TEC behavior during geomagnetic disturbances. Results for station Hainan show the following. 1. In addition to previous investigation it is shown, that the empirical global and local models of TEC provide the values close to observational ones, however climatological features of TEC behavior described by various models may still differ from each other and from the experimental data showing in this case TEC maxima of diurnal variation in the afternoons, seasonal variations in March and October, some slight winter anomaly. 2. In contrast to previous investigation it is shown that the closest to the experimental values of TEC are provided by the IRI-Plas model, while this model overestimates values, and the model NeQuick underestimates values compared to the observational ones. 3. For the first time, the ionospheric equivalent slab thickness τ, which plays the role of the coefficient of proportionality between TEC and NmF2, was compared for the IRI, IRI-Plas, NeQuick models with the experimental median τ(med) and it was shown, that the usage of observational TEC data and τ(med) for calculation of critical frequencies foF2 allows improving correspondence with experimental data by 1.2–2 times compared to the models. 4. Comparison of foF2 and TEC behavior has a particular importance during disturbances. Using the example of 15 strong magnetic storms (Dst 
       
  • On the difference between real-time and research simulations with CTIPe
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): Isabel Fernandez-Gomez, Mariangel Fedrizzi, Mihail V. Codrescu, Claudia Borries, Martin Fillion, Timothy J. Fuller-Rowell Understanding the thermosphere and ionosphere conditions is crucial for spacecraft operations and many applications using radio signal transmission (e.g. in communication and navigation). In this sense, physics based modelling plays an important role, since it can adequately reproduce the complex coupling mechanisms in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) system. The accuracy of the physics based model results does not only depend on the appropriate implementation of the physical processes, but also on the quality of the input data (forcing). In this study, we analyze the impact of input data uncertainties on the model results. We use the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Plasmasphere electrodynamics model (CTIPe), which requires satellite based solar wind, interplanetary field and hemispheric power data from ACE and TIROS/NOAA missions. To identify the impact of the forcing uncertainties, two model runs are compared against each other. The first run uses the input data that were available in real-time (operational) and the second run uses the best estimate obtained in post-processing (research or historical run). The analysis is performed in a case study on the 20th November 2003 extreme geomagnetic storm, that caused significant perturbations in the MIT system. This paper validates the thermosphere and ionosphere response to this storm over Europe comparing both CTIPe model runs with measurements of Total Electron Content (TEC) and thermosphere neutral density. In general, CTIPe results show a good agreement with measurements. However, the deviations between the model and observations are larger in the ionosphere than in the thermosphere. The comparison of the two model runs reveals that the deviations between model results and measurements are larger for the operational run than the research run. It is evident for the storm analyzed here, that data gaps in the input data are impacting considerably the model performance. The consistency between simulation and measurements allows the interpretation of the physical mechanisms behind the ionosphere perturbations and the changes in neutral composition during this event. Joule heating in the Auroral region, generating meridional winds and large scale surges, is suggested to be the main driver of the positive ionospheric storm over central Europe. In the polar cap and Auroral region, convection processes dominate the thermosphere-ionosphere conditions. This study does not only illustrate the importance of working with a good estimate of the model forcing, but also indicates the necessity of using measurements and models, to get a better understanding of the most likely responsible processes for the observed storm effects.
       
