Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3148 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3147 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 431, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 490, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Space Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.569
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 431  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0273-1177
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3148 journals]
  • Mean Sea Surface and Mean Dynamic Topography Determination from Cryosat-2
           Data around Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Armin Agha Karimi, Ole Baltazar Andersen, Xiaoli DengAbstractIn this study, we use seven years of Cryosat-2 data to improve Mean Sea Surface (MSS) and also to estimate Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) around Australia. Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) map, obtained from Cryosat-2 data, shows substantial spatial striping effects in the areas where annual signal has considerable amplitudes. This signal causes shifts among the SLAs acquired from adjacent tracks since they have collected at different times of the year. In order to mitigate these effects, we used Topex/Poseidon and follow on missions to estimate the seasonal signals in the Cryosat-2 data points. MSSC2 is then estimated by (1) removing these signals from SLAs, (2) averaging in a 0.1°× 0.1° grid cells, and (3) finally adding them to the DTUMSS13. The resultant surface shows good agreement with the MSS estimated by Jason-1 and Jason-2 data in altimetry nominal points. MDTC2 is also estimated in the study area using the MSSC2 and the geoid. It is in good agreement with two widely used global MDT models although showing higher values due to the effect of sea-level rise. When compared to the estimated MDT in tide gauge stations using geodetic data, MDTC2 statistically performs better than the global models.
       
  • Contribution Analysis of QZSS to Single-frequency PPP of GPS/ BDS/
           GLONASS/ Galileo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Ju Hong, Rui Tu, Rui Zhang, Lihong Fan, Pengfei Zhang, Junqiang HanAbstractThe Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) established by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency mainly serves the Asia-Pacific region and its surrounding areas. Currently, four in-orbit satellites provide services. Most users of GNSS in the mass market use single-frequency (SF) receivers owing to the low cost. Therefore, it is meaningful to analyze and evaluate the contribution of the QZSS to SF precise point positioning (PPP) of GPS/BDS/GLONASS/Galileo systems with the emergence of GNSS and QZSS. This study compares the performances of three SF PPP models, namely the GRoup and PHase Ionospheric Correction (GRAPHIC) model, GRAPHIC with code observation model, and an ionosphere-constrained model, and evaluated the contribution of the QZSS to the SF PPP of GPS/BDS/GLONASS/Galileo systems. Moreover, the influence of code bias on the SF PPP of the BDS system is also analyzed. A two-week dataset (DOY 013–026, 2019) from 10 stations of the MGEX network is selected for validation, and the results show that: (1) For cut-off elevation angles of 15, 20, and 25°, the convergence times for the static SF PPP of GLONASS + QZSS are reduced by 4.3, 30.8, and 12.7%, respectively, and the positioning accuracy is similar compared with that of the GLONASS system. Compared with the BDS single system, the convergence times for the static SF PPP of BDS + QZSS under 15 and 25° are reduced by 37.6 and 39.2%, the horizontal positioning accuracies are improved by 18.6 and 14.1%, and the vertical components are improved by 13.9 and 21.4%, respectively. At cut-off elevation angles of 15, 20, and 25°, the positioning accuracy and precision of GPS/BDS/GLONASS/Galileo + QZSS is similar to that of GPS/BDS/GLONASS/Galileo. And the convergence times are reduced by 7.4 and 4.3% at cut-off elevation angles of 20 and 25°, respectively. In imitating dynamic PPP, the QZSS significantly improves the positioning accuracy of BDS and GLONASS. However, QZSS has little effect on the GPS-only, Galileo-only and GPS/BDS/ GLONASS/Galileo. (3) The code bias of BDS IGSO and MEO cannot be ignored in SF PPP. In static SF PPP, taking the frequency band of B1I whose multipath combination is the largest among the frequency bands as an example, the vertical component has a systematic bias of approximately 0.4–1.0 m. After correcting the code bias, the positioning error in the vertical component is lower than 0.2 m, and the positioning accuracy in the horizontal component are improved accordingly. (3) The SF PPP model with ionosphere constraints has a better convergence speed, while the positioning accuracy of the three models is nearly equal. Therefore the GRAPHIC model can be used to get good positioning accuracy in the absence of external ionosphere products, but its convergence speed is slower.
       
  • Statistical characteristics of low latitude Pc4s: Influence of Solar wind
           and IMF parameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Jayashree Bulusu, C. Prasanna Simha, Kusumita Arora, K.M. RaoAbstractPc4 signatures for the year 2013, extracted from geomagnetic north-south and east-west components of induction coil magnetometer (LEMI 30) from low latitude station Desalpar (DSP), operated by Institute of Seismological Research (ISR), India have been investigated vis-à-vis the prevalent interplanetary parameters (IMF) as well as the geomagnetic activity indices. A clear dominance of Pc4-5 (467 events) over Pc3 (17 events) is observed. Local time variation of Pc4 shows a peak in the noon sector in both X and Y components. Our investigations show that the dominant peak frequency is 10 mHz at low latitude region. Correlations with solar wind and IMF parameters illustrate highest occurrence of Pc4 for a solar wind speed of 300-400 km/s and average IMF B field of 3-6 nT. The amplitude of Pc4s at DSP shows an increase with increasing solar wind speed, plasma density, solar wind dynamic pressure and average B field which is also reflected in the trend of frequency variation of these pulsations. We report that IMF clock angle at low latitude does not have influence on Pc4 occurrence. Based on the characteristics of these events, detected in latitudinally distributed stations from low and mid-latitudes from northern and southern hemisphere, we infer that modes were compressional, which could be driven by K-H instability or solar wind dynamic pressure, as compressional modes can propagate to low latitude with little attenuation.
       
  • Thermosphere densities derived from Swarm GPS observations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Jose den IJssel, Eelco Doornbos, Elisabetta Iorfida, Günther March, Christian Siemes, Oliver MontenbruckAbstractAfter the detection of many anomalies in the Swarm accelerometer data, an alternative method has been developed to determine thermospheric densities for the three-satellite mission. Using a precise orbit determination approach, non-gravitational and aerodynamic-only accelerations are estimated from the high-quality Swarm GPS data. The GPS-derived non-gravitational accelerations serve as a baseline for the correction of the Swarm-C along-track accelerometer data. The aerodynamic accelerations are converted directly into thermospheric densities for all Swarm satellites, albeit at a much lower temporal resolution than the accelerometers would have been able to deliver. The resulting density and acceleration data sets are part of the European Space Agency Level 2 Swarm products.To improve the Swarm densities, two modifications have recently been added to our original processing scheme. They consist of a more refined handling of radiation pressure accelerations and the use of a high-fidelity satellite geometry and improved aerodynamic model. These modifications lead to a better agreement between estimated Swarm densities and NRLMSISE-00 model densities. The GPS-derived Swarm densities show variations due to solar and geomagnetic activity, as well as seasonal, latitudinal and diurnal variations. For low solar activity, however, the aerodynamic signal experienced by the Swarm satellites is very small, and therefore it is more difficult to accurately resolve latitudinal density variability using GPS data, especially for the higher-flying Swarm-B satellite. Therefore, mean orbit densities are also included in the Swarm density product.
       
  • Detection of hydrothermal alteration zones using ASTER data in Nimu
           porphyry copper deposit, south Tibet, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Zhenghai Wang, Cong Zhou, Haoyang QinAbstractAdvanced space-borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data were evaluated for the hydrothermal alteration mapping of the Nimu porphyry copper deposit, southern Tibet. According to the metallogenic model for porphyry copper, we chose hydrothermal alteration mineral association and then established a remote sensing model. Relative absorption-band depth (RBD) and simple band combination methods in visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands were used to retrieve information about lithological distributions. Principal component analyses (PCA) were applied to extract the prospecting information based on the spectral information of argillization mineral association, propylitization mineral association, and iron stained (limonite) effects. Results of the study match up well with known copper occurrences and a circular structure in study area, while circular structures usually have close relationship with mineralization. Combined with field validation, ASTER data are proved able to characterise the alteration zone of these porphyry deposits. With VNIR and SWIR bands, argillic, propylitic and ferritization alterations in a single deposit can be effectively discriminated.
       