  • An evaluation of the IRI-Plas-TEC for winter anomaly along the
           mid-latitude sector based on GIM-TEC and foF2 values
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): G.I. Gordiyenko, O.A. Maltseva, F. Arikan, A.F. Yakovets Total Electron Content (TEC) has become one of the most widely used observable parameters of the ionosphere. IRI-Plas is an empirical climatic model of the ionosphere and plasmasphere that extends up to GPS orbital height of 20,000 km. The purpose of the study is to reveal whether the winter anomaly (a phenomenon where the mid-latitude daytime NmF2 (or foF2) is greater in winter than in summer at approximately the same solar activity level) occurs in TEC over the Asian sector and how well it is “captured” by IRI-Plas. The study is based on GPS-TEC data derived from Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM-TEC) for January and July months of high (2000), low (2009) and moderate (2012) levels of solar activity. Ionosonde data recorded at a number of mid-latitude Russian and Kazakhstan ionospheric stations in winter and summer seasons for different levels of solar activity are used along with corresponding IRI-Plas calculations to illustrate some specific features of seasonal variations of the midlatitude ionosphere. A comparative study made between IRI-Plas-foF2 and ionosonde foF2 indicates that the IRI-Plas-foF2 variations are found to be in good agreement with the observations showing similar structures, similar magnitudes reflecting the winter anomaly in the diurnal variations. When the IRI-Plas-TEC values are examined for the difference between winter and summer seasons, it is found that their variations are mainly similar to those of IRI-Plas-foF2. Different from that of IRI-Plas-TEC, the winter anomaly in GIM-TEC is not so strong, appears for both high and moderate levels of solar activity, and it is more pronounced at higher latitudes. In low solar activity, the winter anomaly in GIM-TEC is almost absent at the region considered. Finally, the comparison of the IRI-Plas-TEC and GIM-TEC results for winter conditions show that the IRI-Plas-TEC values are significantly larger than those of daytime GIM-TEC at all locations of Russia and Kazakhstan and for all levels of solar activity that coincides with results of previous studies. However, unlike the previous studies, in summer solstice, IRI-Plas-TEC systematically underestimates the GIM-TEC values during high solar activity year and mostly overestimates them for low solar activity. In moderate solar activity year, IRI-Plas-TEC and GIM-TEC values are practically comparable. Thus, the IRI-Plas-TEC model represents the seasonal anomaly observed in foF2 in mid-latitude region for all levels of solar activity but there is a certain deviation from the behavior of GIM-TEC. One of the main reasons of this discrepancy may be the difference of the model Ne(h)-profile from a realistic profile in the upper ionosphere and plasmasphere, that demands additional updating of models for those upper atmosphere regions.
       
  • The nature and origins of the day-to-day variability in Earth’s
           surface magnetic field
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): Jeffrey M. Forbes, Astrid Maute, Xiaoli Zhang Numerical experiments are performed with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) to reveal the characteristics and origins of daytime magnetic field variations on the ground (ΔB) at planetary-wave (PW) periods (2–20 days). Simulations are performed to separate the responses to forcing in the lower atmosphere from solar-magnetospheric forcing. Lower-atmosphere forcing is specified at the 97-km lower boundary of the TIE-GCM by NCAR's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM), which itself is forced at 30 km by MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications) outputs. Solar and magnetospheric inputs to the TIE-GCM are specified according to parameterizations based on F10.7 and Kp. The study focuses on latitudes 0°–65°N during October 1–31, 2009, when F10.7 (range 68–80), Kp (range 0–4), and Ap (range 0–13) are typical of quiet-time “weather”. Neutral dynamics in the dynamo region (ca. 100–150 km) during this period is dominated by winds due to PW modulated tides, where the PW include the quasi-6, 10 and 16-day westward-propagating normal modes with zonal wavenumber s = 1, and eastward-propagating ultra-fast Kelvin waves (UFKW) with s = −1 and periods between 2 and 5 days.Results and conclusions are as follows. PW-period perturbations in daytime ΔB at the ground are dominated by variability originating in the lower atmosphere. The only exception is the 45°–65° latitude regime around noon, where the ΔB variability due to lower atmospheric forcing exceeds that due to solar-magnetospheric forcing by only about 50%. Broadband zonally-symmetric oscillations also occur in ΔB due to dissipation of the tidal spectrum at PW periods in the E-region. These results raise the possibility that some level of contamination from the lower atmosphere may exist in magnetic indices such as ap, Kp, and Ap that are used as measures solar-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling strength, under levels of geomagnetic activity similar to that characterizing October 2009. It is also found that variations in conductivities play a minor role compared with neutral winds in producing PW-period variations in ΔB, and that there is not a robust one-to-one correspondence between spectral peaks in ΔB and those in the neutral winds. Several factors contribute to this latter result, which are explained in the text.
       
  • The possibility of estimating the height of the ionospheric
           inhomogeneities based on TEC variations maps obtained from dense GPS
           network
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): Grzegorz Nykiel, Yevgen Zanimonskiy, Aleksander Koloskov, Mariusz Figurski A state of the ionosphere can be effectively studied using electromagnetic signals received from global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Utilization of the dual frequency observations allows estimating values of the total electron content (TEC). They can be used for a number of scientific studies such as detection and monitoring of traveling ionospheric disturbances or plasma bubbles. Moreover, maps of TEC variations allow to classify ionospheric heterogeneities and to evaluate their parameters. However, most of the research describes ionospheric parameters only in 2D space and time. In this paper, we focus on the determination of the height of the ionospheric inhomogeneities. We used a dense network of GPS receivers to obtain the sequences of TEC variation maps for different heights of the ionospheric layer. For each satellite observed above 70°, we constructed separate sets of maps. For each ionospheric height, the cross-correlation function between maps corresponding to different satellites was calculated. The biggest cross-correlation coefficient value determines the height of the ionospheric irregularities. This paper describes the methodology and the results obtained for a geomagnetic storm on St. Patrick’s Day in March 2013. We have found that in quiet geomagnetic conditions the ionospheric irregularities are localized predominantly within the interval 180–220 km close to the maximum of the ionospheric F2 layer. In disturbed conditions, the height of their localization was increased up to several hundreds of kilometers. These estimations correspond to the changes in the slab thickness of the ionosphere.
       
  • μ m+emission+as+observed+by+TIMED/SABER+over+Asian+sector&rft.title=Advances+in+Space+Research&rft.issn=0273-1177&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Radiative cooling due to NO at 5.3 μ m emission as observed by
           TIMED/SABER over Asian sector
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): Gaurav Bharti, M.V. Sunil Krishna, Vir Singh The effect of geomagnetic storms on the peak emission of NO Volume Emission Rate (NO VER) at 5.3 μm, in mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region, is studied over the Asian sector during 26–29 September 2011 (storm 1) and 18–21 February 2014 (storm 2). The data for peak emission of NO VER is obtained from SABER instrument onboard the NASA’s TIMED satellite. The SABER retrieved data along with the neutral densities obtained from NRLMSISE-00 model have been used to study the latitudinal and longitudinal variation of peak NO VER during the storm period. The variations induced in the peak emission of NO VER is understood with the help of fluctuations in neutral species and the resulting changes in chemistry. It has been found that the peak emission of NO VER is strongly influenced by the storm conditions. The peak emission of NO VER at 5.3 μm is found to be maximum at higher latitudes during the storms. However, the magnitude of peak NO VER gradually decreases towards the equator during the storms. The modeled atomic oxygen number density shows depletion at the higher latitudes corresponding to peak altitude of NO VER. There is a negative correlation between the peak emission of NO VER and Dst index during the main phase of the storm. The peak emission of NO VER and modeled atomic oxygen number density shows the positive correlation at the equator region, while negative correlation at the higher latitudes. At higher latitudes modeled atomic oxygen number density shows positive correlation with Dst index, while negative correlation at the equator. The correlation factors obtained between various parameters related to the storm time radiative cooling strongly support the existing understanding of the variation of NO VER during extreme space weather events.
       
  • Signatures of substorm related overshielding electric field at equatorial
           latitudes under steady southward IMF Bz during main phase of magnetic
           storm
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): Bhaskara Veenadhari, Takashi Kikuchi, Sandeep Kumar, S. Tulasiram, D. Chakrabarty, Yusuke Ebihara, G.D. Reeves During the geomagnetic storm periods, the convection electric field penetrates promptly to equatorial latitudes, causing an eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. Occasionally, the polarity of the dayside ionospheric electric field is inverted when the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turns northward. In this paper, interesting observations of the strong westward electric field in the day side equatorial latitudes are presented, as evidenced by strong Counter Electrojet (CEJ) at Indian and Japanese sectors under the steady southward IMF Bz. The westward electric field perturbations are quite large with CEJ amplitude of ∼−120 nT over the Indian sector (14–15 December 2006) and ∼−220 nT for Japanese sector (7–8 November 2004). The plausible mechanisms for the observed overshielding electric fields under steady southward IMF Bz have been investigated in light of the possible role of substorm activity. The clear signatures of substorm were observed at geosynchronous particle flux measurements from LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) satellite and associated with sudden decrease in AL index. The observed variations of asymmetric ring current shows the enhancement of Partial Ring Current (PRC) at the dusk sector further supporting the substorm onset during that period which will probably enhance the overshielding due to increased Region 2 Field-Aligned Currents (R2 FACs). The observations of such significantly large amplitudes of CEJ associated with the substorm related overshielding events are sparse and the results bring out the important role of substorm onset and the development of PRC in accordance with the R2 FACs during intense magnetic storms which alter the day time equatorial electric field perturbations.
       
  • Turbopause range measured by the method of the artificial periodic
           irregularities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): A.V. Tolmacheva, N.V. Bakhmetieva, G.I. Grigoriev, M.N. Egerev A new opportunity for estimating the level of the turbopause is presented. It is based on the method of determining atmospheric parameters using artificial periodic irregularities of the ionospheric plasma (the API techniques). The obtained data show the presence of variations of the level of the turbopause. Experiments were carried out using SURA heating facility (56.1°N, 46.1°E) for API creation. Above the observation point the turbopause region occupies the altitude interval between 94 and 106 km. There are changes in the level of the turbopause during the day: in the evening hours the turbopause level can go down. Temporal variations of the turbopause level are observed. They are compared with variations in the atmospheric parameters at these heights.
       