  • On denoising satellite altimeter measurements for high-resolution
           geophysical signal analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Y. Quilfen, B. ChapronAbstractSatellite radar altimeter observations are key to advanced studies in ocean dynamics, particularly those focusing on mesoscale processes. To resolve scales below about 100 km, because altimeter measurements are often characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), low-pass filtering or least-squares curve fitting is generally applied to smooth the data before analysis. Here, we present an alternative method. It is based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) developed to analyze non-stationary and non-linear processes, which adaptively projects a signal on a basis of empirical AM/FM functions called Intrinsic Modulation Functions (IMFs). Applied to a Gaussian noise signal, the EMD provides a set of IMFs with a predictable distribution of noise energy that can be exploited by wavelet-inspired threshold methods to provide an efficient approach to data denoising. The EMD method performs a local analysis of the SNR, does not require a priori assumptions about the underlying geophysical signal, e.g., its degree of smoothness or its compliance with a particular mathematical framework. The signal is simply assumed to be the sum of a piecewise-smooth deterministic part and a stochastic part. The proposed EMD-based denoising approach is therefore well suited for mapping non-linear features, such as strong gradients, and extreme values without significant smoothing. Using Jason-2, Cryosat-2, and Saral/AltiKa significant wave height measurements, the method provides an effective means of mapping overlooked geophysical variability of sea state at scales between about 100 km and 25 km, a range largely impacted by low SNR. Below 25 km, a spectral hump caused by inhomogeneities in the altimeter footprint essentially dominates the signal. In addition, the EMD method provides a consistent approach for long-term noise analysis and monitoring under global and local conditions. The proposed method is a step forward that will enable better exploitation of the unique set of altimeter observations that now covers more than 25 years.
       
  • Tumbling Object Deorbiting Using Spaceborne Laser Engagement - A CubeSat
           Case Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Yang Yang, Erik Klein, Luc SagnièresAbstractThis paper demonstrates active space debris removal using spaceborne laser systems. The laser beam and the surface of the target are discretised into multiple rays and finite elements, respectively, for laser-target interaction modelling, in which the laser ablation process is investigated. A high-fidelity attitude/orbit propagator tool is developed to account for both the linear impulse and angular impulse induced by the laser engagement and other perturbations. The laser system is activated only when three switch criteria are satisfied. In numerical simulations, laser pulses from international space station are generated to deorbit a 3U CubeSat with initially tumbling modes. The results validate the effectiveness of deorbiting tumbling CubeSats using spaceborne laser engagement, with the perigee height lowered by approximately 2.4km in around 30min after 2h propagation. It is also found that the laser engagement becomes more effective for an initially faster rotating object.
       
  • Targeting the geysers on Enceladus by viffing descent through the icy
           plumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Yue Sun, Alex Ellery, Xianlin HuangAbstractThe ice plumes emanating from the geyser vents at Enceladus’ south pole offer an enticing route for direct access to acquire pristine astrobiological samples. Unlike traditional landing scenarios where the location of the landing target is known a priori, we propose that one or more penetrators explore the plume environment via lateral maneuvers during the descent to Enceladus’ surface to infer the location of promising landing sites by autonomously measuring the plume ice/vapour concentration at multiple locations within the plume. This offers the prospect of targeting the vent sources of the plumes for direct access to subsurface material prior to its ejection. We examine four types of “viffing” (vector-in-forward flight) descent profiles and the impulsive velocity increment (ΔV) required for the lateral maneuvers:(i) a ballistic descent trajectory with a minimal ΔV cost represents the reference trajectory that implements no lateral search maneuvers; (ii) a planar descent with a decaying lateral oscillation which has an intermediate ΔV cost and a small search area; (iii) a nested series of decreasing sized box trajectories offering intermediate ΔV costs of varying degrees depending on the specific parameters; and, (iv) a quasi-spiral trajectory of decreasing radius which imposes the highest ΔV cost but with the largest lateral search area. Computations and simulations determined that the proposed viffing maneuvers are feasible and permit accurate targeting of Enceladian geyser vents at modest cost in ΔV. We also briefly assessed the problem of mapping the Enceladian plume during the descent, which will ultimately be necessary for viffing.
       
  • Modeling the effects ofgreen alternative on Heat Island Mitigationof a
           Meso level Town, West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Sk Ziaul, Swades PalAbstractUrban heat island (UHI) is emerged as a ubiquitous phenomenon that affects the outdoor thermal comfort. Hence urban microclimatic studies using numeric simulation software to find out adaption strategies are attracting the great attention of researchers and policymaker. Number of scientists carried out their research on this topic using different tools and technique whereas ENVI-met model is the most widely used simulation tools. The present study intended to examine the implication of green infrastructure of the town on enhanced microclimatic condition and to evaluate the best suitable mitigation strategy modelling cool city with ENVI-met software (V4). Five greening condition such as existing UHI condition (C1), 100% greening of roof (C2), 100% greening of roof and walls (C3), 50% greening of roof and walls (C4) and : Plantation at suitable area with 50% greening of roof and walls (C5) have been taken into consideration for the microclimate simulation for all three selected sites. Among these five conditions, C3 for the open mid-rise and compact low-rise , C5 for the open low-rise are identified as one of the most suitable strategies which can reduce the air temperature of peak hours by 2.6 °C, 1.33 °C and 1.87 °C respectively. These models are validated by simple linear regression between simulated and existing air temperature in case of existing UHI condition (C1) and in all the cases coefficient of determination value is high such as for open mid-rise, compact low-rise and open low-rise, it is 0.92, 0.92 and 0.75 respectively. Therefore it can be concluded that the application of those strategies can improve the urban thermal environment as well as theoutdoor thermal comfort of English bazaar Town and its surroundings.
       
  • Retrieval and validation of aerosol optical depth using GF-1 WFV cameras
           data
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Xiao-Qin Wang, Feng Wang, Liang-Liang Jia, Yu DingAbstractConventional AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) retrieval is restricted to the global and regional scale due to the limited spatial resolution of satellites. This does not allow for aerosol monitoring at the city level. The Chinese GF-1 Wide Field of View (WFV) sensors have sufficiently fine resolution as a data source for AOD retrieval with fine spatial resolution and a 4-day revisit time. In this study, principles similar to those in the Deep Blue (DB) and Dark Target (DT) algorithms were used to retrieve AOD at 100 m spatial resolution from GF-1 WFV images supported by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectraradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance (SR) products (MOD09A1). The derived GF-1 WFV AOD were compared with a combination of MOD04_3K DT AOD and MOD04_L2 DB AOD (MODIS AOD) to find that they yield reasonable Spearman correlations (RS > 0.82) over Taiwan and Beijing. The derived GF-1 WFV AOD were also validated against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOD; the Spearman correlation values were RS = 0.911 in Beijing and RS = 0.858 in Taiwan.
       
  • An analysis of the flexibility modeling of a net for space debris removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Minghe Shan, Jian Guo, Eberhard GillAbstractOperational spacecraft are facing a risk of collision with space debris objects. The net capturing method has been proposed to mitigate this risk on spacecraft. The mass-spring model is usually applied for net modeling by discretizing a cable into one or several mass-spring-damper elements in simulation. The absolute nodal coordinates formulation (ANCF) has also been applied to model the net, and this model is able to describe the flexibility of a net using less elements. However, the influence on the net behavior in simulation by the flexibility modeling of a net is not well understood and barely discussed. In this paper, flexibility models of a net are established based on the mass-spring model and the ANCF model,respectively. The influence on the net behavior by the flexibility modeling is, for the first time, analyzed via simulations. Two case studies of capturing a ball and a cube shaped targets are performed. It is found that the flexibility modeling has little influence on the net dynamics in simulation. Finally, the characteristics and benefits of the ANCF model are described and analyzed. A drawback of the ANCF model was found to be its inferior computational performance.
       
  • Families of halo orbits in the elliptic restricted three-body problem for
           a solar sail with reflectivity control devices
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Jia Huang, James D. Biggs, Naigang CuiAbstractSolar sail halo orbits designed in the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) provide inefficient reference orbits for station-keeping since the disturbance due to the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit has to be compensated for. This paper presents a strategy to compute families of halo orbits around the collinear artificial equilibrium points in the Sun-Earth elliptic restricted three-body problem (ER3BP) for a solar sail with reflectivity control devices (RCDs). In this non-autonomous model, periodic halo orbits only exist when their periods are equal to integer multiples of one year. Here multi-revolution halo orbits with periods equal to integer multiples of one year are constructed in the CR3BP and then used as seeds to numerically continue the halo orbits in the ER3BP. The linear stability of the orbits is analyzed which shows that the in-plane motion is unstable while the out-of-plane motion is neutrally stable and a bifurcation is identified. Finally, station-keeping is performed which shows that a reference orbit designed in the ER3BP is significantly more efficient than that designed in the CR3BP, while the addition of RCDs improve station-keeping performance and robustness to uncertainty in the sail lightness number.
       
  • Evolution of an electron beam pulse influenced by coulomb collision
           effects in the solar corona
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): G.A. Casillas-Pérez, S. Jeyakumar, A. Carrillo-Vargas, H.R. Pérez-EnríquezAbstractElectrons accelerated in the corona during solar activity give rise to radio emission events that can be observed over a wide range of frequencies. Among different finer-scale structures in the dynamic spectra observed in the radio range, fast transients with extents of some milliseconds known as solar radio spikes are observed accompaning the background continuum emission. Fundamental to the generation of radio spikes is a propagating electron beam and following its evolution allows us to understand the physical processes occurring in the solar corona. With the use of a numerical Fokker–Planck code we follow a previous numerical study to simulate the propagation of an electron beam pulse injected in a small region at the top of a magnetic field and outwards the solar corona under typical flare conditions. It was found that in large ambient densities of 1010 cm−3 at the injection point, Coulomb collision effects have an important effect on the propagation of the electrons, causing that the injected electrons thermalize faster in a time of 0.1 and 0.4 s for an electron distribution with a low-energy cut off of 16 and 7 keV respectively and a spectral index of 3. For a tenous ambient medium of density 109 cm−3 thermalization occurs only for an electron distribution with smaller low-energy cut off (7 keV) with a duration of ≈1.5 s, while for a larger low-energy cut off (16 keV) the loss of accelerated electrons is very slow, regardles of the spectral index (3,7). The electron loss time by Coulomb collisions, which depends on the low boundary ambient density, might be an important parameter that influences the generation of radio spikes due to the formation of instabilities in the corona.
       
  • A full-disk image standardization of the chromosphere observation at
           Huairou Solar Observing Station
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Liu SuoAbstractObservations of local features in the solar chromosphere began in 1992 at Huairou Solar Observing Station, while the full-disk chromosphere observations were carried out since 2000. In order to facilitate researchers to use full-disk chromosphere observation, algorithms have been developed to standardize the full-disk images. The algorithms include the determination of the center of the image and size standardization, geometric correction and intensity normalization. The solar limb of each image is determined from a histogram analysis of its intensity distribution. The center and radius are then calculated and the image is corrected for geometric distortions. Images are re-scaled to have a fixed radius of 500 pixels and centered within the 1024 × 1024 frame. Finally, large-scale variations in intensity, such as limb-darkening, are removed using a median filter. This paper provides a detailed description of these algorithms, and a summary of the properties of these chromospheric full-disk observations to be used for further scientific investigations.
       
  • Plasma polarization electric field derived from radio sounding of solar
           wind acceleration region with spacecraft signals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Yuri V. Pisanko, Oleg I. YakovlevAbstractPresented is the analytical approximation of averaged solar wind velocity radial dependence in the solar wind acceleration region at heliolatitudes below 60° under low and moderate solar activity. This empirical approximation is based on the data of radio sounding of the solar corona with radio signals from various spacecraft. Deduced is an equation connecting the solar wind velocity radial dependence and the radial dependence of solar wind plasma polarization electric field intensity. This allows constructing a semi-empirical radial dependence of plasma polarization electric field corresponding to the empirical radial dependence of solar wind velocity. Main properties of the semi-empirical dependence, which is based on radio sounding data, are described.
       
  • Integrating aeromagnetic data and Landsat-8 imagery for detection of
           post-accretionary shear zones controlling hydrothermal alterations: The
           Allaqi-Heiani Suture zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Ahmed Mohammed Eldosouky, Haytham Sehsah, Sayed O. Elkhateeb, Amin Beiranvand PourAbstractThe Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) underwent a regional carbonation event with CO2 fluxes derived from the mantle and circulated along post-accretionary shear zones, thus affecting the redistribution of gold mineralization. Formerly, the analyses of remotely-sensed data have suggested regions of gold mineralization linked to the post-accretionary structured framework, but the results were insufficient for detailed prospecting in the ANS. In this research, aeromagnetic data and Landsat-8 imagery were integrated for delineating new high potential zones of gold mineralization in the Allaqi-Heiani Suture (AHS) zone, the ANS, South Eastern Desert (SED) of Egypt. Aeromagnetic data were enhanced using the Center for exploration targeting (CET) grid enhancement technique to detect the main structures that control hydrothermal alterations in the study area. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique and ratios of spectral bands were applied to Landsat-8 data for mapping zones of hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization. The traced structural elements from RTP, CET and Landsat-8 maps were statistically plotted and interpreted using rose diagrams. These diagrams indicated that the NW and NE trends are the most dominant in the RTP map and that the intersection zones obtained from the CET analysis are aligned along the NW-oriented trend. While the NNW, WNW and NE trends were the most dominant ones in Landsat maps. The integration of the results indicates several new high potential zones of gold and Cu/Ni mineralization types, which are mostly concentrated at the western part of the AHS zone. The hydrothermal alteration zones and associated gold mineralization are strongly linked to NW, NE, E-W and WNW trending lineaments. The approach used in this study can be applied to other parts of the ANS and other regions with similar geological conditions around the world.
       
  • Guaranteed performance based adaptive attitude tracking of spacecraft with
           control constraints
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Kewei Xia, Hungsun SonAbstractThe guaranteed performance control problem of spacecraft attitude tracking with control constraint, disturbance and time-varying inertia parameters is investigated. A new saturation function is designed to satisfy different magnitude constraints by introducing a piecewise smooth asymmetric Gauss error function. Based on the mean-value theorem, the constrained problem is transformed into an unconstrained control design subject to an unknown bounded coefficient matrix. To satisfy the constraints by performance functions, a tracking error constrained control is developed based on a hyperbolic arc-tangent asymmetric barrier Lyapunov function (BLF). In the backstepping framework, an adaptive robust control law is proposed by employing a smooth robust term simultaneously counteracting the parametric and non-parametric uncertainties, where the unknown coefficient matrix resulting from the control constraint is compensated by a Nussbaum function matrix. Rigorous stability analysis indicates that the proposed control law realizes the asymptotically tracking of spacecraft attitude and that the tracking error remains in a prescribed set which implies the achievement of the guaranteed transient performance. Numerical simulations validate the proposed theoretical results.
       