  • New techniques for retrieving the [O(3P)], [O3] and [CO2] altitude
           profiles from dayglow oxygen emissions: Uncertainty analysis by the Monte
           Carlo method
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): Valentine Yankovsky, Ekaterina Vorobeva, Rada Manuilova This study presents methods for retrieving the altitude profiles of atomic oxygen, [O(3P)], ozone, [O3], and carbon dioxide, [CO2], concentrations in the daytime mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) in the framework of the YM2011 model of the electronic-vibrational oxygen kinetics. The emissions of singlet oxygen molecules O2(b1Σ+g, v ≤ 2), O2(a1Δg, v = 0) and the O(1D) atom are used as proxy of the [O(3P)], [O3] and [CO2]. For all the proposed techniques, we compare the uncertainty values of the retrieved [O(3P)], [O3] and [CO2], obtained by the Monte Carlo method, with estimations obtained by the sensitivity analysis method in the earlier works. For all the above mentioned methods for retrieving the [O(3P)], [O3] and [CO2] profiles, we obtained analytical expressions that include the concentrations of excited substances considered as proxies. In addition, the optimal altitude ranges for using these remote sensing methods were determined based on the results of numerical experiments by the Monte Carlo method.
       
  • The Atmospheric Coupling and Dynamics Across the Mesopause (ACaDAMe)
           mission
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): D. Janches, A.W. Yu, M.A. Krainak, C. Gardner, B. Kaifler, S. Etemad, D.C. Fritts, S.D. Eckermann, R.L. Collins, E.C.M. Dawkins, R.S. Lieberman, D.R. Marsh, G. Liu, W. Jarvis The Atmospheric Coupling and Dynamics Across the Mesopause (ACaDAMe) is a mission designed to uniquely address critical questions involving multi-scale wave dynamics at key space weather (SWx) “gateway altitudes” of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) at ~70–150 km. ACaDAMe observes with a nadir-pointing resonant lidar that utilizes the fluorescence of atomic Na present in the MLT. By tuning a laser to the Na absorption wavelength (589 nm), ACaDAMe would perform very high resolution measurements of temperature and Na densities across the mesopause during both day and night. In this manner, Na is used as tracer for observing and characterizing MLT waves generated by tropospheric weather that represent the dominant terrestrial source of energy and momentum affecting space weather and transport of mesospheric species.
       
  • Chemical physics of D and E layers of the ionosphere
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): V.V. Kuverova, S.O. Adamson, A.A. Berlin, V.L. Bychkov, A.V. Dmitriev, Y.A. Dyakov, L.V. Eppelbaum, G.V. Golubkov, A.A. Lushnikov, M.I. Manzhelii, A.N. Morozov, S.S. Nabiev, V.L. Shapovalov, A.V. Suvorova, M.G. Golubkov The main chemical reactions that lead to formation of the nonequilibrium two-temperature plasma and highly excited Rydberg complexes are considered. A special attention is given to l-mixing reaction responsible for the formation of quantum resonance properties for radio wave propagation medium. A detailed analysis of the influence of Rydberg states to the behavior of GPS signals in D and E layers of the ionosphere is presented. It is shown that the transition frequencies between the excited states of orbitally degenerate Rydberg complex are resonant with respect to the carrier frequencies of GPS. That is why these states are the main cause of the GPS signal distortion. The mechanism of GPS signal delay in D and E layers is also discussed.
       
  • Observation of mesospheric wave using collocated OH airglow temperature
           and radar wind measurements over Indian low latitude
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): R.N. Ghodpage, Alok Taori, O.B. Gurav, P.T. Patil, S. Gurubaran, Devendraa Siingh, G.P. Naniwadekar We analyzed the mesospheric winds and temperature data for investigating the waves scaling from the period of few hours to several hours (and few days) based on the airglow observations at Kolhapur (16.8°N, 74.2°E, 10.6°N dip. lat.). The data presented in this study are collected using medium frequency radar and Multispectral Scanning Photometer at low latitude station Kolhapur. We scrutinized the wind and temperature relation of these waves for the observed period from January to May 2011. The data of 56 clear nights were collected and out of which 22 nights of data shows a conspicuous wavelike features. The nocturnal variability reveals the prominent wave signatures with a period which range from 7 to 12 h (h) as a dominant nocturnal wave. The presence of quasi 2.8–4 days waves with significant amplitudes is also detected. The comparison of the winds and temperatures suggests the temperature waves to be near in phase with meridional wind component and a time delayed relation with the zonal wind component.
       