  • Analysis of GNSS clock prediction performance with different interrupt
           intervals and application to real-time kinematic precise point positioning
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Chao Yan, Qing Wang, Yong Zhang, Fuyang Ke, Wang Gao, Yuan YangAbstractContinuous and timely real-time satellite orbit and clock products are mandatory for real-time precise point positioning (RT-PPP). Real-time high-precision satellite orbit and clock products should be predicted within a short time in case of communication delay or connection breakdown in practical applications. For prediction, historical data describing the characteristics of the real-time orbit and clock can be used as the basis for performing the prediction. When historical data are scarce, it is difficult for many existing models to perform precise predictions. In this paper, a linear regression model is used to predict clock products. Seven-day GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) final clock products sampled at 30 s are used to analyze the characteristics of GNSS clocks. It is shown that the linear regression model can be used as the prediction model for the satellite clock products. In addition, the accuracy of the clock prediction for different satellites are analyzed using historical data with different periods (such as 2 and 10 epochs). Experimental results show that the accuracy of the clock with the linear regression prediction model using historical data with 10 epochs is 1.0 ns within 900 s. This is higher accuracy than that achieved using historical data of 2 epochs. Finally, the performance analysis for real-time kinematic precise point positioning (PPP) is provided using GFZ final clock prediction results and state space representation (SSR) clock prediction results when communication delay or connection breakdown occur. Experimental results show that the positioning accuracy without prediction is better than that with prediction in general, whether using the final clock product or the SSR clock product. For the final clock product, the positioning accuracy in the north (N), east (E), and up (U) directions is better than 10.0 cm with all visible GNSS satellites with prediction. In comparison, the 3D positioning accuracy of N, E, and U directions with visible GNSS satellites whose prediction accuracy is better than 0.1 ns using historical data of 10 epochs is improved from 15.0 cm to 7.0 cm. For the SSR clock product, the positioning accuracy of N, E, and U directions is better than 12.0 cm with visible GNSS satellites with prediction. In comparison, the 3D positioning accuracy of N, E, and U directions with visible GNSS satellites whose prediction accuracy is better than 0.1 ns using historical data of 10 epochs is improved from 12.0 cm to 9.0 cm.
       
  • Trends in foF2 and the 24th solar activity cycle
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): A.D. Danilov, A.V. KonstantinovaAbstractThe trends in foF2 are analyzed based on the data of Juliusruh and Boulder ionospheric stations. It is shown that using the traditional solar activity index F10.7 leads to an impossible trend in foF2 when the data for the 24th solar activity cycle are included into the analysis. It is assumed that the F10.7 index does not describe correctly the solar ultraviolet radiation variations in that cycle. A correction of this index using the Rz (sunspot number) and Ly (intensity of the Lyman-α line in the solar spectrum) is performed, and it is shown that in that case reasonable values of the foF2 trends are obtained.
       
  • On the estimation of regional covariance functions of TEC variations over
           Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Reza Ghoddousi-FardAbstractSpatial and temporal variations of Total Electron Content (TEC) can affect GNSS high accuracy positioning. Enhanced estimation of ionospheric variations and their de-correlation can benefit differential and point positioning rapid solutions. Global and regional TEC maps can provide the overall state of ionopsheric variations in space and time domains within their accuracy limits. In this paper, these maps are exploited to retrieve ionospheric variations by means of variograms and their associated covariance functions of TEC residuals over Canadian region during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. A number of theoretical variogram functions are reviewed for modeling covariance of TEC residuals. The variogram modeling of residuals during a strong geomagnetic storm revealed variances of one order of magnitude larger compared to a rather quiet condition. Variogram models are also used in regional and local kriging interpolation experiments and their performances are evaluated. Global maps of TEC RMS by International GNSS Service and two of its analysis centres are also compared over the Canadian region during a two-year period. Realistic representation of regional variances using estimated variograms when compared to global ionospheric RMS maps are also presented.
       
  • Research on the disturbance of ballistic missile to ionosphere by using 3D
           ray tracing method
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Jinyuan Zhu, Hanxian FangAbstractThis study uses the 3D ray tracing to analyse ionospheric disturbance generated by a ballistic missile plume (which was simulated in our previous work). Ray tracing results show that the 6 MHz radio waves are completely reflected by the ionosphere and cannot reach the ionospheric disturbance zone. The 8 MHz radio waves partially penetrate the ionospheric disturbance zone, producing a focusing effect. Most of the 10 MHz radio waves pass through the ionosphere and the disturbance zone. The focusing effect and focus height are reduced. In the height range 65̃400 km, the ray absorption loss of reflection is greater than the transmitted ray. When the ray is reflected multiple times in the cavity formed by the plume, ray absorption loss greatly increases.
       
  • Investigation of infrasound signatures from microbaroms using OH airglow
           and ground-based microbarometers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Thurian Le Dû, Pierre Simoneau, Philippe Keckhut, Alain Hauchecorne, Alexis Le PichonAbstractIn the frame of the European H2020 project ARISE, a short wave infrared (SWIR) InGaAs camera has been operated at the Haute-Provence Observatory, during a night that corresponds to the peak of Geminid meteor shower to investigate infrasound associated with meteor arrivals. This camera allows continuous observations during clear-sky nighttime of the OH airglow layer centered at 87 km. These observations were collocated with Rayleigh lidar measurements providing vertical temperature profiles from the lower stratosphere to the altitude of the OH layer around the mesopause. Spectral analysis of OH images did not allow to detect infrasound associated with meteor trails, however it reveals a peak corresponding to infrasound signals in the frequency band of those produced by ocean swell. Infrasound wave activity observed from ground-based microbarometers as well as the OH camera, appear to be modified with the presence of a temperature inversion described by Rayleigh lidar. Indeed, there is a difference in energy related to infrasonic activity between the first part of the night during the temperature inversion and after the inversion.
       
  • A realistic simulation framework to evaluate ionospheric tomography
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s): Jon Bruno, Cathryn N. Mitchell, Karl H.A. Bolmgren, Ben A. WitvlietAbstractObservation of the 3-dimensional (3-D) electron density of the ionosphere is useful to study large-scale physical processes in space weather events. Ionospheric data assimilation and ionospheric tomography are methods that can create an image of the 3-D electron density distribution. While multiple techniques have been developed over the past 30 years, there are relatively few studies that show the accuracy of the algorithms. This paper outlines a novel simulation approach to test the quality of an ionospheric tomographic inversion. The approach uses observations from incoherent scatter radar (ISR) scans and extrapolates them spatially to create a realistic ionospheric representation. A set of total electron content (TEC) measurements can then be simulated using real geometries from satellites and ground receivers. This data set, for which the ‘truth’ ionosphere is known, is used as input for a tomographic inversion algorithm to estimate the spatial distribution of electron density. The reconstructed ionospheric maps are compared with the truth ionosphere to calculate the difference between the images and the truth.To demonstrate the effectiveness of this simulation framework, an inversion algorithm called MIDAS (Multi-Instrument Data Analysis Software) is evaluated for three geographic regions with differing receiver networks. The results show the importance of the distribution and density of GPS receivers and the use of a realistic prior conditioning of the vertical electron density profile. This paper demonstrates that when these requirements are met, MIDAS can reliably estimate the ionospheric electron density. When the region under study is well covered by GPS receivers, as in mainland Europe or North America, the errors in vertical total electron content (vTEC) are smaller than 1 TECu (2–4%) . In regions with fewer and more sparsely distributed receivers, the errors can be as high as 20–40%. This is caused by poor data coverage and poor spatial resolution of the reconstruction, which has an important effect on the calibration process of the algorithm.
       
  • List of Referees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 3Author(s):
       
  • Deep Reinforcement Learning for Six Degree-of-Freedom Planetary Landing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Brian Gaudet, Richard Linares, Roberto FurfaroAbstractThis work develops a deep reinforcement learning based approach for Six Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) planetary powered descent and landing. Future Mars missions will require advanced guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the powered descent phase to target specific surface locations and achieve pinpoint accuracy (landing error ellipse
       
  • Fast Spacecraft Solar Radiation Pressure Modeling By Ray Tracing On
           Graphics Processing Unit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Patrick W. Kenneally, Hanspeter SchaubAbstractA novel method is presented to evaluate on the graphics processing unit (GPU) the force and torque on a spacecraft due to solar radiation pressure. The method employs efficient ray tracing techniques, developed in the graphics rendering discipline, to resolve spacecraft self-shadowing and reflections at faster than real-time computation speed. The primary algorithmic components of the ray tracing process which contribute to the method’s computational efficiency are described. These components include two-level bounding volume hierarchy acceleration data structures, fast ray to bounding box intersection testing using the slab intersection algorithm and fast triangle intersection testing using the Möller-Trumbore algorithm. Spacecraft material optical properties are represented as a combination of Lambertian diffuse and ideal specular reflections. Both diffuse and specular ray-surface interactions are modeled. The approach is implemented using C++ and OpenCL and executed on a consumer grade GPU. Model validation is presented comparing ray traced force and torque values to the same quantities produce by a faceted analytic model. Numerical results illustrate the impact of self-shadowing on the force and torque calculation, and demonstrate the fast computational speed that is enabled with this implementation.
       
  • Characterizing space debris longitude-dependent distribution based on RAAN
           perturbation rate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Bao-Jun Pang, Dong-Fang Wang, Wei-Ke Xiao, Bin-Bin LuAbstractThe space debris environment is one of the major threats against payloads. Space debris orbital distribution is of great importance for space debris environment modeling. Due to perturbation factors, the Right Ascension of Ascending Node (RAAN) of space objects changes consistently, causing regular rotation of the orbit plane around Earth’s axis. Based on the investigation of the RAAN perturbation rate of concerned objects, this paper proposes a RAAN discretization method in order to present the space debris longitude-dependent distribution. Combined with two line element (TLE) data provided by the US Space Surveillance Network, the estimated value from RAAN discretization method is compared with the real case. The results suggest that using only the initial orbital data at the beginning of the time interval of interest, the RAAN discretization method is able to provide reliable longitude distribution of concerned targets in the next following period. Furthermore, spacecraft cumulative flux against space debris is calculated in this paper. The results suggest that the relevance between spacecraft RAAN setup and flux output is much smaller for LEO targets than MEO targets, which corresponds with the theory analysis. Since the nonspherical perturbation is the major factor for RAAN variation, the RAAN perturbation rate has little connection with the size of orbital objects. In other words, the RAAN discretization method introduced in this paper also applies to space debris of different size range, proposing a possible suggestion for the improvement of space debris environment engineering models.
       
  • Contributions to Arctic Sea Level from 2003-2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Carsten A. Ludwigsen, Ole B. AndersenAbstractAs one of the most remote and inaccessible regions in the world, the sea level in the Arctic is still today in large parts uncertain. Sea level estimates from GRACE and satellite altimetry show disagreements in areas of the Arctic while only few in-situ measurements are present to validate satellite products. By using an independent in-situ based dataset of hydrographic data (DTUSteric), this study compares different available datasets from GRACE and altimetry. The best agreement (R=0.76) is reached between the combination of DTUSteric and the JPL Mascon solution and the altimetry product from Centre of Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM). A large residual signal is found in the East Siberian Sea, an area with no in-situ observations and in general uncertain satellite observations. The spatial correlation coefficients ranging from 0.32-0.76 reflects a large number of unknowns and uncertainties, with coarse GRACE resolution, extensive interpolation and lack of in-situ data in parts of the Arctic Ocean and uncertainty of the altimetric products being the largest sources of error. In general, we recommended that satellite observations are used carefully in the Arctic. Even this study shows that steric estimates from in-situ observations to some extent can explain the gap between GRACE and altimetry, the observed sea level trend in significant regions of the Arctic cannot be validated with in-situ hydrographic data.
       
  • Interstellar scintillation, ISS, and intrinsic variability of radio AGN
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): David L. Jauncey, Jun Yi Koay, Hayley Bignall, Jean-Pierre Macquart, Tapio Pursimo, Marcello Giroletti, Talvikki Hovatta, Sebastian Kiehlmann, Barney Rickett, Anthony Readhead, Walter Max-Moerbeck, Harish Vedantham, Cormac Reynolds, James Lovell, Roopesh Ojha, Lucyna Kedziora-ChudczerAbstractWe investigate the relationship between the 5 GHz interstellar scintillation (ISS) and the 15 GHz intrinsic variability of the compact, radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) common to the Microarcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability (MASIV) Survey and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory blazar flux density monitoring program. As part of this investigation, we also re-examine the reported intrinsic nature of the February 1990 VLA observations of the blazar S5 0716+714. We are also examining the presence of IDV/ISS in the Owens Valley 15 GHz flux density monitoring data. We find a significant relationship between the Owens Valley 15 GHz modulation index and the MASIV modulation index. We also discuss the implications of these findings for RadioAstron.
       
  • Space VLBI: from first ideas to operational missions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): Leonid I. GurvitsAbstractThe operational period of the first generation of dedicated Space VLBI (SVLBI) missions commenced in 1997 with the launch of the Japan-led mission VSOP/HALCA and is coming to closure in 2019 with the completion of in-flight operations of the Russia-led mission RadioAstron. They were preceded by the SVLBI demonstration experiment with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in 1986–1988. While the comprehensive lessons learned from the first demonstration experiment and two dedicated SVLBI missions are still awaiting thorough attention, several preliminary conclusions can be made. This paper addresses some issues of implementation of these missions as they progressed over four decades from the original SVLBI concepts to the operational status.
       
  • Space very long baseline interferometry in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): Tao An, Xiaoyu Hong, Weimin Zheng, Shuhua Ye, Zhihan Qian, Li Fu, Quan Guo, Sumit Jaiswal, Dali Kong, Baoqiang Lao, Lei Liu, Qinghui Liu, Weijia Lü, Prashanth Mohan, Zhiqiang Shen, Guangli Wang, Fang Wu, Xiaocong Wu, Juan Zhang, Zhongli ZhangAbstractSpace very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) has unique applications in high-resolution imaging of the fine structure of astronomical objects and high-precision astrometry due to the key long space–Earth or space–space baselines beyond the Earth’s diameter. China has been actively involved in the development of space VLBI in recent years. This review briefly summarizes China’s research progress in space VLBI and the future development plan.
       
  • InfraRed Astronomy Satellite Swarm Interferometry (IRASSI): Overview and
           study results
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): Hendrik Linz, Divya Bhatia, Luisa Buinhas, Matthias Lezius, Eloi Ferrer, Roger Förstner, Kathrin Frankl, Mathias Philips-Blum, Meiko Steen, Ulf Bestmann, Wolfgang Hänsel, Ronald Holzwarth, Oliver Krause, Thomas PanyAbstractThe far-infrared (FIR) regime is one of the few wavelength ranges where no astronomical data with sub-arcsecond spatial resolution exist yet. Neither of the medium-term satellite projects like SPICA, Millimetron or OST will resolve this malady. For many research areas, however, information at high spatial and spectral resolution in the FIR, taken from atomic fine-structure lines, from highly excited carbon monoxide (CO) and especially from water lines would open the door for transformative science. These demands call for interferometric concepts. We present here first results of our feasibility study IRASSI (Infrared Astronomy Satellite Swarm Interferometry) for an FIR space interferometer. Extending on the principal concept of the previous study ESPRIT, it features heterodyne interferometry within a swarm of five satellite elements. The satellites can drift in and out within a range of several hundred meters, thereby achieving spatial resolutions of
       
  • Imaging black holes and jets with a VLBI array including multiple
           space-based telescopes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): Vincent L. Fish, Maura Shea, Kazunori AkiyamaAbstractVery long baseline interferometry (VLBI) from the ground at millimeter wavelengths can resolve the black hole shadow around two supermassive black holes, Sagittarius A∗ and M87. The addition of modest telescopes in space would allow the combined array to produce higher-resolution, higher-fidelity images of these and other sources. This paper explores the potential benefits of adding orbital elements to the Event Horizon Telescope. We reconstruct model images using simulated data from arrays including telescopes in different orbits. We find that an array including one telescope near geostationary orbit and one in a high-inclination medium Earth of geosynchronous orbit can successfully produce high-fidelity images capable of resolving shadows as small as 3μas in diameter. One such key source, the Sombrero Galaxy, may be important to address questions regarding why some black holes launch powerful jets while others do not. Meanwhile, higher-resolution imaging of the substructure of M87 may clarify how jets are launched in the first place. The extra resolution provided by space VLBI will also improve studies of the collimation of jets from active galactic nuclei.
       
  • Data processing center of RadioAstron space VLBI project
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): M.V. Shatskaya, A.A. Abramov, N.A. Fedorov, V.I. Kostenko, S.F. Likhachev, S.I. Seliverstov, D.A. SychevAbstractIn this paper, questions on development, implementation, and operation of RadioAstron project Data Processing Center (DPC) are reviewed. The main components of the dedicated DPC are the computer complex with 1 TFlops/s performance, storage with memory capacity of approximately 10 PB, the network infrastructure, and the corresponding communication channels. Performance enhancement methods and resolution of information storage, archiving, and process problems of space VLBI high-speed digital data flows are analyzed. It is shown that successful operation of DPC is mainly provided by optimal organization of computer system structure, storage, and networking transmission. Some of the important key features of RadioAstron project DPC and its comparative differences from the standard VLBI procedures are considered.
       