  • The dependence of four-peak longitudinal structure of the tropical
           electric field on the processes in the lower atmosphere and geomagnetic
           field configuration
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): V.V. Klimenko, M.V. Klimenko, F.S. Bessarab, T.V. Sukhodolov, E.V. Rozanov In this article, we estimate the influence of the atmospheric-ionospheric interaction and the differences in the location of the geographic and geomagnetic poles on the longitudinal variability of the ionospheric electric field in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. For the study, we applied the upper atmosphere model (GSM TIP) and the recently created entire atmosphere model (EAGLE). The simulation results confirm that the four-peak structure of the longitudinal variation and the pre-reversal enhancement of the eastward electric field at the equator are caused by the atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. The role of F-region dynamo in the formation of pre-reversal enhancement of the eastward electric field is beyond the scope of this paper. These structures appear during the minimum of solar activity periods and are formed by the longitudinal variations of the horizontal thermospheric wind and the Pedersen conductivity arising from the action of the mesospheric tides. During solar activity minimum periods, the difference in the locations of geographic and geomagnetic poles leads to some complication and smoothing of the obtained picture of longitudinal variations in the electric field. We suggest that mesospheric tides have a significant effect on the longitudinal variation of the Pedersen conductivity, while the longitudinal variation of the Hall conductivity is mainly determined by the mismatch of geographic and geomagnetic poles. The amplitudes of the equatorial electric field longitudinal variations are three to four times smaller than the amplitudes of their diurnal variations, however, they can have a significant impact on the spatial distribution of the electron density in the F region of the low-latitude ionosphere.
       
  • On the field validation of α-μ fading coefficients estimator based on
           the autocorrelation function for ionospheric amplitude scintillation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2019Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 64, Issue 10Author(s): Leonardo Marini-Pereira, Kelias de Oliveira, Lucas A. Salles, Alison de O. Moraes, Eurico R. de Paula, Marcio Tadeu de Assis Honorato Muella, Waldecir J. Perrella The ionosphere in low-latitude regions has intense dynamics with great variability – not only spatially but also temporally. The most critical effect found in the low-latitude region is the scintillation in phase and amplitude due to plasma bubble occurrence in the ionospheric layer. To augmentation systems like GBAS or SBAS, designed to provide Category-I (CAT I) precision approach service in low-visibility conditions, plasma bubbles can compromise the performance requirements for air navigation precision approach in a way that the service provided by the system is considered unviable. In practical terms, this is the main reason why the Brazilian Department of Airspace Control (DECEA) still has not implemented any augmentation system in Brazil. Scintillation may lead to loss of signal lock of the affected satellite. In this context, a better understanding of the scintillation pattern and its statistical properties gain particular relevance, once this is the most concerning issue for the performance of any GNSS receiver in low-latitude regions especially in the context of augmentation systems for air navigation. Previous works validated the use of the α-μ distribution to characterize amplitude scintillation. The present work is concerned with proposing a new method for the estimation of the α-μ coefficients based on the α-μ autocorrelation function. The method is validated using field data and comparing the results from empirical autocorrelation function with the results obtained from the moment-based estimator. Additionally, the efficiency of the method is proven by analyzing measurements of Level-Crossing Rate (LCR) and Average Fading Duration (AFD) with their respective theoretical formulation.
       
  • Preface: Variability and coupling of the equatorial, low- and mid-latitude
           mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere: Latest developments of monitoring
           and modeling techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Michael Pezzopane, Kavutarapu Venkatesh
       
  • Variations in the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System from Tides, Ultra-Fast
           Kelvin Waves, and Their Interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Colin C. Triplett, Thomas J. Immel, Yen-Jung Wu, Chihoko Cullens Large scale waves, such as the atmospheric tides and ultra-fast Kelvin waves (UFKW), have direct effects on the neutral wind and temperature fields of the ionosphere-thermosphere (I-T) system. In this study we examine the response of the I-T system to the atmospheric tides, one UFKW, and the secondary waves generated from their interactions using the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM). We find that forcing an UFKW at the lower boundary of the TIEGCM is all that is required for it to setup in the model. We see variations around 10% in the zonal winds that lead to similar variations in the total electron content (TEC) depending on the phase of the UFKW. From these simulations, we expect the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission will be able to fully capture these wave interactions by observing winds and temperatures at the mesopause and above.
       
 
 
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