  • RadioAstron orbit determination and evaluation of its results using
           correlation of space-VLBI observations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): M.V. Zakhvatkin, A.S. Andrianov, V.Yu. Avdeev, V.I. Kostenko, Y.Y. Kovalev, S.F. Likhachev, I.D. Litovchenko, D.A. Litvinov, A.G. Rudnitskiy, M.A. Shchurov, K.V. Sokolovsky, V.A. Stepanyants, A.G. Tuchin, P.A. Voitsik, G.S. Zaslavskiy, V.E. Zharov, V.A. ZugaAbstractA crucial part of a space mission for very-long baseline interferometery (VLBI), which is the technique capable of providing the highest resolution images in astronomy, is orbit determination of the mission’s space radio telescope(s). In order to successfully detect interference fringes that result from correlation of the signals recorded by a ground-based and a space-borne radio telescope, the propagation delays experienced in the near-Earth space by radio waves emitted by the source and the relativity effects on each telescope’s clock need to be evaluated, which requires accurate knowledge of position and velocity of the space radio telescope. In this paper we describe our approach to orbit determination (OD) of the RadioAstron spacecraft of the RadioAstron space-VLBI mission. Determining RadioAstron’s orbit is complicated due to several factors: strong solar radiation pressure, a highly eccentric orbit, and frequent orbit perturbations caused by the attitude control system. We show that in order to maintain the OD accuracy required for processing space-VLBI observations at cm-wavelengths it is required to take into account the additional data on thruster firings, reaction wheel rotation rates, and attitude of the spacecraft. We also investigate into using the unique orbit data available only for a space-VLBI spacecraft, i.e. the residual delays and delay rates that result from VLBI data processing, as a means to evaluate the achieved OD accuracy. We present the results of the first experience of OD accuracy evaluation of this kind, using more than 5000 residual values obtained as a result of space-VLBI observations performed over 7 years of the RadioAstron mission operations.
       
  • Masers: Precision probes of molecular gas
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): A.M.S. Richards, A. Sobolev, A. Baudry, F. Herpin, L. Decin, M.D. Gray, S. Etoka, E.M.L. Humphreys, W. VlemmingsAbstractMaser emission from water, methanol, silicon monoxide and other molecules can reach brightness temperatures ≫1010 K. Such observations can achieve sub-pc precision for discs around black holes or sub-au scale interactions in protostellar discs and the regions where evolved star winds reach escape velocity. Ultra-high resolution maser observations also provide photon statistics, for fundamental physics experiments. RadioAstron has shown the success – and limitations – of cm-wave maser observations on scales ≪1 mas with sparse baseline coverage. ALMA, APEX and earlier single dish searches have found a wealth of mm and sub-mm masers, some of which probably also attain high brightness temperatures. Masers are ideal for high-resolution observations throughout the radio regime and we need to consider the current lessons for the best observational strategies to meet specific science cases.
       
  • RadioAstron probes the ultra-fine spatial structure in the H2O maser
           emission in the star forming region W49N
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): N.N. Shakhvorostova, A.M. Sobolev, J.M. Moran, A.V. Alakoz, H. Imai, V.Y. AvdeevAbstractH2O maser emission associated with the massive star formation region W49N were observed with the Space-VLBI mission RadioAstron. The procedure for processing of the maser spectral line data obtained in the RadioAstron observations is described. Ultra-fine spatial structures in the maser emission were detected on space-ground baselines of up to 9.6 Earth diameters. The correlated flux densities of these features range from 0.1% to 0.6% of the total flux density. These low values of correlated flux density are probably due to turbulence either in the maser itself or in the interstellar medium.
       
  • RadioAstron reveals super-compact structures in the bursting
           H2O maser source G25.65+1.05
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): O.S. Bayandina, N.N. Shakhvorostova, A.V. Alakoz, R.A. Burns, S.E. Kurtz, I.E. Val’ttsAbstractWater masers are well-known to be variable on a variety of time scales, but only three Galactic H2O masers are known to flare to the level of 105–106 Jy (TB∼1017 K): Orion KL, W49N, and the recently discovered G25.65+1.05. Recently detected flaring activity of H2O maser in the massive star-forming region G25.65+1.05 gave us a unique opportunity to study the fine structure of H2O maser emission in the bursting state with extremely high space VLBI angular resolution. Observation of the source was carried out with ∼9 Earth diameter space-ground baseline within the framework of the RadioAstron project. H2O maser emission from two spectral features, including the bursting one, was detected in the experiment. Only ∼1% of the bursting H2O maser emission was detected on the space-ground baselines: it indicates the presence of a very compact spatial structure with a size of ∼25 μas, which corresponds to 0.05 AU or ∼5 solar diameters at the distance to the source of 2.08 kpc, and the brightness temperature of ∼3 × 1016 K. Analysis of the flux density as a function of the baseline length for the bursting H2O maser feature in the source shows that most of the emission comes from an extended “halo” structure, while the core of emission is very compact and has an extreme brightness temperature. These results are in agreement with the model of interacting maser clouds considered as the likely explanation of the nature of the burst in the source. Under the assumption of such a model, the beam size of maser emission is reduced while the brightness temperatures similar to the highest observed values are produced.
       
  • Around the world with Space VLBI: A sense of many places
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): David L. Jauncey
       
  • Do RadioAstron detections correlate with flaring states' An initial
           study of seven southern AGN
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): P.G. Edwards, J. Stevens, C. Phillips, C. Reynolds, Y.Y. Kovalev, P. Voitsik, K. Sokolovsky, J. McCallum, J. Quick, R. OjhaAbstractWe examine the state of seven southern radio sources at the time of their RadioAstron AGN Survey observations. Both ATCA flux density monitoring data and Fermi light-curves are considered in determining the relative activity of the source. A simple hypothesis, that sufficiently compact source structure exists for detections on RadioAstron baselines when the source is in a flaring state, is qualitatively tested. We find four instances of RadioAstron detections during flaring radio states and four instances of RadioAstron non-detections during fading or quiescent radio states, in support of the hypothesis. However, we also find three instances of RadioAstron detections during quiescent or fading radio states, and two non-detections during a flaring state, indicating that the situation is (not unexpectedly) more complex. Radio and gamma-ray monitoring such as that described here, together with the full RadioAstron AGN Survey results, will allow a more thorough investigation of the dependencies of detections on baselines of>10 Earth diameters.
       
  • Polarization VLBI observations of AGN jets now and into the future
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): Denise C. GabuzdaAbstractThe history of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations has been characterized predominantly by an ongoing quest for increasingly high resolution and sensitivity. VLBI monitoring of relatively large samples of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) with uniform quality and linear polarization sensitivity are now available at the moderately high frequencies of 15 and 43 GHz. This has enabled considerable advances in our understanding of the relativistic jets of AGNs, but gaps in the available observational material remain, which must be addressed in future VLBI polarization observations. Linear polarization observations at frequencies above 43 GHz remain non-routine, and the availability of multi-frequency and circular polarization measurements is still limited. It is of interest both to push inward toward the jet base and to study details of the jets themselves on parsec scales, such as magnetic field structures along and across the jets, which are intrinsically related to their formation, launching and propagation. Requirements for future VLBI polarization observations are considered, highlighting the key role that can be played by space VLBI observations. Unique opportunities are offered by relatively low-frequency space VLBI observations that are sensitive to effects such as Faraday rotation, opacity, and low-frequency absorption.
       
  • Imaging strong blazars with space VLBI
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): J. Anton Zensus, Laura Vega-García, Eduardo Ros, Andrei P. Lobanov, Manel Perucho, Gabriele Bruni, Yuri Y. KovalevAbstractThe RadioAstron mission has obtained a series of detailed multi-frequency images of the brightest blazars of the radio sky concentrated in three key science programs. We present here results of the program on powerful jets in blazars. In the first two years of the mission, observations of compact relativistic jets in 0836+710, 3C 345, 3C 273, and 4C +69.21 were made at λλ 18, 6, and 1.3 cm. The resulting images have revealed compact emitting regions with brightness temperature in excess of 1013 K and a complex jet structure that can be explained by plasma instability developing in a relativistic outflow.We present here some highlights of these space-VLBI observations, designed to resolve the innermost regions in these powerful targets and address some of the still unanswered questions on their physical nature.
       
  • Active galactic nuclei imaging programs of the RadioAstron
           mission
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): Gabriele Bruni, Tuomas Savolainen, Jose Luis Gómez, Andrei P. Lobanov, Yuri Y. Kovalev, On behalf of the RadioAstron AGN imaging KSP teamsAbstractImaging relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) at angular resolution significantly surpassing that of the ground-based VLBI at centimetre wavelengths is one of the key science objectives of the RadioAstron space-VLBI mission. There are three RadioAstron imaging key science programs that target both nearby radio galaxies and blazars, with one of the programs specifically focusing on polarimetry of the jets. The first images from these programs reach angular resolution of a few tens of microarcseconds and reveal unprecedented details about the jet collimation profile, magnetic field configuration, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities along the flow in some of the most studied AGN (3C 84, BL Lac, 3C 273, S5 0836 + 710). Here we give an overview of the goals and strategy of these three ongoing programs, highlight their early results, and discuss the challenges of space-VLBI imaging.
       
  • Detection statistics of the RadioAstron AGN survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): Y.Y. Kovalev, N.S. Kardashev, K.V. Sokolovsky, P.A. Voitsik, T. An, J.M. Anderson, A.S. Andrianov, V.Yu. Avdeev, N. Bartel, H.E. Bignall, M.S. Burgin, P.G. Edwards, S.P. Ellingsen, S. Frey, C. García-Miró, M.P. Gawroński, F.D. Ghigo, T. Ghosh, G. Giovannini, I.A. GirinAbstractThe largest Key Science Program of the RadioAstron space VLBI mission is a survey of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The main goal of the survey is to measure and study the brightness of AGN cores in order to better understand the physics of their emission while taking interstellar scattering into consideration. In this paper we present detection statistics for observations on ground-space baselines of a complete sample of radio-strong AGN at the wavelengths of 18, 6, and 1.3 cm. Two-thirds of them are indeed detected by RadioAstron and are found to contain extremely compact, tens to hundreds of μas structures within their cores.
       
  • Preface: High-resolution space-borne radio astronomy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s): Leonid Gurvits
       
  • List of Referees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 January 2020Source: Advances in Space Research, Volume 65, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • MHD simulation of accretion processes in magnetic cataclysmic variable EX
           Hya
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): D.V. Bisikalo, A.G. Zhilkin, P.B. Isakova, E.P. KurbatovAbstractA hierarchical numerical model for investigation of the accretion processes in the magnetic cataclysmic variable EX Hya has been described. The coarsest level of the hierarchy corresponds to the accretion disk formation due to the mass transfer. The intermediate level describes the structure of the white dwarf magnetosphere. The finest level corresponds to the formation of the accretion curtain at the inner edge of the accretion disk. The model is based on the equations of the modified MHD, where a strong external magnetic field acts as an efficient fluid with which the plasma interacts. Results of simulations show that the accretion in EX Hya proceeds via accretion columns that have curtain-like shapes. These columns are very thin and the accretion regions cover a small fraction of the accretor surface. Numerical results agree with the parameters of the EX Hya system as determined by Semena et al. (2014).
       
  • Coherent superposition of multi-GNSS wavelet analysis periodogram for
           sea-level retrieval in GNSS multipath reflectometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Xiaolei Wang, Xiufeng He, Qin ZhangAbstractThe multipath signals of GNSS can act as a tide gauge via a technology called Global Navigation Satellite Systems multipath reflectometry (GNSS-MR), which is based on the relationship between multipath frequency and height to sea surface. In addition to the traditional frequency extraction method of Lomb–Scargle periodogram (LSP), wavelet analysis can be applied to extract instantaneous multipath frequencies of GPS L1, thus improving data utilization. However, because of the sensitivity of instantaneous frequency to noise and the introduction of more signals, multi-constellation retrievals exhibit many outliers and errors. The aim of this study is to apply wavelet analysis to multi-constellation multi-frequency signals and most importantly to find a method to avoid noise. We used coherent superposition to overlap the intra-track inter-signal instantaneous frequency spectrograms to enhance effective information and to weaken noise. This coherent superposition method can achieve intra-track inter-signal combination. The multi-GNSS data from two Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations were used. The results showed that the coherent superposition spectrogram has a clear energy concentration, and the frequencies calculated from it depict sea-level changes. To compare the method with the LSP method and to combine inter-track retrievals, a robust regression method was used to combine retrievals and to produce equally spaced retrieval series. The results show that the combined retrievals from the coherent superposition method have a slightly higher accuracy than those from the classical LSP method. Because this method can be used to retrieve sea-level data from instantaneous frequency, it increases data utilization and provides a way to obtain details of SNR arcs, which is a potential method to benefit GNSS-MR, especially for sites with narrow reflecting sensing zones in a small sea azimuth range.
       
  • Local stability analysis of interface region of astrophysical viscous
           shear flows with a gradual velocity gradient
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): M. Mahdavi-Gharavi, H. Mehdian, K. HajisharifiAbstractIn this paper, we extend the stability analysis of cold sharp shear flows to warm astrophysical cases with, inevitable, gradual velocity gradient in the interface region in the presence of viscosity effect. Using linear perturbation theory as well as the local approximation method, the instability growth rate of the excited electromagnetic modes has been investigated for the relativistic and non-relativistic cases of solar wind interacting with interstellar plasma medium. Results show that astrophysical shear systems with a small velocity gradient in the transition region are more stable rather than larger ones. Moreover, dependent on the viscosity coefficient value, the viscosity effects could have a positive role on the instability growth rate of the system in some range of initial bulk velocity, while it plays a destructive role in other velocity ranges.
       
  • L 2 +Point&rft.title=Advances+in+Space+Research&rft.issn=0273-1177&rft.date=&rft.volume=">On the Design of a Space Telescope Orbit Around the Sun–Venus L 2
           Point
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Maksim Shirobokov, Sergey Trofimov, Mikhail OvchinnikovAbstractIn this study, the choice of a nominal space telescope orbit in the vicinity of the Sun–Venus L2 libration point is discussed from the viewpoint of illumination conditions and station-keeping costs. Such a location for the space telescope is especially appealing for the observation of potentially hazardous asteroids approaching the Earth from the daytime side of the sky. In contrast to the case of a telescope placed near the Sun–Earth L1 point, a significantly longer warning time can be achieved. Moreover, a Lissajous-type quasi-periodic orbit can be selected so that a predefined percentage of the orbit is shadowed. When a nominal orbit is allowed to be permanently sunlit, a large halo orbit is preferred due to the lower station-keeping cost. For two sets of unstable halo and Lissajous orbits, the station-keeping cost is evaluated by conducting Monte Carlo simulations in the ephemeris model of motion. Two modifications of the target point station-keeping technique are examined: the X-axis control and the 3-axis control. The simulation scenario includes orbit insertion and navigation errors, impulse execution errors, and constraints on the minimum imparted Δv. Dependence of the station-keeping cost on orbit insertion and navigation errors is analyzed. Some of the large halo orbits appear to be linearly stable. The corresponding central manifold location in the phase space is determined, which makes a simple targeting strategy possible.
       
  • Characteristics of probability distribution functions of low- and
           high-latitude current systems during Solar Cycle 24
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Bharati Kakad, Amar KakadAbstractRecent solar cycles (SCs) 21-24 have experienced a gradual decrease in their activity with considerable weakening during current SC 24. This is a unique opportunity to examine the long-term response of Earth’s low-latitude ring-current and high latitude auroral electrojet current systems during such systematically decreasing solar activity. With the advancement in technology, continuous recordings of ground/space magnetic field are available for the last few decades that allow us to explore the behaviour of probability distribution functions (PDFs) linked with the ring-current and auroral electrojet current systems for past five SCs (20-24). Also, PDFs linked with solar wind parameters that drive these current systems like magnetic field and velocity at Earth’s bow shock are examined. We noticed the significant narrowing of PDF of ring-current and auroral electrojet during SC 24. The number of one-hour intervals with Dst
       
  • Improved Specular Point Prediction Precision Using Gradient Descent
           Algorithm
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Yusen Tian, Junming Xia, Yueqiang Sun, Xianyi Wang, Qifei Du, Weihua Bai, Dongwei Wang, Yuerong Cai, Chun-jun Wu, Fu Li, Hao QiaoAbstractGlobal Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R) utilizes GNSS signals reflected off the Earth surface for remote sensing applications. Due to weak power of reflected signals, GNSS-R receiver needs to track reflected signals by open loop. The first step is to calculate the position of specular point. The specular point position error of the existing algorithm—Quasi-Spherical Earth (QSE) Approach—is about 3 km which may cause troubles in data post-processing. In this paper, gradient descent algorithm is applied to calculate position of specular point and the calculation is based on World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) ellipsoid in geodetic coordinate. The benefit of this coordinate is that it is easy to investigate the effect of real surface’s altitude. Learning rate—the key parameter of the algorithm—is adaptively adjusted according to initial error, latitude and gradient descent rate. With self-adaptive learning rate strategy, the algorithm converges fast. Through simulation and test on Global Navigation Satellite System Occultation Sounder II (GNOS II), the performances of the algorithm are validated. The specular point position error of the proposed algorithm is about 10 m. The speed of the proposed algorithm is competitive compared with the existing algorithm. The test on GNOS II shows that the proposed algorithm has good real-time performance.
       
  • Satellite selection methods for Multi-constellation Advanced RAIM
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Silong Luo, Li Wang, Rui Tu, Weiqi Zhang, Jiancheng Wei, Cunting ChenAbstractThe increased number of potential threat modes under multi-constellation advanced receiver autonomy integrity monitoring (ARAIM) requires an increase in the number of subsets and a correspondingly high computational load. A new satellite selection method based on integrity support message (ISM) parameters is proposed and compared with GDOP-based selection. The performance was tested on five days of data measurements from 21 multi-global navigation satellite system experiment (MGEX) stations distributed around the world, as well as simulation using the broadcast ephemeris. The results show that the proposed ISM-based satellite selection method is highly compatible with the baseline ARAIM. This method could reduce the computational times by about 60–70% quickly, with minimising vertical protection level (VPL) loss, which was consistently within 1 m, even a reduced VPL value in some epochs, and resulting in an improved availability. The simulation results were similar to the MGEX data. It appears that the application of ISM-based satellite selection can effectively reduce computational burden with a minimal impact on availability.
       
  • Proposal of low cost launchers for scientific missions using cubesats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Danton José Fortes Villas Bôas, Carlos Henrique Melo Souza, Felipe da Motta Silva, Alison MoraesAbstractIn the next 6 years, over 3,000 nano/cubesats launches are expected. This is a segment of the satellite market that has attracted investors’ attention. Recent advances in electronics have led to the miniaturization of components, reduction of power consumption, and significant performance and reliability increase, besides cost reduction. This advance benefited not only the satellite market but also the aerospace sector, in particular for launchers. This work presents a study of the use of technologies, motors and subsystems already developed in the Brazilian Space Program for application in orbital launch systems for micro-satellites and cubesats. Small rocket launcher configurations are studied for access to space with low cost and adequate reliability. This work proposes the use of the VL-3 and VL-4 vehicles, developed from the VSB-30 and VS-40 suborbital rockets respectively. Their capacities are of carrying payload masses from 8 to 11 kg for VL-3 and from 23 to 35 kg for VL-4, for the orbits studied. Two new solid motors, with propellant mass of 292 and 50 kg, would need to be developed for the application in the upper stages of the VL-3 and VL-4 vehicles. The technologies involved are accessible, known and already used in the Brazilian Space Program. The results were promising, and new studies are indicated for the detailing of the proposed ideas.
       
  • How Far is Far Enough ' Requirements Derivation for Planetary Mobility
           Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Ralph D. LorenzAbstractThe origination of duration and distance requirements on planetary mobility systems (generally, rovers) are reviewed in detail. It is found that a 'clean' flow down from scientific objectives to requirement to capability is rarely presented. Rather, the historical record shows that the capability of emerging designs has been adopted post-hoc as a requirement, simple comparative superiority to predecessor missions has been invoked in competitive situations, or the requirement has been driven by capability of other elements of a mission architecture, such as delivery precision or astronaut life support. These deviations from the idealized systems engineering process have nonetheless resulted in missions that have generally been considered highly successful.
       
  • The petitSat Mission – Science Goals and Instrumentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): J. Klenzing, R.L. Davidson, S.L. Jones, C. Martinis, K.A. Zawdie, G.D. Earle, J.M. Smith, A.J. Halford, S. Noel, N. Paschalidis, R.F. Pfaff, E. RobertsonAbstractThe mid- and low-latitude ionosphere is home to a variety of plasma density irregularities, including depletions (bubbles), enhancements (blobs), and small-scale scintillation. Previous studies of plasma density enhancements observed using ROCSAT data have posited that these structures are the direct result of the formation of bubbles near the geomagnetic equator. However, more recent observations from the C/NOFS satellite suggest that multiple mechanisms are responsible for forming plasma enhancements, with wave action in the ionosphere and thermosphere as a significant driver of the enhanced densities. Indeed, statistical analysis of enhancements observed from satellites resembles the statistics of Medium-Scale Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances (MSTIDs) with respect to seasonal variability and solar activity.petitSat is a CubeSat mission designed to examine the link between MSTIDs and plasma enhancements. The mission will provide in situ measurements of the plasma density, 3D ion drift, as well as ion and neutral composition. The instrument suite includes a combined retarding potential analyzer and cross-track drift meter and an ion-neutral mass spectrometer. This instrument suite will provide comprehensive information about the fluctuations in plasma, as well as changes in the neutral profile. petitSat will launch into a 51 deg inclination orbit at 400 km (consistent with an International Space Station deployment), allowing for numerous conjunctions with the Boston University All-Sky Imager network over the mission lifetime.
       
  • Trust-region optimization of all-pass filter for compensation of
           ionospheric dispersion effects on wideband GNSS signals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Ningyan Guo, Zhibin Yu, Yanhong Kou, Mingquan LuAbstractIonospheric dispersion causes severe distortions and ranging performance degradations of wideband global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals. To compensate the non-linear and asymmetrical group delay of the dispersive ionosphere, an all-pass filter in the form of cascaded biquad sections was proposed in our previous study. On this basis, this paper develops an optimal delay-equalization all-pass filter by using the trust-region algorithm to construct the desired group delay and improve the fitting accuracy. The simulation results of the AltBOC(15,10) signal performance demonstrate that the proposed design is more accurate for distortion compensation and thus more effective for ranging bias mitigation than the previous approach.
       
  • The Yaw Stability Analysis for Stratospheric Airships in float situation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Advances in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Cui Yanxiang, Zhou Jianghua, Miao Jinggang, Wang Fan, Yang YanchuAbstractWhen a stratospheric airship free floats at pressure altitude, the sideslip angle of the airship is neither random nor against the wind, but is stable on certain values. According to classical potential flow theory, a simplified two-dimensional ellipse and three-dimensional ellipsoid are firstly analyzed respectively, which implied that the airship could present crosswind orientation. The numerical investigations (CFD) on the yaw stability based on a bare hull and a finned airship are employed for verifying the theory conclusion. It is found that the finned airships can remain stable when its sideslip Angle is 55°∼ 70°, which is less than 90°of the stable angle of the ellipsoid and bare hull, but statically unstable at low sideslip angles, its static instability is similar to that of dynamic flight. Then the fight data of three stratospheric airships is analyzed. The yaw stability in flight data generally agrees with expectations drawn of theoretical and numerical simulation. These investigations serve to provide references for yaw control and configuration design of airships.
       
 
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